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Sample records for prevented seed formation

  1. Preventive effects of an original combination of grape seed polyphenols with amine fluoride on dental biofilm formation and oxidative damage by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furiga, A; Roques, C; Badet, C

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of an original combination of a grape seed extract (GSE) with an amine fluoride (Fluorinol(®) ) on dental plaque formation and oxidative damage caused by oral bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was assessed using the broth macrodilution method, and their antiplaque activity was evaluated on a multispecies biofilm grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs. The effect on glucosyltransferases activity was analysed through reductions in the overall reaction and the quantity of insoluble glucan synthesized. The combination of 2000 μg ml(-1) of GSE with 10·2 mg ml(-1) of Fluorinol(®) significantly decreased the biofilm formation (up to 4·76 log10 of reduction) and inhibited by 97·4% the insoluble glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferases. The antioxidant activity of this combination, alone or incorporated into a formulated mouthwash (Eludril daily(®) ), was determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), and both showed significantly greater antioxidant capacity than vitamin C. The GSE/Fluorinol(®) combination showed both a significant antiplaque activity and an important antioxidant capacity in vitro, without any bactericidal effects. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on the properties of an original combination of a polyphenolic extract with amine fluoride that could be used for the prevention of oral diseases and oxidative damage associated. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  3. Precipitation formation from orographic cloud seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey R; Friedrich, Katja; Tessendorf, Sarah A; Rauber, Robert M; Geerts, Bart; Rasmussen, Roy M; Xue, Lulin; Kunkel, Melvin L; Blestrud, Derek R

    2018-02-06

    Throughout the western United States and other semiarid mountainous regions across the globe, water supplies are fed primarily through the melting of snowpack. Growing populations place higher demands on water, while warmer winters and earlier springs reduce its supply. Water managers are tantalized by the prospect of cloud seeding as a way to increase winter snowfall, thereby shifting the balance between water supply and demand. Little direct scientific evidence exists that confirms even the basic physical hypothesis upon which cloud seeding relies. The intent of glaciogenic seeding of orographic clouds is to introduce aerosol into a cloud to alter the natural development of cloud particles and enhance wintertime precipitation in a targeted region. The hypothesized chain of events begins with the introduction of silver iodide aerosol into cloud regions containing supercooled liquid water, leading to the nucleation of ice crystals, followed by ice particle growth to sizes sufficiently large such that snow falls to the ground. Despite numerous experiments spanning several decades, no direct observations of this process exist. Here, measurements from radars and aircraft-mounted cloud physics probes are presented that together show the initiation, growth, and fallout to the mountain surface of ice crystals resulting from glaciogenic seeding. These data, by themselves, do not address the question of cloud seeding efficacy, but rather form a critical set of observations necessary for such investigations. These observations are unambiguous and provide details of the physical chain of events following the introduction of glaciogenic cloud seeding aerosol into supercooled liquid orographic clouds.

  4. IRIS perspectives on the future of the SEED format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, Chad; Ahern, Tim; Benson, Rick

    2016-04-01

    The Standard for the Exchange Earthquake Data (SEED) was formally adopted by the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) in 1987. Since that time, SEED has served as the dominant standard for passive source seismological data, and has been adopted for use by a variety of other uniformly sampled time series data. The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) was an early adopter and architect in addition to maintaining key software components of the SEED ecosystem. The SEED format, containing both time series data and related metadata, has been the primary archive and distribution format for the DMC for decades. After nearly 30 years, the SEED format is undergoing an evolution motivated by multiple factors, including the need for modern encoding, modern transmission and metadata expansion due to limitations. Within the last few years a new XML schema for expressing SEED metadata, called StationXML, was approved by the FDSN and is being adopted by multiple data centers and seismic software systems. The complete transition of users and centers to this new metadata format will take years. The DMC's strategy to promote this transition includes offering metadata in StationXML format, distributing a stand-alone program to convert between StationXML and SEED header format and accepting StationXML as the primary means of describing time series data. We will present the details of this strategy, known challenges, and current status. One key change needed in SEED is an expansion of the two-character network code to allow for identification of the increasing number geophysical networks in the world today. This change is relatively easy in the StationXML metadata, but requires a corresponding change in the fixed-length field format of SEED time series data known as miniSEED. Such an incompatible change in miniSEED affords the opportunity to make a number of other changes to miniSEED. The DMC has identified two classes of changes to miniSEED to be considered by

  5. Do seed VLCFAs trigger spongy tissue formation in Alphonso ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2. Do seed VLCFAs trigger spongy tissue ... Concurrently, a significant reduction in the ratio of linolenic acid/linoleic acid in pulp led to the loss of membrane integrity, cell death and the eventual formation of spongy tissue. Based on the above, it is ...

