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Sample records for preventing cold injuries

  1. Prevention of Cold Injuries (Prevention des accidents dus au froid) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    ...; ii) To develop strategies for optimal prevention; and iii) To initiate an international database on cold induced vasodilatation and cold injury occurrence to monitor the effects of preventative measures. Objective i) and ii...

  2. Cold thermal injury from cold caps used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belum, Viswanath Reddy; de Barros Silva, Giselle; Laloni, Mariana Tosello; Ciccolini, Kathryn; Goldfarb, Shari B; Norton, Larry; Sklarin, Nancy T; Lacouture, Mario E

    2016-06-01

    The use of scalp cooling for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is increasing. Cold caps are placed onto the hair-bearing areas of the scalp for varying time periods before, during, and after cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although not yet reported, improper application procedures could result in adverse events (AEs). At present, there are no evidence-based scalp cooling protocols, and there is no regulatory oversight of their use. To report the occurrence of cold thermal injury (frostbite) on the scalp, following the use of cold caps for the prevention of CIA. We identified four patients who developed cold thermal injuries on the scalp following the application of cold caps. Medical records were analyzed to retrieve the demographic and clinical characteristics. The cold thermal injuries in our patients were grade 1/2 in severity and improved with topical interventions and interruption of cold cap use, although grade 1 persistent alopecia ensued in 3 patients. The true incidence of such injuries in this setting, however, remains unknown. Cold thermal injuries are likely infrequent and preventable AEs that may result from improper device application procedures during cold cap use. Although these untoward events are usually mild to moderate in severity, the potential occurrence of long-term sequelae (e.g., permanent alopecia and scarring) or the need to discontinue cold cap use, are not known. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the risk and standardize healthcare delivery methods, and to improve patient/supportive/healthcare provider education.

  3. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  4. Prevention of Facial Cold Injury with a Passive Heat and Moisture Exchanger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2005-01-01

    ...), particularly its ability to prevent cold injury to the face. The HME comprised a thermally insulated oro-nasal mask with a cylindrical heat and moisture exchanger protruding from the centre of the mask...

  5. Prevention and Management of Cold-Weather Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    49 d. After an initial stimulation of respiration with mild hypothermia (leading to respiratory alkalosis ), there is a progressive decrease...nonevaporated sweat will reduce clothing insulation and possibly form ice crystals. Breathing cold air can slightly exacerbate respiratory water loss... Respiratory . (1) Upper airway temperatures, which normally remain unchanged during exercise under temperate conditions, can decrease substantially

  6. Time Window Is Important for Adenosine Preventing Cold-induced Injury to the Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Fu, Li; Chen, Jing; Lu, Li-He; Liu, Xiang; Xu, Zhe; Zhou, Li; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2017-06-01

    Cold cardioplegia is used to induce heart arrest during cardiac surgery. However, endothelial function may be compromised after this procedure. Accordingly, interventions such as adenosine, that mimic the effects of preconditioning, may minimize endothelial injury. Herein, we investigated whether adenosine prevents cold-induced injury to the endothelium. Cultured human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells were treated with adenosine for different durations. Phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and p70S6K6 were measured along with nitric oxide (NO) production using diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA) probe. Cold-induced injury by hypothermia to 4°C for 45 minutes to mimic conditions of cold cardioplegia during open heart surgery was induced in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Under basal conditions, adenosine stimulated NO production, eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 from 5 minutes to 4 hours and inhibited eNOS phosphorylation at threonine 495 from 5 minutes to 6 hours, but increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and p70S6K only after exposure for 5 minutes. Cold-induced injury inhibited NO production and the phosphorylation of the different enzymes. Importantly, adenosine prevented these effects of hypothermic injury. Our data demonstrated that adenosine prevents hypothermic injury to the endothelium by activating ERK1/2, eNOS, p70S6K, and p38MAPK signaling pathways at early time points. These findings also indicated that 5 minutes after administration of adenosine or release of adenosine is an important time window for cardioprotection during cardiac surgery.

  7. Intermittent warming of 'Tahiti' lime to prevent chilling injury during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluge Ricardo Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of 'Tahiti' limes (Citrus latifolia at low temperature allows the marketing period to be extended. However, the loss of the green skin color and the occurrence of chilling injury (CI prevent this extension. The purpose of this work was to verify the efficiency of intermittent warming (IW in 'Tahiti' lime quality maintenance during cold storage. Fruit were submitted to IW (20ºC for 48 hours every 7 or 14 days or 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days during cold storage at 5ºC. Fruit were also stored at 5 and 10ºC continuously. The evaluations were carried out after 30 and 60 days of storage (+ 3 days of simulated marketing at 20ºC. CI occurrence on fruit was not verified after 30 days of storage. However, after 60 days of storage 60% of the fruit kept continuously at 5ºC presented CI, while fruit intermittently warmed had 10 to 12.5% CI. Fruit stored at 10ºC did not present CI, but they showed high degreening after 30 days of storage. Fruit warmed at 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days developed rot, loss of green skin color and vitamin C, high respiratory rates, as well as high levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the juice. Fruit can be stored at 5ºC during 30 days, without risk of CI, while IW can be used to reduce CI after 60 days of storage.

  8. Nonfreezing Cold-Induced Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    cold injury. ( Modi - fi ed from Jia J, Pollock M: The pathogenesis of non-freezing cold nerve injury: Observations in the rat, Brain 120:631, 1997...myelitis and sinus development ( Figures 7-17 to 7-19 ). Appearance and behavior of the neuropathic foot have many similarities to those of the diabetic ...foot. In the diabetic foot, infections tend to be polymicrobial with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus and

  9. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  10. The Triaging and Treatment of Cold-Induced Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Christoph; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien; Goertz, Ole

    2015-10-30

    In Central Europe, cold-induced injuries are much less common than burns. In a burn center in western Germany, the mean ratio of these two types of injury over the past 10 years was 1 to 35. Because cold-induced injuries are so rare, physicians often do not know how to deal with them. This article is based on a review of publications (up to December 2014) retrieved by a selective search in PubMed using the terms "freezing," "frostbite injury," "non-freezing cold injury," and "frostbite review," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. Freezing and cold-induced trauma are part of the treatment spectrum in burn centers. The treatment of cold-induced injuries is not standardized and is based largely on case reports and observations of use. distinction is drawn between non-freezing injuries, in which there is a slow temperature drop in tissue without freezing, and freezing injuries in which ice crystals form in tissue. In all cases of cold-induced injury, the patient should be slowly warmed to 22°-27°C to prevent reperfusion injury. Freezing injuries are treated with warming of the body's core temperature and with the bathing of the affected body parts in warm water with added antiseptic agents. Any large or open vesicles that are already apparent should be debrided. To inhibit prostaglandin-mediated thrombosis, ibuprofen is given (12 mg/kg body weight b.i.d.). The treatment of cold-induced injuries is based on their type, severity, and timing. The recommendations above are grade C recommendations. The current approach to reperfusion has yielded promising initial results and should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  11. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  12. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  13. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  14. Resistance index of frostbite as a predictor of cold injury in arctic operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Struijs, N.R. van der

    2005-01-01

    Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is mentioned as a mechanism that may prevent the occurrence of local cold injuries. The magnitude of the CIVD reaction differs considerably between subjects and there were some indications that those subjects with a fast CIVD reaction with high amplitude had a

  15. Injury Prevention in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R

    2017-03-01

    Children and adolescents are now participating in competitive sports at younger ages and with increasing intensity. As a result, increasing numbers of young athletes are presenting to pediatricians for care of sports-related injuries and advice about prevention. Understanding and identifying modifiable risk factors for injury in the young athletic population is a critical first step in injury prevention. Risk factors vary by sport, age, and sex. This article reviews the most common risk factors for injury and the evidence to support proposed strategies for prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e99-e105.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Effect of melatonin on kidney cold ischemic preservation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaner, Arif; Gunal, Omer; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Celik, Erdal; Yildirim, Umran; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gunduz, Umut Riza; Calis, Hasan; Dogan, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is a potent free radical scavenger of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and a well-known antioxidant secreted from pineal gland. This hormone has been reported to protect tissue from oxidative damage. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of melatonin on kidney cold ischemia time when added to preservation solution. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into three groups; Ringer Lactate (RL) solution, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution with and without melatonin. The serum Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) activities of the preservation solutions at 2nd, 24th, 36th, and 48th hours were determined. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also measured and a histological examination was performed at 48th hour. Melatonin that added to preservation solution prevented enzyme elevation and decreased lipid peroxidation in preservation solution when compared to the control group (p<0.05). The histological examination revealed that UW solution containing melatonin significantly prevented the kidney from pathological injury (p<0.05). Melatonin added to preservation solutions such as UW solution seemed to protect the tissue preserved effectively from cold ischemic injury for up to 48 hour. PMID:24179573

  17. Preventing playground injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-06-01

    With concerns increasing around childhood obesity and inactivity, playgrounds offer a chance for children to be active. But playgrounds also have risks, with injuries from falls being the most common. Research has shown that playground injuries can be reduced by lowering the heights of play equipment and using soft, deep surfaces to cushion falls. The Canadian Standards Association has published voluntary standards for playgrounds to address these risks for several years. Parents can further reduce injury risks by following simple playground strategies. This statement outlines the burden of playground injuries. It also provides parents and health care providers with opportunities to reduce injury incidence and severity through education and advocacy, and to implement evidence-informed safety standards and safer play strategies in local playgrounds. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2002.

  18. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  19. Prevention of childhood injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major ... hugely on childhood health in terms of disability and, depending on their cause ... SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds, although this ...

  20. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  1. Changes in the blood-nerve barrier after sciatic nerve cold injury: indications supporting early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed. From 3 to 5 days after the cold injury, the fluid was still present, but the tight junctions were open. Less tracer leakage was found from 3 to 5 days after the cold injury compared with 1 day after injury. The cold injury resulted in a breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier function, which caused endoneurial edema. However, during the early period, the breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier did not include the opening of tight junctions, but was due to other factors. Excessive fluid volume produced a large increase in the endoneurial fluid pressure, prevented liquid penetration into the endoneurium from the microvasculature. These results suggest that drug treatment to patients with cold injuries should be administered during the early period after injury because it may be more difficult for the drug to reach the injury site through the microcirculation after the tissue fluid pressure becomes elevated.

  2. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  3. Prevention of ionizing radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masashi

    1976-01-01

    In the first age (1895 - 1940), radiation injuries of skin (75% of death caused by RI injury) and chronic radiation injury of heamatopoietic organs (almost remains) appeared in radiologist and people engaged in RI treatment for medical use, and Ra poisoning appeared in workers who treated aluminous paint. As prevention of radiation injuries in this age, measurement of radiation dose, shelter effect and finding of injuries were studied, and internal radiation allowed level was determined. From 1942 to 1960, acute RI injuries due to exposure of large amount of RI by an accident and secondary leukemia appeared to workers of atomic-bomb industries and researcher of atomic energy. U and Pu poisoning accompanied with development of nuclear fuel industry appeared. This expanded industrial hygiene of this age together with epidemiological data of atomic-bomb exposed people. From 1960 onward, it is an age of industry for peaceful use of atomic energy, and manifestation of various kinds of delayed injuries, especially malignant tumor due to RI exposure, is recognized. Labourer has many opportunity to encounter dangerously with pollution and injuries by RI, and regional examination of RI enterprise and countermeasure to decrease exposure dose were mentioned as future theme from a viewpoint of exposure dose of nation. (Kanao, N.)

  4. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell JA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

  5. Preventing Playground Injuries and Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.

    1994-01-01

    The typical American playground is antiquated, hazardous, and inappropriate for the developmental needs of children. The paper explains how design, installation, maintenance, and supervision are critical in preventing playground injuries and resulting litigation, noting the importance of regular training for everyone who supervises children on the…

  6. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  7. Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion lung injury during static cold preservation by supplementation of standard preservation solution with HEMO2life® in pig lung transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorion, M; Polard, V; Favereau, F; Hauet, T; Zal, F; Fadel, E; Sage, E

    2017-10-25

    We describe the results of adding a new biological agent HEMO 2 life ® to a standard preservation solution for hypothermic static lung preservation aiming to improve early functional parameters after lung transplantation. HEMO 2 life ® is a natural oxygen carrier extracted from Arenicola marina with high oxygen affinity developed as an additive to standard organ preservation solutions. Standard preservation solution (Perfadex ® ) was compared with Perfadex ® associated with HEMO 2 life ® and with sham animals after 24 h of hypothermic preservation followed by lung transplantation. During five hours of lung reperfusion, functional parameters and biomarkers expression in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. After five hours of reperfusion, HEMO 2 life ® group led to significant improvement in functional parameters: reduction of graft vascular resistance (p preservation improves early graft function after prolonged cold ischemia in lung transplantation.

  8. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehran Swart

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.‎

  9. Occupational ergonomics and injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, T J

    1996-01-01

    Ergonomics is the study of people at work. The current focus is on the prevention of work-induced musculoskeletal injuries through the application of sound ergonomic principles. This chapter has briefly outlined ergonomics and its history, has described low back pain and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders from an ergonomic perspective, and has discussed control and prevention approaches for a few scenarios. Ergonomic principles are based on a combination of science and engineering and a thorough understanding of human capabilities and limitations. When these principles are applied to the design of a job, task, process, or procedure, the incidence and severity of musculoskeletal injuries decrease. In many cases productivity and morale also improve. Workers are spared suffering, and employers are spared costs. It is hoped that this discussion will encourage more health, safety, and business professionals to learn about and apply ergonomics in their workplaces for the improvement of the worker, product, and business. Finally, many additional epidemiologic studies on the individual and joint effects of the CTD risk factors are needed. The knowledge gained from these studies will promote the more effective application of ergonomic principles to reduce worker suffering, improve products, and reduce costs.

  10. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  11. Injury prevention in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Clapham, Kathleen; Senserrick, Teresa; Lyford, Marilyn; Stevenson, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Injury prevention in Indigenous communities in Australia is a continuing national challenge, with Indigenous fatality rates due to injury three times higher than the general population. Suicide and transport are the leading causes of injury mortality, and assault, transport and falls the primary causes of injury morbidity. Addressing the complex range of injury problems in disadvantaged Indigenous communities requires considerable work in building or enhancing existing capacity of communities to address local safety issues. Poor data, lack of funding and absence of targeted programs are some of the issues that impede injury prevention activities. Traditional approaches to injury prevention can be used to highlight key areas of need, however adaptations are needed in keeping with Indigenous peoples' holistic approach to health, linked to land and linked to community in order to address the complex spiritual, emotional and social determinants of Indigenous injury.

  12. Prevention of groin injuries in sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C

    2015-01-01

    performed in Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show...... a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0......BACKGROUND/AIM: Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes...

  13. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for a safe running program. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http:// ...

  14. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  15. Prevention of Hamstring Injuries in Collegiate Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sato, Yamato

    2017-01-01

    Background: No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. Purpose: To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The study subjects were a total of 613 collegiate male sprinters trained by the same coach over 24 seasons. Tow training was used throughout the research period as a normal sprint training method. The hamstring injury prevention program evolved over time. From 1988 to 1991 (period 1), prevention focused on strength training alone; from 1992 to 1999 (period 2), a combination of strength and agility training was used; and from 2000 to 2011 (period 3), the program incorporated strength, agility, and flexibility training. The incidence of hamstring injuries was compared for each of the 3 prevention strategies. Results: The incidence of hamstring injuries per athlete-seasons was 137.9 for period 1, 60.6 for period 2, and 6.7 for period 3. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury according to the different prevention programs (χ2(2) = 31.78, P hamstring injuries for period 1 was significantly greater than the expected value (P hamstring injuries in sprinters decreased as agility and flexibility were added to strength training. PMID:28210652

  16. Prevention of farm injuries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries.......This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries....

  17. Domain 2: Sport Safety and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher

    2004-01-01

    Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…

  18. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  19. Use of antioxidants for the prophylaxis of cold-induced peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Fernanda; Pollock, Martin; Karim, Alveera; Jiang, Yuying

    2002-09-01

    "Trench foot" is a particular risk for those involved in adventure tourism, for soldiers in winter mountain training exercises, and for the homeless. Nonfreezing cold nerve injury is characterized by axonal degeneration, which is attributed to free radicals released during cycles of ischemia and reperfusion. This pilot study sought to determine whether the administration of antioxidants might prevent or ameliorate the development of cold nerve injury. Twenty-six rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 animals received, by gavage, a mixture of vitamin C (150 mg/kg/d), vitamin E (100 mg/kg/d), and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (250 mg/kg/d) daily for 4 weeks. Allopurinol (20 mg/kg/d) was added in the last 4 days of treatment. Group 2 animals served as controls and did not receive any antioxidant supplements. After 1 month, two cycles of sciatic nerve cooling (0 degrees C) were induced in 10 controls and 10 experimental animals using circulating water through a nerve cuff. Six additional control animals were subjected to surgery but did not undergo nerve cooling. All animals were killed on the third postoperative day, and their nerves were processed for ultrastructural and quantitative studies. The proportion of degenerated myelinated and unmyelinated axons showed no significant difference between treated and untreated animals. We conclude that the administration of commonly used antioxidants does not prevent cold nerve injury.

  20. Prevention of injury in karate.

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, H V; Noerregaard, F O

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of knuckle protection on the type and incidence of injuries in traditional karate contests. Knuckle protection was mandatory at the Danish karate championships 1983 and 1986 (290 matches, 0.26 injuries per match), and prohibited at the championships 1984 and 1985 (620 matches, 0.25 injuries per match). Head injuries were more common in the tournaments where fist pads were used. The incidences of transitory psychomotor disturbances following b...

  1. Occupational Injury Prevention Research in NIOSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Hsiao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provided a brief summary of the current strategic goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health occupational injury research program. Three primary drivers (injury database, stakeholder input, and staff capacity were used to define NIOSH research focuses to maximize relevance and impact of the NIOSH injury-prevention-research program. Injury data, strategic goals, program activities, and research impacts were presented with a focus on prevention of four leading causes of workplace injury and death in the US: motor vehicle incidents, falls, workplace violence, and machine and industrial vehicle incidents. This paper showcased selected priority goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH injury prevention program. The NIOSH contribution to the overall decrease in fatalities and injuries is reinforced by decreases in specific goal areas. There were also many intermediate outcomes that are on a direct path to preventing injuries, such as new safety regulations and standards, safer technology and products, and improved worker safety training. The outcomes serve as an excellent foundation to stimulate further research and worldwide partnership to address global workplace injury problems.

  2. Closing the Aboriginal child injury gap: targets for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Holger; Falster, Kathleen; Ivers, Rebecca; Falster, Michael O; Clapham, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-02-01

    To describe the leading mechanisms of hospitalised unintentional injury in Australian Aboriginal children and identify the injury mechanisms with the largest inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. We used linked hospital and mortality data to construct a whole of population birth cohort including 1,124,717 children (1,088,645 non-Aboriginal and 35,749 Aboriginal) born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 1 July 2000 and 31 December 2012. Injury hospitalisation rates were calculated per person years at risk for injury mechanisms coded according to the ICD10-AM classification. The leading injury mechanisms in both groups of children were falls from playground equipment. For 66 of the 69 injury mechanisms studied, Aboriginal children had a higher rate of hospitalisation compared with non-Aboriginal children. The largest relative inequalities were observed for injuries due to exposure to fire and flame, and the largest absolute inequalities for injuries due to falls from playground equipment. Aboriginal children in NSW experience a significant higher burden of unintentional injury compared with their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Implications for Public Health: We suggest the implementation of targeted injury prevention measures aimed at injury mechanism and age groups identified in this study. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Core Competencies for Injury and Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Bou-Saada, Ingrid; Hunter, Wanda; Lindemer, Kristen; Runyan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence require a workforce that is knowledgeable and skilled in prevention. However, there has been no systematic process to ensure that professionals possess the necessary competencies. To address this deficiency, we developed a set of core competencies for public health practitioners in injury and violence prevention programs. The core competencies address domains including public health significance, data, the design and implementation of prevention activities, evaluation, program management, communication, stimulating change, and continuing education. Specific learning objectives establish goals for training in each domain. The competencies assist in efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence and can provide benchmarks against which to assess progress in professional capacity for injury and violence prevention. PMID:19197083

  4. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  5. Cold stress-induced brain injury regulates TRPV1 channels and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yunen; Jin, Hongxu; Cong, Peifang; Zhang, Yubiao; Tong, Changci; Shi, Xiuyun; Liu, Xuelei; Tong, Zhou; Shi, Lin; Hou, Mingxiao

    2017-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel that interacts with several intracellular proteins in vivo, including calmodulin and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/Akt). TRPV1 activation has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cold stress on the mouse brain and the underlying mechanisms of TRPV1 involvement. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cold stress (4°C for 8h per day for 2weeks). The behavioral deficits of the mice were then measured using the Morris water maze. Expression levels of brain injury-related proteins and mRNA were measured by western blot, immunofluorescence or RT-PCR analysis. The mice displayed behavioral deficits, inflammation and changes in brain injury markers following cold stress. As expected, upregulated TRPV1 expression levels and changes in PI3K/Akt expression were found. The TRPV1 inhibitor reduced the levels of brain injury-related proteins and inflammation. These data suggest that cold stress can induce brain injury, possibly through TRPV1 activation and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Suppression of inflammation by inhibition of TRPV1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway may be helpful to prevent cold stress-induced brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational injury insurance - A strategy for prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French.......Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French....

  7. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries.

  8. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Share Print Back injuries are common problems at work, home, and play. They can be caused by accidents or improper lifting technique. Below are tips to ...

  10. Preventing eye injuries in quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wormald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye injuries often occur in the workplace in low and middle-income countries, particularly in the construction, agricultural, mining, and manufacturing industries. Even if there are safety regulations in these industries, their enforcement is often unsatisfactory, and owners are not required to provide safety equipment.

  11. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  12. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412

  13. An unusual cause of cold injury: liquified petroleum gas leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Nevra; Jasharllari, Lorenc; Kayapınar, Muhammed; Savacı, Nedim

    2011-11-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is an odorless and colorless gas that is a mixture of hydrocarbons (propane and butane). It is now more commonly preferred among drivers as an auto-gas throughout the world because it is cheaper than petrol or diesel and produces the same amount of energy. Because of its rapid vaporization and consequent lowering of temperature, it may cause severe cold injuries. A 33-year-old male who suffered from hand burn due to LPG is presented in this article. In LPG-converted cars, if the conversion has not been done properly, LPG may leak. Thus, the public must be informed of this potential danger while undertaking repairs of their vehicles.

  14. Recognition and Prevention of Rugby Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasin, J D; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1989-06-01

    In brief: Rugby is a popular, strenuous contact sport that demands almost continuous action by the players. Players, coaches, and physicians must be aware of the potential for and types of injuries that occur during matches and of ways to avoid, or at least reduce, this number and severity. Minor and moderate injuries are more frequent than severe injuries, but all must be regarded seriously. Concussions, although relatively rare, can have serious consequences, and cervical spine injuries can be catastrophic. Player fitness and conditioning and a pregame warm-up are all essential for preventing injuries. Equally important are coaching, adherence to the rules of the game, and avoidance of dangerous play. If these measures are practiced consistently, rugby will be safer.

  15. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    OpenAIRE

    C. Schwebel, David; Swart, Dehran

    2009-01-01

    Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk t...

  16. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  17. ECSS Position Statement 2009: Prevention of acute sports injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, K.; Andersen, T.E.; Krosshaug, T.; van Mechelen, W.; Myklebust, G.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Bahr, R.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize the health benefits of sports and exercise and to minimize the direct and indirect costs associated with injuries, developing and adopting injury prevention strategies is an important goal. The aim of this ECSS consensus paper on injury prevention is to review current evidence on injury

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  19. Cold injury to a diver's hand after a 90-min dive in 6 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laden, Gerard D M; Purdy, Gerard; O'Rielly, Gerard

    2007-05-01

    We present here a case of non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) in a sport scuba diver. There are similarities between the presenting symptoms of NFCI and decompression sickness, e.g., pain and/or altered sensation in an extremity, often reported as numbness. In both conditions patients have been known to describe their lower limbs or feet as feeling woolly. Both conditions are the result of environmental exposure. Additionally, there are no good (high sensitivity and specificity) diagnostic tests for either condition. Diagnosis is made based on patient history, clinical presentation, and examination. NFCI is most frequently seen in military personnel, explorers, and the homeless. When affecting the feet of soldiers it is often referred to as "trench foot." Historically, NFCI has been and continues to be of critical importance in infantry warfare in cold and wet environments. A high priority should be given to prevention of NFCI during military operational planning. With the advent of so-called "technical diving" characterized by going deeper for longer (often in cold water) and adventure tourism, this extremely painful condition is likely to increase in prevalence. NFCI is treated symptomatically.

  20. The prevention of baseball and softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, David H

    2003-04-01

    Forty million individuals participate in organized softball leagues each year in the United States. Eighteen million additional student athletes and young adults also participate in organized baseball league play. In addition to being two of the most popular team sports in the United States, they also are responsible for a significant percentage of sports-related injuries that are sustained in the United States. Fortunately, numerous interventions independently have been shown to be effective at reducing the injury scenario, which has grown to be of epidemic proportion. Interventions such as break-away bases, batting helmets, face shields on helmets, lighter mass baseballs, and teaching and reiteration of the fundamentals of softball and baseball all have been effective in preventing millions of injuries and billions of dollars in healthcare costs each year in the United States.

  1. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  2. Selected isokinetic tests in knee injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Pilis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuing from isokinetic measurements, the conventional Hcon/Qcon ratio of muscle balance is used as an index for comparing proper relations between the values of strength of knee flexors and extensor muscle. Its abnormal values might indicate pathology of the musculotendinous complex. The aim of the study was to present the possibility of using this ratio as one of the objective identifiers enabling the assessment of knee injury risk in sports. All participants (n=48 were divided into 3 groups: group A (n=16, healthy competitors, group B (n=16, athletes with minor injuries, group C (n=16, competitors with serious injuries, depending on the degree of knee injury. All subjects performed an isokinetic test for knee extensors and flexors at angular velocities of 60°/s and 120°/s. Average peak torque (APT value of knee flexors and extensors, and the value of Hcon/Qcon ratio was analyzed. Both values were calculated in relation to body mass (Nm/kg. Bilateral comparison of isokinetic test parameters confirmed the decrease of quadriceps muscle strength values for the injured extremity in groups B and C. Statistically significant difference was noted for Hcon/Qcon ratio between group A and C, as well as B and C. Hence, the value of conventional Hcon/Qcon ratio can be used for the prevention of sports related injuries.

  3. Behaviour, the key factor for sports injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Stralen, Maartje M; van Mechelen, Willem

    2010-11-01

    Safety in sports and physical activity is an important prerequisite for continuing participation in sports, as well as for maintenance of a healthy physically active lifestyle. For this reason, prevention, reduction and control of sports injuries are important goals for society as a whole. Recent advances in sports medicine discuss the need for research on real-life injury prevention. Such views call for a more behavioural approach when it comes to actual sports injury prevention. Nevertheless, the role of behaviour in sports injury prevention remains under-researched. In order to push the field of sports injury prevention forward, this article provides an overview of the relationship between behaviour and sports injury risk. Different types of behaviour relate to injury risk factors and injury mechanisms. Behaviour that influences risk factors and injury mechanisms is not confined only to the athlete. Various types of behaviour by, for example, the coach, referee, physical therapist or sports associations, also influence risk factors and injury mechanisms. In addition, multiple behaviours often act together. Some types of behaviour may directly affect injury risk and are by definition a risk factor. Other behaviours may only affect risk factors and injury mechanisms, and influence injury risk indirectly. Recent ideas on injury prevention that call for studies on real-life injury prevention still rely heavily on preventive measures that are established through efficacy research. A serious limitation in such an approach is that one expects that proven preventive measures will be adopted if the determinants and influences of sports safety behaviours are understood. Therefore, if one truly wants to prevent sports injuries in a real-life situation, a broader research focus is needed. In trying to do so, we need to look at lessons learned from other fields of injury prevention research.

  4. [Analysis on violence injury incidence and prevention in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Yuliang; Gao, Xin; Duan, Leilei; Wang, Yuan; Deng, Xiao; Ji, Cuirong; Ye, Pengpeng; Jin, Ye; Wang, Linhong

    2016-01-01

    To understand the incidence of violence injury and its prevention in China, and provide reference for the prevention and control of violence injury. The violence injury data in China were collected from national death surveillance data set (2006-2013) and national injury surveillance system (2013) for the descriptive epidemiological analysis on the incidence of violence injury and related death. The laws and policies about violence injury prevention, related data collection capacity and violence injury prevention programs in China were described. The violence injury mortality declined by 46.3% during 2006-2013 from 1.21/100000 to 0.65/100000. The incidence of violence injury death in males peaked in age group 30-34 years (1.42/100000), and it was low in age groupviolence injury death were found in females, i.e. 0.84/100000 in infants, 0.72/100000 in age group 30-34 years and 1.18/100000 in age group≥85 years. The laws and policies about violence injury prevention were imperfect, and the data about violence injury were limited. Most prevention programs were limited in scale and duration. The crude and standardized violence injury mortality declined in China during 2006-2013. It is necessary to conduct gender specific prevention strategies and improve the related law and policy development, data collection and prevention service.

  5. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J; Jaquet, J-B.; van Riel, W. G.; Daanen, H. A M; Hovius, S.E.R.

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  6. Cold intolerance following median and ulnar nerve injuries : prognosis and predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.C.J.; Jaquet, J.B.; Riel, W.G. van; Daanen, H.A.M.; Hovius, S.E.R.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the predictors for cold intolerance and the relationship to sensory recovery after median and ulnar nerve injuries. The study population consisted of 107 patients 2 to 10 years after median, ulnar or combined median and ulnar nerve injuries. Patients were asked to fill out the

  7. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H

    2018-02-05

    Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be

  8. Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of enoxaparin on cold-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Gunal, M Yalcin; Ayturk, Nilufer; Kilic, Ulkan; Ozansoy, Mehmet; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence exists that enoxaparin can reduce brain injury because of its anticoagulant activity. To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of enoxaparin on cold-induced traumatic brain injury, at 20 minutes after modeling, male BALB/c mouse models of cold-induced traumatic brain injury were intraperitoneally administered 3 and 10 mg/kg enoxaparin or isotonic saline solution. Twenty-four hours later, enoxaparin at 10 mg/kg greatly reduced infarct volume, decreased cell apoptosis in the cortex and obviously increased serum level of total antioxidant status. By contrast, administration of enoxaparin at 3 mg/kg did not lead to these changes. These findings suggest that enoxaparin exhibits neuroprotective effect on cold-induced traumatic brain injury in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Differential metabolic rearrangements after cold storage are correlated with chilling injury resistance of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Bustamante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI

  10. Need for Injury Prevention Education In Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:40-43].

  11. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    OpenAIRE

    D. K. Ting; R. J. Brison

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston,...

  12. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, C. A. M.; Taunton, J. E.; Lloyd-Smith, D. R.; McKenzie, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalign...

  13. The prevention of injuries in contact flag football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, Jan; Witvrouw, Erik

    2014-01-01

    American flag football is a non-tackle, contact sport with many moderate to severe contact-type injuries reported. A previous prospective injury surveillance study by the authors revealed a high incidence of injuries to the fingers, face, knee, shoulder and ankle. The objectives of the study were to conduct a pilot-prospective injury prevention study in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries as compared to a historical cohort, as well as to provide recommendations for a future prospective injury prevention study. A prospective injury prevention study was conducted involving 724 amateur male (mean age: 20.0 ± 3.1 years) and 114 female (mean age: 21.2 ± 7.2 years) players. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. An injury surveillance questionnaire was administered to record all time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of injured players, the number of finger/hand injuries, the incidence rate and the incidence proportion between the two cohorts (p football. Prevention strategies for a longer, prospective, randomised-controlled injury prevention study should include the strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, appropriate head gear, the use of comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards, and changing the blocking rules of the game.

  14. Burn injury in kitchen workers: a cause for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riina, L H; Simpson, R L; Gudjonsson, O; Glickman, L T; Harris, S U; Johnson, D; Ginocchio, M

    2000-01-01

    Preventable thermal injuries in professional kitchen workers have been identified, and we have introduced a protective garment. Because of the nature of their occupation, kitchen workers are prone to thermal injuries. It has been our experience that the majority of these injuries are scald injuries on the ankles and dorsum of the feet. We propose that a protective garment, such as a waterproof shoe and garter, could reduce the incidence of these injuries.

  15. Overexpression of the long noncoding RNA TUG1 protects against cold-induced injury of mouse livers by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Song; Liu, Jiang; He, Kai; Zhang, Mengyu; Feng, Chunhong; Peng, Fangyi; Li, Bo; Xia, Xianming

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic injury provoked by cold storage is a major problem affecting liver transplantation, as exposure to cold induces apoptosis in hepatic tissues. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly understood to regulate apoptosis, but the contribution of lncRNAs to cold-induced liver injury remains unknown. Using RNA-seq, we determined the differential lncRNA expression profile in mouse livers after cold storage and found that expression of the lncRNA TUG1 was significantly down-regulated. Overexpression of TUG1 attenuated cold-induced apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells LSECs, in part by blocking mitochondrial apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Moreover, TUG1 attenuated apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in vivo in livers subjected to cold storage. Overexpression of TUG1 also improved hepatocyte function and prolonged hepatic graft survival rates in mice. These results suggest that the lncRNA TUG1 exerts a protective effect against cold-induced liver damage by inhibiting apoptosis in mice, and suggests a potential role for TUG1 as a target for the prevention of cold-induced liver damage in liver transplantation. RNA-seq data are available from GEO using accession number GSE76609. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Lockout and tagout procedures to prevent occupational injury and fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupka, Stephanie

    2011-07-01

    Hazardous energy control programs that include lockout and tagout procedures as well as worker training can prevent serious injury and death during machine maintenance. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Changes in Heart Rhythm and Breathing in Acute Systemic Injury Due to Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Konnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the patterns of a change in heart rhythm and breathing in patients with acute systemic injury due to cold in hypothermic and early posthypothermic periods.Subjects and methods. Thirty patients aged 18 to 60 years (3 groups of 10 patients with mild, moderate, and severe cold injury were examined in hypothermic and posthypothermic periods. The patient groups did not differ in gender, age, and weight. Within the first 24 hours after admission, all the patients underwent high-resolution Holter electrocardiographic monitoring that recorded cardiac arrhythmias and breathing disorders.Results. During the therapy performed, as the degree of acute systemic cold injury increased, the patients were found to have a heart rate reduction (from 102 [90; 122] beats/min in Group 1 to 49 [38; 58] beats/min in Group 3 and a circadian index increase (from 105 [88; 125]% in Group 1 to 210 [185; 223]% in Group 3. With increased hypothermia, the victims were detected to have progressive cardiac rhythm and cardiac electrical conduction disturbances, such as supraventricular pacemaker migration, single and paired supraventricular premature beats, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillations, and ventricular premature beats. There was decreased heart rhythm variability in all the study groups, to the greatest extent in the patents with severe systemic cold injury. Late ventricular potentials were found in 2 and 7 patients with moderate and severe cold injury, respectively. Breathing disorders were recorded in all the study groups, the greatest increase in the frequency and duration of apnea/hypopnea episodes was noted in the patients with severe hypothermia. A fatal outcome occurred in 4 of the 10 patients with critical hypothermia due to the occurrence of idioventricular rhythm with transition to asystole.Conclusion. Systemic hypothermia is accompanied by cardiac rhythm and cardiac electrical conduction disturbances and respiratory depression

  18. Ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Allegrante

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Injury as a cause of significant morbidity and mortality has remained fairly stable in countries with developed economies. Although injury prevention often is conceptualised as a biomedical construct, such a reductionist perspective overlooks the importance of the psychological, environmental, and sociocultural conditions as contributing factors to injury and its consequences. This paper describes the potential of the ecological model for understanding the antecedent causes of unintentional injuries and guiding injury prevention approaches. We review the origins and conceptualise the elements of the ecological model and conclude with some examples of applications of ecological approaches to the prevention of unintentional injury and promotion of community safety.