  6. Preventing an increase in Verticillium wilt incidence in spinach seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2014-01-01

    A semifield assay was conducted from 2009 to 2011 to distinguish between different preventive methods of reducing Verticillium spp. in spinach seed production. The seed treatments for controlling seed infection levels included Thiram, Signum, Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium roseum and Natural ...

  7. Apollo Passive Seismic Experiments: lunar data in SEED format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, C.; Nakamura, Y.; Igel, H.

    2017-12-01

    As a part of the Apollo lunar missions, five seismometers were deployed on the near side of the Moon between 1969 and 1972, and four of them operated continuously until 1977. Seismic data were collected on the Moon and telemetered to Earth. The data were recorded on digital magnetic tapes, with timestamps representing the time of signal reception on Earth. The taped data have been widely used for many applications. Data from the tapes had also been transferred to SEED (Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data) format and these SEED files were previously available at IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology). However, there were some timing-related problems with the original SEED files. We have re-imported the long period data to SEED format, and will make these data available via IRIS. There are many gaps within the data caused by loss of signal or instrument problems. The signal is reconstructed to be read in as a continuous record, with gaps within the seismic trace where necessary. We also record the ground station which received the signal from the Moon, and we preserve the timestamps within the file. The timestamps indicate that the sampling rate varies by up to 0.01 %. We investigate how much this is a change in the apparent sampling rate (due to the orbital parameters of the Moon and the rotation of the Earth) and how much is due to the instrument not maintaining a constant sampling rate. We also provide response files. The new files will be a valuable resource for analyzing the structure of the Moon.

  8. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-08-01

    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  9. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic.

  10. Seed Predation by the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: A Positive Feedback Preventing Eelgrass Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to restore the ecosystem services that eelgrass provides, after their continuous worldwide decline. Most attempts to restore eelgrass using seeds are challenged by very high seed losses and the reasons for these losses are not all clear. We assess the impact of predation on seed loss and eelgrass establishment, and explore methods to decrease seed loss during restoration in the Swedish northwest coast. In a laboratory study we identified three previously undescribed seed predators, the shore crab Carcinus maenas, the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, of which shore crabs consumed 2–7 times more seeds than the other two species. The importance of shore crabs as seed predators was supported in field cage experiments where one enclosed crab caused 73% loss of seeds over a 1-week period on average (~ 21 seeds per day). Seedling establishment was significantly higher (14%) in cages that excluded predators over an 8-month period than in uncaged plots and cages that allowed predators but prevented seed-transport (0.5%), suggesting that seed predation constitutes a major source of seed loss in the study area. Burying the seeds 2 cm below the sediment surface prevented seed predation in the laboratory and decreased predation in the field, constituting a way to decrease seed loss during restoration. Shore crabs may act as a key feedback mechanism that prevent the return of eelgrass both by direct consumption of eelgrass seeds and as a predator of algal mesograzers, allowing algal mats to overgrow eelgrass beds. This shore crab feedback mechanism could become self-generating by promoting the growth of its own nursery habitat (algal mats) and by decreasing the nursery habitat (seagrass meadow) of its dominant predator (cod). This double feedback-loop is supported by a strong increase of shore crab abundance in the last decades and may partly explain the regime shift in vegetation observed

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF BUSH FORMATION IN RED BEET ON SEED PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yusupova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary not only to possess the technology to grow seeds but also to have knowledge of plant biology in particular crop, and sowing qualities of its seeds. The particular place where seeds are forming on the mother plant has much influence on qualities of sowing seed material. The influence of the development of red beet plant bush on seed productivity, monogermity and sowing qualities of seeds was estimated in Rostov oblast. The main stalk pruning and application of plant growth retardants had an effect on the structure of red beet bush. In variants given in seed plants, the third type of branching prevailed due to lack or oppression of main stalk. Consequently, the seed yield and proportion of single fruit formation rose. It was also shown that due to treatment of plants with growth retardant ‘Floron’ at the stage of waxen maturity significantly improved the seed germination as compared with control variant. As a result of the study it was shown that the mechanical pruning of main stalk and application of growth retardants had affected on the structure of seed red beet bush increasing the yield mono-seed compounds as well as had improved the yield and seed quality of monogerm red beet. 

  12. Recovery and regeneration of spent MHD seed material by the formate process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, A.C.; Holt, J.K.; Rasnake, D.G.; Solomon, R.L.; Wilson, G.L.; Herrigel, H.R.

    1991-10-15

    The specification discloses a spent seed recovery and regeneration process for an MHD power plant employing an alkali metal salt seed material such as potassium salt wherein the spent potassium seed in the form of potassium sulfate is collected from the flue gas and reacted with calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide in an aqueous solution to cause the formation of calcium sulfate and potassium formate. The pH of the solution is adjusted to suppress formation of formic acid and to promote precipitation of any dissolved calcium salts. The solution containing potassium formate is then employed to provide the potassium salt in the form of potassium formate or, optionally, by heating the potassium formate under oxidizing conditions to convert the potassium formate to potassium carbonate. 5 figures.

  13. Prevention of organic iodide formation in BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjunen, T.; Laitinen, T.; Piippo, J.; Sirkiae, P.

    1996-01-01

    During an accident, many different forms of iodine may emerge. Organic iodides, such as methyl iodide and ethyl iodide, are relatively volatile, and thus their appearance leads to increased concentration of gaseous iodine. Since organic iodides are also relatively immune to most accident mitigation measures, such as sprays and filters, they can affect the accident source term significantly even when only a small portion of iodine is in organic form. Formation of organic iodides may not be limited by the amount of organic substances available. Excessive amounts of methane can be produced, for example, during oxidation of boron carbide, which is used in BWR's as a neutron absorber material. Another important source is cable insulation. In a BWR, a large quantity of cables is placed below the pressure vessel. Thus a large quantity of pyrolyse gases will be produced, should the vessel fail. Organic iodides can be formed as a result of many different reactions, but at least in certain conditions the main reaction takes place between an organic radical produced by radiolysis and elemental iodine. A necessary requirement for prevention of organic iodide production is therefore that the pH in the containment water pools is kept high enough to eliminate formation of elemental iodine. In a typical BWR the suppression pool water is usually unbuffered. As a result, the pH may be dominated by chemicals introduced during an accident. If no system for adding basic chemicals is operable, the main factor affecting pool water pH may be hydrochloric acid released during cable degradation. Should this occur, the conditions could be very favorable for production of elemental iodine and, consequently, formation of organic iodides. Although high pH is necessary for iodine retention, it could have also adverse effects. High pH may, for example, accelerate corrosion of containment materials and alter the characteristics of the solid corrosion products. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  14. The effect of inducing uniform Cu growth on formation of electroless Cu seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Taeho; Kim, Myung Jun; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kwang Hwan; Choe, Seunghoe; Lee, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The uniformity of Cu growth on Pd nanocatalysts was controlled by using organic additives in the formation of electroless Cu seed layers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw. 8000) not only reduced the deposition rate but also improved the uniformity of Cu growth on each Pd nanocatalyst during the seed layer formation. The stronger suppression effect of PEG on Cu than on Pd reduced the difference in the deposition rate between the two surfaces, resulting in the uniform deposition. Meanwhile, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide degraded the uniformity by strong and nonselective suppression. The sheet resistance measurement and atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that the uniform Cu growth by PEG was more advantageous for the formation of a thin and smooth Cu seed layer than the non-uniform growth. The uniform Cu growth also had a positive influence on the subsequent Cu electrodeposition: the 60-nm-thick electrodeposited Cu film on the Cu seed layer showed low resistivity (2.70 μΩ·cm), low surface roughness (6.98 nm), and good adhesion strength. - Highlights: • Uniform Cu growth on Pd was achieved in formation of electroless Cu seed layer. • PEG addition to electroless bath improved the uniformity of Cu growth on Pd. • A thin, smooth and continuous Cu seed layer was obtained with PEG. • Adhesion strength of the Cu seed layer was also improved with PEG. • The uniformity improvement positively affected subsequent Cu electrodeposition

  15. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface coating for prevention of crust formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-24