    Methods: A review of the English-language literature on the conceptualization of ecological models in public health and injury prevention, including the application of the ecological model in the prevention of falls and road traffic injuries and in the community safety promotion movement.

    Results: Three dimensions are important in social-ecological systems that comprise key determinants of injuries: 1 the individual and his or her behaviour, 2 the physical environment, and 3 the social environment. Social and environmental determinants have profound impact on population health and in the causation of injuries.

    Conclusions: Social and environmental determinants of injury should be studied with the same energy, urgency, and intellectual rigor as physical determinants. Application of the ecological model in injury prevention shows the most promise in falls injury prevention, road traffic injury prevention, and community safety promotion.

  19. Amelioration of cold injury-induced cortical brain edema formation by selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonists in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Nagase, Marina; Matsuyama, Emi; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Seno, Naoki; Fuka, Mayu; Yamamoto, Yui; Koyama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs) are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice). Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist), IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist), or FR139317 (ETA antagonist) prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults.

  20. Amelioration of cold injury-induced cortical brain edema formation by selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonists in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Michinaga

    Full Text Available Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological condition that often occurs in stroke and head trauma. Following brain insults, endothelins (ETs are increased and promote several pathophysiological responses. This study examined the effects of ETB antagonists on brain edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a mouse cold injury model (Five- to six-week-old male ddY mice. Cold injury increased the water content of the injured cerebrum, and promoted extravasation of both Evans blue and endogenous albumin. In the injury area, expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA and ET-1 peptide increased. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of BQ788 (ETB antagonist, IRL-2500 (ETB antagonist, or FR139317 (ETA antagonist prior to cold injury significantly attenuated the increase in brain water content. Bolus administration of BQ788, IRL-2500, or FR139317 also inhibited the cold injury-induced extravasation of Evans blue and albumin. Repeated administration of BQ788 and IRL-2500 beginning at 24 h after cold injury attenuated both the increase in brain water content and extravasation of markers. In contrast, FR139317 had no effect on edema formation when administrated after cold injury. Cold injury stimulated induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrocytes in the injured cerebrum. Induction of reactive astrocytes after cold injury was attenuated by ICV administration of BQ788 or IRL-2500. These results suggest that ETB receptor antagonists may be an effective approach to ameliorate brain edema formation following brain insults.

  1. Tennis injuries: prevention and treatment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulund, D N; McCue, F C; Rockwell, D A; Gieck, J H

    1979-01-01

    When players are engaged in the sport of tennis, injuries may occur to the eyes, in the neck, to the shoulder and back, arm and elbow, wrist and hand, and feet. The key to prevention and treatment of these injuries is good coaching and a formal stretching and strengthening program. The drooped "tennis shoulder" of professionals and senior tennis players is a natural response to heavy use. Shoulder elevating exercises are useful when soreness is associated. The treatment of tennis elbow includes wrist extensor stretching, isometrics, and light weightlifting. When a player follows this program, injections or counterforce braces are rarely needed. It is important for the player to bring his racket to the examination so that his stroke mechanics and grip can be checked. Wrist soreness in a tennis player may denote a hamate hook fracture. Special radiographic views are needed to discern the fracture and it is treated with a short arm cast and little finger extension splint. Nonunion of a hamate hook requires excision. The calf pain prodrome of "tennis leg" requires rest and then a stretching program. Tennis shoes should have rolled heels and large toe boxes with reinforced toe bumpers. The physician may have to fashion soft inserts for the tennis shoes; arch supports may be insufficient.

  2. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudagov, R.; Uljanova, L.; Makarov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  3. Effect of melatonin on kidney cold ischemic preservation injury

    OpenAIRE

    Aslaner, Arif; Gunal, Omer; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Celik, Erdal; Yildirim, Umran; Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Gunduz, Umut Riza; Calis, Hasan; Dogan, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is a potent free radical scavenger of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and a well-known antioxidant secreted from pineal gland. This hormone has been reported to protect tissue from oxidative damage. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of melatonin on kidney cold ischemia time when added to preservation solution. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into three groups; Ringer Lactate (RL) solution, University of Wisconsin (UW) soluti...

  4. Prevention of injury and violence in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I; Degutis, Linda C

    2014-07-05

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  6. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....

  7. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  8. [Gymnastic school sport injuries--aspects of preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C

    2006-06-01

    Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.

  9. 75 FR 27797 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention of Suicidal Behavior..., discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Prevention of Suicidal Behavior through...

  10. S-13: Interventions for Prevention and Rehabilitation of Hamstring Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hamstring muscles have very important role in the stabilization of body posture, movement of the lower extremities and trunk movements in relation to the thigh. Hamstring injuries are common among athletes, especially in sports like soccer with sprinting demands, kicking, and sudden accelerations. Hamstring strains are frustrating for the injured athletes because the symptoms are persistent, healing is slow, and the rate of re-injury is high. This indicates a need to develop prevention strategies for hamstring injuries. The aims of this review are introducing hamstring strains, associated risk factors, and providing rehabilitative ecommendations for injured athletes to prevent re-injury. METHOD: Information was gathered from an online literatures search using the key words hamstring injuries, soccer injuries, injury prevention, hamstring rehabilitation, and stretching exercises. Screening of references and hand searches of relevant journals were also employed. All relevant studies in English were reviewed and abstracted.RESULTS: It has been shown that hamstring strains account for 12-16% of all injuries in athletes with a re-injury rate reported as high as 22-34%. The hamstrings have a tendency to shorten. Tight hamstrings with limited range of motion and flexibility may lead to postural deficiency and deformities. It also makes the hamstring susceptible to re-injury. Risk factors such as age, strength imbalance, previous injury and flexibility should be considered. CONCLUSION: Prevention intervention may minimize the risk factors of hamstring injuries. Training modalities should emphasize on eccentric strength training, and prevention of fatigue. There is wide disagreement about the impact of stretching exercise on prevention/rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.

  11. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, D K; Brison, R J

    2015-04-01

    Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED) care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12-0.22). The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  12. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  13. Cold and compression in the management of musculoskeletal injuries and orthopedic operative procedures: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E Block

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jon E BlockJon E Block, PhD., Incorporated, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Cold and compression are routinely applied immediately after acute injury or ­following surgery to alleviate pain, reduce swelling and speed functional recovery. The objective of this literature review is to describe the published clinical findings regarding combined cold and compression therapy in the management of musculoskeletal injuries and after orthopedic operative procedures. Of 33 potential articles triaged, the findings of 21 randomized controlled trials were assessed and summarized. The findings reported by these 21 studies were largely subjective pain outcomes and, to a lesser degree, swelling and range of motion, and were inconsistent and divergent, making it difficult to recommend the most appropriate, effective clinical application of cold and compression. Further, 18 of the 21 reported studies evaluated cold and static compression, where the extent and duration of the compression was not uniform within or across studies. Operative procedures may offer a more controlled environment for rigorous investigations. However, such studies must be powered sufficiently to account for variations in surgical procedure that could affect outcomes. More uniform operative procedures, such as total knee arthroplasty, represent a well circumscribed intervention for studying the clinical utility of cold compression therapy because the operative technique is standardized, surgical tissue damage is extensive, intraoperative blood loss is high, and post-operative edema and pain are severe. Findings from randomized controlled trials of knee arthroplasty generally showed cold compression therapy provides better outcomes such as pain relief than alternative interventions. While the effects of cold and static compression are clearly better than no treatment, they do not appear to be directly additive.Keywords: cryotherapy, injury

  14. Preventing occupational injury among police officers: does motivation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D K C; Webb, D; Ryan, R M; Tang, T C W; Yang, S X; Ntoumanis, N; Hagger, M S

    2017-08-01

    Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours. There were 207 participants; response rate was 87%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that autonomous motivation was positively related to behavioural adherence, commitment to safety and prioritizing injury prevention. Controlled motivation was a positive predictor of safety communication barriers. Amotivation was positively associated with fatalism regarding injury prevention, safety violation and worry. These findings are consistent with the tenets of self-determination theory in that autonomous motivation was a positive predictor of adaptive safety beliefs and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. 78 FR 64505 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with... reviews progress toward injury prevention goals and provides evidence in injury prevention- related... matters, including the: (1) Review of extramural research concepts for funding opportunity announcements...

  16. Prevention of cold-associated acute inflammation in familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Hal M; Rosengren, Sanna; Boyle, David L; Cho, Jae Y; Nayar, Jyothi; Mueller, James L; Anderson, Justin P; Wanderer, Alan A; Firestein, Gary S

    Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of rash, arthralgia, and fever after cold exposure. The genetic basis of this disease has been elucidated. Cryopyrin, the protein that is altered in FCAS, is one of the adaptor proteins that activate caspase 1, resulting in release of interleukin 1. An experimental cold challenge protocol was developed to study the acute inflammatory mechanisms occurring after a general cold exposure in FCAS patients and to investigate the effects of pretreatment with an antagonist of interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1Ra). ELISA, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to measure cytokine responses. After cold challenge, untreated patients with FCAS developed rash, fever, and arthralgias within 1-4 h. Significant increases in serum concentrations of interleukin 6 and white-blood-cell counts were seen 4-8 h after cold challenge. Serum concentrations of interleukin 1 and cytokine mRNA in peripheral-blood leucocytes were not raised, but amounts of interleukin 1 protein and mRNA were high in affected skin. IL-1Ra administered before cold challenge blocked symptoms and increases in white-blood-cell counts and serum interleukin 6. The ability of IL-1Ra to prevent the clinical features and haematological and biochemical changes in patients with FCAS indicates a central role for interleukin 1beta in this disorder. Involvement of cryopyrin in activation of caspase 1 and NF-kappaB signalling suggests that it might have a role in many chronic inflammatory diseases. These findings support a new therapy for a disorder with no previously known acceptable treatment. They also offer insights into the role of interleukin 1beta in more common inflammatory diseases.

  17. Cold injury, blood-brain barrier changes, and leukotriene synthesis: Inhibition by phenidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, L.J.; Marcoux, F.W.

    1990-01-01

    Transcranial cold injury in rats and guinea pigs induced cerebral extravasation of albumin labeled with Evans blue dye or 125 I, respective indicators of the area and amount of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Radioimmunoassay of brain extracts showed that cold injury induced leukotriene (LT)C4 in rat and guinea pig brains 15 min after injury. In guinea pigs, the LT synthesis inhibitor phenidone (30 mg/kg, i.p.) completely blocked cold-induced LTC4 in brain. Phenidone (30 and 100 mg/kg) also inhibited cerebral tissue accumulation of 125 I-albumin and dye in rats and guinea pigs. Phenidone is reported to show antioxidant properties and selective lipoxygenase inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism compared to cyclooxygenase inhibitors, meclofenamate sodium, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Since several oxygen and hydroxyl radical scavengers and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, meclofenamate sodium, did not inhibit protein extravasation, the findings support a role for LT as a mediator of cold-induced changes in BBB permeability in rats and guinea pigs and suggest that the inhibitory effects of phenidone on BBB permeability may be due to inhibition of LT production

  18. [Skiing injuries in school sport and possibilioties to prevent them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K

    2011-12-01

    Tyrol (Austria) is one of the regions which pioneered skiing. Skiing is considered as a national sport and is deeply rooted within the school system. Thus most pupils partake in skiing courses in this period. It is clear that such a large group of pupils also leads to a significant number of skiing injuries. Preventive issues may be derived from an analysis of the pattern and circumstances of skiing injuries. During a period of ten years (2000 - 2009) 1522 school sports injuries have been reported to the health insurance agency (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt) from all secondary schools in Tyrol. The major disciplines were ski (48 %, n = 734) ice skateing (23 %, n = 349) and snowboard injuries (21 %, n = 315), followed by tobogganing (6 %, n = 91), cross-country skiing (1 %, n = 17) and other wintersports (1 %, n = 16). Fractures (31 %) dominated in skiing, followed by contusions (23 %), and sprains (22 %). In the analysis of the distribution of injuries during alpine skiing accidents, lower extremity injuries (39 %) dominated followed by upper extremity injuries (34 %). Head and spine injuries (13 %) were rare. Analysing the circumstances of the injuries, most injuries during skiing occurred without person to person collision (82 %), 81 % either shortly before lunch-break or in the afternoon. Skiing injuries account for a significant proportion of all school sport-related injuries in Tyrol. Lower extremity injuries account for the vast majority of all injuries. Overestimation and overtiredness may be responsible for skiing sport injuries. Preventive measures such as a fitness training (e. g., skiing exercises) prior to skiing courses, appropriate breaks and proper protective gear (i. e., helmet and spine protector) may reduce the injury rate in skiing school sport. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...

  20. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  1. Peripheral Vasodilation Responses to Prevent Local Cold Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellani, John W; O'Brien, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    .... This decreased blood flow limits the heat delivery to the extremities, and subsequent tissue cooling is associated with a decrease in thermal comfort and physical performance and an increased risk...

  2. Football injuries – surveillance, incidence and prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paid professional, avoiding and reducing injury severity is very ... He has been awarded Life Membership of the South African Sports Medicine Association ... Exposure time and average number of injuries in different age and skill-level groups1 .... 10 MINUTES. STRENGTH · PLYOMETRICS · BALANCE ·. PART 2. PART 1.

  3. Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cashman, Clodagh M.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Beirne, Paul V.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers (operating a motorised vehicle) in preventing injury or work-related effects such as

  4. Factors influencing the implementation of soccer injury prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest and participation in soccer continue to grow in every part of the world. The increase in the number of people participating in soccer in Rwanda is also prominent. However, with the increase in the number of people participating in soccer there is an increase in the risk of injuries, thus making prevention of injury more ...

  5. 9Th Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference, Melbourne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    The 9th Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference was held in Melbourne,. Australia, from 24 to 26 July 2009. This conference formed part of a series of conferences initiated in 1993 by the Monash University's Accident Research Centre (MOARC) in partnership ... outputs in injury presentation work. The speaker ...

  6. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    raised against β-APP (Cat # 51- 2700, Life Technologies , Grand Island, NY) and processed by routine avidin biotin peroxidase method. The presence of...pathology of traumatic axonal injury involves distinct injury processes, neurofilament compaction ( NFC ) and impaired axoplasmic transport (IAT)1. In rat...blunt trauma studies NFC was evidenced by immunoreactive axons that were thin, elongated and sometimes with vacuolations as revealed by RMO14

  7. Preventing home health nursing assistant back and shoulder injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, E W; Hagenbach, G L; Marn, K K

    2000-10-01

    Franklin County Home Health Agency (St Albans, Vermont) undertook a performance improvement project in 1996 to reduce employee injuries. A review of recent injuries led to the prevention of licensed nursing assistants' (LNAs') back and shoulder injuries as the first priority. Root causes of injuries were agency communication, employee training, patient home environment, nursing assistant body mechanics, and failure to use safety measures. Given that injury causality is complex and multifactorial, a variety of improvement strategies were implemented over the following two to three years. IMPLEMENTATION OF POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS: Short-term (a few months), mid-term (six months), and long-term (one year) potential solutions to the LNA back and shoulder injury problem were charted. Safety and health training was the major focus of the team's short-term plan. Risk management forms were to be used to identify and follow up on hazardous situations. Project plans that were successfully implemented included revision of LNA plans of care, standardization of the return-to-work process after injury, development of guidelines for identifying unsafe patient lifts and transfers, improved follow-up of employee reports of injury-risk situations in patient homes, improved body mechanics screening of new employees, and a stronger injury-prevention training program for current employees. A less successful initiative was aimed at collecting more data about injuries and causal factors. Employee injuries were gradually reduced from 4-10 per quarter to 0-3 per quarter. Injury prevention requires commitment, persistence, and patience--but not expensive improvements. Multiple interventions increase the chances of success when there are many root causes and lack of evidence regarding the effectiveness of various approaches.

  8. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  9. Immunochemical method for quantitative evaluation of vasogenic brain edema following cold injury of rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodsch, W; Huerter, T; Hossmann, K A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Forschungsstelle fuer Hirnkreislauf-Forschung

    1982-10-07

    An immunochemical method is described for quantitative assessment of serum proteins and hemoglobin content in brain tissue homogenates. Using a combination of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay, the sensitivity of the method is 50 ng hemoglobin and 100 ng serum protein per assay, respectively. The method was used to measure cerebral hematocrit, blood volume and serum protein extravasation in rat brain at various times following cold injury. In control rats cerebral blood volume was 6.88 +- 0.15 ml/100 g and cerebral hematocrit 26.4 +- 0.86% (means +- S.E.). Following cold injury blood volume did not significantly change, but there was a gradual increase of extravasated serum proteins, reaching a maximum of 21.54 +- 2.76 mg/g d.w. after 8 hours. Thereafter protein content gradually declined, but even after 64 h it was distinctly increased. Protein extravasation was partly dissociated from the increase of brain water and sodium which reached a maximum already after 2 h and which normalized within 32 and 64 h, respectively. It is concluded that edema fluid associated with cold injury is not simply an ultrafiltrate of blood serum but consists of cytotoxic and vasogenic components which follow a different time course both during formation and resolution of edema.

  10. Immunochemical method for quantitative evaluation of vasogenic brain edema following cold injury of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodsch, W.; Huerter, T.; Hossmann, K.-A.

    1982-01-01

    An immunochemical method is described for quantitative assessment of serum proteins and hemoglobin content in brain tissue homogenates. Using a combination of affinity chromatography and radioimmunoassay, the sensitivity of the method is 50 ng hemoglobin and 100 ng serum protein per assay, respectively. The method was used to measure cerebral hematocrit, blood volume and serum protein extravasation in rat brain at various times following cold injury. In control rats cerebral blood volume was 6.88 +- 0.15 ml/100 g and cerebral hematocrit 26.4 +- 0.86% (means +- S.E.). Following cold injury blood volume did not significantly change, but there was a gradual increase of extravasated serum proteins, reaching a maximum of 21.54 +- 2.76 mg/g d.w. after 8 hours. Thereafter protein content gradually declined, but even after 64 h it was distinctly increased. Protein extravasation was partly dissociated from the increase of brain water and sodium which reached a maximum already after 2 h and which normalized within 32 and 64 h, respectively. It is concluded that edema fluid associated with cold injury is not simply an ultrafiltrate of blood serum but consists of cytotoxic and vasogenic components which follow a different time course both during formation and resolution of edema. (Auth.)

  11. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.

  12. Stretching After Heat But Not After Cold Decreases Contractures After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Masato; Sakitani, Naoyoshi; Watanabe, Kosuke; Watanabe, Daichi; Moriyama, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Contractures are a prevalent and potentially severe complication in patients with neurologic disorders. Although heat, cold, and stretching are commonly used for treatment of contractures and/or spasticity (the cause of many contractures), the sequential effects of these modalities remain unclear. Using an established rat model with spinal cord injury with knee flexion contracture, we sought to determine what combination of heat or cold before stretching is the most effective for treatment of contractures derived from spastic paralyses and investigated which treatment leads to the best (1) improvement in the loss of ROM; (2) restoration of deterioration in the muscular and articular factors responsible for contractures; and (3) amelioration of histopathologic features such as muscular fibrosis in biceps femoris and shortening of the joint capsule. Forty-two adolescent male Wistar rats were used. After spasticity developed at 2 weeks postinjury, each animal with spinal cord injury underwent the treatment protocol daily for 1 week. Knee extension ROM was measured with a goniometer by two examiners blinded to each other's scores. The muscular and articular factors contributing to contractures were calculated by measuring ROM before and after the myotomies. We quantitatively measured the muscular fibrosis and the synovial intima length, and observed the distribution of collagen of skeletal muscle. The results were confirmed by a blinded observer. The ROM of heat alone (34° ± 1°) and cold alone (34° ± 2°) rats were not different with the numbers available from that of rats with spinal cord injury (35° ± 2°) (p = 0.92 and 0.89, respectively). Stretching after heat (24° ± 1°) was more effective than stretching alone (27° ± 3°) at increasing ROM (p contractures. Although quantification of muscular fibrosis in the rats with spinal cord injury (11% ± 1%) was higher than that of controls (9% ± 0.4%) (p = 0.01), no difference was found between spinal cord

  13. Neuromuscular prehabilitation to prevent osteoarthritis after a traumatic joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Shull, Pete B; Fredericson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a process resulting from direct forces applied to a joint that cause injury and degenerative changes. An estimated 12% of all symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip, knee, and ankle can be attributed to a post-traumatic cause. Neuromuscular prehabilitation is the process of improving neuromuscular function to prevent development of PTOA after an initial traumatic joint injury. Prehabilitation strategies include restoration of normative movement patterns that have been altered as the result of traumatic injury, along with neuromuscular exercises and gait retraining to prevent the development of OA after an injury occurs. A review of the current literature shows that no studies have been performed to evaluate methods of neuromuscular prehabilitation to prevent PTOA after a joint injury. Instead, current research has focused on management strategies after knee injuries, the value of exercise in the management of OA, and neuromuscular exercises after total knee arthroplasty. Recent work in gait retraining that alters knee joint loading holds promise for preventing the development of PTOA after joint trauma. Future research should evaluate methods of neuromuscular prehabilitation strategies in relationship to the outcome of PTOA after joint injury. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What kinds of injuries do OSHA inspections prevent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Amelia; Burns, Rachel; Gray, Wayne; Ruder, Teague; Mendeloff, John

    2010-08-01

    OSHA's enforcement program is one of the major public efforts to protect American workers. We examine both the scope of injury prevention that inspections can contribute and the types of standards that contribute the most. We linked Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry files for lost-time injuries and employment to calculate injury rates for 1998-2005 for all single-establishment manufacturing firms. We linked these to OSHA inspection records. Inspections with penalties did affect injury types unrelated to standards as well as those related. We also found again that citations for violations of the standard requiring personal protective equipment had the largest impact on preventing injuries. Programs requiring protective equipment use deserve added attention from consultants and inspectors. In addition, some inspections spur managers to undertake safety measures that go beyond compliance with standards. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Injuries in recreational curling include head injuries and may be prevented by using proper footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Ting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our study examines a recreational curling population to describe patterns of injury occurrence, estimate risk of injury and to gauge attitudes towards equipment-based prevention strategies. Methods: In a retrospective case series, we queried the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, a national injury surveillance database, for curling injuries entered between 1993 and 2011. Kingston General Hospital and Hotel Dieu Hospital provide the two Kingston, Ontario, sites for emergency department (ED care and participate in CHIRPP. Each retrieved entry underwent a chart review. A secondary survey was mailed to select individuals who had experienced curling injuries to solicit details on their injury and attitudes towards equipment to prevent injury. We used descriptive statistics for rates and proportions. Results: Over 90% of acute curling injuries resulted from a fall, and 31.7% were head impacts. We found that acute injuries requiring ED presentation occur at a rate of approximately 0.17 per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI: 0.12–0.22. The secondary survey was completed by 54% of potential respondents. Of survey respondents, 41.3% attributed their fall to a lack of proper footwear and 73.5% of respondents agreed with mandatory sport-specific footwear as a prevention strategy, but only 8% agreed with mandatory helmet wear. Conclusions: Although curling injuries requiring medical care are not common, head injuries make up a large proportion. Mandated use of appropriate footwear appears to be the most effective prevention strategy, as well as the measure deemed most acceptable by players.

  16. Oesophageal Injury During AF Ablation: Techniques for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jorge; Avendano, Ricardo; Grushko, Michael; Diaz, Juan Carlos; Du, Xianfeng; Gianni, Carola; Natale, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation remains the most common arrhythmia worldwide, with pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) being an essential component in the treatment of this arrhythmia. In view of the close proximity of the oesophagus with the posterior wall of the left atrium, oesophageal injury prevention has become a major concern during PVI procedures. Oesophageal changes varying from erythema to fistulas have been reported, with atrio-oesophageal fistulas being the most feared as they are associated with major morbidity and mortality. This review article provides a detailed description of the risk factors associated with oesophageal injury during ablation, along with an overview of the currently available techniques to prevent oesophageal injury. We expect that this state of the art review will deliver the tools to help electrophysiologists prevent potential oesophageal injuries, as well as increase the focus on research areas in which evidence is lacking. PMID:29636969

  17. Nerve conduction velocity in human limbs with late sequelae after local cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, A; Wilson, J; Rosén, L

    1996-06-01

    Cold-induced neuropathy may play a dominant role in the long-term sequelae with cold sensitivity after local cold injuries (LCIs). Somatosensory functions were assessed and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and motor distal delay (MDD) were measured in the limbs of 31 Norwegian former soldiers with persistent cold intolerance 3-4 years after the primary LCI. NCV measurements were performed in 24 lower and 16 upper extremities. NCV was related to degree of overall subjective complaints quantified by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). Motor (MNCV) and sensory conduction velocity (SNCV) in the lower extremities and SNCV in the hands were significantly decreased compared with controls. MDD was pathologically increased in the feet. NCV of the forearms ranged from normal to significant reduction. The more pronounced effect on the lower extremities may be caused by deeper cooling of the calves compared with forearms for several reasons. No significant associations were found between VAS and NCV except for the right median nerve. NCV measurements may provide objective findings in cold-injured patients and in those with few or no conspicuous clinical signs.

  18. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...

  19. Practical applications of injury surveillance: a brief 25-year history of the Connecticut Injury Prevention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Garry; Borrup, Kevin; DiVietro, Susan; Campbell, Brendan T; Beebe, Rebecca; Grasso, Damion; Rogers, Steven; Joseph, D'Andrea; Banco, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Connecticut Injury Prevention Center (CIPC), jointly housed in Connecticut Children's Medical Center and Hartford Hospital, is to reduce unintentional injury and violence among Connecticut residents, with a special focus on translating research into injury prevention programmes and policy. The CIPC engages in four core activities: research, education and training, community outreach programmes and public policy. As surveillance is an essential element of injury prevention, the CIPC has developed a robust statewide fatal and non-fatal injury surveillance system that has guided our prior work and continues to inform our current projects. The purpose of this article is to review the projects, programmes, and collaborative relationships that have made the CIPC successful in reducing unintentional injury and violence in Connecticut throughout the course of its 25 years history. Retrospective review of the application of injury surveillance. We believe that the application of our surveillance system can serve as a model for others who wish to engage in collaborative, community-based, data-driven injury prevention programmes in their own communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  1. Injury Control Part 2: Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    the cumulative effect of sustaining repeated blows to the head may still result in long-term neurological consequences or even death. Risk...military and civilian worlds include the following: ■ a ban on assault weapons ■ the elimination of trampolines in secondary schools ■ a ban on the...Hoffman, M. Cook, and L Stallones. Relationship of helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle crash victims in El Paso County, Colorado, 1989-1990

  2. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  3. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  4. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  5. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of cold injury-induced brain edema in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houkin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yuji; Seri, Shigemi.

    1996-01-01

    The chronological changes of blood-brain barrier disruption, and diffusion and absorption of edema fluid were investigated in rats with cold-induced brain injury (vasogenic edema) using magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast medium was administered intravenously at 3 and 24 hours after lesioning as a tracer of edema fluid. Serial T 1 -weighted multiple-slice images were obtained for 180 minutes after contrast administration. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was more prominent at 24 hours after lesioning than at 3 hours. Contrast medium leaked from the periphery of the injury and gradually diffused to the center of the lesion. Contrast medium diffused into the corpus callosum and the ventricular system (cerebrospinal fluid). Disruption of the blood-brain barrier induced by cold injury was most prominent at the periphery of the vasogenic edema. Edema fluid subsequently extended into the center of the lesion and was also absorbed by the ventricular system. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful method to assess the efficacy of therapy for vasogenic edema. (author)

  7. Prevention of ingestion injuries in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aspiration include attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome,[9] low levels of parental ... the environment combined with inadequate caregiver supervision put children ... Increased primary prevention of ingestion through community awareness ...

  8. [Prevention of hand injuries - current situation in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leixnering, M; Quadlbauer, S; Szolarcz, C; Schenk, C; Leixnering, S; Körpert, K

    2013-12-01

    Hand injuries are a frequent occurrence and account for 41% of all occupational injuries. In general such accidents are the result of stress, inattention, tiredness, use of defective or poorly maintained machinery. However, artention must equally be directed at the large number of accidents occurring in leisure time activities since the inability to work due to a leisure time accident is similarly cost-intensive. Throughout Europe attempts have been made in the past 10 years to improve prevention. At the initiative of the Hand Trauma Committee (HTC) of FESSH prevention conferences were stated in 2009. These have in part reduced the number of hand injuries in -Europe. In Austria a special controlling committee was founded by the Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA) with the specific objective of reducing the number of hand injuries. Similarly the "Circle for Leisure Time Hand Injury Prevention" was created to specifically deal with hand injuries occurring during leisure time activities. Through the cooperation of these 2 committees and implementation of the thus decided measures, a reduction in the number of accidents involving the hand is to be expected with a concomitant reduction in the associated costs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention...

  10. Cold therapy to prevent paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Claire; Kwon, Nancy; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Paice, Judith A

    2018-04-21

    This case-control study was designed to assess the efficacy of cryotherapy to prevent paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in women with breast cancer. Participants served as their own paired control, with randomization of the cooled glove/sock to either the dominant or the non-dominant hand/foot, worn for 15 min prior to, during, and 15 min after completion of the paclitaxel infusion. Outcome measures included the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, and quantitative sensory testing. Data were measured at each of six time points-baseline, post-treatment (approximately 2 weeks after the last paclitaxel infusion), and at the first, fifth, ninth, and final weekly paclitaxel treatments. Of 29 randomized participants, 20 (69%) received at least one cryotherapy treatment, and 11 (38%) received all four cryotherapy treatments. Ten (34%) participants could not tolerate the cryotherapy, and six (21%) declined further participation at some point during the trial. Only seven participants (24%) were available for the final post-chemotherapy QST and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in measures of neuropathy or pain between treated and untreated hands or feet. Strategies to prevent painful peripheral neuropathy are urgently needed. In this current trial, dropout due to discomfort precluded adequate power to fully understand the potential benefits of cryotherapy. Much more research is needed to discover safe and effective preventive strategies that can be easily implemented within busy infusion centers.

  11. Hamstring injuries: prevention and treatment—an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brukner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. PMID:26105015

  12. NCIPC's contribution to global injury and violence prevention: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Reshma R; Roehler, Douglas R; Degutis, Linda C

    2012-09-01

    Injuries and violence impact millions across the globe each year. For the past 20 years, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has assembled the largest cadre of injury and violence prevention experts in the world to reduce the burden of injuries and violence domestically and to inform global injury and violence prevention efforts. This article focuses on NCIPC's global injury and violence prevention work that involves: increasing awareness of the preventability of injury and violence, partnerships to promote injury research and best practices; establishing standards and guidance for data collection; building capacity through training and mentoring; and supporting evidence-based strategies. To decrease the global burden, the authors propose priority setting to maximize the development and sustainability of financial and human resources for injury and violence prevention. The authors call for increased capacity and resources for global injury and violence prevention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  14. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  15. Hospital-treated injuries from horse riding in Victoria, Australia: time to refocus on injury prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhán; Hitchens, Peta L; Fortington, Lauren V

    2018-01-01

    The most recent report on hospital-treated horse-riding injuries in Victoria was published 20 years ago. Since then, injury countermeasures and new technology have aimed to make horse riding safer for participants. This study provides an update of horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment in Victoria and examines changes in injury patterns compared with the earlier study. Horse-riding injuries that required hospital treatment (hospital admission (HA) or emergency department (ED) presentations) were extracted from routinely collected data from public and private hospitals in Victoria from 2002-2003 to 2015-2016. Injury incidence rates per 100 000 Victorian population per financial year and age-stratified and sex-stratified injury incidence rates are presented. Poisson regression was used to examine trends in injury rates over the study period. ED presentation and HA rates were 31.1 and 6.6 per 100 000 person-years, increasing by 28.8% and 47.6% from 2002 to 2016, respectively. Female riders (47.3 ED and 10.1 HA per 100 000 person-years) and those aged between 10 and 14 years (87.8 ED and 15.7 HA per 100 000 person-years) had the highest incidence rates. Fractures (ED 29.4%; HA 56.5%) and head injuries (ED 15.4%; HA 18.9%) were the most common injuries. HA had a mean stay of 2.6±4.1 days, and the mean cost per HA was $A5096±8345. Horse-riding injuries have remained similar in their pattern (eg, types of injuries) since last reported in Victoria. HA and ED incidence rates have increased over the last 14 years. Refocusing on injury prevention countermeasures is recommended along with a clear plan for implementation and evaluation of their effectiveness in reducing injury.

  16. National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-03-01

    To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.

  17. Preventive Biomechanics: A Paradigm Shift With a Translational Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Bates, Nathaniel A

    2017-09-01

    Preventive medicine techniques have alleviated billions of dollars' worth of the economic burden in the medical care system through the implementation of vaccinations and screenings before the onset of disease symptoms. Knowledge of biomechanical tendencies has progressed rapidly over the past 20 years such that clinicians can identify, in healthy athletes, the underlying mechanisms that lead to catastrophic injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. As such, preventive medicine concepts can be applied to noncontact musculoskeletal injuries to reduce the economic burden of sports medicine treatments and enhance the long-term health of athletes. To illustrate the practical medical benefits that could be gained from preventive biomechanics applied to the ACL as well as the need and feasibility for the broad implementation of these principles. Literature review. The recent literature pertinent to the screening and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries was reviewed and compiled into a clinical commentary on the current state and applicability of preventive biomechanics. Investigators have identified neuromuscular training protocols that screen for and correct the underlying biomechanical deficits that lead to ACL injuries. The literature shows that when athletes comply with these prescribed training protocols, the incidence of injuries is significantly reduced within that population. Such preventive biomechanics practices employ basic training methods that would be familiar to athletic coaches and have the potential to save billions of dollars in cost in sports medicine. The widespread implementation of preventive biomechanics concepts could profoundly affect the field of sports medicine with a minimum of initial investment.