    A flexible surface coating which promotes the removal of deposits as they reach the surface by preventing adhesion and crust formation is disclosed. Flexible layers are attached to each side of a flexible mesh substrate comprising of a plurality of zones composed of one or more neighboring cells, each zone having a different compressibility than its adjacent zones. The substrate is composed of a mesh made of strands and open cells. The cells may be filled with foam. Studs or bearings may also be positioned in the cells to increase the variation in compressibility and thus the degree of flexing of the coating. Surface loading produces varying amounts of compression from point to point causing the coating to flex as deposits reach it, breaking up any hardening deposits before a continuous crust forms. Preferably one or more additional layers are also used, such as an outer layer of a non-stick material such as TEFLON, which may be pigmented, and an inner, adhesive layer to facilitate applying the coating to a surface. 5 figs.

  17. Do seed VLCFAs trigger spongy tissue formation in Alphonso ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-17

    Apr 17, 2015 ... growth is a major contributing factor for the disorder which leads to reduced fat content in spongy tissue affected fruits. ... significant reduction in the biosynthesis of VLCFAs in seeds during fruit growth might trigger pre-germination events .... Intensity of spongy tissue was quantified as a percentage of.

  18. Organic seed treatment of vegetables to prevent seedborne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadaro, D.; Herforth-Rahmé, J.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Seedborne pathogens of vegetables are responsible for the re-emergence of diseases of the past, as well as the introduction of diseases into new geographical areas. Seed treatment can be used to eradicate seedborne pathogens or to protect from soilborne pathogens. The European Commission Regulation

  19. Effect of Ga seeding layer on formation of epitaxial Y-shaped GaN nanoparticles on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. V.; Bolshakov, A. D.; Mozharov, A. M.; Sapunov, G. A.; Shtrom, I. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Mukhin, I. S.

    2017-11-01

    Silicon and aluminium nitrides, commonly used as buffer layers for GaN growth on Si are wide gap insulators, preventing barrier free charge-carrier transport across the heterojunction and limiting the functionality of GaN-on-silicon technology. In this work we explore possibility of direct growth of GaN on Si nano-heterostructures by PA-MBE with use of Ga-nanodroplets as seeds. It is demonstrated that use of seeding layer can result in formation of Y-shaped planar GaN nanoparticles (GaN tripods) along with commonly observed GaN nanowires. Growth mechanism, morphology and structural characterization of GaN/Si nano-heterostructures is discussed.

  20. Weeding and Seeding: Programming for Alcohol Abuse Prevention and Wellness Enhancement in an Undergraduate Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Fredrica R.; Pohl, Jonathan A.; Smith, M. Katrina

    2006-01-01

    College students who are no longer fully adolescent and not yet fully adult are frequently at risk for developing habits of excessive alcohol use, with consequent poor study habits and aberrant socialization patterns. "Weeding out" such trends is the work of prevention programs on campus. "Seeding" with other pro-social norms becomes the second…

  1. Prevention of Action of Far-Red-Absorbing Phytochrome in Rumex crispus L. Seeds by Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylorson, R B

    1984-02-01

    Phytochrome-enhanced germination of curled dock (Rumex crispus L.) seeds is further stimulated by pretreatments in solutions of 0.5 to 2 molar methanol and 0.03 to >/= 0.3 molar 2-propanol during a 2-day 20 degrees C imbibition. Similar pretreatments in 0.1 molar ethanol, acetaldehyde, and n-propanol inhibit phytochrome-enhanced germination. If exposure to ethanol is delayed until 16 hours after a red irradiation, seeds escape the ethanol inhibition indicating a mechanism other than toxicity. The rate of escape from ethanol inhibition roughly parallels the escape from phytochrome control in seeds held in water only, indicating possible ethanol effects on phytochrome. It was found that ethanol pretreatment prevents the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome (Pfr) from acting but does not accelerate dark decay or prevent transformation. Ethanol inhibition may be prevented if ethanol pretreatment is at 10 degrees C instead of 20 degrees C, or may be overcome by transferring ethanol-pretreated seeds to 10 degrees C in water. Similarly, ethanol inhibition can be overcome by a 2-hour 40 degrees C temperature shift concluding the pretreatment. It is proposed that the ethanol causes perturbations at a membrane which prevent Pfr from acting.

  2. Dynamics of seed magnetic island formation due to geometrically coupled perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.; LaHaye, R.J.