  18. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    in a canvas harness. The harness was further supported by a steel frame which was suspended from a metal beam (3.7 m off the ground) mounted on...direction of the wave propagation (Figure 5). After proper alignment of the head with respect to the center of the C4 charge, the steel frame was...further tied to four hooks cemented to the concrete ground with straps to prevent excessive motion during the blast exposure. The intensity of the two

  19. Human rights-based approach to unintentional injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, J Morag; Ryan, Mark Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Unintentional injury remains an important global public health issue, and efforts to address it are often hampered by a lack of visibility, leadership, funding, infrastructure, capacity and evidence of effective solutions. The growing support for a socioecological model and a systems approach to prevention-along with the acknowledgement that injury prevention can be a byproduct of salutogenic design and activities-has increased opportunities to integrate unintentional injury prevention into other health promotion and disease prevention agendas. It has also helped to integrate it into the broader human development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals. This growing support provides new opportunities to use a human rights-based approach to address the issue. The human rights-based approach is based on the idea that all members of society have social, economic and cultural rights and that governments are responsible and accountable for upholding those rights. It incorporates a systems approach, addresses inequity and places an emphasis on the most vulnerable corners of humanity. It also leverages legal statutes and provides organisations with the opportunity to build existing international goals and benchmarks into their monitoring efforts. This paper describes the approach and highlights how it can leverage attention and investment to address current challenges for unintentional injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Involvement of Rho-kinase in cold ischemia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Satoko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Suehiro, Taketoshi; Soejima, Yuji; Yosizumi, Tomoharu; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2004-08-15

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissues is known to cause the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with resultant tissue damage. However, the sources of ROS in reperfused tissues are not fully characterized. We hypothesized that the small GTPase Rho and its target effector Rho-kinase/ROK/ROCK are involved in the oxidative burst in reperfused tissue with resultant reperfusion injury. In an in vivo rat model of liver transplantation using cold ischemia for 12 hr followed by reperfusion, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil (30 mg/kg), was administered orally 1 hr before the transplantation. Fasudil suppressed the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced generation of ROS after reperfusion (P<0.01) and also suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta) 3 hr after reperfusion, resulting in a significant reduction of I/R-induced hepatocellular injury (P<0.05), necrosis, apoptosis (P<0.01), and neutrophil infiltration (P<0.0001) 12 hr after reperfusion. All animals receiving a graft without fasudil died within 3 days, whereas 40% of those receiving fasudil survived (P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that Rho-kinase-mediated production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines are substantially involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis induced by cold I/R in vivo and that Rho-kinase may be regarded as a novel therapeutic target for the disorder.

  1. Optimization of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Paradigm : Novel Feedback Techniques to Enhance Motor Learning and Reduce Injury Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Dowling, Ariel V.; Faigenbaum, Avery; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Onate, James A.; Otten, Bert; Myer, Gregory D.

    SYNOPSIS: Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence-is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve current prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current

  2. Interpretation of postmortem forensic toxicology results for injury prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H; Kennedy, Briohny; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2013-08-01

    Forensic toxicological data provides valuable insight into the potential contribution of alcohol and drugs to external-cause deaths. There is a paucity of material that guides injury researchers on the principles that need to be considered when examining the presence and contribution of alcohol and drugs to these deaths. This paper aims to describe and discuss strengths and limitations of postmortem forensic toxicology sample selection, variations in analytical capabilities and data interpretation for injury prevention research. Issues to be considered by injury researchers include: the circumstances surrounding death (including the medical and drug use history of the deceased person); time and relevant historical factors; postmortem changes (including redistribution and instability); laboratory practices; specimens used; drug concentration; and attribution of contribution to death. This paper describes the range of considerations for testing and interpreting postmortem forensic toxicology, particularly when determining impairment or toxicity as possible causal factors in injury deaths. By describing these considerations, this paper has application to decisions about study design and case inclusion in injury prevention research, and to the interpretation of research findings.

  3. Injuries can be prevented in contact flag football!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yonatan; Myklebust, Grethe; Nyska, Meir; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Victor, J; Witvrouw, E

    2016-06-01

    This original prospective cohort study was conducted in an attempt to significantly reduce the incidence and the severity of injuries in an intervention cohort as compared to a two-season historical cohort, and to provide recommendations to the International Federation of Football (IFAF) pertaining to prevention measures to make the game safer. A total of 1,260 amateur male (mean age: 20.4 ± 3.9 years) and 244 female (mean age: 18.5 ± 1.7 years) players participated in the study. Four prevention measures were implemented: the no-pocket rule, self-fitting mouth guards, ankle braces (for those players with recurrent ankle sprains) and an injury treatment information brochure. All time-loss injuries sustained in game sessions were recorded by the off-the-field medical personnel and followed up by a more detailed phone injury surveillance questionnaire. There was a 54 % reduction in the total number of injuries and a significant reduction in the incidence rate and incidence proportion between the intervention cohorts as compared to the historical cohort (p football. Recommendations to the IFAF include strict enforcement of the no-pocket rule, the use of soft headgear, comfortable-fitting ankle braces and mouth guards and additionally, to change game rules concerning blocking. II.

  4. Endothelial Injury Associated with Cold or Warm Blood Cardioplegia during Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar W. Kuhn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to analyze the impact of intermittent cold blood cardioplegia (ICC and intermittent warm blood cardioplegia (IWC on endothelial injury in patients referred to elective on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery. Patients undergoing CABG procedures were randomized to either ICC or IWC. Myocardial injury was assessed by CK-MB and cardiac troponin T (cTnT. Endothelial injury was quantified by circulating endothelial cells (CECs, von Willebrand factor (vWF, and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM. Perioperative myocardial injury (PMI and major adverse cardiac events (MACE were recorded. Demographic data and preoperative risk profile of included patients (ICC: n=32, IWC: n=36 were comparable. No deaths, PMI, or MACE were observed. Levels of CK-MB and cTnT did not show intergroup differences. Concentrations of CECs peaked at 6 h postoperatively with significantly higher values for IWC-patients at 1 h (ICC: 10.1 ± 3.9/mL; IWC: 18.4 ± 4.1/mL; P=0.012 and 6 h (ICC: 19.3 ± 6.2/mL; IWC: 29.2 ± 6.7/mL; P<0.001. Concentrations of vWF (ICC: 178.4 ± 73.2 U/dL; IWC: 258.2 ± 89.7 U/dL; P<0.001 and sTM (ICC: 3.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL; IWC: 5.2 ± 2.4 ng/mL; P=0.011 were significantly elevated in IWC-group at 1 h postoperatively. This study shows that the use of IWC is associated with a higher extent of endothelial injury compared to ICC without differences in clinical endpoints.

  5. Injury prevention: a strategic priority for environmental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D H; Morris, G P

    2010-10-01

    Injury results from the acute transfer of energy (or the acute lack of a vital element) from the environment to human tissue. It is thus, ipso facto, an 'environmental health' issue par excellence. This paper argues that injury consequently deserves consideration as a major strategic priority by environmental health professionals. Two international agreements concerning children's health and the environment have major implications for safety. The Children's Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) and the European Environmental Health Strategy make reference to the need for improved evidence and greater co-operation between the environmental and health sectors. CEHAPE is particularly relevant to safety as it focuses on four regional priority goals, the second of which refers to the prevention and reduction of health consequences from injuries by promoting safe, secure and supportive human settlements for all children. The natural strategic 'home' for injury prevention may therefore lie within environmental health, a domain from which it has generally been excluded. In support of this assertion, Scotland's recent policy initiative on the environment and human health 'Good Places, Better Health' is cited, where injury in children up to 8 years of age is one of four child health priorities being tackled during its initial implementation. An important test of the initiative may be its capacity to inform policy, practice and research in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. If successful, it will help to validate the environmental health approach to a field that remains relatively neglected by public agencies, policy makers, practitioners and researchers. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Institute of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  6. Aetiology and prevention of injuries in elite young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sport participation confers many varied benefits in children and adolescents, such as self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility and strength. Nevertheless, the age of initiation of intense training is decreasing and programmes which expose children to excessive amounts of exercise increase the risk of injury. We review sports injuries in young athletes and the long-term outcomes. Sports injuries can lead to disturbances in growth such as limb length discrepancy, caused by traumatised physeal growth induced by injury. Osgood-Schlatter lesion may also cause some sequelae such as painful ossicles in the distal patellar tendon. The apophysis can be fragmentised or separated, and this could be an adaptive change to the increased stress typical of overuse activities. These changes produce an osseous reaction even though they are not disabling. Participation in physical exercise at a young age should be encouraged, because of the health benefits, but decreasing the incidence and severity of sports injuries in young athletes is an important component of any athletic programme and may generate a long-term economic impact in health care costs. Active prevention measures are the main weapon to decrease the (re-)injury rate and to increase athletic performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Military cold injury during the war in the Falkland Islands 1982: an evaluation of possible risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R P

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the history of war, there have been many instances when the cold has ravaged armies more effectively than their enemies. Delineated risk factors are restricted to negro origins, previous cold injury, moderate but not heavy smoking and the possession of blood group O. No attention has been directed to the possibility that abnormal blood constituents could feasibly predispose to the development of local cold injury. This study considers this possibility and investigates the potential contribution of certain components of the circulating blood which might do so. Three groups of soldiers from two of the battalions who served during the war in the Falklands Islands in 1982 were investigated. The risk factors which were sought included the presence or absence of asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, abnormal total protein, albumin, individual gamma globulin or complement C3 or C4 levels, plasma hyperviscosity or evidence of chronic alcoholism manifesting as high haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, MCV or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). No cases of cryoglobulinaemia were isolated and there was no haematological evidence to suggest that any of those men who had developed cold injury, one year before this study was performed, had abnormal circulating proteins, plasma hyperviscosity or indicators of alcohol abuse. Individual blood groups were not incriminated as a predisposing factor although the small numbers of negroes in this series fared badly. Although this investigation has excluded a range of potential risk factors which could contribute to the development of cold injury, the problem persists. Two areas of further study are needed: the first involves research into the production of better protective clothing in the form of effective cold weather boots and gloves and the second requires the delineation of those dietary and ethnic factors which allow certain communities to adapt successfully to the cold. A review of the literature in this latter area is presented.

  8. Prevention of hamstring injuries in male soccer : Exercise programs and return to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over

  9. Treadmills: a preventable source of pediatric friction burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguiña, Pirko; Palmieri, Tina L; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Treadmills are a burn risk for children. A child's hand can get trapped in the conveyor belt, causing friction burns to the underlying tissue. The purpose of this retrospective study was to review the characteristics and treatment of treadmill-related burns in children from 1998 to 2002. Ten patients, at a mean age of 3.4 years, sustained injuries associated with treadmill use. Trapping of the hand between the conveyor belt and the base was the most frequent injury mechanism. Burn location was predominantly on fingers and palms. Four patients required operative intervention. All patients required specialized wound care as well as scar management and occupational therapy. Treadmills pose a danger to children. Current safety devices are ineffective for preventing serious hand injuries in children. New design modifications and public awareness are needed to improve child safety.

  10. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  11. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  12. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejnisman B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benno Ejnisman,1 Gisele Barbosa,1 Carlos V Andreoli,1 A de Castro Pochini,1 Thiago Lobo,2 Rodrigo Zogaib,2 Moises Cohen,1 Mario Bizzini,3 Jiri Dvorak3 1Department of Orthopaedics, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Sports Medicine Department, Santos FC, São Paulo, Brazil; 3FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. Keywords: goalkeeper, shoulder, injury prevention, prevention program

  13. Is prolonged cold ischemia a contraindication to using kidneys from acute kidney injury donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Giuseppe; Khan, Muhammad A; El-Hennawy, Hany; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Gautreaux, Michael D; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Stratta, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) on the outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) renal grafts, we therefore performed a single-center retrospective analysis in adult patients receiving kidney transplantation (KT) from AKI donors. Outcomes were stratified according to duration of CIT. A total of 118 patients receiving AKI grafts were enrolled. Based on CIT, patients were stratified as follows: (i) 20 hours (P = NS). In the nine patients with CIT >40 hours, the 4-year DCGS rate was 100%. We conclude that prolonged CIT in AKI grafts may not adversely influence outcomes and so discard of AKI kidneys because of projected long CIT is not warranted when donors are wisely triaged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pediatric soup scald burn injury: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L; Alderson, Tyrone S; Ison, Dahlia; O'Mara, Michael S; Sharma, Raj; Bubba, Anthony; Coombs, Elena; Greenhalgh, David G

    2008-01-01

    One of the leading causes of scald burn injury in children is from hot soup, particularly prepackaged instant soups. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, and situational factors that contribute to the incidence of scald burns in children. A 20-item questionnaire was given to the caregiver of children who were treated for scald burn injury at a pediatric burn center from July 2006 to March 2007. Questions included demographics (child age, gender, siblings, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (income, education), factors contributing to the injury (type of soup, child supervision, type of container), and location of injury. The mean age of the 78 children sustaining burn injury and completing the survey was 4.8 +/- 0.6 years. The majority of patients were girls (51%), and the most frequently involved ethnic group was Hispanic (44%). Households had a mean of 3.0 +/- 0.3 children in residence, and an income of less than $29,000/year (59%). The highest educational level achieved was high school for 73% of the parents. Prepackaged soup (65%) with a narrow base heated directly in the original container (46%) using the microwave (51%) was implicated in the majority of burns. Soup scald burns, especially from prepackaged instant soups, appear to predominate in lower income families with multiple children. The majority of injuries occur when the caregiver heats the soup in the original container using the microwave. Prevention of these types of injuries will require a two-pronged approach: educating families with multiple children and changing the soup packaging.

  15. Local cooling does not prevent hyperalgesia following burn injury in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Pedersen, Juri L

    2002-01-01

    One of the oldest methods of pain relief following a burn injury is local application of ice or cold water. Experimental data indicate that cooling may also reduce the severity of tissue injury and promote wound healing, but there are no controlled studies in humans evaluating the anti-inflammato......One of the oldest methods of pain relief following a burn injury is local application of ice or cold water. Experimental data indicate that cooling may also reduce the severity of tissue injury and promote wound healing, but there are no controlled studies in humans evaluating the anti...

  16. Education in trauma: An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Charry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80% of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5% to 24.3% (p = 0.0001 and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3% to 8.1% (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia. Keywords: Models, Educational, Trauma, Injury prevention, Alcohol

  17. Theoretical integration and the psychology of sport injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin King-Chung; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-09-01

    Integrating different theories of motivation to facilitate or predict behaviour change has received an increasing amount of attention within the health, sport and exercise science literature. A recent review article in Sports Medicine, by Keats, Emery and Finch presented an integrated model using two prominent theories in social psychology, self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), aimed at explaining and enhancing athletes' adherence to sport injury prevention. While echoing their optimistic views about the utility of these two theories to explain adherence in this area and the virtues of theoretical integration, we would like to seize this opportunity to clarify several conceptual principles arising from the authors' integration of the theories. Clarifying the theoretical assumptions and explaining precisely how theoretical integration works is crucial not only for improving the comprehensiveness of the integrated framework for predicting injury prevention behaviour, but also to aid the design of effective intervention strategies targeting behavioural adherence. In this article, we use the integration of SDT and TPB as an example to demonstrate how theoretical integration can advance the understanding of injury prevention behaviour in sport.

  18. Causes and Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Lawrence W.; Stewart, Lygia; Gantert, Walter; Liu, Kingsway; Lee, Crystine M.; Whang, Karen; Hunter, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To apply human performance concepts in an attempt to understand the causes of and prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Summary Background Data Powerful conceptual advances have been made in understanding the nature and limits of human performance. Applying these findings in high-risk activities, such as commercial aviation, has allowed the work environment to be restructured to substantially reduce human error. Methods The authors analyzed 252 laparoscopic bile duct injuries according to the principles of the cognitive science of visual perception, judgment, and human error. The injury distribution was class I, 7%; class II, 22%; class III, 61%; and class IV, 10%. The data included operative radiographs, clinical records, and 22 videotapes of original operations. Results The primary cause of error in 97% of cases was a visual perceptual illusion. Faults in technical skill were present in only 3% of injuries. Knowledge and judgment errors were contributory but not primary. Sixty-four injuries (25%) were recognized at the index operation; the surgeon identified the problem early enough to limit the injury in only 15 (6%). In class III injuries the common duct, erroneously believed to be the cystic duct, was deliberately cut. This stemmed from an illusion of object form due to a specific uncommon configuration of the structures and the heuristic nature (unconscious assumptions) of human visual perception. The videotapes showed the persuasiveness of the illusion, and many operative reports described the operation as routine. Class II injuries resulted from a dissection too close to the common hepatic duct. Fundamentally an illusion, it was contributed to in some instances by working too deep in the triangle of Calot. Conclusions These data show that errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct injuries stem principally from misperception, not errors of skill, knowledge, or judgment. The misperception was so compelling that in most cases the surgeon did not

  19. Thermo-sensitive TRP channels in peripheral nerve injury: a review of their role in cold intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambiz, S.; Duraku, L.S.; Holstege, J.C.; Hovius, S.E.; Ruigrok, T.J.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the sensory complications of traumatic peripheral nerve injury is thermal intolerance, which manifests in humans mainly as cold intolerance. It has a major effect on the quality of life, and adequate therapy is not yet available. In order to better understand the pathophysiological background

  20. Needlestick Injuries in Agriculture Workers and Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Minden L; Hourigan, Mary; Nault, André J; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of biologics, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormones used in animal agriculture. Depending upon the procedure or pharmaceutical used, accidental injections or product exposures can result in mild to severe injuries. Needlestick injury (NSI) prevention, research, and education for veterinarians and agriculture workers is limited. The objective of this study was to collect and review published case reports and case series/surveys on human needlestick exposure to veterinary biologics and to summarize needlestick prevention strategies for agricultural workers/veterinarians. A search was conducted of PubMed and Centre for Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI) databases. References were reviewed to identify additional articles. NSI among agricultural workers were primarily included in this review. Thirty articles were applicable to exposures in agricultural settings. Relevant literature consisted of case reports, survey/case series articles, prevention documents, and background articles. Fifty-nine case patients were identified. Most of these cases were associated with exposures to specific vaccines or veterinary products. Injury location was identified from 36 individuals: 24 (67%) NSI to the hands, 10 (28%) injuries to the legs, and 2 to other body locations. Of the 59 cases, 20 (34%) involved oil-adjuvant vaccines. Evidence of hospitalization was recorded for 30 case patients. The length of hospitalization was available from 11 case patients. Median length of hospitalization was 3 days (range: 1-4). Surgical intervention was reported in 25 case patients. Outcome information was available on 30 case patients. Fifteen made a complete recovery within 2 weeks of treatment, 14 had residual sequelae attributed to the injury, and there was 1 reported death. Of the 13 survey/case series articles: 2 focused on oil-adjuvant products, 1 on Brucellosis RB-51 vaccine, 3 on tilmicosin, 1 on Salmonella enteritidis vaccine, 1 on high-pressure injection, and 5

  1. Interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S; Yeung, Ella W; Gillespie, Lesley D

    2011-07-06

    Overuse soft-tissue injuries occur frequently in runners. Stretching exercises, modification of training schedules, and the use of protective devices such as braces and insoles are often advocated for prevention. This is an update of a review first published in 2001. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (March 2011); The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4; MEDLINE (1966 to January 2011); EMBASE (1980 to January 2011); and international trial registries (17 January 2011). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating interventions to prevent lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias (relating to sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data) and extracted data. Data were adjusted for clustering if necessary and pooled using the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We included 25 trials (30,252 participants). Participants were military recruits (19 trials), runners from the general population (three trials), soccer referees (one trial), and prisoners (two trials). The interventions tested in the included trials fell into four main preventive strategies: exercises, modification of training schedules, use of orthoses, and footwear and socks. All 25 included trials were judged as 'unclear' or 'high' risk of bias for at least one of the four domains listed above.We found no evidence that stretching reduces lower limb soft-tissue injuries (6 trials; 5130 participants; risk ratio [RR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.65 to 1.12). As with all non-significant results, this is compatible with either a reduction or an increase in soft-tissue injuries. We found no evidence to support a training regimen of conditioning exercises to improve strength, flexibility and coordination (one trial; 1020 participants; RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.87).We found no

  2. An Evaluation of the California Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Gray, Wayne B.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Main, Regan; Xia, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) requirement has been the most frequently cited standard in California workplace health and safety inspections almost every year since it became effective in July 1991. Every workplace safety inspection must assess compliance with the IIPP. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the IIPP's effects on worker injuries in California and should inform policy both in California and in the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program, which has made the adoption of a similar national requirement a top priority. Using data from the Workers' Compensation Information System, OSHA Data Initiative statistics, and Workers' Compensation Insurance Rating Bureau of California reports on medical and indemnity claims from single-establishment firms, the evaluation team analyzed the impact of citations for violations of the IIPP on safety performance by (1) using the number of citations as a measure of effectiveness and (2) assessing the number of establishments that were cited for noncompliance and then came into compliance. They found that enforcement of the IIPP appears to prevent injuries only when inspectors cite firms for violations of specific subsections of that standard. Eighty percent of the citations of the IIPP by the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health program are for only a different section, the one that requires employers to have a written IIPP. The specific subsections refer to the provisions that mandate surveying and fixing hazards, investigating the causes of injuries, and training employees to work safely. Because about 25 percent of all inspections cite the IIPP, citations of the specific subsections occur in about 5 percent of all inspections. In those inspections, the total recordable injury rate falls by more than 20 percent in the two years following the inspection. PMID:28083238

  3. Sevoflurane posttreatment prevents oxidative and inflammatory injury in ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Wagner

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving clinical treatment but it can induce or aggravate lung injury. New therapeutic strategies, aimed at reducing the negative effects of mechanical ventilation such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and transmigration as well as activation of neutrophil cells, are needed to improve the clinical outcome of ventilated patients. Though the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane is known to exert organ-protective effects, little is known about the potential of sevoflurane therapy in ventilator-induced lung injury. This study focused on the effects of delayed sevoflurane application in mechanically ventilated C57BL/6N mice. Lung function, lung injury, oxidative stress, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed and compared between non-ventilated and ventilated groups with or without sevoflurane anesthesia. Mechanical ventilation led to a substantial induction of lung injury, reactive oxygen species production, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and neutrophil influx. In contrast, sevoflurane posttreatment time dependently reduced histological signs of lung injury. Most interestingly, increased production of reactive oxygen species was clearly inhibited in all sevoflurane posttreatment groups. Likewise, the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and MIP-1β and neutrophil transmigration were completely prevented by sevoflurane independent of the onset of sevoflurane administration. In conclusion, sevoflurane posttreatment time dependently limits lung injury, and oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses are clearly prevented by sevoflurane irrespective of the onset of posttreatment. These findings underline the therapeutic potential of sevoflurane treatment in ventilator-induced lung injury.

  4. PRACTICES FOR PREVENTION NEEDLESTICK AND SHARPS INJURIES AMONG NURSING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tran Thi Quynh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries are a serious hazard in any health care setting for health care workers and students during clinical practice. Thus, the efforts to prevent the needlestick and sharps injuries are needed and considered a part of the routine practice. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nursing students in doing the correct practice in prevention needlestick and sharps injuries. Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in nursing students of Tien Giang Medical College who participated in clinical practice. There were 360 students participated in the study using simple random sampling. Data were collected using the practical assessment checklist and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Data were processed using STATA 12.0, and analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher test. Results: The students who did general practice correctly accounted for 52.50%, and those who did practice incorrectly was 47.5%. The students who used gauze or wool wrap in inhaler were 59.7%, wearing gloves in practice (39.2%, do not disassemble needles from syringes after injection 50%, and removing needles into barrel after injection (65.6%. There was statistically significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct practice with p-value 0.04 (<0.05 Conclusion: The correct practice of nursing students related to the prevention of needlestick and sharps injuries remains low. There was a significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct nursing practice. It is suggested that students must be taught about the risk of infection at the beginning of clinical practice, and constantly reminded throughout the learning process, especially for injection safety awareness, knowledge and techniques about the risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV by sharp objects in the healthcare facility.

  5. Livers from fasted rats acquire resistance to warm and cold ischemia injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumimoto, R; Southard, J H; Belzer, F O

    1993-04-01

    Successful liver transplantation is dependent upon many factors, one of which is the quality of the donor organ. Previous studies have suggested that the donor nutritional status may affect the outcome of liver transplantation and starvation, due to prolonged stay in the intensive care unit, may adversely affect the liver. In this study we have used the orthotopic rat liver transplant model to measure how fasting the donor affects the outcome of liver transplantation. Rat livers were preserved with UW solution either at 37 degrees C (warm ischemia for 45-60 min) or at 4 degrees C (cold ischemia for 30 or 44 hr). After preservation the livers were orthotopically transplanted and survival (for 7 days) was measured, as well as liver functions 6 hr after transplantation. After 45 min of warm ischemia 50% (3 of 6) animals survived when the liver was obtained from a fed donor about 80% (4 of 5) survived when the liver was obtained from a three-day-fasted donor. After 60 min warm ischemia no animal survived (0 of 8, fed group). However, if the donor was fasted for 3 days 89% (8 of 9) of the animals survived for 7 days. Livers cold-stored for 30 hr were 50% viable (3 of 6) and fasting for 1-3 days did not affect this outcome. However, if the donor was fasted for 4 days 100% (9 of 9) survival was obtained. After 44-hr preservation only 29% (2/7) of the recipients survived for 7 days. If the donor was fasted for 4 days, survival increased to 83% (5/6). Liver functions, bile production, and serum enzymes were better in livers from the fasted rats than from the fed rats. Fasting caused a 95% decrease in liver glycogen content. Even with this low concentration of glycogen, liver viability (animal survival) after warm or cold ischemia was not affected, and livers with a low glycogen content were fully viable. Thus liver glycogen does not appear to be important in liver preservation. This study shows that fasting the donor does not cause injury to the liver after warm or cold

  6. Effectiveness of occupational injury prevention policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; García, Ana M; Lopez-Ruiz, Maria; Gil, Josep; Boix, Pere; Martinez, José Miguel; Rodrigo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of preventive interventions against occupational injuries (preferential action plans [PAPs]) developed by Spanish regional governments starting in 2000. We included 3,252,028 occupational injuries with sick leave due to mechanical causes occurring between 1994 and 2004 in manufacturing and private service companies. Time trends for occupational injury rates were estimated before and after implementation of PAPs in each region, with a control group defined for those regions in which no PAPs were implemented (e.g., Galicia, Madrid, and Cataluña). We determined annual change percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through a negative binomial regression model. Regions were grouped into three categories according to formal quality of their PAPs. The regions with the best PAPs (Andalucia, Aragon, Valencia, and Murcia) showed annually increasing occupational injury rates (2.3%, 95% CI -2.5, 7.4) before implementation of PAPs. After PAPs were implemented, occupational injury rates decreased significantly to -7.4% (95% CI -10.2, -4.5). Similar results were also found for regions with PAPs of lower quality and even for regions that didn't implement a PAP (control group). These results did not vary substantially in stratified analysis by gender, age, type of contract, or length of sick leave. PAPs are not related to a general decline in occupational injury rates in Spain starting in 2000. Reinforcement of Spanish health and safety regulations and labor inspection activities since 2000, resulting from a social agreement between central government and social agents, remains an alternative hypothesis requiring additional research.

  7. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  8. Mitigating the risk of musculoskeletal injury: A systematic review of the most effective injury prevention strategies for military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Sophie L; Greeves, Julie P

    2017-11-01

    To update the current injury prevention strategy evidence base for making recommendations to prevent physical training-related musculoskeletal injury. We conducted a systematic review to update the evidence base on injury prevention strategies for military personnel. Literature was systematically searched and extracted from five databases, and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Sixty one articles meeting the inclusion criteria and published during the period 2008-2015 were selected for systematic review. The retrieved articles were broadly categorised into six injury prevention strategies; (1) conditioning, (2) footwear modifications, (3) bracing, (4) physical activity volume, (5) physical fitness, and (6) leadership/supervision/awareness. The majority of retrieved articles (n=37 (of 61) evaluated or systematically reviewed a conditioning intervention of some nature. However, the most well-supported strategies were related to reducing physical activity volume and improving leadership/supervision/awareness of injuries and injury prevention efforts. Several injury prevention strategies effectively reduce musculoskeletal injury rates in both sexes, and many show promise for utility with military personnel. However, further evaluation, ideally with prospective randomised trials, is required to establish the most effective injury prevention strategies, and to understand any sex-specific differences in the response to these strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Shoe-Insole Technology for Injury Prevention in Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanatsu Nagano

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired walking increases injury risk during locomotion, including falls-related acute injuries and overuse damage to lower limb joints. Gait impairments seriously restrict voluntary, habitual engagement in injury prevention activities, such as recreational walking and exercise. There is, therefore, an urgent need for technology-based interventions for gait disorders that are cost effective, willingly taken-up, and provide immediate positive effects on walking. Gait control using shoe-insoles has potential as an effective population-based intervention, and new sensor technologies will enhance the effectiveness of these devices. Shoe-insole modifications include: (i ankle joint support for falls prevention; (ii shock absorption by utilising lower-resilience materials at the heel; (iii improving reaction speed by stimulating cutaneous receptors; and (iv preserving dynamic balance via foot centre of pressure control. Using sensor technology, such as in-shoe pressure measurement and motion capture systems, gait can be precisely monitored, allowing us to visualise how shoe-insoles change walking patterns. In addition, in-shoe systems, such as pressure monitoring and inertial sensors, can be incorporated into the insole to monitor gait in real-time. Inertial sensors coupled with in-shoe foot pressure sensors and global positioning systems (GPS could be used to monitor spatiotemporal parameters in real-time. Real-time, online data management will enable ‘big-data’ applications to everyday gait control characteristics.

  10. Effect of specific exercise-based football injury prevention programmes on the overall injury rate in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Krommes, Kasper Kühn; Esteve, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of FIFA injury prevention programmes in football (FIFA 11 and FIFA 11+). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the FIFA injury prevention programmes with a control (no or sham...... intervention) among football players. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL via Ebsco, Web of Science, SportDiscus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 2004 to 14 March 2016. Results 6 cluster-randomised controlled trials had assessed the effect of FIFA injury prevention...... programmes compared with controls on the overall football injury incidence in recreational/subelite football. These studies included 2 specific exercise-based injury prevention programmes: FIFA 11 (2 studies) and FIFA 11+ (4 studies). The primary analysis showed a reduction in the overall injury risk ratio...

  11. 'Do as we say, not as we do:' a cross-sectional survey of injuries in injury prevention professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Allison; Brussoni, Mariana; Schneeberg, Amy; Jones, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    As the leading cause of death and among the top causes of hospitalisation in Canadians aged 1-44 years, injury is a major public health concern. Little is known about whether knowledge, training and understanding of the underlying causes and mechanisms of injury would help with one's own prevention efforts. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, we hypothesised that injury prevention professionals would experience fewer injuries than the general population. An online cross-sectional survey was distributed to Canadian injury prevention practitioners, researchers and policy makers to collect information on medically attended injuries. Relative risk of injury in the past 12 months was calculated by comparing the survey data with injury incidence reported by a comparable subgroup of adults from the (Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)) from 2009 to 2010. We had 408 injury prevention professionals complete the survey: 344 (84.5%) women and 63 (15.5%) men. In the previous 12 months, 86 individuals reported experiencing at least one medically attended injury (21,235 people per 100,000 people); with sports being the most common mechanism (41, 33.6%). Fully 84.8% individuals from our sample believed that working in the field had made them more careful. After accounting for age distribution, education level and employment status, injury prevention professionals were 1.69 (95% CI 1.41 to 2.03) times more likely to be injured in the past year. Despite their convictions of increasing their own safety behaviour and that of others, injury prevention professionals' knowledge and training did not help them prevent their own injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and other Respiratory...

  13. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  14. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  15. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel...

  16. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  17. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity...

  18. 75 FR 76987 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Epidemiologic and Ecologic...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and...

  19. Edaravone prevents lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Munehito; Tojo, Kentaro; Yazawa, Takuya; Ota, Shuhei; Goto, Takahisa; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2015-04-01

    Lung injury is a major clinical concern after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), due to the production of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused liver. We investigated the efficacy of edaravone, a potent free-radical scavenger, for attenuating lung injury after hepatic I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham + normal saline (NS), I/R + NS, or I/R + edaravone group. Rats in the I/R groups were subjected to 90 min of partial hepatic I/R. Five minutes before reperfusion, 3 mg/kg edaravone was administered to the I/R + edaravone group. After 6 h of reperfusion, we evaluated lung histopathology and wet-to-dry ratio. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, in the liver and the lung, as well as cytokine messenger RNA expressions in the reperfused liver and plasma cytokine concentrations. Histopathology revealed lung damages after 6 h reperfusion of partial ischemic liver. Moreover, a significant increase in lung wet-to-dry ratio was observed. MDA concentration increased in the reperfused liver, but not in the lungs. Edaravone administration attenuated the lung injury and the increase of MDA in the reperfused liver. Edaravone also suppressed the reperfusion-induced increase of interleukin-6 messenger RNA expressions in the liver and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations. Edaravone administration before reperfusion of the ischemic liver attenuates oxidative stress in the reperfused liver and the subsequent lung injury. Edaravone may be beneficial for preventing lung injury induced by hepatic I/R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of heat shock protein 70 in oxidant stress and inflammatory injury in quail spleen induced by cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiayi; Liu, Chunpeng; Zhao, Dan; Fu, Jing

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in the spleen of quails which were induced by cold stress. One hundred ninety-two 15-day-old male quails were randomly divided into 12 groups and kept at 12 ± 1 °C to examine acute and chronic cold stress. We first detected the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes in the spleen tissue under acute and chronic cold stress. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) fluctuated in acute cold stress groups, while they were significantly decreased (p stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) content were decreased significantly (p stress groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly increased (p stress except the 0.5 h group of acute cold stress. Besides, histopathological analysis showed that quail's spleen tissue was inflammatory injured seriously in both the acute and chronic cold stress groups. Additionally, the inflammatory factors (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), iNOS, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α)) and Hsp70 mRNA levels were increased in both of the acute and chronic cold stress groups compared with the control groups. These results suggest that oxidative stress and inflammatory injury could be induced by cold stress in spleen tissues of quails. Furthermore, the increased expression of Hsp70 may play a role in protecting the spleen against oxidative stress and inflammatory damage caused by cold stress.

  1. Prehospital emergency care and injury prevention in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Elbashir

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Due to an absence of published literature in Sudan, much of the data have been recorded from paper records and empirical observations. Prehospital care and injury prevention in the Sudan is a recent initiative, but it is developing into a promising model with many opportunities for improvement. This momentum should be nurtured and requires a purposive, collective collaboration to draw a blueprint for a locally relevant, effective and efficient prehospital system in Sudan. It is hoped that this article will highlight and encourage further progress.

  2. Prediction and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Rin Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CS-AKI ranges from 33% to 94% and is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The etiology is suggested to be multifactorial and related to almost all aspects of perioperative management. Numerous studies have reported the risk factors and risk scores and novel biomarkers of AKI have been investigated to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of AKI. Based on the known independent risk factors, many preventive interventions to reduce the risk of CS-AKI have been tested. However, any single preventive intervention did not show a definite and persistent benefit to reduce the incidence of CS-AKI. Goal-directed therapy has been considered to be a preventive strategy with a substantial level of efficacy. Many pharmacologic agents were tested for any benefit to treat or prevent CS-AKI but the results were conflicting and evidences are still lacking. The present review will summarize the current updated evidences about the risk factors and preventive strategies for CS-AKI.

  3. Cannabinoid 1 receptor knockout mice display cold allodynia, but enhanced recovery from spared-nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Alexandra; Piskoun, Boris; Russo, Lori; Norcini, Monica; Blanck, Thomas; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The function of the Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) in the development of neuropathic pain is not clear. Mounting evidence suggest that CB1R expression and activation may contribute to pain. Cannabinoid 1 receptor knockout mice (CB1R-/-) generated on a C57Bl/6 background exhibit hypoalgesia in the hotplate assay and formalin test. These findings suggest that Cannabinoid 1 receptor expression mediates the responses to at least some types of painful stimuli. By using this mouse line, we sought to determine if the lack of Cannabinoid 1 receptor unveils a general hypoalgesic phenotype, including protection against the development of neuropathic pain. The acetone test was used to measure cold sensitivity, the electronic von Frey was used to measure mechanical thresholds before and after spared-nerve injury, and analysis of footprint patterns was conducted to determine if motor function is differentially affected after nerve-injury in mice with varying levels of Cannabinoid 1 receptor. At baseline, CB1R-/- mice were hypersensitive in the acetone test, and this phenotype was maintained after spared-nerve injury. Using calcium imaging of lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures, a higher percentage of neurons isolated from CB1R-/- mice were menthol sensitive relative to DRG isolated from wild-type (CB1R+/+) mice. Baseline mechanical thresholds did not differ among genotypes, and mechanical hypersensitivity developed similarly in the first two weeks following spared-nerve injury (SNI). At two weeks post-SNI, CB1R-/- mice recovered significantly from mechanical hypersensitivity, while the CB1R+/+ mice did not. Heterozygous knockouts (CB1R+/-) transiently developed cold allodynia only after injury, but recovered mechanical thresholds to a similar extent as the CB1R-/- mice. Sciatic functional indices, which reflect overall nerve health, and alternation coefficients, which indicate uniformity of strides, were not significantly different among genotypes. Cold allodynia and

  4. Preseason physical examination for the prevention of sports injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeag, D B

    1985-01-01

    The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.

  5. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for ACL injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gokeler; Anne Benjaminse; N. Cortes; M. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014 Background: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: Assess differences between male and female athletes

  6. Priorities for injury prevention in women's Australian football: a compilation of national data from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Participation in Australian football (AF) has traditionally been male dominated and current understanding of injury and priorities for prevention are based solely on reports of injuries in male players. There is evidence in other sports that indicates that injury types differ between males and females. With increasing participation in AF by females, it is important to consider their specific injury and prevention needs. This study aimed to provide a first injury profile from existing sources for female AF. Compilation of injury data from four prospectively recorded data sets relating to female AF: (1) hospital admissions in Victoria, 2008/09-13/14, n=500 injuries; (2) emergency department (ED) presentations in Victoria, 2008/09-2012/13, n=1,879 injuries; (3) insurance claims across Australia 2004-2013, n=522 injuries; (4) West Australian Women's Football League (WAWFL), 2014 season club data, n=49 injuries. Descriptive results are presented as injury frequencies, injury types and injury to body parts. Hospital admissions and ED presentations were dominated by upper limb injuries, representing 47% and 51% of all injuries, respectively, primarily to the wrist/hand at 32% and 40%. Most (65%) insurance claim injuries involved the lower limb, 27% of which were for knee ligament damage. A high proportion of concussions (33%) were reported in the club-collected data. The results provide the first compilation of existing data sets of women's AF injuries and highlight the need for a rigorous and systematic injury surveillance system to be instituted.

  7. Clusterin Reduces Cold Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Heart Transplantation Through Regulation of NF-kB Signaling and Bax/Bcl-xL Expression

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    Guodong Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is an unavoidable event occurring during heart transplantation and is a key factor in graft failure and the long-term survival rate of recipients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new therapies to prevent I/R injury. Clusterin is a hetero-dimeric glycoprotein with an antiapoptotic function. In this study, we investigated whether clusterin was cardioprotective in heart transplantation against I/R injury using an in vivo rat model and an in vitro cell culture system, and examined the underlying mechanisms of I/R injury. Methods: Heart grafts from wild-type C57BL/6 mice were preserved in UW solution (control or UW solution containing recombinant human apolipoprotein-J (hr clusterin for 24 h. The preserved hearts were implanted into recipient mice of the same strain as the donors for 72 h, and the heart grafts were then taken for histopathological and gene expression analyses. An in vitro ischemia reperfusion model using H9C2 cells or H9C2/clusterin cDNA cells was constructed. The expression of clusterin, p65, Bax, Bcl-xL, IL-1β, and TNF-α protein and mRNA in heart tissue and H9C2 cells was detected by western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and quantitative RT-PCR assays; IL-1β and TNF-α protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; NF-kB activity was detected by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay; cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometric analyses. Results: Cold I/R caused severe morphologic myocardial injury to heart grafts from wild-type C57BL/6 mice, whereas grafts from hr clusterin preservation showed less damage, as demonstrated by decreased cell apoptosis/death, decreased neutrophil infiltration, and the preservation of the normal structure of the heart. Clusterin reduced the expression of p65, pre-inflammatory IL-1β, and TNF-α, and

  8. Clusterin Reduces Cold Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Heart Transplantation Through Regulation of NF-kB Signaling and Bax/Bcl-xL Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Hongmei; Hao, Fengyun; Hao, Jing; Pan, Lixiao; Zhao, Qing; Wo, Jinshan

    2018-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable event occurring during heart transplantation and is a key factor in graft failure and the long-term survival rate of recipients. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new therapies to prevent I/R injury. Clusterin is a hetero-dimeric glycoprotein with an antiapoptotic function. In this study, we investigated whether clusterin was cardioprotective in heart transplantation against I/R injury using an in vivo rat model and an in vitro cell culture system, and examined the underlying mechanisms of I/R injury. Heart grafts from wild-type C57BL/6 mice were preserved in UW solution (control) or UW solution containing recombinant human apolipoprotein-J (hr clusterin) for 24 h. The preserved hearts were implanted into recipient mice of the same strain as the donors for 72 h, and the heart grafts were then taken for histopathological and gene expression analyses. An in vitro ischemia reperfusion model using H9C2 cells or H9C2/clusterin cDNA cells was constructed. The expression of clusterin, p65, Bax, Bcl-xL, IL-1β, and TNF-α protein and mRNA in heart tissue and H9C2 cells was detected by western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative RT-PCR assays; IL-1β and TNF-α protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; NF-kB activity was detected by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay; cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and flow cytometric analyses. Cold I/R caused severe morphologic myocardial injury to heart grafts from wild-type C57BL/6 mice, whereas grafts from hr clusterin preservation showed less damage, as demonstrated by decreased cell apoptosis/death, decreased neutrophil infiltration, and the preservation of the normal structure of the heart. Clusterin reduced the expression of p65, pre-inflammatory IL-1β, and TNF-α, and the pro-apoptotic gene Bax, while it enhanced the

  9. A systematic approach to injury policy assessment: introducing the assessment of child injury prevention policies (A-CHIPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Meddings, David; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-11-03

    This study presents a systematic approach-assessment of child injury prevention policies (A-CHIPP)-to assess and track policies on effective child injury interventions at the national level. Results from an initial pilot test of the approach in selected countries are presented. A literature review was conducted to identify conceptual models for injury policy assessment, and domains and indicators were proposed for assessing national injury policies for children aged 1-9 years. The indicators focused on current evidence-supported interventions targeting the leading external causes of child injury mortality globally, and were organised into a self-administered A-CHIPP questionnaire comprising 22 questions. The questionnaire was modified based on reviews by experts in child injury prevention. For an initial test of the approach, 13 countries from all six WHO regions were selected to examine the accuracy, usefulness and ease of understanding of the A-CHIPP questionnaire. Data on the A-CHIPP questionnaire were received from nine countries. Drowning and road traffic injuries were reported as the leading causes of child injury deaths in seven of these countries. Most of the countries lacked national policies on interventions that address child injuries; supportive factors such as finance and leadership for injury prevention were also lacking. All countries rated the questionnaire highly on its relevance for assessment of injury prevention policies. The A-CHIPP questionnaire is useful for national assessment of child injury policies, and such an assessment could draw attention of stakeholders to policy gaps and progress in child injury prevention in all countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  11. Dental injuries in inline skating - level of information and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasciglione, Daniele; Persic, Robert; Pohl, Yango; Filippi, Andreas

    2007-06-01

    Inline skating belongs like ice hockey, rugby, and boxing to sporting activities with high-risk of suffering tooth accidents. Because of high velocity and loss of balance, especially on uneven ground, the injury potential in inline skating is higher. The objective of this work was to conduct a comparative study between Switzerland and Germany. The questions focussed on the frequency of tooth accidents, their prevention by mouthguard and the level of information about emergency measures after dental trauma and the resulting consequences for athletes. Using a standardized questionnaire totally 612 individuals, 324 men and 288 women, in two countries belonging to three different divisions (fun, fitness and speed) were surveyed. Fifty-six (9.2%) of these 612 interviewees have already experienced a tooth injury while inline skating. More than half of all interviewed players (68.3%) were aware of the possibility of replanting avulsed teeth. Only 32.4% were familiar with the tooth rescue kit. Just 65.4% knew mouthguard and only 1.9% of those athletes (n = 12) wore a mouthguard while inline skating. The results show that the area of inline skating requires more information about preventing dental trauma through sports associations and dentists.

  12. Mechanisms, Prediction, and Prevention of ACL Injuries: Cut Risk With Three Sharpened and Validated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.

    2017-01-01

    Economic and societal pressures influence modern medical practice to develop and implement prevention strategies. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury devastates the knee joint leading to short term disability and long term sequelae. Due to the high risk of long term osteoarthritis in all treatment populations following ACL injury, prevention is the only effective intervention for this life-altering disruption in knee health. The “Sequence of Prevention” Model provides a framework to monitor progress towards the ultimate goal of preventing ACL injuries. Utilizing this model, our multidisciplinary collaborative research team has spent the last decade working to delineate injury mechanisms, identify injury risk factors, predict which athletes are at-risk for injury, and develop ACL injury prevention programs. Within this model of injury prevention, modifiable factors (biomechanical and neuromuscular) related to injury mechanisms likely provide the best opportunity for intervention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of ACL injury, particularly in female athletes. Knowledge advancements have led to the development of potential solutions that allow athletes to compete with lowered risk of ACL injury. Design and integration of personalized clinical assessment tools and targeted prevention strategies for athletes at high risk for ACL injury may transform current prevention practices and ultimately significantly reduce ACL injury incidence. This 2016 OREF Clinical Research Award focuses on the authors' work and contributions to the field. The author's acknowledge the many research groups who have contributed to the current state of knowledge in the fields of ACL injury mechanisms, injury risk screening and injury prevention strategies. PMID:27612195

  13. Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or ...

  14. The science of softball: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flyger, Nicholas; Button, Chris; Rishiraj, Neetu

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the sport of softball has achieved worldwide popularity over the last 100 years, a consideration of the scientific principles underpinning softball is in its infancy. It is clear that the various motor skills associated with softball, such as pitching, batting and fielding, place considerable perceptual and physical demands upon players. Each of these skill categories are examined in more detail by reviewing the biomechanical principles associated with skilled performance. For pitching, a certain amount of information can be gleaned from baseball research; however, the underarm technique required by softball places the highest loads on the arm and shoulder during the accelerative, downward phase of the swing. Kinematic analyses of the bat swing suggest that elite batters have approximately 200 ms to decide whether to swing, and approximately the same duration to complete the swing (resulting in reported bat speeds of up to 40 m/sec). The research conducted on fielding has been limited to a consideration of throwing styles adopted in games. A variety of throwing techniques are adopted in the course of a typical game but elite players commonly adopt a sidearm technique when returning to base as quickly as possible. Data obtained from the National Athletic Training Association indicate a similar level of injury incidence in softball as in baseball. Approximately 17% of injuries are experienced by the pitcher and approximately 25% of all injuries are located in the forearm/wrist/hand joint segments. Sports science and sports medicine research have the potential to contribute significantly to performance enhancement and injury prevention in the future.

  15. Prevention of burn injuries to children involving nightwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, R M; Bryant, V

    1991-08-28

    The effectiveness of legislative intervention in the New Zealand market for children's nightclothes as an injury prevention strategy has been reassessed by examining those hospital admissions for the period 1980-8 (with emphasis on the 1985-8 period) in which clothing and/or nightclothes were involved. The profiles of the production of children's nightclothes (1977-86) and domestic heating (1984-8) were also examined. Ninety-five cases of burn injury discharges were identified (1985-8), and of those cases involving clothing 42% involved nightwear (49% 1981-4). Some of the 27% unspecified cases may have also involved nightwear (23%, 1981-4). A very strong linear downward trend for nightwear incidents was noted (chi 2 slope = 31.06, p less than 0.001). Forty-eight percent of cases involved children aged 1-6 years, and 68% involved pajamas. Stoves were the main specified ignition agent for nightclothes (36%). Open fires as a form of household heating decreased from 49% to 34% of households (1984-8). Estimated production of nightdresses in New Zealand also decreased (460,000 to 80,000 units, 1973-86). The pronounced decrease in injuries attributable to ignition of children's nightclothes is likely to be the result of mandatory controls on children's nightclothes, increased use of pyjamas, and a steady decrease in use of open fires and portable electric heaters. The typical injury event portrayed to the public of a girl in front of a heater or open fire needs to be corrected.

  16. 75 FR 4406 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... recommendations to the Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Training...

  17. Pre-symptomatic transcriptome changes during cold storage of chilling sensitive and resistant peach cultivars to elucidate chilling injury mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Clara Pons; Dagar, Anurag; Marti Ibanez, Cristina; Singh, Vikram; Crisosto, Carlos H; Friedman, Haya; Lurie, Susan; Granell, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cold storage induces chilling injury (CI) disorders in peach fruit (woolliness/mealiness, flesh browning and reddening/bleeding) manifested when ripened at shelf life. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying CI, we analyzed the transcriptome of 'Oded' (high tolerant) and 'Hermoza' (relatively tolerant to woolliness, but sensitive to browning and bleeding) peach cultivars at pre-symptomatic stages. The expression profiles were compared and validated with two previously analy...

  18. Preventing Injuries in the U.S. Military: The Process, Priorities, and Epidemiologic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    injuries, overtraining, and burnout in child and adolescent athletes. Pediatrics, 119(6):1242-1245. (43) Bennell, K.L. and K. Crossley. 1996...Re-injury(123-131) 21 Take Oral Contraceptives to Decrease Injury(27, 132-137) 22 Standardize Unit Reconditioning Program After Rehabilitation(138...studies be conducted to assess the efficacy of the application of ice after injury as an injury prevention measure. xxi. TAKE ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES

  19. Are we having fun yet? Fostering adherence to injury preventive exercise recommendations in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Melanie R; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-03-01

    Sport and recreational activities are the leading cause of injury in youth, yet there is increasing evidence that many sport-related injuries are preventable. For injury prevention strategies to be effective, individuals must understand, adopt and adhere to the recommended prevention strategy or programme. Despite the recognized importance of a behavioural approach, the inclusion of behavioural change strategies in sport injury prevention has been historically neglected. The purpose of this commentary is to outline the rationale for the inclusion and application of behavioural science in reducing the burden of injury by increasing adherence to proven prevention strategies. In an effort to provide an illustrative example of a behavioural change approach, the authors suggest a specific plan for the implementation of a neuromuscular training strategy to reduce the risk of lower limb injury in youth sport. Given the paucity of evidence in the sport injury prevention setting, and the lack of application of theoretical frameworks to predicting adoption and adherence to injury preventive exercise recommendations in youth sport, data from the related physical activity promotion domain is utilized to describe how sound, theory-based injury prevention exercise interventions in youth may be developed. While the question of how to facilitate behavioural change and optimize adherence to preventive exercise recommendations remains an ongoing challenge, the authors detail several strategies based on two prominent behavioural theories to aid the reader in conceptualizing, designing and implementing effective interventions. Despite the minimal application of behavioural theory within the field of sport injury prevention in youth, behavioural science has the potential to make a significant impact on the understanding and prevention of youth sport injury. Appropriate evaluation of adherence and maintenance components based on models of behavioural change should be a critical

  20. Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bleakley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many strategies are in use with the intention of preventing or minimizing delayed onset muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise. Cold-water immersion, in water temperatures of less than 15 °C, is currently one of the most popular interventional strategies used after exercise. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cold-water immersion in the management of muscle soreness after exercise. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2010, we searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 1, Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, British Nursing Index and archive (BNI, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro. We also searched the reference lists of articles, handsearched journals and conference proceedings and contacted experts. In November 2011, we updated the searches of Central (2011, Issue 4, Medline (up to November Week 3 2011, Embase (to 2011 Week 46 and CINAHL (to 28 November 2011 to check for more recent publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effect of using cold-water immersion after exercise with: passive intervention (rest/no intervention, contrast immersion, warm-water immersion, active recovery, compression, or a different duration/dosage of cold-water immersion. Primary outcomes were pain (muscle soreness or tenderness (pain on palpation, and subjective recovery (return to previous activities without signs or symptoms. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently evaluated study quality and extracted data. Some of the data were obtained following author correspondence or extracted from graphs in the trial reports. Where possible, data were pooled using the fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen small trials were included, involving a total of 366 participants. Study quality was low. The temperature, duration and

  1. Mitigating concerns and maximizing returns: social media strategies for injury prevention non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-08-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  2. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressie McMillan-Cottom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  3. All-terrain vehicle, trampoline and scooter injuries and their prevention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah

    2006-06-01

    Childhood injuries are the leading cause of death in children and result in significant healthcare utilization. Injuries specifically related to all terrain vehicles, trampolines and scooter usage can be devastating and are often preventable. Our understanding of how and why these injuries occur can aid in preventing morbidity and mortality. The popularity of all-terrain vehicles, nonmotorized scooters and trampolines has soared over recent years. This increased usage has led to a tremendous rise in injuries in children utilizing these recreational activities. Many of the injuries occur in younger children who may not possess the motor and cognitive skills necessary to safely engage in these activities. These activities lead to a number of head and extremity injuries, most of which can be attenuated by the use of protective gear such as helmets and protective padding. Understanding the nature of these injuries can lead to advocacy and hopefully legislation to prevent further injuries from occurring.

  4. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  5. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  6. Effect of nationwide injury prevention programme on serious spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby union: ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Gianotti, Simon M; Hopkins, Will G; Hume, Patria A

    2007-06-02

    To investigate the effect of RugbySmart, a nationwide educational injury prevention programme, on the frequency of spinal cord injuries. Ecological study. New Zealand rugby union. Population at risk of injury comprised all New Zealand rugby union players. From 2001, all New Zealand rugby coaches and referees have been required to complete RugbySmart, which focuses on educating rugby participants about physical conditioning, injury management, and safe techniques in the contact phases of rugby. Numbers of all spinal injuries due to participation in rugby union resulting in permanent disablement in 1976-2005, grouped into five year periods; observed compared with predicted number of spinal injuries in 2001-5. Eight spinal injuries occurred in 2001-5, whereas the predicted number was 18.9 (relative rate=0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.14). Only one spinal injury resulted from scrums over the period; the predicted number was 9.0 (relative rate=0.11, 0.02 to 0.74). Corresponding observed and predicted rates for spinal injuries resulting from other phases of play (tackle, ruck, and maul) were 7 and 9.0 (relative rate=0.83, 0.29 to 2.36). The introduction of the RugbySmart programme coincided with a reduction in the rate of disabling spinal injuries arising from scrums in rugby union. This study exemplifies the benefit of educational initiatives in injury prevention and the need for comprehensive injury surveillance systems for evaluating injury prevention initiatives in sport.

  7. Neuromuscular exercises prevent severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Leonard; Krutsch, Volker; Weber, Johannes; Nerlich, Michael; Luig, Patrick; Loose, Oliver; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner

    2017-10-20

    Team handball is associated with a high risk of severe knee injury that needs to be reduced, particularly at the youth level. The purpose of this study was to show how an injury-prevention programme effectively reduces severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players. Of 23 adolescent handball teams of both sexes, 13 were randomly allocated into the intervention group (168 players) and 10 into the control group (111 players). Players of the intervention group regularly participated in an injury-prevention programme for one season. Handball exposure and sustained injuries were documented for both groups on a monthly basis. The primary outcome parameter of the injury-prevention programme was the incidence of severe knee injury. Of the 279 included players, 68 (24%) sustained 82 injuries yielding an overall incidence of 1.85 injuries per 1000 h handball exposure (intervention group: 50 injuries/incidence: 1.90/1000 h; control group: 32 injuries/incidence: 1.78/1000 h). Knee injury was the second most frequent injury in adolescent team handball. The primary outcome parameter, severe knee injury occurred significantly more often in the control group [mean age (SD) 15.1 (1.0), injury incidence 0.33/1000 h] than in the intervention group [mean age (SD) 14.9 (0.9), injury incidence 0.04/1000 h]. The odds ratio was 0.11 (95% CI 0.01-0.90), p = 0.019. Other injuries to the lower extremities showed no significant difference between the two groups. Frequent neuromuscular exercises prevent severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players and should thus be included in the practical routine as well as in the education of team coaches.

  8. Remote ischaemic preconditioning and prevention of cerebral injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Shri, Richa; Singh, Manjeet

    2007-03-01

    Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 10 min followed by reperfusion for 24 hr was employed in present study to produce ischaemia and reperfusion induced cerebral injury in mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Short-term memory was evaluated using elevated plus maze. Inclined beam walking test was employed to assess motor incoordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced cerebral infarction and impaired short-term memory, motor co-ordination and lateral push response. A preceding episode of mesenteric artery occlusion for 15 min and reperfusion of 15 min (remote mesenteric ischaemic preconditioning) prevented markedly ischaemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury measured in terms of infarct size, loss of short-term memory, motor coordination and lateral push response. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, iv) a KATP channel blocker and caffeine (7 mg/kg, iv) an adenosine receptor blocker attenuated the neuroprotective effect of remote mesenteric ischaemic preconditioning. It may be concluded that neuroprotective effect of remote mesenteric ischaemic preconditioning may be due to activation of adenosine receptors and consequent activation of KATP channels in mice.

  9. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    fail to see risks, do not make use of available protective interventions or misjudge the effectiveness of protective measures. If these misunderstandings can be reduced through context-appropriate risk communications, then their improved mental models may help people to engage more effectively...... and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...

  10. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  11. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Research on Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies...

  12. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiologic Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy, Funding Opportunity...

  13. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Indoor Environment of Low- Income Renovated...

  14. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  15. 77 FR 19018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in South Africa, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  16. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and...

  17. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Agreement on Occupational Health with the World Health Organization...

  18. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  19. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Indoor Environment of Low- Income Renovated...

  20. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  1. Self-reported cold sensitivity in normal subjects and in patients with traumatic hand injuries or hand-arm vibration syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlin Lars B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cold sensitivity is a common and disabling complaint following hand injuries. The main purpose of this study was to describe self-reported consequences of cold sensitivity and the association with disability and health-related quality of life in patients with hand injuries or hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS and in normal subjects. Methods Responses to the Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS questionnaire, Potential Work Exposure Scale (PWES, Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH and Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36 were investigated in normal subjects (n = 94, hand injured patients (amputation and nerve injuries, n = 88 and patients with HAVS (n = 30. The results are presented as median (range, percent and mean deviation from norms. The Kruskal Wallis Test or Mann-Whitney U-Test were used to identify significant differences between multiple groups or subgroups. The Spearman rank correlation was used to study the relationship between cold sensitivity and disability. Results Abnormal cold sensitivity (CISS score > 50 was seen in 75% and 45% of patients with HAVS and a traumatic hand injury, respectively. Patients were significantly more exposed to cold in their work environment than the normal population, with a consequently negative effect on work ability due to cold sensitivity. Patients with abnormal cold sensitivity were more seriously disabled and had a poorer health-related quality of life than patients with normal cold sensitivity [higher DASH scores and e.g. significantly larger mean deviation from norms in the subscales Role Physical and Bodily Pain (SF-36]. Conclusion Severe and abnormal cold sensitivity may have a profound impact on work capacity, leisure, disability and health-related quality of life. It is frequently seen in patients with traumatic hand injuries and particularly apparent in patients with HAVS.

  2. Shallow-water spinal injuries – devastating but preventable | Vlok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the demographics, clinical features and outcomes of shallow-water diving injuries in an acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) unit. Materials and methods. All patients admitted to the ASCI unit with diving-related injuries were entered into the study. Data regarding demographics, injury profile and subsequent ...

  3. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  4. Injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Blessure preventie voor volwassen, mannelijke voetballers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of

  5. Understanding sharps injuries in home healthcare: The Safe Home Care qualitative methods study to identify pathways for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Pia; Galligan, Catherine; Laramie, Angela; Fisher, June; Sama, Susan; Quinn, Margaret

    2015-04-11

    Home healthcare is one of the fastest growing sectors in the United States. Percutaneous injuries from sharp medical devices (sharps) are a source of bloodborne pathogen infections among home healthcare workers and community members. Sharps use and disposal practices in the home are highly variable and there is no comprehensive analysis of the system of sharps procurement, use and disposal in home healthcare. This gap is a barrier to effective public health interventions. The objectives of this study were to i) identify the full range of pathways by which sharps enter and exit the home, stakeholders involved, and barriers for using sharps with injury prevention features; and ii) assess the leverage points for preventive interventions. This study employed qualitative research methods to develop two systems maps of the use of sharps and prevention of sharps injuries in home healthcare. Twenty-six in-depth interview sessions were conducted including home healthcare agency clinicians, public health practitioners, sharps device manufacturers, injury prevention advocates, pharmacists and others. Interview transcripts were audio-recorded and analyzed thematically using NVIVO qualitative research analysis software. Analysis of supporting archival material also was conducted. All findings guided development of the two maps. Sharps enter the home via multiple complex pathways involving home healthcare providers and home users. The providers reported using sharps with injury prevention features. However, home users' sharps seldom had injury prevention features and sharps were commonly re-used for convenience and cost-savings. Improperly discarded sharps present hazards to caregivers, waste handlers, and community members. The most effective intervention potential exists at the beginning of the sharps systems maps where interventions can eliminate or minimize sharps injuries, in particular with needleless treatment methods and sharps with injury prevention features

  6. Sports Biostatistician: a critical member of all sports science and medicine teams for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-12-01

    Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Injury and violence prevention policy: celebrating our successes, protecting our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Rebecca Greco; Zurick, Elizabeth; Patterson, Sara; Peeples, Amy

    2012-09-01

    Policy strategies for injury and violence prevention influence systems development, organizational change, social norms, and individual behavior to improve the health and safety of a population. Injury and violence prevention professionals should consider how their issues resonate with various audiences, including policy makers, the public, and other decision makers. As the cost of healthcare continues to rise and greater demands are placed on the healthcare system, the use of public health policy becomes increasingly critical to protect the public's health and prevent injury and violence and its related morbidities and disabilities (Degutis, 2011). This article highlights some impactful policy successes from the field, allows us to reflect on the Injury Center's 20th anniversary, and describes steps to address injuries and violence into the future. The purpose of this paper is to discuss policy as a public health strategy and the critical role it plays in injury and violence prevention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Alcohol-related Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review. In...

  9. 77 FR 30015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Characterizing the Short and Long Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI...

  10. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Horst, N. van der; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. Objective To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training

  11. Unintentional injury prevention and the role of occupational therapy in the Solomon Islands: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can

  12. The role of accident theory in injury prevention - time for the pendulum to swing back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    Injury prevention is a branch of safety sciences. While comprehensive theoretical developments occurred in the wider field in the last decades, little of these developments reached and influenced the injury prevention community. Instead, a clear retro trend 'back to basics' is seen among injury prevention scholars, especially to Dr William Haddon's pioneering work some 50 years ago. This paper intends to draw attention to this polarisation and discuss possible explanations. It is argued that the strong campaign against the accident concept among leading injury prevention groupings became a serious hindrance for theoretical exchange. The underlying process is interpreted in terms of a struggle for ownership over this truly interdisciplinary field of research, unfortunately at the expense of theoretical stagnation in injury prevention circles and lessened interest in collaboration from other scientific areas. This paper is written as a tribute to Professor Leif Svanström and his scientific contributions, with special regard to his genuine interest in interdisciplinary research.

  13. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H 2 DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  14. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  15. The effect of cold stress on UVB injury in mouse skin and cultured keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Toshiaki; Hanada, Katsumi; Hashimoto, Isao

    1996-01-01

    The effect of cold stress on skin damage caused by UVB irradiation was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Ear skin of mice that had been exposed to cold stress at 0 o C for 20 min and at 5 o C for 24 h was exposed to UVB radiation. Sunburn cell production was less in mice exposed to the lower temperature. In addition, the effect of cold stress on the survival rate of UVB-irradiated rat keratinocytes was examined in a cytoxicity test, with the results showing that keratinocytes exposed to cold stress of 0 o C had a higher survival rate than control cells. To pursue a promising clue for explaining the result, we examined metallothionein (MT) production in rat keratinocytes that had been exposed to cold stress at 0 o C. Microfluorometric quantification showed a positive correlation between the time course and the intensity of immunofluorescence for MT, indicating that the molecule is inducible by exposure to cold stress in our experimental system. These results suggest that epidermal cells that have been exposed to cold stress maintain a higher resistance to UV radiation than nonexposed controls in vivo and in vitro, and that MT with radical-scavenging activity might contribute, at least in part, to photoprotection against UVB-induced oxidative damage in mammalian skin. (Author)

  16. The effect of cold stress on UVB injury in mouse skin and cultured keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Toshiaki; Hanada, Katsumi; Hashimoto, Isao [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-12-01

    The effect of cold stress on skin damage caused by UVB irradiation was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Ear skin of mice that had been exposed to cold stress at 0{sup o}C for 20 min and at 5{sup o}C for 24 h was exposed to UVB radiation. Sunburn cell production was less in mice exposed to the lower temperature. In addition, the effect of cold stress on the survival rate of UVB-irradiated rat keratinocytes was examined in a cytoxicity test, with the results showing that keratinocytes exposed to cold stress of 0{sup o}C had a higher survival rate than control cells. To pursue a promising clue for explaining the result, we examined metallothionein (MT) production in rat keratinocytes that had been exposed to cold stress at 0{sup o}C. Microfluorometric quantification showed a positive correlation between the time course and the intensity of immunofluorescence for MT, indicating that the molecule is inducible by exposure to cold stress in our experimental system. These results suggest that epidermal cells that have been exposed to cold stress maintain a higher resistance to UV radiation than nonexposed controls in vivo and in vitro, and that MT with radical-scavenging activity might contribute, at least in part, to photoprotection against UVB-induced oxidative damage in mammalian skin. (Author).

  17. Memantine prevents cardiomyocytes nuclear size reduction in the left ventricle of rats exposed to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Meneghini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Memantine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have suggested that receptor blockers act as neuroprotective agents; however, no study has specifically investigated the impact that these drugs have on the heart. We sought to evaluate the effects of memantine on nuclear size reduction in cardiac cells exposed to cold stress. METHOD: We used male EPM-Wistar rats (n=40 divided into 4 groups: 1 Matched control (CON; 2 Memantine-treated rats (MEM; 3 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia (IH and 4 Rats undergoing induced hypothermia that were also treated with memantine (IHM. Animals in the MEM and IHM groups were treated by oral gavage administration of 20 mg/kg/day memantine over an eight-day period. Animals in the IH and IHM groups were submitted to 4 hours of hypothermia in a controlled environment with a temperature of - 8ºC on the last day of the study. RESULTS: The MEM group had the largest cardiomyocyte nuclear size (151 ± 3.5 μm³ vs. CON: 142 ± 2.3 μm³; p<0.05, while the IH group had the smallest mean value of nuclear size. The nuclear size of the IHM group was preserved (125 ± 2.9 μm³ compared to the IH group (108 ± 1.7 μm³; p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Memantine prevented the nuclear size reduction of cardiomyocytes in rats exposed to cold stress.

  18. Cause and Prevention of Playground Injuries and Litigation; Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.; Sweeney, Theodora B.

    This study examined 187 playground injuries and 13 fatalities that resulted in lawsuits between 1981 and 1995, taken from the files of two expert witnesses on playground safety who testified in the cases. The data are presented by geographic location, nature of injuries, cause of injuries/fatalities, playground equipment implicated, location of…

  19. Interventions to prevent softball related injuries: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, K; Canham-Chervak, M; Gazal-Carvalho, C; Jones, B; Baker, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the published evidence on interventions to prevent softball related injuries among adults, and to encourage more epidemiologic research as a foundation for future softball injury prevention efforts. Methods: The authors reviewed literature identified from six electronic databases for studies on softball related injuries. The search was limited to studies written in the English language, published between 1970 and 2002, and involving adult populations. Research was excluded that evaluated baseball ("hard ball") related injuries or was aimed at injury treatment. Identified studies were categorized by study design. Intervention/prevention papers were evaluated further and described in detail. Results: The search strategy identified 39 studies specifically related to softball. Most studies were case reports/case series (n = 13) or descriptive studies (n = 11); only four were analytic or intervention/prevention studies. Studies collected data in a variety of ways, often without denominator data to permit calculation of injury rates. Studies also did not differentiate between slow or fast pitch softball activities and most did not mention the type of softball that was used. Conclusions: Surprisingly few studies exist on interventions to reduce injuries during softball, one of the most popular recreational sports in the US. Of the existing literature, much attention has been on sliding related injuries, which comprise only a segment of softball injuries. Basic epidemiologic studies describing the nature, severity, and risk factors for softball injuries in a variety of populations are needed, followed by additional intervention evaluation studies aimed at modifiable risk factors. PMID:16203835

  20. [Skiing and snowboarding trauma in children: epidemiology, physiopathology, prevention and main injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohin, B; Kohler, R

    2008-11-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are leading to a risk of injuries in children. Beginners and experienced have higher risk of injuries, however, the first have less severe injuries than the latest. Risk factors of injury are: ability and experience, binding adjustment, slope characteristics, speed, collisions with objects or jumping and risky behavior of the young skiers and snowboarders. Lower limb injuries are most common in skier, especially knee sprains, conversely snowboarders present more upper limb injuries, especially wrist fractures. The frequency of head injuries does not decrease while helmet use increases but severity decreases. Despite prevention and wearing protections, the frequency of trauma does not decrease significantly, which could be in relation with higher speed and increased risky behavior. Main prevention factors are safety knowledge and safety behavior, correct binding adjustment, and use of protections.