    1998-06-01

    Seed magnetic island formation due to a dynamically growing external source in toroidal confinement devices is modeled as an initial value forced reconnection problem. For an external source whose amplitude grows on a time scale quickly compared to the Sweet-Parker time of resistive magnetohydrodynamics, the induced reconnection is characterized by a current sheet and a reconnected flux amplitude which lags in time the source amplitude. This suggests that neoclassical tearing modes, whose excitation requires a seed magnetic island, are more difficult to cause in high Lundquist number plasmas

  3. Forage seeding in rangelands increases production and prevents weed invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Davy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing forage productivity in the Sierra foothill rangelands would help sustain the livestock industry as land availability shrinks and lease rates rise, but hardly any studies have been done on forage selections. From 2009 to 2014, in one of the first long-term and replicated studies of seeding Northern California's Mediterranean annual rangeland, we compared the cover of 22 diverse forages to determine their establishment and survivability over time. Among the annual herbs, forage brassica (Brassica napus L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L. proved viable options. Among the annual grasses, soft brome (Bromus hordeaceus and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum performed well. However, these species will likely require frequent reseeding to maintain dominance. Long-term goals of sustained dominant cover (> 3 years are best achieved with perennial grasses. Perennial grasses that persisted with greater than 50% cover were Berber orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, Flecha tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum and several varieties of hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L., Perla koleagrass, Holdfast, Advanced AT. In 2014, these successful perennials produced over three times more dry matter (pounds per acre than the unseeded control and also suppressed annual grasses and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L. cover.

  4. Formation of spring rape yield depending on fractional composition of seed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. С. Вишнівський

    2016-07-01

    per day, ‘MSM’ sample variety – from 1.83 to 2.10 g/m2 per day. Conclusions. It was established that different fractions of spring rape seeds sown in the Northern Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine affected the indices of germinating energy and laboratory germination, crop density formation, leaf surface area and intensity of photosynthesis process (crop photosynthetic potential, net photosynthesis performance. The highest indices of productivity and yield in the ‘Magnat’ variety was ensured by large-seeded fraction (3,6 g and more, in the ‘MVM’ (‘Gladia­tor’ sample variety – by small-seeded fraction (up to 2,5 g.

  5. Antibody expressing pea seeds as fodder for prevention of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macek Jeanette

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coccidiosis caused by protozoans of genus Eimeria is a chicken parasitic disease of great economical importance. Conventional disease control strategies depend on vaccination and prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs. Alternative solution to prevent and treat coccidiosis could be provided by passive immunization using orally delivered neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the possibility to mitigate the parasitic infection by feeding poultry with antibody expressing transgenic crop seeds. Results Using the phage display antibody library, we generated a panel of anti-Eimeria scFv antibody fragments with high sporozoite-neutralizing activity. These antibodies were expressed either transiently in agrobacteria-infiltrated tobacco leaves or stably in seeds of transgenic pea plants. Comparison of the scFv antibodies purified either from tobacco leaves or from the pea seeds demonstrated no difference in their antigen-binding activity and molecular form compositions. Force-feeding experiments demonstrated that oral delivery of flour prepared from the transgenic pea seeds had higher parasite neutralizing activity in vivo than the purified antibody fragments isolated from tobacco. The pea seed content was found to protect antibodies against degradation by gastrointestinal proteases (>100-fold gain in stability. Ad libitum feeding of chickens demonstrated that the transgenic seeds were well consumed and not shunned. Furthermore, feeding poultry with shred prepared from the antibody expressing pea seeds led to significant mitigation of infection caused both by high and low challenge doses of Eimeria oocysts. Conclusion The results suggest that our strategy offers a general approach to control parasitic infections in production animals using cost-effective antibody expression in crop seeds affordable for the animal health market.

  6. Antibody expressing pea seeds as fodder for prevention of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jana; Saalbach, Isolde; Jahn, Doreen; Giersberg, Martin; Haehnel, Sigrun; Wedel, Julia; Macek, Jeanette; Zoufal, Karen; Glünder, Gerhard; Falkenburg, Dieter; Kipriyanov, Sergey M