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  2. Effects of a work injury prevention program for housekeeping in the hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Merrill; Maguire, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the effectiveness of a work injury prevention program in the housekeeping department of a hotel. Studies have validated the use of different injury prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of work-related injuries. Few studies, however, have reported the efficacy of an on-site work injury prevention program by a physical therapist. In 1995, implementation of a work injury prevention program by a physical therapist to 50 housekeeping supervisors, 60 house persons and 340 guest room attendants at a large hotel began. This program included a detailed work risk analysis of the work environment, development of job descriptions, identification of injury-related problematic work situations, and implementation of a job specific supervisor-training program. Supervisor, house person and guest room attendant training was also conducted at the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1997. Data of injury reports in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed to determine the results of the program. There was a reduction in total injury claims, total medical expenses, total lost work time and total restricted duty time. These results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of implementing a work injury prevention program for housekeeping guest room attendants in the hotel industry. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  3. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background : Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods : Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results : The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ' common g round ' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusion s : Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ' common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  4. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Al-Hajj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA. GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  5. The preventive effect of resiniferatoxin on the development of cold hypersensitivity induced by spinal nerve ligation: involvement of TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Won Uk; Choi, Seong-Soo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Hye Joo; Ahn, Ho-Soo; Lee, Sun Kyung; Leem, Jeong Gil; Song, Jun Gol; Shin, Jin Woo

    2016-06-21

    Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a potent analog of capsaicin and activates transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type (TRPV) 1. In the current study, we investigated the preventive effect of perineural RTX on the development of cold hypersensitivity induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Furthermore, we examined the association between the expression level of TRPV1, TRP ankyrin type (TRPA) 1 and TRP melastatin type (TRPM) 8 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cold hypersensitivity after SNL. RTX pretreatment prevented the development of SNL-induced hypersensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and cold stimuli. Western blot analysis 4 weeks after RTX pretreatment showed that RTX pretreatment decreased the protein expression level of SNL-induced TRPM8, but not TRPV1 or TRPA1, in the DRG of SNL rats. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed that up-regulated TRPM8-stained neurons after SNL co-localized with neurofilament 200-positive neurons located in the DRG. Pretreatment with perineural RTX significantly inhibits SNL-induced mechanical, thermal, and cold hypersensitivity. The antinociceptive effect of perineural RTX, especially on cold hypersensitivity, may be related to the suppression of TRPM8 expression in DRG.

  6. The health profile of professional soccer players: future opportunities for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures.

  7. Local cooling does not prevent hyperalgesia following burn injury in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Pedersen, Juri L

    2002-01-01

    One of the oldest methods of pain relief following a burn injury is local application of ice or cold water. Experimental data indicate that cooling may also reduce the severity of tissue injury and promote wound healing, but there are no controlled studies in humans evaluating the anti-inflammato......One of the oldest methods of pain relief following a burn injury is local application of ice or cold water. Experimental data indicate that cooling may also reduce the severity of tissue injury and promote wound healing, but there are no controlled studies in humans evaluating the anti...... and mechanical detection thresholds, thermal and mechanical pain responses, area of secondary hyperalgesia), first degree burn injuries were induced on both calves by contact thermodes (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 min). Eight minutes after the burn injury, contact thermodes (12.5 cm(2)) were again applied...... on the burns. One of the thermodes cooled the burn (8 degrees C for 30 min) whereas the other thermode was a non-active dummy on the control burn. Inflammatory and sensory variables were followed for 160 min after end of the cooling procedure. The burn injury induced significant increases in skin temperature...

  8. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-2-0165 TITLE: “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 & 3”.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...27Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0165 “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2...Virginia Tech – Wake Forest University, Center for Injury Biomechanics and the U.S. Army entitled “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury

  9. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Andrew R.; Tongren, J. Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children’s movies released in 1995–2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children’s movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G-and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008–201...

  10. Does the FIFA 11+ Injury Prevention Program Reduce the Incidence of ACL Injury in Male Soccer Players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers-Granelli, Holly J; Bizzini, Mario; Arundale, Amelia; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    The FIFA 11+ injury prevention program has been shown to decrease the risk of soccer injuries in men and women. The program has also been shown to decrease time loss resulting from injury. However, previous studies have not specifically investigated how the program might impact the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in male soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine if the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program can (1) reduce the overall number of ACL injuries in men who play competitive college soccer and whether any potential reduction in rate of ACL injuries differed based on (2) game versus practice setting; (3) player position; (4) level of play (Division I or II); or (5) field type. This study was a prospective cluster randomized controlled trial, which was conducted in 61 Division I and Division II National Collegiate Athletic Association men's soccer teams over the course of one competitive soccer season. The FIFA 11+ is a 15- to 20-minute on-the-field dynamic warm-up program used before training and games and was utilized as the intervention throughout the entire competitive season. Sixty-five teams were randomized: 34 to the control group (850 players) and 31 to the intervention group (675 players). Four intervention teams did not complete the study and did not submit their data, noting insufficient time to complete the program, reducing the number for per-protocol analysis to 61. Compliance to the FIFA 11+ program, athletic exposures, specific injuries, ACL injuries, and time loss resulting from injury were collected and recorded using a secure Internet-based system. At the end of the season, the data in the injury surveillance system were crosshatched with each individual institution's internal database. At that time, the certified athletic trainer signed off on the injury collection data to confirm their accuracy and completeness. A lower proportion of athletes in the intervention group experienced knee injuries (25% [34 of

  11. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  12. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Surgical Tip for Prevention of Lip Injury During Orthognathic and Facial Bone Contouring Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sung; Park, Sanghoon

    2017-10-01

    Iatrogenic lip injury is a rather common complication after facial bone surgery, but is usually treated lightly by the surgeon compared with other more severe functional complications. However, these injuries can have permanent sequelae and can therefore be a reason for patient dissatisfaction, especially after cosmetic surgery. Intraoperative lip injuries during facial bone surgery are usually caused by heat-generating surgical instruments or forced traction on the operative fields. The authors have applied a special technical strategy using a hydrocolloid dressing material to avoid these intraoperative lip injuries. This method does not disturb the operative procedure itself, but efficiently prevents lip injuries and decreases surgical morbidities and postoperative swelling.

  14. Naval Special Warfare Injury Prevention and Human Performance Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-30

    or tactical training when the injury occurred. In 13.6% of the injuries, Operators were engaged in recreational activity/ sports when the injury...Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA) supplement list. Based on self-reported dietary intake, the current data indicate...knee tendonitis/ITBS (11%), and biceps and supraspinatus tendonopathy (11%) • Command PT and recreational/ sports activities accounted for 70% of

  15. Thermo-sensitive TRP channels in peripheral nerve injury: a review of their role in cold intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiz, S; Duraku, L S; Holstege, J C; Hovius, S E R; Ruigrok, T J H; Walbeehm, E T

    2014-05-01

    One of the sensory complications of traumatic peripheral nerve injury is thermal intolerance, which manifests in humans mainly as cold intolerance. It has a major effect on the quality of life, and adequate therapy is not yet available. In order to better understand the pathophysiological background of thermal intolerance, we focus first on the various transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are involved in temperature sensation, including their presence in peripheral nerves and in keratinocytes. Second, the role of thermo-sensitive TRP channels in cold and heat intolerance is described showing three different mechanisms that contribute to thermal intolerance in the skin: (a) an increased expression of TRP channels on nerve fibres and on keratinocytes, (b) a lower activation threshold of TRP channels and (c) the sprouting of non-injured nerve fibres. Finally, the data that are available on the effects of TRP channel agonists and antagonists and their clinical use are discussed. In conclusion, TRP channels play a major role in temperature sensation and in cold and heat intolerance. Unfortunately, the available pharmaceutical agents that successfully target TRP channels and counteract thermal intolerance are still very limited. Yet, our focus should remain on TRP channels since it is difficult to imagine a reliable treatment for thermal intolerance that will not involve TRP channels. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lung injury in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms, prevention, and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    Lung injury is the most pertinent manifestation of extra-abdominal organ dysfunction in pancreatitis. The propensity of this retroperitoneal inflammatory condition to engender a diffuse and life-threatening lung injury is significant. Approximately one third of patients will develop acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which account for 60% of all deaths within the first week. The variability in the clinical course of pancreatitis renders it a vexing entity and makes demonstration of the efficacy of any specific intervention difficult. The distinct pathologic entity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury is reviewed with a focus on etiology and potential therapeutic maneuvers.

  17. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color...

  18. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Project (SIP): Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV...

  19. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:00 p.m.-3:30 p.m., June...

  20. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  1. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research to Prevent Prescription Drug Overdoses, FOA CE12-007, initial review. In...

  2. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  3. 78 FR 1212 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Natural History and Prevention of Viral Hepatitis Among Alaska Natives, Funding...

  4. 76 FR 39879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  5. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m...

  6. 76 FR 59133 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  7. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial...

  8. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  9. 77 FR 58847 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases, and other... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with...

  10. 78 FR 29754 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases, and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with...

  11. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  12. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  13. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  14. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  15. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Examining the Impact of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  16. Injury prevalence of netball players in South Africa: The need for in jury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pillay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish baseline data for injury prevalence,mechanism of injury, injury severity and management of injuries in netball playersin South Africa. A cross sectional descriptive design was employed to collect databy means of a questionnaire in 2010. Participants consisted of 254 netball playerswho participated in a netball tournament. Permission was obtained from all therelevant organizations and informed consent obtained from the participants. Thegeneral injury rate was 61.8% with an injury rate of 1.9 injuries per player forthe past season. The most commonly injured structures were the ankle 37.5 % andthe knee 28.6% with the most common mechanism of injury being landing, 19% and 29% respectively. Of those whosustained injuries, 86 (44% of the injured athletes’ sustained severe injuries, 31(16% sustained moderate injuriesand 78 (40% sustained mild injuries. 67% of players reported they were able to continue with the game and 33%received medical assistance losing game and training time. The most common form of management accessed wasphysiotherapy, which accounted for 31%. It is evident that the ankle and knee injury rates amongst South Africannetball players are high in comparison to other netball playing nations. Injury surveillance is an integral part ofdeveloping preventative measures. The article lays a platform for developing these strategies against the backdrop ofits findings and comparison with other authors.

  17. Development of a Comprehensive and Interactive Tool to Inform State Violence and Injury Prevention Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lauren; Deokar, Angela J; Zaesim, Araya; Thomas, Karen; Kresnow-Sedacca, Marcie-Jo

    The Center of Disease Control and Prevention's Core State Violence and Injury Prevention Program (Core SVIPP) provides an opportunity for states to engage with their partners to implement, evaluate, and disseminate strategies that lead to the reduction and prevention of injury and violence. Core SVIPP requires awardees to develop or update their state injury and violence plans. Currently, literature informing state planning efforts is limited, especially regarding materials related to injury and violence. Presumably, plans that are higher quality result in having a greater impact on preventing injury and violence, and literature to improve quality would benefit prevention programming. (1) To create a comprehensive injury-specific index to aid in the development and revision of state injury and violence prevention plans, and (2) to assess the reliability and utility of this index. Through an iterative development process, a workgroup of subject matter experts created the Violence and Injury Prevention: Comprehensive Index Tool (VIP:CIT). The tool was pilot tested on 3 state injury and violence prevention plans and assessed for initial usability. Following revisions to the tool (ie, a rubric was developed to further delineate consistent criteria for rating; items were added and clarified), the same state plans were reassessed to test interrater reliability and tool utility. For the second assessment, reliability of the VIP:CIT improved, indicating that the rubric was a useful addition. Qualitative feedback from states suggested that the tool significantly helped guide plan development and communicate about planning processes. The final VIP:CIT is a tool that can help increase plan quality, decrease the research-to-practice gap, and increase connectivity to emerging public health paradigms. The tool provides an example of tailoring guidance materials to reflect academic literature, and it can be easily adapted to other topic areas to promote quality of strategic plans

  18. The expression of myocardial injury in cold induced myocardial imaging and echocardiography of systematic scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jiugen; Zhu Xiaojun; Jiang Ningyi; Chen Shaoxiong

    1999-01-01

    The study was performed with cold-induced 99m Tc(MIBI) myocardial imaging (MI) in 23 patients with systematic scleroderma. The left ventricular function and wall motion were also observed by dimensional echocardiography (UCG). 14 patients had myocardial perfusion abnormalities visualized by MI, including 5 cases with fixed defects of 9 segments, 3 cases with reversible defects of 6 segments and 6 cases with both fixed and reversible one of 14 segments. The positive rate in myocardial imaging had no significant differences between patients with and without Raynaud's phenomenon (0.5>P>0.25). Compared with baseline, the ejection fraction, stroke volume, cardiac output were significantly decreased during cold-induced in patients with abnormal myocardial scintigraphy (P<0.05), and had significant difference compared with normal group (P<0.05). 4 cases with cold-induced reversible perfusion defects had anatomically correlated regional ventricular hypokinesia in UCG

  19. Hamstring injury prevention in soccer: Before or after training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R; Knox, M; Weston, M; Siegler, J C; Brennan, S; Marshall, P W M

    2018-02-01

    We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into three groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHE BEF ; n=10) or after (NHE AFT ; n=14) biweekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s -1 . Ultrasonography was used to determine BF muscle thickness, muscle fiber pennation angle, and fascicle length. Performing the NHE derived likely moderate peak torque increases in both NHE BEF (+11.9%; 90% confidence interval: 3.6%-20.9%) and NHE AFT (+11.6%; 2.6%-21.5%) vs CON. Maximum sEMG increases were moderately greater in the BF of both NHE training groups vs CON. There were likely moderate increases in BF muscle thickness (+0.17 cm; 0.05-0.29 cm) and likely small pennation angle increases (+1.03°; -0.08° to 2.14°) in NHE AFT vs CON and NHE BEF . BF fascicle length increases were likely greater in NHE BEF (+1.58 cm; 0.48-2.68 cm; small effect) vs CON and NHE AFT . A 12-week eccentric hamstring strengthening program increased strength and sEMG to a similar magnitude irrespective of its scheduling relative to the football training session. However, architectural adaptations to support the strength gains differed according to the timing of the injury prevention program. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.

  1. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  2. Severe head injury in children - a preventable but forgotten epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe head injury in a child is a sociological disaster that crosses all sociological ... permanently disabled each year as a result of accidental injury." Over a ..... the daylight when transportation of the patient is more rapid; this results in some ...

  3. Isoinertial technology for rehabilitation and prevention of muscle injuries of soccer players: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto-Mondragón, Laura del Pilar; Camargo-Rojas, Diana Alexandra; Quiceno, Christian Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Soccer is the sport with the highest risk of muscle injury for players. Eccentric exercise is fundamental for reducing injury rates and isoinertial technology devices cause an increase in eccentric demands after a concentric contraction. Objective: To identify the use of isoinertial technology in the fields of physical activity and sports for rehabilitation and prevention of muscle injuries reported in scientific literature. Materials and methods: A search of scienti...

  4. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate american football player after preventive cold-water immersion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E; Wasik, Mitchell; Alvey, Thurman

    2012-01-01

    To describe a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate American football player after preventive coldwater immersion. A healthy man (19 years old) participated in full-contact football practice followed by conditioning (2.5 hours). After practice, he entered a coach-mandated postpractice cold-water immersion and had no signs of heat illness before developing leg cramps, for which he presented to the athletic training staff. After 10 minutes of repeated stretching, massage, and replacement of electrolyte-filled fluids, he was transported to the emergency room. Laboratory tests indicated a creatine kinase (CK) level of 2545 IU/L (normal range, 45-260 IU/L), CK-myoglobin fraction of 8.5 ng/mL (normal football practice as tolerated. Two months after the incident, his CK level remained high (1900 IU/L). The athlete demonstrated no signs of heat illness upon entering the cold-water immersion but experienced severe leg cramping after immersion, resulting in a diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Previously described cases have not linked cold-water immersion with the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis. In this football player, CK levels appeared to be a poor indicator of rhabdomyolysis. Our patient demonstrated no other signs of the illness weeks after the incident, yet his elevated CK levels persisted. Cold-water immersion immediately after exercise should be monitored by the athletic training staff and may not be appropriate to prevent muscle damage, given the lack of supporting evidence.

  5. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  6. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  7. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players : design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  8. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: design of a randomised prospective controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle

  9. Prevention of sports injuries in the classroom with students in weightlifting, powerlifting and kettlebell lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilyasova M. H.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article considers the issues of injury and its prevention in physical training and classes in weightlifting, powerlifting and kettlebell lifting. Examples of the need to improve program discipline through the development, which is aimed at the study of methods of injury in the course of employment.

  10. Preventing the dental needle prick injury (DNPI) : a new approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of serious occupational hazards of infectious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Lassa and Ebola Virus diseases which can be contracted through such injuries can be quite costly to the dental health care worker and to the healthcare system in general. Dental needle prick injury (DNPI) prevention devices ...

  11. The Role of School Health Instruction in Preventing Injury: Making It Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Robert M.

    Reducing the incidence and severity of child and adolescent injuries requires a multifaceted approach involving broad-based health and social service agencies, including schools. Recognition of the need for injury prevention education began with the Industrial Revolution in the 1900s, and safety education was developed as a unit of health…

  12. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity injury prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210

  13. Back Facts: A Training Workbook to Prevent Back Injuries in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adequate staffing levels. Implement effective injury prevention programs. Purchase and use lifting machines and devices. Conduct effective ... an expert about the job you do. The experience of nursing assistants all over the country tells ...

  14. Scientific evidence is just the starting point: A generalizable process for developing sports injury prevention interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Donaldson

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.

  15. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Prevention of Chilling Injury of Cherry Tomato (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. Messina(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanifeh seyed hajizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables play a major role in providing vitamins and minerals that are essential in the metabolism. In addition to providing vitamins and minerals compounds, they are called secondary metabolites. Tomatoes are one of the most vegetables in diets of people around the world. Low temperature stress associated with the production of reactive oxygen species causing damage can occur before or after harvest, farm, transportation, storage and marketing. Today, a greater emphasis is placed on post-harvest storage of agricultural products to increase productivity and make better use of labor resources, worker, energy and money, rather than an increase in production. One of the most promising treatments is the use of salicylic acid for prevention of the frost damage of post-harvest fruits and vegetables with different mechanisms such as increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system activity. Salicylic acid is known as a signal molecule in the induction defense mechanisms in plants. SA is a well-known phenol that can prevent ACO activity that is the direct precursor of ethylene and decreases Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS with increasing enzyme antioxidant activity. Salicylic acid is a natural phenolic compound known as a plant hormone having positive effect on storage life and quality of fruits. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pre- and post-harvest application of salicylic acid on antioxidant properties and quality of tomato and its effect was evaluated on prevention of chilling injury of cherry tomatoes during cold storage. Material and Methods: This research was conducted in a greenhouse of Horticulture Department of University of Maragheh. Treatments were included before harvest at fruit set stage with the control (distilled water and 0.75 mM salicylic acid spraying and after harvest, red ripened fruits were used for treatments control and immersion in 0.75 mM salicylic acid. Then all the treated fruits

  16. Lawn mower injuries in children: a preventable impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J E; Sanchez, F L

    1995-01-01

    Every year there are seven million new lawn mowers purchased in the United States, each of which is capable of injuring young children, especially those > 14 years of age. A total of 33 children injured by a lawn mower were reviewed to identify the mechanism of injury, to determine the factors responsible for the accident, to determine an effective treatment regime, and to evaluate the permanent impairment for these patients. Classified according to their mechanism of injury, 14 children were injured as bystanders, 13 injured as riders, and six injured as operators. Categorized according to the anatomical location of injury, there were eight head and eye injuries, 12 upper extremity injuries, and 13 lower extremity injuries. There were 13 amputations (39.3%). The treatment management was satisfactory, but 23 children had an impairment > 40% of the whole person. We believe that the incidence of these injuries can be reduced by public awareness. Each orthopaedic surgeon should take on the task of educating the public about the dangers and wounding capacity of these machines and instructing the proper safety precautions that should be taken when mowing the lawn, especially when children are involved. The bottom line is that children should not be allowed in the yard while the lawn is being mowed nor should they be allowed to mow the lawn until they are > or = 15 years of age.

  17. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  18. MENTOR-VIP: Piloting a global mentoring program for injury and violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Meddings, David; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M

    2009-06-01

    Injuries occur as the result of a confluence of factors: environmental, social, biological, economic, and behavioral. To effectively address the burden of injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, a focus is needed on developing the human resource capacity for injury prevention. MENTOR-VIP is a global mentoring program that the authors developed with this need in mind. MENTOR-VIP approaches developing human resources in injury prevention by providing mentoring opportunities for junior professionals involved in its practice, research, and/or programs. MENTOR-VIP entails a 12-month working relationship between junior injury prevention practitioners (mentees) and more experienced individuals in the field (mentors). Its general objective is to improve global human resource capacity to effectively prevent and control injury and violence through the enhanced development of relevant skills. The program is currently in its pilot phase and is nearing the end of its second formal mentoring cycle, which began on September 1, 2008. This article discusses mentoring professionals as a key strategy to developing the human resource component of capacity, and one which complements existing approaches to capacity development. The authors also provide an overview of the rationale, modalities, objectives, and evaluation of MENTOR-VIP. This article highlights the importance of capacity building in the injury prevention field and situates MENTOR-VIP within the larger context of capacity building for global public health.

  19. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zech

    Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

  20. Parents' Attitudes and Adherence to Unintentional Injury Prevention Measures in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, Tolga; Yalçın, Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2017-08-04

    Childhood unintentional injuries are perceived as a leading public health issue since they are one of the preventable causes of paediatric mortality and morbidity. Whether and how parental factors are related to childhood injury has been researched insufficiently. To investigate parents' attitudes to preventive measures of unintentional childhood injury, and the parental adherence to these measures. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The data were collected from the parents of children younger than ten years of age admitted to university hospital outpatient clinics for any reason and who agreed to be involved in the study. The first part of the questionnaire included sociodemographic profiles of participating children. Serious injuries were considered to be any injury that requires hospital admission. The second part of the questionnaire was prepared to evaluate parents' adherence to injury prevention rules. A total score calculation about the adherence of the parents to the injury prevention rules was worked out the addition of the scores of each answer given in each age group. Answers for each item given by the parents were scored as wrong (0), sometimes (1) or correct (2). The score for each item was added and the result normalized to 100 points. Only complete questionnaires were used for analysis. A total of 1126 children and parent pairs agreed to participate in the survey. It was found that 13.8% of the participating children had experienced at least one serious injury. Although three-quarters of the parents had received information about injury prevention, the overall injury prevention scores were found to be low. As children's age increased, the total injury prevention scores of parents decreased significantly. Injury prevention scores were shown to increase significantly with high education and maternal occupation. However, scores were shown to decrease significantly with increased child age and family size. Our study shows that parental adherence to the

  1. Preventive Effects of Eccentric Training on Acute Hamstring Muscle Injury in Professional Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard A.; Perez, Luis; McQueeney, Sean; Toby, E. Bruce; Key, Vincent; Nelson, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamstring injuries are the second most common injury causing missed days in professional baseball field players. Recent studies have shown the preventive benefit of eccentric conditioning on the hamstring muscle group in injury prevention. Specifically, Nordic-type exercises have been shown to decrease the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in professional athletes. Purpose: This was a prospective study performed in coordination with a single Major League Baseball (MLB) organization (major and minor league teams) that targeted the effects of Nordic exercises on the incidence of acute hamstring injuries in the professional-level baseball player. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The daily workouts of 283 professional baseball players throughout all levels of a single MLB organization were prospectively recorded. The intervention group participated in the Nordic exercise program and was compared with a randomly selected control group of professional athletes within the organization not participating in the exercise program. The incidence of hamstring injuries in both groups was compared, and the total number of days missed due to injury was compared with the 2 previous seasons. Results: There were 10 hamstring injuries that occurred during the 2012 season among the 283 professional athletes that required removal from play. There were no injuries that occurred in the intervention group (n = 65, 0.00%; P = .0381). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury was 11.3. The average repetitions per week of the injured group were assessed at multiple time points (2, 4, 6, and total weeks) prior to injury. There were significantly fewer repetitions per week performed in the injured group at all time points compared with overall average repetitions per week in the noninjured group (P = .0459, .0127, .0164, and .0299, respectively). After beginning the Nordic exercise program, there were 136 total days

  2. Pressure Injury Prevention: Knowledge and Attitudes of Iranian Intensive Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirgari, Batool; Mirshekari, Leili; Forouzi, Mansooreh Azzizadeh

    2018-04-01

    Pressure injuries are the third most expensive condition after cancer and cardiovascular disease. Nurses are responsible for the direct and continuous care, treatment, and prevention of pressure injuries. To achieve optimal quality care, nursing knowledge and attitudes must be based on the best scientific evidence. This study aimed to examine the knowledge and attitudes of nurses working in intensive care units of hospitals affiliated with Zahedan Medical Sciences University regarding the prevention of pressure injuries. This was a descriptive analytic study involving 89 critical care nurses. Data analysis was conducted using a 3-part questionnaire: demographic data, knowledge, and attitudes of intensive care nurses toward the prevention of pressure injuries. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 19 (IBM, Armonk, New York), using descriptive and inferential statistics (such as Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t test, and analysis of variance). The results showed that the mean ± SD score of pressure injury knowledge was 0.44 ± 0.12, and the attitude of participants toward pressure injury prevention was 2.69 ± 0.47. Scores varied widely; "nutrition" showed the highest mean score (0.71 ± 0.45), but "etiology and development" (0.42 ± 0.21) and "classification and observation" (0.42 ± 0.24) showed the lowest mean scores. Of the different aspects of attitudes toward pressure injury prevention, "the impact of pressure injuries" showed the highest mean score (2.95 ± 0.56), and "confidence in the effectiveness of prevention" showed the lowest mean score (2.56 ± 0.46). A statistically significant relationship was observed between pressure injury knowledge and attitudes toward pressure injury prevention (P < .001). Pressure injury prevention is one of many nursing care priorities and is a key indicator of the quality of nursing care. In order to achieve optimal quality care in this area, nurse managers and other administrators should make efforts

  3. Neuromuscular training injury prevention strategies in youth sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem

    2015-07-01

    Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI) injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Sukdeb; Chatterjee, Koel; Kline, Robert H; Wiley, Ronald G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI) is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI) model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats...

  5. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker.

  6. What Can I Do to Help Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TBI Online Concussion Training Press Room Guide to Writing about TBI in News and Social Media Living with TBI HEADS UP to Brain Injury Awareness Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this topic, ...

  7. Protect the Ones You Love: Child Injuries Are Preventable

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This CDC podcast series discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from some of the leading causes of child injury, including burns, drownings, falls, poisonings, and road traffic.

  8. Aggravation of cold-induced injury in Vero-B4 cells by RPMI 1640 medium – Identification of the responsible medium components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pless-Petig Gesine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. Results Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199. Manufacturer, batch, medium supplements and the most likely components with concentrations outside the range of the other media/solutions (vitamin B12, inositol, biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid did not cause this aggravation of cold-induced injury in RPMI 1640. However, a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer with a low calcium concentration (0.42 mM, a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (5.6 mM, and glucose (11.1 mM; i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640 evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. Similar Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK1, porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. However, more extreme conditions (Ca2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types.

  9. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  10. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a Collegiate American Football Player After Preventive Cold-Water Immersion: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Wasik, Mitchell; Alvey, Thurman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a collegiate American football player after preventive cold-water immersion. Background: A healthy man (19 years old) participated in full-contact football practice followed by conditioning (2.5 hours). After practice, he entered a coach-mandated post-practice cold-water immersion and had no signs of heat illness before developing leg cramps, for which he presented to the athletic training staff. After 10 minutes of repeated stretching, massage, and replacement of electrolyte-filled fluids, he was transported to the emergency room. Laboratory tests indicated a creatine kinase (CK) level of 2545 IU/L (normal range, 45–260 IU/L), CK-myoglobin fraction of 8.5 ng/mL (normal rhabdomyolysis. Treatment: The patient was treated with rest and rehydration. One week after the incident, he began biking and swimming. Eighteen days later, the patient continued to demonstrate elevated CK levels (527 IU/L) but described no other symptoms and was allowed to return to football practice as tolerated. Two months after the incident, his CK level remained high (1900 IU/L). Uniqueness: The athlete demonstrated no signs of heat illness upon entering the cold-water immersion but experienced severe leg cramping after immersion, resulting in a diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Previously described cases have not linked cold-water immersion with the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis. Conclusions: In this football player, CK levels appeared to be a poor indicator of rhabdomyolysis. Our patient demonstrated no other signs of the illness weeks after the incident, yet his elevated CK levels persisted. Cold-water immersion immediately after exercise should be monitored by the athletic training staff and may not be appropriate to prevent muscle damage, given the lack of supporting evidence. PMID:22488291

  11. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Cools

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  12. Overcoming the organization-practice barrier in sports injury prevention: A nonhierarchical organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T

    2015-08-01

    The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tellez-Zenteno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Seizures occurring in precarious situations and resulting in injuries are still an important concern for patients with epilepsy, their employers and their caregivers. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. These concerns seem valid because the hallmark of epilepsy, episodic impairment of consciousness and motor control, may occur during interictal EEG epileptiform discharges, even in the absence of a clinical seizure. In addition, psychomotor comorbidity and side effects of antiepileptic drugs may contribute to the risk of injuries in patients with epilepsy. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, epidemiological information about incidence of injuries has been conflicting and sparse. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based on non-selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increased frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include: more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. Potentially the high rate of

  14. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies.

  15. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  16. The Additional Detrimental Effects of Cold Preservation on Transplantation-Associated Injury in Kidneys from Living and Brain-Dead Donor Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeger, Simone; Petrov, Kiril; Reisenbuechler, Anke; Fontana, Johann; Selhorst, Jochen; Hanusch, Christine; Beck, Grietje; Seelen, Marc A.; van Son, Willem J.; Waldherr, Ruediger; Schnuelle, Peter; Yard, Benito A.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Brain death and cold preservation are major alloantigen-independent risk factors for transplantation Outcome. The present study was conducted to assess the influence of these factors on transplantation-associated injury independently or in combination. Methods. Brain death was induced in

  17. Using participatory action research for injury prevention in child development centers, Suratthani province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naturthai Suwantip

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of using participatory action research (PAR in the prevention of injury to children in 14 child development centers (CDCs under local administrative organizations in one district in Suratthani province, Thailand. In total, 98 stakeholder representatives participated in the study, consisting of 7 managers or representatives of the CDCs, 14 caregivers, 7 local health officials and 70 children's parents. They participated in all stages of the study—problem identification, setting the objectives and goals of the study, planning the study, development of research tools, data collection, risk analysis, risk management, monitoring, evaluation, and revision. The physical environments that were in non-compliance with safety standards were identified after a walk-through survey with the participants using an approved checklist. The number of injuries to children was collected before and after the risk management. The participants' knowledge and awareness of child injury prevention were collected using questionnaires. Optimal solutions for injury prevention were obtained through several focus group discussions between the participants within each CDC and among the CDCs. Active participation of the stakeholders resulted in significantly more knowledge and awareness relating to child injury prevention. The environments of CDCs in compliance with safety standards were significantly increased. The number of injuries to the children decreased. The participatory action model in this research was developed through collaboration between the 14 CDCs. The executives of local administrative organizations and local health officials can take the model used in this study and apply it to injury prevention in other CDCs which have a similar environment across the province. Keywords: child development center, injury prevention, participatory action research

  18. Clinical evaluation of leukotriene receptor antagonists in preventing common cold-like symptoms in bronchial asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Takahiko; Ohira, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Kashin; Hirose, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Junichi; Kondo, Rieko; Tachikawa, Soichi

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the possibility of preventing common cold-like symptoms as a previously unknown benefit of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs). A total of 279 adult patients with bronchial asthma referred to our hospital between June and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into LTRA treated and untreated groups. Frequency of acute exacerbations and number of visits to emergency rooms and of hospital admissions were analyzed as indicators of frequency of infections and asthma exacerbation over the previous 12 months. Irrespective of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use, frequency of infections was significantly lower in the LTRA treated group (0.3 +/- 0.7 times/year) than in the LTRA untreated group (1.6 +/- 4.2 times/year) (P cold-like symptoms. Frequency of acute exacerbations and number of hospital admissions were significantly lower in the LTRA treated versus LTRA untreated group (0.4 +/- 0.8 versus 2.7 +/- 4.3 times/year and 0.0 +/- 0.2 versus 0.4 +/- 0.7 times/year, respectively; both P cold-like symptoms than those not receiving LTRAs. LTRAs play an important role in reducing the incidence of common cold-like symptoms among asthma patients and in suppressing exacerbation of asthma symptoms possibly associated with these symptoms.

  19. Preparation Femtosecond Laser Prevention for the Cold-Worked Stress Corrosion Crackings on Reactor Grade Low Carbon Stainless Steel

    CERN Document Server

    John Minehara, Eisuke

    2004-01-01

    We report here that the femtosecond lasers like low average power Ti:Sapphire lasers, the JAERI high average power free-electron laser and others could peel off and remove two stress corrosion cracking (SCC) origins of the cold-worked and the cracking susceptible material, and residual tensile stress in hardened and stretched surface of low-carbon stainless steel cubic samples for nuclear reactor internals as a proof of principle experiment except for the third origin of corrosive environment. Because a 143 °C and 43% MgCl2 hot solution SCC test was performed for the samples to simulate the cold-worked SCC phenomena of the internals to show no crack at the laser-peered off strip on the cold-worked side and ten-thousands of cracks at the non-peeled off on the same side, it has been successfully demonstrated that the femtosecond lasers could clearly remove the two SCC origins and could resultantly prevent the cold-worked SCC.

  20. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  1. 78 FR 19269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This document corrects a notice that was published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2013 (78...

  2. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review. The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m., May 15-16, 2013 (Closed). Place: Georgian Terrace, 659...

  3. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National Center for Construction Safety and Health Research and Translation (U60...

  4. 76 FR 13413 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Meeting Studies at the Animal-Human Interface of Influenza and Other Zoonotic Diseases in Vietnam, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  5. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants, Program Announcement PAR 10...

  6. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National HIV Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding...

  7. 78 FR 78964 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns The Cooperative Re-Engagement Controlled Trial (CoRECT), Funding Opportunity...

  8. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of..., Number 181, Page 57391). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 12-15, 2013, is canceled. Notice will...

  9. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants (T03), PAR-10-288, initial...

  10. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, and Centers of Excellence...

  11. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in the Federal Register on February 12, 2013, Volume 78, Number 29, page...

  12. 76 FR 18555 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Virologic Evaluation of the Modes of Influenza Virus Transmission among Humans...

  13. 76 FR 33304 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to Improve Vaccination Coverage of Children in Child Care Centers (CCCs...

  14. 76 FR 27327 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Meeting Studies at the Animal-Human Interface of Influenza and Other Zoonotic Diseases in Vietnam, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  15. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  16. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  17. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of... Volume 78, Number 191, Page 60877). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 6, 2013, is canceled...

  18. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Extension of the World Trade Center Health Registry (U50) Request for Applications...

  19. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strengthening the Monitoring and Evaluation of Programs for the Elimination and...

  20. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research Technical Assistance To The Ministry Of Public Health Of Haiti To Support...

  1. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants (T03), PAR-10-288, initial...

  2. 76 FR 24031 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to Improve Vaccination Coverage of Children in Child Care Centers (CCCs...

  3. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  4. 77 FR 27460 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in China RFA GH-12-005, and Conducting Public...

  5. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging Infections Programs, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-1202...

  6. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  7. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Medicaid Expansion and Reproductive Health Care for Women, FOA DP 13-002, initial...

  8. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grant, PAR 10-288, initial review...

  9. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring and Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13...

  10. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Cooperative Agreement Research to Aid Recovery from Hurricane Sandy, Request...

  11. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Member Conflict Review, PA 07-318, initial review. In accordance with Section...

  12. 78 FR 28221 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m. EDT, July 24, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference...

  13. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Coordinating Center for Research and Training to Promote the Health of People with...

  14. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research Centers, PAR 10-217. Contact Person For...

  15. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identification, Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious...

  16. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Program to Support New Implementation of State or Territorial Public Health...

  17. 78 FR 57391 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Times and Dates: 8:00 a.m.-8:00 p.m., November 12-15, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference...

  18. 76 FR 3909 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family History and Diamond..., discussion, and evaluation of ``Family History and Diamond Blackfan Anemia, DD11-010, initial review...

  19. 75 FR 41872 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History... evaluation of ``Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset...

  20. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History... evaluation of ``Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus With Onset...

  1. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family History and Diamond Blackfan Anemia, DD11- 010, Initial Review Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on...

  2. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset in Childhood and Adolescence, RFA DP 10-001...

  3. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  4. 75 FR 78999 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., discussion, and evaluation of ``Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002, initial review...

  5. 76 FR 10908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and... 17, 2011. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease...

  6. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Emerging Infections Sentinel... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  7. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting... Disease or Treated by Assisted Reproductive Technology, SIP11-048, Panel F,'' initial review In accordance...

  8. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  9. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  10. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  11. Ice skating injuries: can they be reduced or prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, C D

    1990-01-01

    The opening of an ice rink resulted in 469 attendances at the local Accident and Emergency department over the first year. One hundred and eight had a significant injury. Thirty-seven patients were admitted. Thirty-three required an operation under general anaesthesia. Thirty had consumed alcohol at the rink's bar. Nine of these had a fracture. The number of skates attending the Accident and Emergency department per 1000 visits to the rink declined over the study period. Injuries could be reduced if protective clothing was worn. Alcohol should not be sold at the rink. First aid although effective could be improved. PMID:2390159

  12. Mechanical injuries of the eyeball: Frequency, structure, and possibility of the prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Some factors significant for development of mechanical injuries of the eyeball have been analyzed in the study. Objective. Basic objective of such analysis was prevention and reduction of these injuries. Method. Mechanical injuries of the eyeball in patients hospitalized at the Institute of Eye Disease, CCS in Belgrade, in five year period have been analyzed. Only patients with severe eye injuries were hospitalized. The following parameters were analyzed: sex, age, occupation of patients, residence, time of the inflicted injury, i.e. by months in a year, days in a week and hours in a day, place and way of inflicting the injury as well as visual acuity on admission. In addition, the type of injury was analyzed, i.e. contusion or penetrating with all resulting complications. Finally, the timing of primary surgical management of the eye injury was specified, if required. Results. A total number of hospitalized patients with mechanical eye injuries was 1642 during the last five years, meaning that one injury occurred daily. There were 1381 males and 261 females, meaning that males were 5.3 times more the victims of mechanical eye injuries. Out of all the injured, 861 (52.4% were from rural environment, while 781 (47.6% were urban population. The proportion of injuries of the right or the left eye was nearly equal, while both eyes were simultaneously injured in 21 (1.3% cases. The injuries were inflicted in all ages, but most frequently in working population ranging from 16 to 55 years, accounting for 60.8%. Unfortunately, a lot of the injured were children up to 15 years of age - 19.4%. The most commonly injured were workers - 39.8%, followed by students - 17.5%. A piece of wood was the cause of injury in 21.8%, sharp and pointed objects in 17.2%, hammer and metal in 14.2%, glass in 11.6%, and other different causes in varying percentage. There were also rare causes of injuries, such as those caused by zip, dog bite, rooster’s bill

  13. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  14. Effects of lightweight outdoor clothing on the prevention of hypothermia during low-intensity exercise in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Kofler, Philipp; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Philippe, Marc; Fischer, Kathrin; Walther, Rebekka; Herten, Anne

    2012-11-01

    To study protective effects of windbreaker jacket and pants during exercise in the cold. Randomized pilot study. Climate chamber. Nine well-trained (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 61.7 ± 6.6 mL/min/kg) sport students (6 male and 3 female participants). Subjects started walking for 1 hour in a climate chamber (0°C ambient temperature and wind speed of 10 km/h) at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max wearing gloves, a T-shirt, and shorts. Then, the walking speed was reduced to 30% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for an additional 60 minutes or until core temperature dropped below 35.5°C. Subsequently, 3 groups of 3 participants continued walking without change of clothing or obtaining additionally a cap and a windbreaker jacket or windbreaker jacket and pants. Core and skin temperature, thermal comfort. The main findings of this study were that exercising at 70% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the cold was sufficient to prevent hypothermia and that during low-intensity exercise (30% V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), the combined use of a polyester cap, lightweight windbreaker jacket, and pants was necessary to increase a prehypothermic core temperature. We strongly recommend taking a cap, windbreaker jacket, and pants for the prevention of hypothermia during exhaustive walking or running in cold weather conditions.

  15. Attempts to Prevent Falls and Injury: A Prospective Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sibylle; And Others

    1992-01-01

    At 16 senior centers, studied effectiveness of exercise and cognitive-behavioral programs, compared to discussion control program, in reducing falls and injuries among 230 older adults. After one year of programs, observed no significant difference in time to first fall among groups. Secondary outcome measures such as strength, balance, fear of…

  16. Artemesia annua extract prevents glyoxal-induced cell injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Artemesia annua extract on glyoxal-induced injury in retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs). Methods: HRECs were cultured in a medium containing 500 μM glyoxal or glyoxal plus 50μM Artemesia annua extract, or in the medium alone for 24 h. Apoptosis was analysed by flow ...

  17. Enhancing Performance & Preventing Injuries in Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Hendrike

    2016-01-01

    Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,

  18. Review of musculoskeletal injuries and prevention in the endoscopy practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvin, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces.

  19. Workers' compensation loss prevention representative contact and risk of lost-time injury in construction policyholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine E; Alexander, Bruce H; Gerberich, Susan G; MacLehose, Richard F

    2017-09-01

    Insurance loss prevention (LP) representatives have access and contact with businesses and employees to provide targeted safety and health resources. Construction firms, especially those smaller in size, are a high-risk population. This research evaluated the association between LP rep contact and risk for lost-time injuries in construction policyholders. Workers' compensation data were utilized to track LP rep contact with policyholders and incidence of lost-time injury over time. Survival analysis with repeated events modeling calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared no LP contact, one contact was associated with a 27% reduction of risk (HR=0.73, CI=0.65-0.82), two with a 41% (HR=0.59, CI=0.51-0.68), and three or more contacts with a 28% reduction of risk (HR=0.72, CI=0.65-0.81). LP reps appear to be a valuable partner in efforts to reduce injury burden. Their presence or contact with policyholders is consistent with reduction in overall incidence of lost-time injuries. Reduction in lost-time injuries, resulting in reduced workers' compensation costs for policyholders and insurance companies, builds a business-case for safety and injury prevention. LP reps are often a low or no-cost benefit for insurance policyholders and may be an important injury prevention resource for small firms and/or those with lack of safety resources and staff. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. [Preventing Facial Pressure Injuries in Patients Who Use Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilators: The Efficiency of Dressings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chia-Hua; Hsu, Mei-Yu

    2016-10-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) provides ventilation without tracheal intubation. Facial pressure injury is a recognized complication of this technique, making the prevention of facial pressure injuries an important issue for NPPV patients. The present study compared the effects of foam dressing and hydrocolloid dressing in preventing facial pressure injuries in NPPV patients. A randomized clinical trial was used to evaluate participants that were referred from the intensive care unit of a medical center in eastern Taiwan. Participants were randomized into two groups: the foam dressing group and the hydrocolloid dressing group. Statistics used in analysis were: analysis mean, standard deviation, chi-square, independent t-test, and the generalized estimating equation. Sixty participants were enrolled as participants. The incidence rate of facial pressure injury was 11.7% (7/60). No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of duration of NPPV use, incidence of facial pressure injury, and occurrence time of facial pressure injury. However, the hydrocolloid dressing group had a higher usage amount than the foam dressing group (p < .05). Foam and hydrocolloid dressings are both helpful in preventing facial pressure injury when used in conjunction with regular skin assessments.

  1. Social marketing to address attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian

    2018-06-01

    Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Social marketing to address attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Background Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25–55 years. Methods Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Results Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). Discussion This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. PMID:29549106

  3. Newspaper media reporting of motor vehicle crashes in Singapore: an opportunity lost for injury prevention education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth W J; Vasu, Alicia

    2010-06-01

    Newspaper media advocacy can help steer public attention away from motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries as a personal problem to that of a social and public health issue. If used properly, newspaper media is potentially a powerful mass educator on MVC prevention. However, there is often a conflict of interest in which newspapers, in an attempt to boost readership and revenue, may over-emphasize and sensationalize the human-interest aspect of an MVC story. The aim of this study is to examine newspaper articles of MVCs in Singapore to assess how our newspaper media coverage portray MVCs and identify factors that mitigate injury and educate the public on injury prevention measures. Details of the MVC were extracted from 12 months of newspaper coverage in Singapore. Two independent coders were used to establish inter-rater reliability. From 1 January to 31 December 2007, 201 articles about MVCs were published. About 74.1% of articles assigned blame to a particular road user, negligence on either road user was implied in 56.7% of articles, and road safety messages were mentioned in 8% of the articles. The mainstream communication tone used was positive for law enforcement (71.1%) and neutral towards injury prevention or road safety messages (89.1%). Newspaper media reporting of MVCs in Singapore generally does not include injury prevention messages or highlight injury-mitigating measures. This is a lost opportunity for public education. Collaboration between public health practitioners and newspaper media is required to address this issue.

  4. [Effective interventions to prevent child injuries: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Thélot, Bertrand; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Lamboy, Béatrice; Arwidson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries. Some interventions are based on environmental measures, while others are educational or use law and regulatory processes. Some are primary prevention measures, others are secondary prevention measures, while others are multidimensional and can effectively reduce several types of injuries. For example, home safety education and provision of safety equipment, or home-based parenting interventions, can have an impact on injury rates. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of the quality of the documents reviewed. It should also be stressed that interventions that are not listed in this article are not necessarily ineffective: they may simply lack a rigorous evaluation enabling them to be identified in our review.

  5. An Evidence-Based Framework for Strengthening Exercises to Prevent Hamstring Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A; Pizzari, Tania; Ruddy, Joshua D; Sims, Casey; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    Strength training is a valuable component of hamstring strain injury prevention programmes; however, in recent years a significant body of work has emerged to suggest that the acute responses and chronic adaptations to training with different exercises are heterogeneous. Unfortunately, these research findings do not appear to have uniformly influenced clinical guidelines for exercise selection in hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programmes. The purpose of this review was to provide the practitioner with an evidence-base from which to prescribe strengthening exercises to mitigate the risk of hamstring injury. Several studies have established that eccentric knee flexor conditioning reduces the risk of hamstring strain injury when compliance is adequate. The benefits of this type of training are likely to be at least partly mediated by increases in biceps femoris long head fascicle length and improvements in eccentric knee flexor strength. Therefore, selecting exercises with a proven benefit on these variables should form the basis of effective injury prevention protocols. In addition, a growing body of work suggests that the patterns of hamstring muscle activation diverge significantly between different exercises. Typically, relatively higher levels of biceps femoris long head and semimembranosus activity have been observed during hip extension-oriented movements, whereas preferential semitendinosus and biceps femoris short head activation have been reported during knee flexion-oriented movements. These findings may have implications for targeting specific muscles in injury prevention programmes. An evidence-based approach to strength training for the prevention of hamstring strain injury should consider the impact of exercise selection on muscle activation, and the effect of training interventions on hamstring muscle architecture, morphology and function. Most importantly, practitioners should consider the effect of a strength training programme on

  6. [Knowledge and practices by adolescents in preventing occupational injuries: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Roberta; Lefèvre, Ana Maria C; Lefèvre, Fernando; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Liliane R; Zinn, Lílian C S; Soares, Nilson S; Fischer, Frida M

    2007-06-01

    To describe knowledge and practices adopted by high school students to prevent occupational injuries. The study was carried out in a public school located in São Paulo, in 2003. Fifty-three evening students aged 14 to 21 years old participated the study, they were divided into two groups with and without job experience (32 and 21 students, respectively). The students answered two questions: "Why do occupational injuries occur?" and "How do you avoid occupational injuries?" Analyses were performed using the software "Quali-quanti" to structure collective discourses. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSES: Adolescents with work experience reported that occupational injuries occur due to carelessness of the employee, bad luck of the employee, employer's negligence, lack of training, and unsafe workplace. Adolescents without work experience reported that the main causes of work injuries were carelessness of the employee and employer's negligence. Regarding the ways to protect themselves against occupational injuries, both groups reported that: they pay attention (would pay attention) and wear safety equipment (would wear) safety equipment. Adolescents from both groups showed limited knowledge about occupational injuries and prevention methods. Students "blamed the victim" to explain the injuries and considered "paying attention to work" as the best way to protect themselves. These facts showed that the culture of blaming the victim is present since adolescence and probably it is an outcome of a learning process of the society.

  7. A change management approach to improving safety and preventing needle stick injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ann-Marie

    2017-09-01

    Key drivers for preventing healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) include evidence-based practices and procedures that prevent infection. Among the current guidance for preventing HCAIs is evidence and mandatory requirements for reducing needle stick injuries (NSIs). This article highlights how John Kotter's model for change could help healthcare workers plan for successful and sustained deployment of needle safety devices (NSDs) and ultimately reduce the risk of a NSI.

  8. 75 FR 21307 - Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... vehicle and unintentional fall prevention published at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... AI/AN communities. Unintentional falls reduce independence and quality of life for adults ages 65 and older. In the United States, every 18 seconds, an older adult is treated in an emergency department for...

  9. Different strategies for sports injury prevention in an America's Cup yachting crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadala, Michal; Barrios, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    To analyze the effectiveness in reducing the number of sport injuries after application of different strategies of preventive physiotherapy during competition periods in an America's Cup yachting crew. A prospective physiotherapy intervention study during competition periods for three seasons was conducted on an America's Cup yachting race crew of 30 professional sailors. In the first two acts (2004), athletes did not receive any preventive physiotherapy. In the two acts celebrated in 2005, preventive intervention (phase 1) consisted of stretching exercises before the yacht race and preventative taping. During the four acts corresponding to the 2006 season, the physiotherapy program was implemented adding articular mobilization before competition, ice baths after competition, and kinesiotaping (phase 2). In the last act and the Louis Vuitton Cup (2007), a recovery program with "core stability" exercises, postcompetition stretching exercises, and 12 h of compressive clothing were added (phase 3). In the preintervention phase (2004), the rate of injured sailors/competition day was 1.66, decreasing to 0.60 in 2007 (phase 3). The number of athletes with more than one injury was significantly reduced from 53% (8 of 15) to 6.5% (2 of 12). In the preintervention period, mastmen, grinders, and bowmen showed a rate of 2.88 injuries per competition day. After phase 3, this group only suffered 0.35 injuries per competition day. The implementation of a program of preventive physiotherapy decreased the risk of injuries suffered during competition by an America's Cup yacht crew.

  10. Trench Foot or Non-Freezing Cold Injury As a Painful Vaso-Neuropathy: Clinical and Skin Biopsy Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Anand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTrench foot, or non-freezing cold injury (NFCI, results from cold exposure of sufficient severity and duration above freezing point, with consequent sensory and vascular abnormalities which may persist for years. Based on observations of Trench foot in World War II, the condition was described as a vaso-neuropathy. While some reports have documented nerve damage after extreme cold exposure, sensory nerve fibres and vasculature have not been assessed with recent techniques in NFCI.ObjectiveTo assess patients with chronic sensory symptoms following cold exposure, in order to diagnose any underlying small fibre neuropathy, and provide insight into mechanisms of the persistent pain and cold hypersensitivity.MethodsThirty soldiers with cold exposure and persistent sensory symptoms (>4 months were assessed with quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsies. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess intraepidermal (IENF and subepidermal (SENF nerve fibres with a range of markers, including the pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, regenerating fibres with growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43, and nociceptor fibres with transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, sensory neuron-specific receptor (SNSR, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. von Willebrand factor (vWF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were used for assessing blood vessels, and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1 and P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7 for keratinocytes, which regulate nociceptors via release of nerve growth factor.ResultsClinical examination showed pinprick sensation was abnormal in the feet of 20 patients (67%, and between 67 and 83% had abnormalities of thermal thresholds to the different modalities. 7 patients (23% showed reduced sensory action potential amplitude of plantar nerves. 27 patients (90% had

  11. Tort versus no-fault: compensation and injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, J

    1987-02-01

    The tort system, as a means of compensating the victims of injury, no longer fulfills the purpose for which it was intended. The attempt to achieve a fair and rational method of compensation, especially in the areas of medical malpractice and products liability, has been displaced by a form of litigation lottery which permits attorney's fees to divert great amounts of money from victims in needs. A reform of this system is much in need and long overdue. Following a discussion of these and other problems with the tort system, this paper will present a method for ensuring the prompt settlement of most personal injury claims through payment of the victim's net economic losses. The parallels to no-fault auto insurance and workers' compensation are examined and attention is given to the likely impact of this proposal on the conduct of potential injurers and victims.

  12. USASOC Injury Prevention/Performance Optimization Musculoskeletal Screening Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ergospirometry system Arkray LactatePro blood lactate test meter Purpose: Examine aerobic capacity (VO2max/lactate threshold) Background...Preseason strength and 400   flexibility imbalances associated with athletic injuries in female collegiate athletes. Am J 401  Sports Med. 1991;19(1):76-81...125 watts for fifteen seconds. After the fifteen second preparatory phase the subject had five- seconds to sprint as fast as they could before the

  13. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    testing results of over 400 Soldiers, the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) was developed and validated (AUG 08-MAR 09- PHASE 3) for implementation...0.075 kg per kg body mass. Resistance often increases to 1.0 kg x body mass or higher (up to 1.3 kg) when testing power and sprint athletes. An...Arkray LactatePro blood lactate test meter Purpose: Examine cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) Background: The development of overuse injuries has

  14. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    30 am – 5:00 pm Overview of Blast Physics and Applications Doubletree Hotel Crystal City Arlington VA, Between the Pentagon and National Airport at...provided) 8:30 Introduction and Overview Dr. Stefan Duma, Virginia Tech Head Injury Biomechanics 8:45 “Instrumented Helmet Data Collection and Analysis...of NASA Suit Interface and Landing Conditions” Ms. Kerry Danelson, Wake Forest University 4:05 “Modeling Human Variation: Orbit Anthropometry and

  15. Measuring trauma center injury prevention activity: an assessment and reporting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Michael J; Sise, Carol Beth

    2006-02-01

    To develop an assessment and reporting tool for a trauma center's community partnership strategy to deliver injury prevention programs in a large metropolitan area. The tool was designed to track prevention activity and serve as a reporting format for the parent health system, county designating agency, and the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center Verification Process. The tool collected data including trauma center paid and volunteer personnel time, equipment, resource, and financial costs, community group and public agency contributions, number of community members receiving prevention material or presentations, impact on public policy, and print and broadcast media coverage. These measurements were incorporated in a reporting grid format. Six youth injury prevention programs were evaluated over a recent 2-year interval to demonstrate the tool's usefulness. Of six programs, three focused on motor vehicle injuries, one on teen suicide, one on firearm injuries, and one on drug and alcohol abuse. Trauma Center personnel asset allocation included 3% full-time equivalent by the Trauma Medical Director, 30% by the Injury Prevention and Community Outreach Coordinator, and 473 person hours (both work and volunteer) by physicians, nurses, and other personnel. Trauma Center equipment and fixed asset expenses totaled $3,950 and monetary contribution totaled $4,430. Community groups and public agencies contributed 20,400 person hours with estimated in-kind costs exceeding $750,000. Five of the six programs continued during the 2-year period. A gun-lock giveaway program was suspended because of a product recall. A total of over 29,000 youth received prevention material and presentations. Four public policy initiatives and 18 Trauma Center media stories with over 50 mentions and 37 new community partnerships resulted. The reports generated were easily incorporated in the trauma center's reports to local and national organizations and agencies. This assessment tool

  16. Prevention of child injuries during tornadoes: cases from the 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine M; Baker, Mark D; Monroe, Kathy W

    2012-12-01

    Tornadoes and violent weather pose a hazard to children, yet little is known about the use of personal protective devices during storms. An outbreak of tornadoes on April 27, 2011, resulted in the deaths of 23 children in Alabama. Records from 60 patients seen in a pediatric emergency department for tornado-related injuries were reviewed to identify the use of injury prevention devices. Three children directly exposed to a violent tornado (Enhanced Fujita Scale 4) were using safety equipment, specifically, a helmet and infant car seats. These 3 children sustained only minor injuries. Personal protective devices may have played a role in preventing child injuries from tornadoes. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature on helmet and infant car seat use as child protective devices during tornadoes.

  17. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.

  18. Guarding the precious smile: incidence and prevention of injury in sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-07-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession.

  19. Perceptions of injury prevention and familial adjustment among mothers of teen parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Duzinski, Sarah V; Brown, Juliette M; Lawson, Karla A

    2015-02-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death for infants and children. Teen mothering has been shown to put children at increased risk of injury. The mothers of teen parents often play a predominant role in the lives and caregiving of the children born to their children. This article presents the findings of three focus groups conducted with 21 mothers of teen parents. Grounded theory methodology was used to explore family dynamics and how they relate to injury prevention beliefs and practices regarding infants and children. Our findings revealed the difficulty mothers of teen parents and the teens themselves have in adjusting to the knowledge of the pregnancy. Unique barriers to injury prevention were also uncovered. Our findings provide evidence for the need of a multigenerational approach to programs aimed at improving the safety and well-being of children in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What is the best clothing to prevent heat and cold stress? Experiences with thermal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Z; Tamas, R

    2013-02-01

    The present study summarizes the current knowledge of the heat and cold stress which might significantly affect military activities and might also occur among travellers who are not well adapted to weather variations during their journey. The selection of the best clothing is a very important factor in preserving thermal comfort. Our experiences with thermal manikin are also represented in this paper.

  1. Epidemiology of electrical and lightning-related injuries among Canadian children and youth, 1997-2010: A Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhrer, Madeleine; Stewart, Samuel A; Hurley, Katrina F

    2017-06-27

    Introduction Although death due to electrical injury and lightning are rare in children, these injuries are often preventable. Twenty years ago, most injuries occurred at home, precipitated by oral contact with electrical cords, contact with wall sockets and faulty electrical equipment. We sought to assess the epidemiology of electrical injuries in children presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) that participate in the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). This study is a retrospective review of electrical and lightning injury data from CHIRPP. The study population included children and youth aged 0-19 presenting to participating CHIRPP EDs from 1997-2010. Age, sex, year, setting, circumstance and disposition were extracted. Variables were tested using Fisher's exact test and simple linear regression. The dataset included 1183 electrical injuries, with 84 (7%) resulting in hospitalization. Most events occurred at home in the 2-5 year age group and affected the hands. Since 1997 there has been a gradual decrease in the number of electrical injuries per year (plightning were rare (n=19). No deaths were recorded in the database. Despite the decrease in the number of electrical injuries per year, a large portion of injuries still appear to be preventable. Further research should focus on effective injury prevention strategies.

  2. Prevention of occupational injuries: Evidence for effective good practices in foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, Stefano; Calza, Stefano; Arici, Cecilia

    2017-02-01

    Occupational injuries are a relevant research and practical issue. However, intervention studies evaluating the effectiveness of workplace injury prevention programs are seldom performed. The effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention aimed at reducing occupational injury rates (incidence/employment-based=IR, frequency/hours-based=FR, severity=SR) was evaluated between 2008 and 2013 in 29 Italian foundries (22 ferrous; 7 non-ferrous; 3,460 male blue collar workers/year) of varying sizes. Each foundry established an internal multidisciplinary prevention team for risk assessment, monitoring and prevention of occupational injuries, involving employers, occupational physicians, safety personnel, workers' representatives, supervisors. Targets of intervention were workers, equipment, organization, workplace, job tasks. An interrupted time series (ITS) design was applied. 4,604 occupational injuries and 83,156 lost workdays were registered between 2003 and 2013. Statistical analysis showed, after intervention, a reduction of all injury rates (-26% IR, -15% FR, -18% SR) in ferrous foundries and of SR (-4%) in non-ferrous foundries. A significant (p=0.021) 'step-effect' was shown for IR in ferrous foundries, independent of secular trends (pgood external validity; promotion of effective good practices. Main limitations were the non-randomized nature and a medium length post-intervention period. In conclusion, a multifaceted, pragmatic and accountable intervention is effective in reducing the burden of occupational injuries in small-, medium- and large-sized foundries. Practical Applications: The study poses the basis for feasible good practice guidelines to be implemented to prevent occupational injuries, by means of sector-specific numerical benchmarks, with potentially relevant impacts on workers, companies, occupational health professionals and society at large. Copyright © 2016 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Child Access Prevention Laws on Non-Fatal Gun Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone; Sara Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many states have passed child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold the gun owner responsible if a child gains access to a gun that is not securely stored. Previous CAP law research has focused exclusively on gun-related deaths even though most gun injuries are not fatal. We use annual hospital discharge data from 1988-2001 to investigate whether CAP laws decrease non-fatal gun injuries. Results from Poisson regressions that control for various hospital, county and state characteristics, i...

  4. Youth injury prevention in Canada: use of the Delphi method to develop recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Ian; Piedt, Shannon; Davison, Colleen M; Russell, Kelly; Macpherson, Alison K; Pickett, William

    2015-12-22

    The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey is one of very few cross-national health surveys that includes information on injury occurrence and prevention within adolescent populations. A collaboration to develop a Canadian youth injury report using these data resulted in, Injury among Young Canadians: A national study of contextual determinants. The objective of this study was to develop specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations arising from the national report, using a modified-Delphi process with a panel of expert stakeholders. Eight injury prevention experts and a 3-person youth advisory team associated with a Canadian injury prevention organization (Parachute Canada) reviewed, edited and commented on report recommendations through a three-stage iterative modified-Delphi process. From an initial list of 27 draft recommendations, the modified-Delphi process resulted in a final list of 19 specific recommendations, worded to resonate with the group(s) responsible to lead or take the recommended action. Two recommendations were rated as "extremely important" or "very important" by 100 % of the expert panel, two were deleted, a further two recommendations were deleted but the content included as text in the report, and four were merged with other existing recommendations. The modified-Delphi process was an appropriate method to achieve agreement on 19 specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations to complement the national youth injury report. In providing their input, it is noted that the injury stakeholders each acted as individual experts, unattached to any organizational position or policy. These recommendations will require multidisciplinary collaborations in order to support the proposed policy development, additional research, programming and clear decision-making for youth injury prevention.

  5. Renal denervation prevents long-term sequelae of ischemic renal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinu; Padanilam, Babu J.

    2014-01-01

    Signals that drive interstitial fibrogenesis after renal ischemia reperfusion injury remain undefined. Sympathetic activation is manifest even in the early clinical stages of chronic kidney disease and is directly related to disease severity. A role for renal nerves in renal interstitial fibrogenesis in the setting of ischemia reperfusion injury has not been studied. In male 129S1/SvImJ mice, ischemia reperfusion injury induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis as indicated by collagen deposition and profibrotic protein expression 4 to 16 days after the injury.. Leukocyte influx, proinflammatory protein expression, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase were enhanced after ischemia reperfusion injury. Renal denervation at the time of injury or up to 1 day post-injury improved histology, decreased proinflammatory/profibrotic responses and apoptosis, and prevented G2/M cell cycle arrest in the kidney. Treatment with afferent nerve-derived calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or efferent nerve-derived norepinephrine in denervated and ischemia reperfusion injury-induced kidneys mimicked innervation, restored inflammation and fibrosis, induced G2/M arrest, and enhanced TGF-β1 activation. Blocking norepinephrine or CGRP function using respective receptor blockers prevented these effects. Consistent with the in vivo study, treatment with either norepinephrine or CGRP induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HK-2 proximal tubule cells, whereas antagonists against their respective receptors prevented G2/M arrest. Thus, renal nerve stimulation is a primary mechanism and renal nerve-derived factors drive epithelial cell cycle arrest and the inflammatory cascade causing interstitial fibrogenesis after ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:25207878

  6. Assessing injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents to more effectively prevent fatal bicycle injuries in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomei, Sayaka; Hitosugi, Masahito; Ikegami, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shogo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents and patient outcome or type of vehicle involved in order to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicycle injuries. Hospital records were reviewed for all patients from 2007 to 2010 who had been involved in a traffic accident while riding a bicycle and were subsequently transferred to the Shock Trauma Center of Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital. Patient outcomes and type of vehicle that caused the injury were examined. The mechanism of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of the patient were determined. A total of 115 patients' records were reviewed. The mean patient age was 47.1 ± 27.4 years. The average ISS was 23.9, with an average maximum AIS (MAIS) score of 3.7. The ISS, MAIS score, head AIS score, and chest AIS score were well correlated with patient outcome. The head AIS score was significantly higher in patients who had died (mean of 4.4); however, the ISS, MAIS score, and head AIS score did not differ significantly according to the type of vehicle involved in the accident. The mean head AIS scores were as high as 2.4 or more for accidents involving any type of vehicle. This study provides useful information for forensic pathologists who suspect head injuries in bicyclists involved in traffic accidents. To effectively reduce bicyclist fatalities from traffic accidents, helmet use should be required for all bicyclists.

  7. Data visualisation in surveillance for injury prevention and control: conceptual bases and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramon; Ordunez, Pedro; Soliz, Patricia N; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of current injury-related health issues demands the usage of diverse and massive data sets for comprehensive analyses, and application of novel methods to communicate data effectively to the public health community, decision-makers and the public. Recent advances in information visualisation, availability of new visual analytic methods and tools, and progress on information technology provide an opportunity for shaping the next generation of injury surveillance. To introduce data visualisation conceptual bases, and propose a visual analytic and visualisation platform in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. The paper introduces data visualisation conceptual bases, describes a visual analytic and visualisation platform, and presents two real-world case studies illustrating their application in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Application of visual analytic and visualisation platform is presented as solution for improved access to heterogeneous data sources, enhance data exploration and analysis, communicate data effectively, and support decision-making. Applications of data visualisation concepts and visual analytic platform could play a key role to shape the next generation of injury surveillance. Visual analytic and visualisation platform could improve data use, the analytic capacity, and ability to effectively communicate findings and key messages. The public health surveillance community is encouraged to identify opportunities to develop and expand its use in injury prevention and control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Exercise-Based Interventions for Injury Prevention in Tackle Collision Ball Sports: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James

    2017-09-01

    The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.

  9. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (pconstruction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm trousers, underpants, warm socks, shoe warmer and muffler in the traffic control workers were significantly higher than the construction workers. The

  10. The effectiveness of injury-prevention programs in reducing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament sprains in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkewicz, Jeffrey; Webb, Tristen; Waters, Brian; Welch McCarty, Cailee; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2012-11-01

    There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in adolescents participating in pivoting sports such as soccer, basketball, and handball. Most ACL injuries in athletes are noncontact injuries, with a mechanism of sudden deceleration, change in direction, or landing from a jump. These mechanisms coupled with an increase in contraction of the quadriceps have been shown as risk factors for ACL injuries. Injuries to the ACL may require surgery, a long rehabilitation, and the potential for reinjury. Studies have shown reductions in lower extremity injury rates using training protocols that focus on landing mechanics, balance training, strength training, and/or agility training. There has been some thought that starting preventive training programs with adolescent athletes may be the most effective approach to reducing adolescent ACL injuries. Can lower extremity injury-prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury rates in adolescent athletes?

  11. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  12. History of Injury and Violence as public health problems and emergence of the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleet, David A; Baldwin, Grant; Marr, Angela; Spivak, Howard; Patterson, Sara; Morrison, Christine; Holmes, Wendy; Peeples, Amy B; Degutis, Linda C

    2012-09-01

    Injuries and violence are among the oldest health problems facing humans. Only within the past 50 years, however, has the problem been addressed with scientific rigor using public health methods. The field of injury control began as early as 1913, but wasn't approached systematically or epidemiologically until the 1940s and 1950s. It accelerated rapidly between 1960 and 1985. Coupled with active federal and state interest in reducing injuries and violence, this period was marked by important medical, scientific, and public health advances. The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) was an outgrowth of this progress and in 2012 celebrated its 20th anniversary. NCIPC was created in 1992 after a series of government reports identified injury as one of the most important public health problems facing the nation. Congressional action provided the impetus for the creation of NCIPC as the lead federal agency for non-occupational injury and violence prevention. In subsequent years, NCIPC and its partners fostered many advances and built strong capacity. Because of the tragically high burden and cost of injuries and violence in the United States and around the globe, researchers, practitioners, and decision makers will need to redouble prevention efforts in the next 20 years. This article traces the history of injury and violence prevention as a public health priority-- including the evolution and current structure of the CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preventive and curative effects of acupuncture on the common cold: a multicentre randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Kenji; Shichidou, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Etsuko; Nabeta, Tomoyuki; Kitakouji, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Shigekatsu; Nishida, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Takahashi, Norihito; Yano, Tadashi; Tanzawa, Syouhachi

    2004-12-01

    To determine the preventive and curative effects of manual acupuncture on the symptoms of the common cold. Students and staff in five Japanese acupuncture schools (n=326) were randomly allocated to acupuncture and no-treatment control groups. A specific needling point (Y point) on the neck was used bilaterally. Fine acupuncture needles were gently manipulated for 15 s, evoking de qi sensation. Acupuncture treatments were performed four times during the 2-week experimental period with a 2-week follow-up period. A common cold diary was scored daily for 4 weeks, and a common cold questionnaire was scored before each acupuncture treatment and twice at weekly intervals. A reliability test for the questionnaire was performed on the last day of recording. Five of the 326 subjects who were recruited dropped out. The diary score in the acupuncture group tended to decrease after treatment, but the difference between groups was not significant (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log rank test P=0.53, Cox regression analysis, P>0.05). Statistically significantly fewer symptoms were reported in the questionnaire by the acupuncture group than control group (P=0.024, general linear model, repeated measure). Significant inter-centre (Pcold. A significantly positive effect of acupuncture was demonstrated in the summed questionnaire data, although a highly significant inter-centre difference was observed. Needling on the neck using the Japanese fine needle manipulating technique was shown to be effective and safe. The use of acupuncture for symptoms of the common cold symptoms should be considered, although further evidence from placebo controlled RCTs is required.

  14. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongren, J. Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children’s movies released in 1995–2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children’s movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G-and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008–2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45 %) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29 %) children and 428 (71 %) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59 % (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70 %) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30 %) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7 %) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29 %) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41 % of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted. PMID:25476034

  15. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Andrew R; Tongren, J Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children's movies released in 1995-2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children's movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G- and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008-2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45%) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29%) children and 428 (71%) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59% (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70%) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30%) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7%) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29%) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41% of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted.

  16. 77 FR 74695 - Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... backovers may be prevented by new technology or other methods, and how effective those measures are. DATES..., DC. 2. University of Texas at Arlington, OSHA Education Center, Bluebonnet Ballroom in the University... Communications, Room N-3647, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210...

  17. Artemesia annua extract prevents glyoxal-induced cell injury in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, treatment of HRECs with Artemesia annua extract ... Artemesia annua can potentially be used for the development of a new drug for the prevention ..... species down regulate glucose transport system in ... hypoxic conditions and its effects on the blood-retinal ... brain beta-amyloid precursor protein in a rat model of.

  18. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of chemical injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Werner, Charles L; Gubler, K Dean

    2005-01-01

    Chemical injuries are commonly encountered following exposure to acids and alkali, including hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, anhydrous ammonia, cement, and phenol. Other specific agents that cause chemical burns include white phosphorus, elemental metals, nitrates, hydrocarbons, and tar. Even though there are more than 65,000 chemicals available on the market, and an estimated 60,000 new chemicals produced each year, the potential deleterious effects of these chemicals on humans are still unknown. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act contains extensive provisions for emergency planning and the rights of communities to know about toxic chemical releases. Since 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has maintained an active, state-based Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system to describe the public health consequences risked by access to hazardous chemicals. Most chemical agents damage the skin by producing a chemical reaction rather than hyperthermic injury. Although some chemicals produce considerable heat as a result of an exothermic reaction when they come in contact with water, their ability to produce direct chemical changes on the skin accounts for the most skin injury. Specific chemical changes depend on the agent, including acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizing and reducing agents, desiccants, vesicants, and protoplasmic poisons. The concentration of toxic agent and duration of its contact primarily determine degree of skin destruction. Hazardous materials (hazmats) are substances that may injure life and damage the environment if improperly handled. HAZMAT accidents are particularly dangerous for responding personnel, who are in danger from the moment of arrival on the scene until containment of the accident. Consequently, the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act mandates community preparedness for dealing with hazmat accidents. Paramedics and members of the hazmat response team

  19. Vertebral artery injury in cervical spine surgery: anatomical considerations, management, and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chan W; Chou, Benedict T; Bendo, John A; Spivak, Jeffrey M

    2009-01-01

    Vertebral artery (VA) injury can be a catastrophic iatrogenic complication of cervical spine surgery. Although the incidence is rare, it has serious consequences including fistulas, pseudoaneurysm, cerebral ischemia, and death. It is therefore imperative to be familiar with the anatomy and the instrumentation techniques when performing anterior or posterior cervical spine surgeries. To provide a review of VA injury during common anterior and posterior cervical spine procedures with an evaluation of the surgical anatomy, management, and prevention of this injury. Comprehensive literature review. A systematic review of Medline for articles related to VA injury in cervical spine surgery was conducted up to and including journal articles published in 2007. The literature was then reviewed and summarized. Overall, the risk of VA injury during cervical spine surgery is low. In anterior cervical procedures, lateral dissection puts the VA at the most risk, so sound anatomical knowledge and constant reference to the midline are mandatory during dissection. With the development and rise in popularity of posterior cervical stabilization and instrumentation, recognition of the dangers of posterior drilling and insertion of transarticular screws and pedicle screws is important. Anomalous vertebral anatomy increases the risk of injury and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography (CT) scans should be carefully reviewed. When the VA is injured, steps should be taken to control local bleeding. Permanent occlusion or ligation should only be attempted if it is known that the contralateral VA is capable of providing adequate collateral circulation. With the advent of endovascular repair, this treatment option can be considered when a VA injury is encountered. VA injury during cervical spine surgery is a rare but serious complication. It can be prevented by careful review of preoperative imaging studies, having a sound anatomical knowledge and paying attention

  20. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention.

  1. Mechanical injuries of the eye: Incidence, structure and possibilities for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2010-01-01

    .2% occurred while doing some work out of professional working place, while only 25.4% injuries occurred at the working place. Most of the patients (30.3% had visual acuity L+P+ (light perception with correct projection only, on attendance, but it varied from complete blindness to 1.0. There were 1 282 blunt injuries (contusion (47.5% and 1 373 penetrating eyeball injuries (50.8%, while the rest (1.7% were injuries of ocular adnexa. Most of the primary surgical treatments (63.7% were done in the first 24 hours from the moment of the injury. At dismiss, visual acuity was normal in 53.2%, the eye was blind in 19.1% injured patients. Conclusion. The results of this study showed that the injuries occurred most frequently in actively working people and pupils, that men were injured five times more often than women; that wood, sharp objects and glass were the most common means, that there was an equal number of blunt injuries and penetrating wounds, and that it was very important to treat injury promptly, preferably within the first 24 hours. By further analysis, it might be concluded that many injuries could have been prevented, avoiding long medical treatment and accompanying costs, and what is most important - permanent invalidity caused by reduced visual function or blindness of the injured eye is avoidable.

  2. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Cusimano

    Full Text Available In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13-15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey.Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player's social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players' need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors.This study provides a better understanding of the players' motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules.

  3. Aggression, Violence and Injury in Minor League Ice Hockey: Avenues for Prevention of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J; Pauley, Christopher R; Stulberg, Jennifer R; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13-15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player's social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players' need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of the players' motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules.

  4. The development and application of a cold atmospheric plasma generator for treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Petrova, N. O.; Smirnova, N. V.; Shemet, M. V.

    2017-08-01

    We describe a device for obtaining cold plasma in air at atmospheric pressure using a system of positive high-voltage pin electrodes, which is intended for the treatment of skin and soft-tissue injuries in animals. Plasma is generated due to the development of periodic pulsed discharge of nanosecond duration at current pulse amplitudes 10-20 mA, characteristic frequencies 10-20 kHz, and applied voltages within 8-10 kV. The high efficacy of the proposed device and method is confirmed by the good clinical results of treating large domestic animals with traumatic injuries.

  5. Developing a Mobile App for Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomé, Geraldo Magela; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2018-02-01

    This descriptive study describes the planning and development of a mobile application (app) for prevention and treatment of pressure injuries for use by providers in a university research center. The app delineates risk factors for pressure injury development, provides an evaluation of the wound, recommends wound cleansing procedures, performs pressure injury staging, and recommends treatment interventions. A mobile app was developed using a contextualized instructional design, which involves a constructivist proposal and planning, developing, and applying specific didactic situations, thus incorporating mechanisms that favor contextualization. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies for the construction of the mobile app. The development process involved the selection of app tools, definition of the navigation structure, and planning of the environment configuration. The environment for downloading the app software on the Internet and installing it on the mobile device was created. The literature search yielded 18 articles, 2 books, and 1 master's degree thesis. A mobile app was created with an easy-to-use graphic interface. The app stores the patient's demographic characteristics and provides an evaluation of his/her wound, a list of risk factors for pressure injury development, wound cleansing procedures, and treatment interventions. The developed app may be useful in clinical practice, helping to prevent pressure injuries and promote select nursing interventions for the treatment of patients with pressure injury.

  6. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players? : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, A M C; van der Horst, Nick; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Backx, Frank J G

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training programmes to reduce the incidence of injuries in soccer. The databases EMBASE/MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, PEDro and SPORTDiscus™ were searched for relevant articles, from inception until 20 December 2011. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The inclusion criteria for this review were (1) randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials; (2) primary outcome of the study is the number of soccer injuries and/or injury incidence; (3) intervention focusing on a preventive training programme, including a set of exercises aimed at improving strength, coordination, flexibility or agility; and (4) study sample of soccer players (no restrictions as to level of play, age or sex). The exclusion criteria were: (1) the article was not available as full text; (2) the article was not published in English, German or Dutch; and (3) the trial and/or training programme relates only to specific injuries and/or specific joints. To compare the effects of the different interventions, we calculated the incidence risk ratio (IRR) for each study. Six studies involving a total of 6,099 participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies were contradictory. Two of the six studies (one of high and one of moderate quality) reported a statistical significant reduction in terms of their primary outcome, i.e. injuries overall. Four of the six studies described an overall preventive effect (IRRbased programmes to prevent soccer injuries. Some reasons for the contradictory findings could be different study samples (in terms of sex and soccer type) in the included studies, differences between

  7. Preventing musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult volleyball players: design of a randomised prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Zwerver, Johannes; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-08-02

    Both acute and overuse injuries are common among recreational volleyball players, especially finger/wrist, ankle, shoulder and knee injuries. Consequently, an intervention ('VolleyVeilig') was developed to prevent or reduce the occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among recreational volleyball players. This article describes the design of a study evaluating the effectiveness of the developed intervention on the one-season occurrence of finger/wrist, shoulder, knee and ankle injuries among recreational adult volleyball players. A randomized prospective controlled trial with a follow-up period of one volleyball season will be conducted. Participants will be healthy recreational adult volleyball players (18 years of age or older) practicing volleyball (training and/or match) at least twice a week. The intervention ('VolleyVeilig') consists of a warm-up program based on more than 50 distinct exercises (with different variations and levels). The effect of the intervention programme on the occurrence of injuries will be compared to volleyball as usual. Outcome measures will be incidence of acute injury (expressed as number of injuries per 1000 h of play) and prevalence of overuse injuries (expressed as percentage). This study will be one of the first randomized prospective controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention on the occurrence of both acute and overuse injuries among recreational adult volleyball players. Outcome of this study could possibly lead to the nationwide implementation of the intervention in all volleyball clubs in The Netherlands, ultimately resulting in less injuries. Dutch Trial Registration NTR6202 , registered February 1st 2017. Version 3, February 2017.

  8. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  9. Development of Injuries Prevention Policies in Mexico: A Big Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Cantón Croda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering that Mexican injuries prevention strategies have been focused on injuries caused by car accidents and gender violence, a whole analysis of the injuries registered are performed in this paper to have a wider overview of those agents that can cause injuries around the country. Taking into account the amount of information from both public and private sources, obtained from dynamic cubes reported by the Minister of Health, Big Data strategies are used with the objective of finding an appropriate extraction such as to identify the real correlations between the different variables registered by the Health Sector. The results of the analysis show areas of opportunity to improve the public policies on the subject, particularly in diminishing wounds at living place, public road (pedestrians and work.

  10. Effects of knee injury primary prevention programs on anterior cruciate ligament injury rates in female athletes in different sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelidis, Michael; Koumantakis, George A

    2014-08-01

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is frequently encountered in sports. To analyze the effects of ACL injury prevention programs on injury rates in female athletes between different sports. A comprehensive literature search was performed in September 2012 using Pubmed Central, Science Direct, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus. The key words used were: 'anterior cruciate ligament', 'ACL', 'knee joint', 'knee injuries', 'female', 'athletes', 'neuromuscular', 'training', 'prevention'. The inclusion criteria applied were: (1) ACL injury prevention training programs for female athletes; (2) Athlete-exposure data reporting; (3) Effect of training on ACL incidence rates for female athletes. 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three training programs in soccer and one in handball led to reduced ACL injury incidence. In basketball no effective training intervention was found. In season training was more effective than preseason in ACL injury prevention. A combination of strength training, plyometrics, balance training, technique monitoring with feedback, produced the most favorable results. Comparing the main components of ACL injury prevention programs for female athletes, some sports-dependent training specificity issues may need addressing in future studies, related primarily to the individual biomechanics of each sport but also their most effective method of delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the importance of planned health education: Prevention of ski injury as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, G.; Bouter, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The planning of health education aimed at preventing sports injuries is often incomplete and not stated explicitly. In most instances, the evaluation is incomplete or nonexistent. We present a theoretical framework for planning and evaluating health education, illustrating the main points by using

  12. The prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball : the systematic development of an intervention and its feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic

  13. The prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: the systematic development of an intervention and its feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; van Sluis, Marije; Verhagen, Evert; Zwerver, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development

  14. Neuroplus biofeedback improves attention, resilience, and injury prevention in elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciano, Aiace; Corradini, Giuliano; Stoianov, Ivilin

    2017-06-01

    Performance and injury prevention in elite soccer players are typically investigated from physical-tactical, biomechanical, and metabolic perspectives. However, executive functions, visuospatial abilities, and psychophysiological adaptability or resilience are also fundamental for efficiency and well-being in sports. Based on previous research associating autonomic flexibility with prefrontal cortical control, we designed a novel integrated autonomic biofeedback training method called Neuroplus to improve resilience, visual attention, and injury prevention. Herein, we introduce the method and provide an evaluation of 20 elite soccer players from the Italian Soccer High Division (Serie-A): 10 players trained with Neuroplus and 10 trained with a control treatment. The assessments included psychophysiological stress profiles, a visual search task, and indexes of injury prevention, which were measured pre- and posttreatment. The analysis showed a significant enhancement of physiological adaptability, recovery following stress, visual selective attention, and injury prevention that were specific to the Neuroplus group. Enhancing the interplay between autonomic and cognitive functions through biofeedback may become a key principle for obtaining excellence and well-being in sports. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that shows improvement in visual selective attention following intense autonomic biofeedback. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. 76 FR 20355 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement... Research Network (MD STARnet); Feasibility of Expansion to Other Muscular Dystrophies (FOA) DD11-006... Network (MD STARnet); Feasibility of Expansion to Other Muscular Dystrophies (FOA) DD11-006, initial...

  16. Retention of movement technique : Implications for primary prevention of ACL injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, Wouter; Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Otten, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Retention of movement technique is crucial in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs. It is unknown if specific instructions or video instructions result in changes in kinematic and kinetic measures during a relatively short training session, and in a retention test

  17. Internet-Based Early Intervention to Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Injury Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J. Carel; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Bakker, Fred C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine

  18. Internet-based early intervention to prevent poststraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: Randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, J.; Sijbrandij, M.; de Vries, G.J.; Reitsma, J.B.; van de Schoot, R.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Bakker, F.C.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Olff, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine

  19. A Novel Method to Prevent Phrenic Nerve Injury During Catheter Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Eric; Vaseghi, Marmar; Cesario, David A; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2006-01-01

    Epicardial catheter ablation is increasingly important in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Collateral damage to adjacent structures like the phrenic nerve is an important concern with epicardial ablation. This report describes the use of a novel method to prevent phrenic nerve injury during epicardial ablation of ventricular tachycardia.

  20. Prevention Practice Differences Among Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries Who Rarely Versus Frequently Sustain Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Marini, Irmo; Slate, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are common among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and not only are costly to treat but also affect the quality of life of those affected by them. Despite a plethora of literature on prevention, there are few wellness studies focusing on the practices of people who do not develop pressure ulcers. This preliminary study sought to…

  1. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI) injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sukdeb; Chatterjee, Koel; Kline, Robert H; Wiley, Ronald G

    2010-01-27

    Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI) is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI) model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats sacrificed at 15, 30 and 90 days were used for anatomic analyses. Behavioural tests included hindpaw withdrawal responses to topical acetone, cold plate testing, an operant thermal preference task and hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical probing. All nocifensive responses to cold increased and remained enhanced for >45 days. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds decreased for 25 days only. Densitometric analyses of immunoperoxidase staining in the superficial dorsal horn at L4-5 revealed decreased cholecystokinin (CCK) staining at all times after bCCI, decreased mu opiate receptor (MOR) staining, maximal at 15 days, increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) staining only at days 15 and 30, and increased neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) staining at all time points, maximal at 15 days. Correlation analyses at 45 days post-bCCI, were significant for individual rat nocifensive responses in each cold test and CCK and NK-1R, but not for MOR or NPY. These results confirm the usefulness of cold testing in bCCI rats, a new approach using CCI to model neuropathic pain, and suggest a potential value of studying the roles of dorsal horn CCK and substance P in chronic neuropathic pain. Compared to human subjects with neuropathic pain, responses to cold stimuli in rats with bCCI may be a useful model of neuropathic pain.

  2. Behavioral and anatomical characterization of the bilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction (bCCI injury: correlation of anatomic changes and responses to cold stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unilateral constrictive sciatic nerve injury (uCCI is a common neuropathic pain model. However, the bilateral constrictive injury (bCCI model is less well studied, and shows unique characteristics. In the present study, we sought to correlate effects of bCCI on nocifensive responses to cold and mechanical stimuli with selected dorsal horn anatomic markers. bCCI or sham ligation of both rat sciatic nerves were followed up to 90 days of behavioural testing. Additional rats sacrificed at 15, 30 and 90 days were used for anatomic analyses. Behavioural tests included hindpaw withdrawal responses to topical acetone, cold plate testing, an operant thermal preference task and hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical probing. Results All nocifensive responses to cold increased and remained enhanced for >45 days. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds decreased for 25 days only. Densitometric analyses of immunoperoxidase staining in the superficial dorsal horn at L4-5 revealed decreased cholecystokinin (CCK staining at all times after bCCI, decreased mu opiate receptor (MOR staining, maximal at 15 days, increased neuropeptide Y (NPY staining only at days 15 and 30, and increased neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R staining at all time points, maximal at 15 days. Correlation analyses at 45 days post-bCCI, were significant for individual rat nocifensive responses in each cold test and CCK and NK-1R, but not for MOR or NPY. Conclusions These results confirm the usefulness of cold testing in bCCI rats, a new approach using CCI to model neuropathic pain, and suggest a potential value of studying the roles of dorsal horn CCK and substance P in chronic neuropathic pain. Compared to human subjects with neuropathic pain, responses to cold stimuli in rats with bCCI may be a useful model of neuropathic pain.

  3. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP’s overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools—designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product—is revealing eCHIRPP’s potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends.

  4. Elastic Bandaging for Orthopedic- and Sports-Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Billis, Evdokia; Matzaroglou, Charalampos; Mylonas, Konstantinos; Koutsojannis, Constantinos; Tsepis, Elias

    2017-05-01

    Elastic bandages are commonly used in sports to treat and prevent sport injuries. To conduct a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of elastic bandaging in orthopedic- and sports-injury prevention and rehabilitation. The researchers searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) with keywords elastic bandaging in combination, respectively, with first aid, sports injuries, orthopedic injuries, and sports injuries prevention and rehabilitation. Research studies were selected based on the use of the term elastic bandaging in the abstract. Final selection was made by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the full text. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed clinical trials written in English on the effects of elastic bandaging for orthopedic-injury prevention and rehabilitation. Twelve studies met the criteria and were included in the final analysis. Data collected included number of participants, condition being treated, treatment used, control group, outcome measures, and results. Studies were critically analyzed using the PEDro scale. The studies in this review fell into 2 categories: studies in athletes (n = 2) and nonathletes (n = 10). All included trials had moderate to high quality, scoring ≥5 on the PEDro scale. The PEDro scores for the studies in athletes and nonathletes ranged from 5 to 6 out of 10 and from 5 to 8 out of 10, respectively. The quality of studies was mixed, ranging from higher- to moderate-quality methodological clinical trials. Overall, elastic bandaging can assist proprioceptive function of knee and ankle joint. Because of the moderate methodological quality and insufficient number of clinical trials, further effects of elastic bandaging could not be confirmed.

  5. The role of the mouthguard in the prevention of sports-related dental injuries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, P R; Tran, D C; Cooke, M S

    2001-11-01

    This paper examines the literature dealing with oral-facial injuries received during participation in sport and the possibilities open to athletes for their prevention. In particular, the paper examines five different aspects of this topic: the risk of dental injury while playing sports, the role of the mouthguard in preventing injury, types of athletic mouthguard, implications for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and behavioural aspects of mouthguard wear. It is clear from this review that participation in a number of sports does carry a considerable risk of sustaining dental injury, not only in the so-called contact sports such as rugby and hockey, but also in less obviously dangerous sports such as basketball. Although some evidence exists to the contrary, the majority of studies have found the mouthguard to be the most effective way of preventing such injuries. It is also clear that the custom-fabricated mouthguard, in particular the pressure-laminated variety, is seen to afford most protection. Athletes undergoing orthodontic treatment present a particular problem as they are potentially at greater risk of injury because of increased tooth mobility and the presence of orthodontic appliances. The fabrication of mouthguards for these patients is also problematic and the literature covering this is reviewed. As with other preventive measures, mouthguard usage is often less than the dental profession would like; the reasons for this are explored in a small number of studies. While much progress has been made in this area, the profession could do much more to promote the greater use of mouthguards.

  6. Melatonin prevents possible radiotherapy-induced thyroid injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıcıgil, Mitat; Dündar, Mehmet Akif; Yücel, Abitter; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Akif; Aktan, Meryem; Alan, Mehmet Akif; Fındık, Sıdıka; Kılınç, İbrahim

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin in radiotherapy-induced thyroid gland injury in an experimental rat model. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: the control group, melatonin treatment group, radiotherapy group and melatonin plus radiotherapy group. The neck region of each rat was defined by simulation and radiated with 2 Gray (Gy) per min with 6-MV photon beams, for a total dose of 18 Gy. Melatonin was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg through intraperitoneal injection, 15 min prior to radiation exposure. Thirty days after the beginning of the study, rats were decapitated and analyses of blood and thyroid tissue were performed. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the radiotherapy group were significantly higher than those in the melatonin plus radiotherapy group (p melatonin plus radiotherapy group (p melatonin plus radiotherapy group (p Melatonin helped protect thyroid gland structure against the undesired cytotoxic effects of radiotherapy in rats.

  7. Syndecan-1 is required to maintain intradermal fat and prevent cold stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Kasza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic temperature regulation is fundamental to mammalian physiology and is controlled by acute and chronic responses of local, endocrine and nervous regulators. Here, we report that loss of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, syndecan-1, causes a profoundly depleted intradermal fat layer, which provides crucial thermogenic insulation for mammals. Mice without syndecan-1 enter torpor upon fasting and show multiple indicators of cold stress, including activation of the stress checkpoint p38α in brown adipose tissue, liver and lung. The metabolic phenotype in mutant mice, including reduced liver glycogen, is rescued by housing at thermoneutrality, suggesting that reduced insulation in cool temperatures underlies the observed phenotypes. We find that syndecan-1, which functions as a facultative lipoprotein uptake receptor, is required for adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Intradermal fat shows highly dynamic differentiation, continuously expanding and involuting in response to hair cycle and ambient temperature. This physiology probably confers a unique role for Sdc1 in this adipocyte sub-type. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone rescues Sdc1-/- intradermal adipose tissue, placing PPARγ downstream of Sdc1 in triggering adipocyte differentiation. Our study indicates that disruption of intradermal adipose tissue development results in cold stress and complex metabolic pathology.

  8. 75 FR 40845 - Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at Structure Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... NIOSH 141-A] Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at... publication entitled ``Preventing Deaths and Injuries of Fire Fighters Using Risk Management Principles at... fires in unoccupied structures to using established risk management principles at all structure fires...

  9. Diagnosis, injury and prevention of internal radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure is classified into three categories: external exposure, surface contamination, and internal exposure (also called internal contamination). Internal exposure is an exposure by the ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive materials taken into a human body. Uptake of radioactive materials can go through inhalation, ingestion, or wound contamination. Not like external exposure, alpha ray or beta ray, which has a limited penetration, is also important in internal exposure. Diagnosis of internal exposure is based on measurement and dose assessment in addition to the history taking. Two methods, direct measurement and/or bioassay (indirect measurement), are used for the measurement. These measurements provide information of radioactive materials in the body at the time of the measurement. The exposure dose to the body needs to be calculated in a process of dose assessment, based on the results of these measurements and history of intake, either acute intake or chronic intake. Another method, measurement of environmental samples or food stuff, is also used for dose assessment. For internal exposure, radiation dose to the body is expressed as committed effective dose or committed equivalent dose, which are accumulation of dose over a defined period. Radioactive materials taken into body are transferred among many body components depending on the type of radionuclide or chemicals etc. Some radioactive materials concentrate in a specific organ. Symptoms and signs depend on the distribution of the radioactive materials in the body. Monitoring the concentration in air or foods is conducted in order to control human activities and foods and consequently reduce the amount of intake to human bodies as a preventive measure. Prevention of internal exposure is also conducted by protective gears such as full face masks. Iodine prophylaxis could be used against radioactive iodine intake. Stable iodine, mostly potassium iodide, could be taken into the thyroid and

  10. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno T. Saragiotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives: To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method: This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1 "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2 "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results: We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions: The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance.

  11. Evaluation of safety balls and faceguards for prevention of injuries in youth baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen W; Mueller, Frederick O; Kirby, Daniel P; Yang, Jingzhen

    2003-02-05

    Safety balls and faceguards are widely used in youth baseball, but their effectiveness in reducing injury is unknown. To evaluate the association of the use of faceguards and safety balls and injuries in youth baseball. Ecological study using a national database of compensated insurance claims maintained by Little League Baseball Incorporated, combined with data on the number of participants in Little League and data from a census of protective equipment usage for youth aged 5 to 18 years participating in Little League Baseball in the United States during 1997-1999. Rate of injury and injury rate ratio comparing users with nonusers of protective equipment. A total of 6 744 240 player-seasons of follow-up and 4233 compensated injury claims were available for analysis. The absolute incidence of compensated injury per 100 000 player-seasons was 28.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.76-29.29) for ball-related injury and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.32-3.11) for facial injury. Overall, use of safety balls was associated with a reduced risk of ball-related injury (adjusted rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93). This reduction was essentially due to 1 type of safety ball, known as the reduced-impact ball (adjusted rate ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.91). Use of faceguards reduced the risk of facial injury (adjusted rate ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.98). Metal and plastic guards appeared to be equally effective. Safety balls appeared to be more effective in the minor division (ages 7-12 years) than in the regular division (ages 9-12 years). Reduced-impact balls and faceguards were associated with a reduced risk of injury in youth baseball. These findings support increased usage of these items; however, it should be noted that the absolute incidence of injury in youth baseball is low and that these equipment items do not prevent all injuries.

  12. Nonpharmacological Strategies to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Susantitaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI has been one of the leading causes for hospital-acquired AKI and is associated with independent risk for adverse clinical outcomes including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the studies that focus on nonpharmacological strategies to prevent CI-AKI, including routine identification of at-risk patients, use of appropriate hydration regimens, withdrawal of nephrotoxic drugs, selection of low-osmolar contrast media or isoosmolar contrast media, and using the minimum volume of contrast media as possible. There is no need to schedule dialysis in relation to injection of contrast media or injection of contrast agent in relation to dialysis program. Hemodialysis cannot protect the poorly functioning kidney against CI-AKI.

  13. Evaluation, management and prevention of lower extremity youth ice hockey injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkin CA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Charles A Popkin,1 Brian M Schulz,2 Caroline N Park,1 Thomas S Bottiglieri,1 T Sean Lynch1 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine at Columbia University, New York, NY, 2Kerlan‑Jobe Orthopedic Clinic, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Ice hockey is a fast-paced sport played by increasing numbers of children and adolescents in North America and around the world. Requiring a unique blend of skill, finesse, power and teamwork, ice hockey can become a lifelong recreational activity. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is ongoing concern about the high frequency of musculoskeletal injury associated with participation in ice hockey. Injury rates in ice hockey are among the highest in all competitive sports. Numerous research studies have been implemented to better understand the risks of injury. As a result, rule changes were adopted by the USA Hockey and Hockey Canada to raise the minimum age at which body checking is permitted to 13–14 years (Bantam level from 11–12 years (Pee Wee. Continuing the education of coaches, parents and players on rules of safe play, and emphasizing the standards for proper equipment use are other strategies being implemented to make the game safer to play. The objective of this article was to review the evaluation, management and prevention of common lower extremity youth hockey injuries. Keywords: youth hockey, body checking, injury prevention, femoroacetabular impingement, apophyseal avulsions

  14. Automation of workplace lifting hazard assessment for musculoskeletal injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Lieblich, Max; Bao, Stephen; McQuade, Kevin; Hughes, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. A large dataset (approximately 22,000 frames, derived from six subjects) of simultaneous lifting and other motions recorded in a laboratory setting using the Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States) and a standard optical motion capture system (Qualysis, Qualysis Motion Capture Systems, Qualysis AB, Sweden) was assembled. Error-correction regression models were developed to improve the accuracy of NIOSH lifting equation parameters estimated from the Kinect skeleton. Kinect-Qualysis errors were modelled using gradient boosted regression trees with a Huber loss function. Models were trained on data from all but one subject and tested on the excluded subject. Finally, models were tested on three lifting trials performed by subjects not involved in the generation of the model-building dataset. Error-correction appears to produce estimates for NIOSH lifting equation parameters that are more accurate than those derived from the Microsoft Kinect algorithm alone. Our error-correction models substantially decreased the variance of parameter errors. In general, the Kinect underestimated parameters, and modelling reduced this bias, particularly for more biased estimates. Use of the raw Kinect skeleton model tended to result in falsely high safe recommended weight limits of loads, whereas error-corrected models gave more conservative, protective estimates. Our results suggest that it may be possible to produce reasonable estimates of posture and temporal elements of tasks

  15. Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 7: Role Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    ...: Prevention, Protection, and Repair, Subproject: Role of Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury, are as follows: Species Rat(Albino Wistar), Number Allowed...

  16. ACL Injury Prevention Training Results in Modification of Hip and Knee Mechanics During a Drop-Landing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christine D; Sigward, Susan M; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Injury prevention training has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, the underlying reason for the success of these training programs is unclear. To investigate whether an ACL injury prevention program that has been shown to reduce the incidence of ACL injury alters sagittal plane hip and knee biomechanics during a drop-landing task. Descriptive laboratory study. Thirty female club soccer players (age range, 11-17 years) with no history of knee injury participated in this study. Kinematics and ground-reaction forces were collected while each participant performed a drop-landing task prior to and immediately after participation in a 12-week ACL injury prevention training program. After ACL injury prevention training, participants demonstrated decreased knee extensor moments ( P = .03), increased energy absorption at the hip ( P = .04), decreased knee-to-hip extensor moment ratios ( P = .05), and decreased knee-to-hip energy absorption ratios ( P = .03). Participation in an ACL injury prevention training program decreased reliance on the knee extensor muscles and improved use of the hip extensor muscles, which may explain the protective effect of this type of training program on ACL injury. Based on these findings, clinicians can better understand how ACL injury prevention training, such as the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance (PEP) Program, may change movement behavior at both the hip and knee. Furthermore, the study findings may support the implementation of the PEP Program, or a similar program, for clinicians aiming to improve use of the hip in an effort to reduce knee loading and consequent injuries.

  17. Genetic testing for exercise prescription and injury prevention: AIS-Athlome consortium-FIMS joint statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David C; Griffiths, Lyn R; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Pigozzi, Fabio; Bachl, Nobert; Eynon, Nir

    2017-11-14

    There has been considerable growth in basic knowledge and understanding of how genes are influencing response to exercise training and predisposition to injuries and chronic diseases. On the basis of this knowledge, clinical genetic tests may in the future allow the personalisation and optimisation of physical activity, thus providing an avenue for increased efficiency of exercise prescription for health and disease. This review provides an overview of the current status of genetic testing for the purposes of exercise prescription and injury prevention. As such there are a variety of potential uses for genetic testing, including identification of risks associated with participation in sport and understanding individual response to particular types of exercise. However, there are many challenges remaining before genetic testing has evidence-based practical applications; including adoption of international standards for genomics research, as well as resistance against the agendas driven by direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies. Here we propose a way forward to develop an evidence-based approach to support genetic testing for exercise prescription and injury prevention. Based on current knowledge, there is no current clinical application for genetic testing in the area of exercise prescription and injury prevention, however the necessary steps are outlined for the development of evidence-based clinical applications involving genetic testing.

  18. Sports injuries in young athletes: long-term outcome and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-06-01

    Physical activity plays a significant role in the physical and emotional well-being of a child. In the past 15 to 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in sports participation at a young age, which has offered numerous health benefits, including self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility, and strength. Children are playing sports at younger ages. This article assesses the long-term outcome of sports injuries in young athletes, with suggestions on how to prevent such injuries. There are no definitive epidemiological data on withdraw from sports activities due to injury in young athletes. Disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury can result in length discrepancy, angular deformity, or altered joint mechanics, and may cause significant long-term disability. Sequelae of Osgood-Schlatter lesion include painful ossicle in the distal patellar tendon. Fragmentation or separation of the apophysis appears to be the result of adaptive changes to the increased stress that occurs in overuse activities. The presence of these changes undeniably demonstrates an osseous reaction, although they are not disabling. Promotion of a physically active lifestyle is encouraged worldwide, particularly with regard to the many health benefits. Reduction of only a moderate proportion of all sports injuries is of significance for the young athletes' health and could have a long-term economic impact on health care costs. It is therefore important to convince medical doctors, physical therapists, athletic trainers and coaches, as well as athletes of the necessity to implement active prevention measures in their therapy and training programs, thus decreasing the injury and re-injury rate and enhancing athletic performance.

  19. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Prevention Committee topical overview: National Trauma Data Bank, geographic information systems, and teaching injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Marie; Zarzaur, Ben; Tinkoff, Glen

    2013-11-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death for all Americans aged 1 to 35 years, and injury-related costs exceed $100 billion per year in the United States. Trauma centers can be important resources for risk identification and prevention strategies. The authors review 3 important resources for injury prevention education and research: the National Trauma Data Bank, geographic information systems, and an overview of injury prevention education. The National Trauma Data Bank and the Trauma Quality Improvement Program are available through the Web site of the American College of Surgeons. Links to research examples using geographic information systems software and the National Trauma Data Bank are provided in the text. Finally, resources for surgical educators in the area of injury prevention are summarized and examples provided. Database research, geographic information systems, and injury prevention education are important tools in the field of injury prevention. This article provides an overview of current research and education strategies and resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Update and Overview of Spinal Injuries in Canadian Ice Hockey, 1943 to 2011: The Continuing Need for Injury Prevention and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tator, Charles H; Provvidenza, Christine; Cassidy, J David

    2016-05-01

    To identify spinal injuries in Canadian ice hockey from 2006 to 2011 and to discuss data from 1943 to 2011 and impact of injury prevention programs. Data about spinal injuries with and without spinal cord injury in ice hockey have been collected by ThinkFirst's (now Parachute Canada) Canadian Ice Hockey Spinal Injuries Registry since 1981 through questionnaires from practitioners, ice hockey organizations, and media. All Canadian provinces and territories. All registered Canadian ice hockey players. Age, gender, level of play, location, mechanism of injury. Incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, and nature (morbidity) of the injuries. Between 2006 and 2011, 44 cases occurred, 4 (9.1%) of which were severe. The incidence in the recent years continues to be lower than the peak years. From 1943 to 2011, 355 cases have been documented, primarily males (97.7%) and cervical spine injuries (78.9%), resulting from impact with the boards (64.2%). Check or push from behind (36.0%) was still the most common cause of injury, although slightly lower during 2006 to 2011. From 1943 to 2011, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and British Columbia/Yukon had the highest injury rates. Ontario and Quebec continued to show markedly different injury rates, with Ontario more than twice that of Quebec. Current data for 2006 to 2011 indicate that spinal injuries in ice hockey continue to occur, although still at lower rates than the peak years 1982 to 1995. It is imperative to continue educating players and team officials about spinal injury prevention and to reinforce the rules against checking or pushing from behind to reduce the incidence of these serious injuries.

  1. Prevention and management of knee osteoarthritis and knee cartilage injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hideki; Nakagawa, Takumi; Nakamura, Kozo; Engebretsen, Lars

    2011-04-01

    Articular cartilage defects in the knee of young or active individuals remain a problem in orthopaedic practice. These defects have limited ability to heal and may progress to osteoarthritis. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis among athletes is higher than in the non-athletic population. The clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint pain, limitation of range of motion and joint stiffness. The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is confirmed by the symptoms and the radiological findings (narrowing joint space, osteophyte formation and subchondral sclerosis). There is no strong correlation between symptoms and radiographic findings. The aetiology of knee osteoarthritis is multifactorial. Excessive musculoskeletal loading (at work or in sports), high body mass index, previous knee injury, female gender and muscle weakness are well-known risk factors. The high-level athlete with a major knee injury has a high incidence of knee osteoarthritis. Cartilage injuries are frequently observed in young and middle-aged active athletes. Often this injury precedes osteoarthritis. Reducing risk factors can decrease the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis. The prevention of knee injury, especially anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injury in sports, is important to avoid progression of knee osteoarthritis.

  2. Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Hansen, B; Lee, B S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review the literature on non-pharmacological prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. All identified papers were read by title, abstract and full-length article when...... bone mineral, and the longer the period of athletic career, the higher the (leg) bone mineral. Early after SCI, there may be some effects of electrical stimulation (ES) (five studies). Chronic-phase ES studies vary (14 studies, including mixed periods after injury), but improvement is seen with longer...

  3. Efficacy of injury prevention related coach education within netball and soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A; Tunstall, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, Netball New Zealand and New Zealand Football adapted a generic 10-point action plan for sports injury prevention, SportSmart, to create NetballSmart and SoccerSmart, as part of their coach education programmes. A small-size descriptive study was conducted in both sports, to assess the efficacy of integrating sports injury prevention into coach education. NetballSmart was evaluated at the end of 2005, via a telephone survey of 217 coaches (53% response rate) who had attended a NetballSmart course earlier in the year. SoccerSmart was evaluated at the start of 2007, via an Internet questionnaire completed by 71 coaches (20% response rate) who had attended a SoccerSmart course in 2006. The evaluations focused on the quality and use of the course resource material, as well as assessing the extent to which coaches had incorporated injury prevention behaviours into player practices. After attending a NetballSmart course, 89% of coaches changed the way they coached, with 95% reported using knowledge from the course and passing it on to players. Ninety-six percent of football/soccer coaches also changed the way they coached, with most change relating to warm-up/cool-down and stretch (65%), technique (63%), fitness (60%) and nutrition/hydration (58%) practices. Although this was a descriptive study in nature, with a small sample size, we conclude that integration of injury prevention content within coach education courses and resources may be a viable and effective strategy to help community coaches--and therefore community players--help reduce their risk of injury. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p model.

  5. Respiratory viruses in transplant recipients: more than just a cold. Clinical syndromes and infection prevention principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Abbas

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: RVIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality among SOT and HSCT recipients. Management options are currently limited or lack strong clinical evidence. As community and nosocomial spread has been reported for all reviewed RVIs, strict adherence to infection control measures is key to preventing outbreaks.

  6. Understanding and Preventing Loss to Follow-up: Experiences From the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwasoon; Cutter, Gary R; George, Brandon; Chen, Yuying

    2018-01-01

    Background: One of the most critical threats to the validity of any longitudinal research is the bias caused by study attrition. Prevention efforts should be focused on those individuals at high risk of non-participation to improve the generalizability of study findings. Objective: To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with loss to follow-up (FU) at post-injury years 1 to 35 among 25,871 people with spinal cord injury (SCI) enrolled in the National Spinal Cord Injury Database. Methods: Loss to FU was defined as no research information obtained from participants who were eligible for the planned data collection. Generalized linear mixed models were used for analysis of factors at each post-injury year. Results: The loss to FU rates were 23.1% and 32.9% for post-injury years 1 and 5, respectively, and remained >40% between post-injury years 20 and 35. The FU rate varied by study sites and was improved in recent injury cohorts. People who were more seriously injured and those who attained higher levels of education were more likely to return for FU than their counterparts. People who were at risk of being marginalized in society (non-whites, those with less education, the unemployed, victims of violence, and those with no health insurance) had the highest odds of being lost to FU across all post-injury years. Conclusion: These findings can be used to identify individuals who are less likely to participate in follow-up, which may allow targeted attention to improve their response rate.

  7. The 'Sequence of Prevention' for musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketballers: a systematic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Özgür; Van Os, Vivian; Kemler, Ellen; Barendrecht, Maarten; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2018-01-16

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (basketball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of basketball injuries. This study aimed to gather systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures for musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketball players. Highly sensitive search strategies were built based on three groups of keywords (and related search terms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The incidence of musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketball players ranged from 0.0047 injuries per 1,000 athlete-exposures (AE) for dental injuries to 10.1 injuries per 1000 AE for overall injuries during match play. Significant risk factors for injuries were defending, postural sway, high vertical ground reaction force during jumping and weight >75 kg. All prevention studies have shown to have a significant effect on reducing the risk of injury ranging from an odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.175 (0.049-0.626) for training injuries and a relative risk (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.57-1.19) achieved with FIFA 11+ prevention exercises and sport-specific balance training, relatively. In order to gain insight in the aetiology of basketball-specific injuries and consequently facilitate the development of preventive strategies, more high quality basketball-specific and injury-specific studies among recreational basketball players are needed.

  8. The peculiarities of pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal injuries and current prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatol Święcicki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are among the most widely used medications. However, NSAID intake is accompanied by an increased risk of gastroduodenal side effects. These adverse events are largely attributed to the ability of these drugs to suppress prostaglandin synthesis, penetrate the mucosal layer in the acid media of the stomach and damage epithelial cells. However, it is becoming clear that such mediators as prostaglandins, NO and lipoxins can protect the stomach from injury. This injury can largely be prevented through suppression of gastric acid secretion (mainly with proton pump inhibitors. In contrast, the pathogenesis of intestinal injury induced by NSAIDs is less well understood. There is no evidence that suppression of gastric acid secretion will reduce the incidence or severity of NSAID enteropathy. In this review the results of recent studies are described, which will help to clarify some mechanisms of development of NSAID gastropathies and NSAID enteropathies and to improve the treatment of these patients.

  9. Prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing sub-acute rehabilitation after severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to uncover efforts made by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with severe brain injury undergoing treatment at a sub-acute rehabilitation department. BACKGROUND: PUs is a major burden for patients and also generate considerable...... healthcare costs. PUs are, nevertheless, prevalent in both secondary and primary care. DESIGN: In this qualitative study, we performed 24-hour observation on four patients undergoing rehabilitation for severe brain injury. An observation guide was developed inspired by the Braden Scale and Spradley's theory...... that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are encouraged to seek information about the former life of patients with severe brain injury. This article...

  10. Combining epidemiology and biomechanics in sports injury prevention research: a new approach for selecting suitable controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Several important methodological issues need to be considered when designing sports injury case-control studies. Major design goals for case-control studies include the accounting for prior injury risk exposure, and optimal definitions of both cases and suitable controls are needed to ensure this. This article reviews methodological aspects of published sports injury case-control studies, particularly with regard to the selection of controls. It argues for a new approach towards selecting controls for case-control studies that draws on an interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts. A review was conducted to identify sport injury case-control studies published in the peer-review literature during 1985-2008. Overall, 32 articles were identified, of which the majority related to upper or lower extremity injuries. Matching considerations were used for control selection in 16 studies. Specific mention of application of biomechanical principles in the selection of appropriate controls was absent from all studies, including those purporting to evaluate the benefits of personal protective equipment to protect against impact injury. This is a problem because it could lead to biased conclusions, as cases and controls are not fully comparable in terms of similar biomechanical impact profiles relating to the injury incident, such as site of the impact on the body. The strength of the conclusions drawn from case-control studies, and the extent to which results can be generalized, is directly influenced by the definition and recruitment of cases and appropriate controls. Future studies should consider the interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts when choosing appropriate controls to ensure that proper adjustment of prior exposure to injury risk is made. To provide necessary guidance for the optimal selection of controls in case-control studies of interventions to prevent sports-related impact injury, this review outlines a new case

  11. Corrosion Prevention of Cold Rolled Steel Using Water Dispersible Lignosulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention provides coatings useful for preventing corrosion of metals. The coatings comprise a film-forming resin and conductive polymers comprising linearly conjugated x-systems and residues of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid or derivatives of solfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid. The invention also provides a latex formulation of the coatings, and articles of manufacture comprising a metal substrate and a coating in contact with the metal substrate.

  12. Compliant flooring to prevent fall-related injuries: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Jurkowski, Michal P; Dymarz, Ania C; Mackey, Dawn C

    2016-08-16

    Fall-related injuries can have serious consequences for older adults, including increased risk of dependence in daily activities and mortality. Compliant flooring is a passive intervention that may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in healthcare settings, including acute and long-term care, but few sites have implemented compliant flooring, in part because synthesised evidence about key performance aspects has not been available. We will conduct a scoping review to address the question: what is presented about the biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety associated with compliant flooring systems that aim to prevent fall-related injuries? We will conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature search of academic databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, MEDLINE (Ovid), SportDiscus and Web of Science) and grey literature (clinical trial registries, theses/dissertations, abstracts/conference proceedings and relevant websites). 2 team members will independently screen records (first titles and abstracts, then full text) and extract data from included records. Numerical and narrative analyses will be presented by theme (biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, workplace safety). This scoping review responds to the information needs of healthcare decision-makers tasked with preventing fall-related injuries. This review will summarise evidence about compliant flooring as a potential intervention for preventing fall-related injuries in older adults and identify gaps in evidence and new avenues for research. Results will be especially useful in long-term care, but also applicable in acute care, assisted living and home care. We will disseminate the review's findings via open-access publications, conference presentations, a webinar, a Stakeholder Symposium and a Knowledge-to-Action Report. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  13. Leadership, infrastructure and capacity to support child injury prevention: can these concepts help explain differences in injury mortality rankings between 18 countries in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, J Morag; Vincenten, Joanne A

    2012-02-01

    Mortality and morbidity rates, traditionally used indicators for child injury, are limited in their ability to explain differences in child injury between countries, are inadequate in capturing actions to address the problem of child injury and do not adequately identify progress made within countries. There is a need for a broader set of indicators to help better understand the success of countries with low rates of child injury, provide guidance and benchmarks for policy makers looking to make investments to reduce their rates of fatal and non-fatal child injury and allow monitoring of progress towards achieving these goals. This article describes an assessment of national leadership, infrastructure and capacity in the context of child injury prevention in 18 countries in Europe and explores the potential of these to be used as additional indicators to support child injury prevention practice. Partners in 18 countries coordinated data collection on 21 items relating to leadership, infrastructure and capacity. Responses were coded into an overall score and scores for each of the three areas and were compared with child injury mortality rankings using Spearman's rank correlation. Overall score and scores for leadership and capacity were significantly negatively correlated to child injury mortality ranking. Findings of this preliminary work suggest that these three policy areas may provide important guidance for the types of commitments that are needed in the policy arena to support advances in child safety and their assessment a way to measure progress.

  14. Pilot evaluation of an adolescent risk and injury prevention programme incorporating curriculum and school connectedness components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R L; Buckley, L; Sheehan, M; Shochet, I M

    2013-08-01

    School connectedness is an important protective factor for adolescent risk-taking behaviour. This study examined a pilot version of the Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth (SPIY) programme, combining teacher professional development (PD) for increasing school connectedness (connectedness component) with a risk and injury prevention curriculum for early adolescents (curriculum component). A process evaluation was conducted on the connectedness component, involving assessments of programme reach, participant receptiveness and initial use, and a preliminary impact evaluation was conducted on the combined connectedness and curriculum programme. The connectedness component was well received by teacher participants, who saw benefits for both themselves and their students. Classroom observation also showed that teachers who received PD made use of the programme strategies. Grade 8 students who participated in the SPIY programme were less likely to report violent behaviour at 6-month follow-up than were control students, and trends also suggested reduced transport injuries. The results of this research support the use of the combined SPIY connectedness and curriculum components in a large-scale effectiveness trial to assess the impact of the programme on students' connectedness, risk-taking and associated injuries.

  15. Extending injury prevention methodology to chemical terrorism preparedness: the Haddon Matrix and sarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Shawn; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Dischinger, Patricia; Mackenzie, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The Haddon Matrix offers a classic epidemiological model for studying injury prevention. This methodology places the public health concepts of agent, host, and environment within the three sequential phases of an injury-producing incident-pre-event, event, and postevent. This study uses this methodology to illustrate how it could be applied in systematically preparing for a mass casualty disaster such as an unconventional sarin attack in a major urban setting. Nineteen city, state, federal, and military agencies responded to the Haddon Matrix chemical terrorism preparedness exercise and offered feedback in the data review session. Four injury prevention strategies (education, engineering, enforcement, and economics) were applied to the individual factors and event phases of the Haddon Matrix. The majority of factors identified in all phases were modifiable, primarily through educational interventions focused on individual healthcare providers and first responders. The Haddon Matrix provides a viable means of studying an unconventional problem, allowing for the identification of modifiable factors to decrease the type and severity of injuries following a mass casualty disaster such as a sarin release. This strategy could be successfully incorporated into disaster planning for other weapons attacks that could potentially cause mass casualties.

  16. Substance Use and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention: A Novel Model for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H. Olson-Madden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and substance use disorders (SUDs frequently co-occur. Individuals with histories of alcohol or other drug use are at greater risk for sustaining TBI, and individuals with TBI frequently misuse substances before and after injury. Further, a growing body of literature supports the relationship between comorbid histories of mild TBI (mTBI and SUDs and negative outcomes. Alcohol and other drug use are strongly associated with risk taking. Disinhibition, impaired executive function, and/or impulsivity as a result of mTBI also contribute to an individual’s proclivity towards risk-taking. Risk-taking behavior may therefore, be a direct result of SUD and/or history of mTBI, and risky behaviors may predispose individuals for subsequent injury or continued use of substances. Based on these findings, evaluation of risk-taking behavior associated with the co-occurrence of SUD and mTBI should be a standard clinical practice. Interventions aimed at reducing risky behavior among members of this population may assist in decreasing negative outcomes. A novel intervention (Substance Use and Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention (STRRP for reducing and preventing risky behaviors among individuals with co-occurring mTBI and SUD is presented. Areas for further research are discussed.

  17. Effects of the performance level and the FIFA "11" injury prevention program on the injury rate in Italian male amateur soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatterer, H; Ruedl, G; Faulhaber, M; Regele, M; Burtscher, M

    2012-02-01

    Soccer is characterized by high injury rates that necessitate interventions for its reduction. The "11" is a multi-modal preventive program that was developed to reduce injury rate. However, outcomes on the effectiveness of the program are not unambiguous and data for the largest group at risk (i.e., male adult amateur players) are missing. The study aims to assess the injury rate in male adult amateur soccer players of different levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention program the "11". Three amateur soccer teams participated in the study during the first round of a competition season. Two teams played at a regional level (6th Italian league) and one team at a provincial level (7th Italian league). The regional league is of a higher skill level compared to the provincial league. Duration and frequency of training and match sessions and the occurrence of time-loss injuries were recorded. One team of the 6th league performed an injury prevention program. The total injury rate for the intervention and the control team in the 6th league was 3.3 (CI 0.7-5.9) and 4.3 (CI 1.3-7.3) injuries/1000 h, respectively (P=0.841). The 6th league control team tended to have a lesser injury rate compared to the 7th league team (P=0.081). The relative risk was 2 fold higher in the 7th compared to the 6th league team (P=0.0285 one tailed). Present results show that injury rate in amateur soccer depended rather on the skill level than the prevention program. In this study the prevention program the "11" was not shown to be highly effective in soccer player of intermediate level (i.e., 6th Italian league).

  18. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy. The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety.

  19. Occupational therapists lead a national injury prevention strategy to help older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Janet M

    2011-04-01

    As older adults are the fastest growing segment of the driving population, the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (CAOT) has taken older driver safety as a key priority. The purpose of this paper is to present the National Blueprint for Injury Prevention in Older Drivers (Blueprint) and its related activities. Since 2006, CAOT has been working on initiatives relating to the National Blueprint for Injury Prevention in Older Drivers. The most recent activities include the launch of informational brochures and a website. The Blueprint and its related activities were developed with the intent to prolong safe driving among older adults in Canada, and to propose future actions to be addressed by all stakeholders interested in older driver safety.

  20. Prevention of groin injuries in sports: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C; Urrútia, G; Thorborg, K

    2015-06-01

    Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes in sports. A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 yielding 1747 potentially relevant references. Two independent assessors evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and performed quality assessments using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Quantitative analyses were performed in Review Manager 5.3. Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0.81. Meta-analysis revealed a potential clinically meaningful groin injury reduction of 19%, even though no statistical significant reduction in sport-related groin injuries could be documented. PROSPERO registration ID CRD42014009614. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    employed at all deployed medical treatment facilities (MTF). These should include hand hygiene . with compli- ance monitoring. Infection control and...established infections where nosocomial pathogens, including multidrug~resistant. may be the in~ fecting agents (Table 3). 7. Selected agents should be dosed...REVIEW ARTICLE Executive Summary: Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update Endorsed by the

  2. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2012-01-01

    Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.

  3. Prevention of agricultural injuries: an evaluation of an education-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, L M; Pickett, W; Pahwa, P; Day, L; Brison, R J; Marlenga, B; Crowe, T; Snodgrass, P; Ulmer, K; Dosman, J A

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an agricultural health and safety program in reducing risks of injury. Cross-sectional survey. 50 rural municipalities in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The Agricultural Health and Safety Network (AHSN), a mainly educational program that administered 112 farm safety interventions over 19 years. 5292 farm people associated with 2392 Saskatchewan farms. Farms and associated farm people were categorized into three groups according to years of participation in the AHSN. self-reported prevalence of: (1) farm safety practices; (2) physical farm hazards. (1) self-reported agricultural injuries. After adjustment for group imbalances and clustering at the rural municipality level, the prevalence of all impact and outcome measures was not significantly different on farms grouped according to years of AHSN participation. To illustrate, the adjusted relative risk of reporting no rollover protection on tractors among farms with none (0 years) versus high (>8 years) levels of AHSN participation was 0.95 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.30). The adjusted relative risk for agricultural injuries (all types) reported for the year before the survey was 0.99 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.32). Educational interventions delivered via the AHSN program were not associated with observable differences in farm safety practices, physical farm hazards, or farm-related injury outcomes. There is a need for the agricultural sector to extend the scope of its injury prevention initiatives to include the full public health model of education, engineering, and regulation.

  4. Needle stick injuries among dental students: risk factors and recommendations for prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, Kamis; Warbuton, Dorothy; Sihmbly, Kamal; Renton, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs) sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL) Dental Institute. Materials and methods A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA) and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%). Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training. PMID:22741025

  5. Needle stick injuries among dental students: risk factors and recommendations for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamis Gaballah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL Dental Institute. Materials and methods: A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results: This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%. Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion: Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training.

  6. Pathophysiology of repetitive head injury in sports. Prevention against catastrophic brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tatsuro; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)

  7. The role of the health services in the prevention of alcohol-related facial injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, E E

    2009-10-01

    This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.

  8. Mechanisms of team-sport-related brain injuries in children 5 to 19 years old: opportunities for prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Cusimano

    Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.

  9. Preventive effect of piracetam and vinpocetine on hypoxia-reoxygenation induced injury in primary hippocampal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, P; Prasad, D; Muthuraju, S; Sharma, A K; Singh, S B; Ilavzhagan, G

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigates the potential of Piracetam and Vinpocetine (nootropic drugs, known to possess neuroprotective properties) in preventing hypoxia-reoxygenation induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal cell culture. The hippocampal culture was exposed to hypoxia (95% N(2), 5% CO(2)) for 3h and followed by 1h of reoxygenation (21% O(2) and 5% CO(2)) at 37 °C. The primary hippocampal cultures were supplemented with the optimum dose of Piracetam and Vinpocetine, independently, and the cultures were divided into six groups, viz. Control/Normoxia, Hypoxia, Hypoxia+Piracetam, Hypoxia+Vinpocetine, Normoxia + Piracetam and Normoxia+Vinpocetine. The cell-viability assays and biochemical oxidative stress parameters were evaluated for each of the six groups. Administration of 1mM Piracetam or 500 nM Vinpocetine significantly prevents the culture from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury when determined by Neutral Red assay, LDH release and Acetylcholine esterase activity. Results showed that Piracetam and Vinpocetine supplementation significantly prevented the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, rise in ROS generation and reduction in antioxidant levels associated with the hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. In conclusion, the present study establishes that both Piracetam and Vinpocetine give neuroprotection against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in primary hippocampal cell culture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Explanation of the law on radiation injury prevention for mechanical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    1991-01-01

    Generally to the facilities in which radioisotopes are treated, the Law on Radiation Injury Prevention is applied, but this law was revised in May, 1988, and enforced on April 1, 1989. As to the retroaction to existing facilities, the delay till March 31, 1991 is granted. In this report, by rearranging the system of contents so as to suit to mechanical engineers, the procedure of application and the standard for exhaust facilities and drainage facilities, which seem to be necessary matters, are described. In addition, the standard for facilities related to architecture which seems useful for design and construction if it is known as the basic matter and the standard for the control of the exposure of human bodies, surface contamination and measurement, related to the RI contamination in the air are referred to. The main points of revision in terms, unit and the law are shown. The Law on Radiation Injury Prevention is composed of the Law on Prevention of Radiation Injuries Due to Radioisotopes and Others, the enforcement ordinance, the enforcement regulation and the notice on determining the quantity of isotopes emitting radiation. (K.I.)

  11. 75 FR 18848 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Comparative Effectiveness Research Program, DP 10-003, Initial Review In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of..., Management Analysis and Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Public Law 92-463. Matters To Be Discussed: The... to ``Prevention Research Centers Comparative Effectiveness Research Program, DP 10-003.'' Contact...

  12. Economic Evaluations of Strategies to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Wrechelle; Cheung, Amanda; Baylis, Barry; Clayden, Nancy; Conly, John M; Ghali, William A; Ho, Chester H; Kaufman, Jaime; Stelfox, Henry T; Hogan, David B

    2017-07-01

    To provide information from a review of literature about economic evaluations of preventive strategies for pressure injuries (PIs). This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify the purpose and methods used for this study.2. Compare costs and effectiveness related to preventative strategies for PIs. BACKGROUND: Pressure injuries (PIs) are a common and resource-intensive challenge for acute care hospitals worldwide. While a number of preventive strategies have the potential to reduce the cost of hospital-acquired PIs, it is unclear what approach is the most effective. The authors performed a narrative review of the literature on economic evaluations of preventive strategies to survey current findings and identify important factors in economic assessments. Ovid, MEDLINE, NHS Economic Evaluation Databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsSELECTION CRITERIA: Potentially relevant original research articles and systematic reviews were considered. Selection criteria included articles that were written in English, provided data on cost or economic evaluations of preventive strategies of PIs in acute care, and published between January 2004 and September 2015. Data were abstracted from the articles using a standardized approach to evaluate how the items on the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist were addressed. The searches identified 192 references. Thirty-three original articles were chosen for full-text reviews. Nineteen of these articles provided clear descriptions of interventions, study methods, and outcomes considered. Limitations in the available literature prevent firm conclusions from being reached about the relative economic merits of the various approaches to the prevention of PIs. The authors' review

  13. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth; Whitehead, Jessica; Mhizha-Murira, Jacqueline; Clarkson, Mandy; Watson, Michael C; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Staniforth, Joy Ul; Bhuchar, Munish; Kendrick, Denise

    2016-12-27

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children aged four to 18 years and are a major cause of ill health. The school setting offers the opportunity to deliver preventive interventions to a large number of children and has been used to address a range of public health problems. However, the effectiveness of the school setting for the prevention of different injury mechanisms in school-aged children is not well understood. To assess the effects of school-based educational programmes for the prevention of injuries in children and evaluate their impact on improving children's safety skills, behaviour and practices, and knowledge, and assess their cost-effectiveness. We ran the most recent searches up to 16 September 2016 for the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R); Embase and Embase Classic (Ovid); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded; ISI Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science; ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index; ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Sciences & Humanities; and the 14 October 2016 for the following electronic databases: Health Economics Evaluations Database (HEED); Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA); CINAHL Plus (EBSCO); ZETOC; LILACS; PsycINFO; ERIC; Dissertation Abstracts Online; IBSS; BEI; ASSIA; CSA Sociological Abstracts; Injury Prevention Web; SafetyLit; EconLit (US); PAIS; UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio; Open Grey; Index to Theses in the UK and Ireland; Bibliomap and TRoPHI. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs), and controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies that evaluated school-based educational programmes aimed at preventing a range of injury mechanisms. The

  14. Prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing subacute rehabilitation after severe brain injury: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Marianne Brostrup; Wolffbrandt, Mia Moth; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2018-01-09

    To uncover efforts made by healthcare professionals to prevent pressure ulcers in patients with severe brain injury undergoing treatment at a subacute rehabilitation department. Pressure ulcers are a major burden for patients and also generate considerable healthcare costs. Pressure ulcers are, nevertheless, prevalent in both secondary care and primary care. In this qualitative study, we performed 24-hour observation on four patients undergoing rehabilitation for severe brain injury. An observation guide was developed inspired by the Braden Scale and Spradley's theory and methods. Observations were analysed using content analysis. Patricia Benner's aspects of clinical grasp were employed in the interpretation of the observations. One overarching theme was identified: "Professionalism expressed by preventing intervention, involving the patient, employing clinical grasp and professional pride." Seven subcategories were summed up into the following three categories: organisation of clinical practice, professional assessment and interactions with the patient. The healthcare professionals' actions to prevent pressure ulcers consisted of attaining the necessary knowledge about pressure ulcer care and performing the activities. However, our observations revealed one important additional aspect: a very distinct impression that the healthcare professionals were committed to learning about the patients' former life and actively used this knowledge in their planning and provision of daily patient care. We believe this commitment has a very positive effect on prevention of pressure ulcers. Professional knowledge about prevention of pressure ulcer is a necessary requisite, but is not sufficient to ensure effective treatment. To transfer knowledge into practice, we recommend that patients' rehabilitation days be planned in such a manner that activities, mobilisation and training are conducted throughout the day and evening. We also recommend that professional staff are

  15. A comparison of static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation during mild whole-body cold stress in individuals with and without cervical spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Scheer, Jan W; Kamijo, Yoshi-Ichiro; Leicht, Christof A; Millar, Philip J; Shibasaki, Manabu; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2018-05-01

    Experimental study. To characterize static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) compared to able-bodied controls in response to moderate increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) caused by mild whole-body cold stress. Japan METHODS: Five men with complete autonomic cervical SCI (sustained > 5 y) and six age-matched able-bodied men participated in hemodynamic, temperature, catecholamine and respiratory measurements for 60 min during three consecutive stages: baseline (10 min; 33 °C water through a thin-tubed whole-body suit), mild cold stress (20 min; 25 °C water), and post-cold recovery (30 min; 33 °C water). Static CA was determined as the ratio between mean changes in middle cerebral artery blood velocity and MAP, dynamic CA as transfer function coherence, gain, and phase between spontaneous changes in MAP to middle cerebral artery blood velocity. MAP increased in both groups during cold and post-cold recovery (mean differences: 5-10 mm Hg; main effect of time: p = 0.001). Static CA was not different between the able-bodied vs. the cervical SCI group (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) of between-group difference: -4 (-11 to 3) and -2 (-5 to 1) cm/s/mm Hg for cold (p = 0.22) and post-cold (p = 0.24), respectively). At baseline, transfer function phase was shorter in the cervical SCI group (mean (95% CI) of between-group difference: 0.6 (0.2 to 1.0) rad; p = 0.006), while between-group differences in changes in phase were not different in response to the cold stress (interaction term: p = 0.06). This pilot study suggests that static CA is similar between individuals with cervical SCI and able-bodied controls in response to moderate increases in MAP, while dynamic CA may be impaired in cervical SCI because of disturbed sympathetic control.

  16. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Express Safety Concerns As Kids Go Back To School Think With Your Head and Protect Your Brain Think With Your Head and Protect Your ... Care For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  17. Prevention of disabling back injuries in nurses by the use of mechanical patient lift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Hudson, Mary Anne; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2004-01-01

    Occupational back pain in nurses (OBPN) constitutes a major source of morbidity in the health care environment. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), occupational back injury is the second leading occupational injury in the United States. Among health care personnel, nurses have the highest rate of back pain, with an annual prevalence of 40-50% and a lifetime prevalence of 35-80%. The American Nursing Association believes that manual patient handling is unsafe and is directly responsible for musculoskeletal disorders encountered in nurses. It has been well documented that patient handling can be done safely with the use of assistive equipment and devices that eliminate these hazards to nurses that invite serious back injuries. The benefit of assistive patient handling equipment is characterized by the simultaneous reduction of the risk of musculoskeletal injury to the nursing staff and improvement in the quality of care for patient populations. To understand the cause of disabling injuries in health care workers, several factors must be considered, including the following: (1) anatomy/physiology of the back, (2) risk factors, (3) medical legal implications, and (4) prevention. Among nurses, back, neck, and shoulder injuries are commonly noted as the most prevalent and debilitating. While mostly associated with dependant patient care, the risk for musculoskeletal injury secondary to manual patient handling crosses all specialty areas of nursing. The skeletal defects of an abnormal back make the back more susceptible to occupational injury, even under normal stress conditions. Workers compensation guidelines for occupational back injury differ in public and private health care sectors from state to state. Nursing personnel should be reminded that the development of back pain following occupational activities in the hospital should be reported immediately to the Occupational Health Department. A nurse's failure to report OBPN

  18. Social Cognition, Child Neglect, and Child Injury Risk: The Contribution of Maternal Social Information Processing to Maladaptive Injury Prevention Beliefs Within a High-Risk Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Sandra T; Miller, Elizabeth A; Stevenson, Michael T; Johnson, David R

    2017-08-01

    Inadequate supervision has been linked to children's injuries. Parental injury prevention beliefs may play a role in supervision, yet little theory has examined the origins of such beliefs. This study examined whether mothers who perpetrated child neglect, who as a group provide inadequate supervision, have more maladaptive beliefs. Then, it tested a social information processing (SIP) model for explaining these beliefs. SIP and injury prevention beliefs were assessed in disadvantaged mothers of preschoolers (N  =  145), half with child neglect histories. The neglect group exhibited significantly more maladaptive injury prevention beliefs than comparisons. As predicted, SIP was linked to beliefs that may increase injury risk, even after accounting for relevant sociodemographic variables. Findings support the link of beliefs to injury risk and suggest that specific cognitive problems may underlie these beliefs. Future work should further validate this model, which may inform enhancements to prevention efforts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Metrics to assess injury prevention programs for young workers in high-risk occupations: a scoping review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Smith

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite legal protections for young workers in Canada, youth aged 15–24 are at high risk of traumatic occupational injury. While many injury prevention initiatives targeting young workers exist, the challenge faced by youth advocates and employers is deciding what aspect(s of prevention will be the most effective focus for their efforts. A review of the academic and grey literatures was undertaken to compile the metrics—both the indicators being evaluated and the methods of measurement—commonly used to assess injury prevention programs for young workers. Metrics are standards of measurement through which efficiency, performance, progress, or quality of a plan, process, or product can be assessed. Methods: A PICO framework was used to develop search terms. Medline, PubMed, OVID, EMBASE, CCOHS, PsychINFO, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC, Google Scholar and the grey literature were searched for articles in English, published between 1975-2015. Two independent reviewers screened the resulting list and categorized the metrics in three domains of injury prevention: Education, Environment and Enforcement. Results: Of 174 acquired articles meeting the inclusion criteria, 21 both described and assessed an intervention. Half were educational in nature (N=11. Commonly assessed metrics included: knowledge, perceptions, self-reported behaviours or intentions, hazardous exposures, injury claims, and injury counts. One study outlined a method for developing metrics to predict injury rates. Conclusion: Metrics specific to the evaluation of young worker injury prevention programs are needed, as current metrics are insufficient to predict reduced injuries following program implementation. One study, which the review brought to light, could be an appropriate model for future research to develop valid leading metrics specific to young workers, and then apply these metrics to injury prevention programs for youth.

  20. Preventing construction worker injury incidents through the management of personal stress and organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Mei-yung; Chan, Isabelle Yee Shan; Yu, Jingyu

    2012-09-01

    Construction workers (CWs) are positioned at the lowest level of an organization and thus have limited control over their work. For this reason, they are often deprived of their due rewards and training or sometimes are even compelled to focus on production at the expense of their own safety. These organizational stressors not only cause the CWs stress but also impair their safety behaviors. The impairment of safety behaviors is the major cause of CW injury incidents. Hence, to prevent injury incidents and enhance safety behaviors of CWs, the current study aimed to identify the impact of various organizational stressors and stress on CW safety behaviors and injury incidents. To achieve this aim, we surveyed 395 CWs. Using factor analysis, we identified five organizational stressors (unfair reward and treatment, inappropriate safety equipment, provision of training, lack of goal setting, and poor physical environment), two types of stress (emotional and physical), and safety behaviors. The results of correlation and regression analyses revealed the following: (1) injury incidents were minimized by safety behaviors but escalated by a lack of goal setting, (2) safety behaviors were maximized by moderate levels of emotional stress (i.e., an inverted U-shape relationship between these two variables) and increased in line with physical stress and inappropriate safety equipment, (3) emotional stress was positively predicted by the provision of training and inappropriate safety equipment, and (4) physical stress was predicted only by inappropriate safety equipment. Based on these results, we suggest various recommendations to construction stakeholders on how to prevent CW injury incidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.