    2009-09-11

    Coccidiosis caused by protozoans of genus Eimeria is a chicken parasitic disease of great economical importance. Conventional disease control strategies depend on vaccination and prophylactic use of anticoccidial drugs. Alternative solution to prevent and treat coccidiosis could be provided by passive immunization using orally delivered neutralizing antibodies. We investigated the possibility to mitigate the parasitic infection by feeding poultry with antibody expressing transgenic crop seeds. Using the phage display antibody library, we generated a panel of anti-Eimeria scFv antibody fragments with high sporozoite-neutralizing activity. These antibodies were expressed either transiently in agrobacteria-infiltrated tobacco leaves or stably in seeds of transgenic pea plants. Comparison of the scFv antibodies purified either from tobacco leaves or from the pea seeds demonstrated no difference in their antigen-binding activity and molecular form compositions. Force-feeding experiments demonstrated that oral delivery of flour prepared from the transgenic pea seeds had higher parasite neutralizing activity in vivo than the purified antibody fragments isolated from tobacco. The pea seed content was found to protect antibodies against degradation by gastrointestinal proteases (>100-fold gain in stability). Ad libitum feeding of chickens demonstrated that the transgenic seeds were well consumed and not shunned. Furthermore, feeding poultry with shred prepared from the antibody expressing pea seeds led to significant mitigation of infection caused both by high and low challenge doses of Eimeria oocysts. The results suggest that our strategy offers a general approach to control parasitic infections in production animals using cost-effective antibody expression in crop seeds affordable for the animal health market.

  7. In vitro germination, protocorm formation and plantlet development of mature versus immature seeds from several Ophrys species (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsaki, C K; Zygouraki, S; Ziobora, M; Kintzios, S

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the effect of genotype, seed maturity and culture medium on the in vitro germination and development of protocorms and plantlets from seeds of 13 different Ophrys species (O. apifera, O. attica, O. cornuta, O. delfinensis, O. ferrum-equinum, O. lutea, O. mammosa, O. speculum, O. spruneri, O. umbilicata, O. argolica, O. irricolor and O. tenthredinifera) collected in Greece, some of which are endemic to this country. Mature seeds (10 months after collection) and immature seeds (2 months after anthesis) were cultured in a coconut milk-enriched or a pineapple-enriched medium (CEM or PEM, respectively). The highest percentage of callogenesis (96%) was observed in immature seeds of O. delphinensis in the CEM, while the highest percentage of protocorm formation (52%) was observed in mature seeds of O. spuneri in the CEM. Protocorm formation was significantly lower in immature seeds than in mature seeds in both culture media. Eventually almost all of the transferred protocorms developed to plantlets, which later formed minitubers. PEM appeared to be the most suitable for the development of minitubers from plantlets. All of the factors investigated--as well as their interactions--significantly affected callogenesis and protocorm formation. The results are discussed with the perspective of applying an improved protocol for in vitro seed germination and plantlet formation in several under-utilized Ophrys species.

  8. The formation, function and fate of protein storage compartments in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibl, Verena; Stoger, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Seed storage proteins (SSPs) have been studied for more than 250 years because of their nutritional value and their impact on the use of grain in food processing. More recently, the use of seeds for the production of recombinant proteins has rekindled interest in the behavior of SSPs and the question how they are able to accumulate as stable storage reserves. Seed cells produce vast amounts of SSPs with different subcellular destinations creating an enormous logistic challenge for the endomembrane system. Seed cells contain several different storage organelles including the complex and dynamic protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) and other protein bodies (PBs) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Storage proteins destined for the PSV may pass through or bypass the Golgi, using different vesicles that follow different routes through the cell. In addition, trafficking may depend on the plant species, tissue and developmental stage, showing that the endomembrane system is capable of massive reorganization. Some SSPs contain sorting signals or interact with membranes or with other proteins en route in order to reach their destination. The ability of SSPs to form aggregates is particularly important in the formation or ER-derived PBs, a mechanism that occurs naturally in response to overloading with proteins that cannot be transported and that can be used to induce artificial storage bodies in vegetative tissues. In this review, we summarize recent findings that provide insight into the formation, function, and fate of storage organelles and describe tools that can be used to study them.

  9. Effect of Gamma Radiation on In Vitro Multiple Shoot Formation of Aromatic Rice Seeds (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sripichitt, P.; Saengkaewsook, W.; Tangman, P.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of exposure dose of gamma radiation on multiple shoot formation of aromatic rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.c v. Khao Dawk Mali 105) was investigated. The seeds were irradiated by gamma radiation with varying exposure doses of 0,4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40 and 44 krad. After irradiation, the seeds were surface sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with benzyl adenine 25 mg/1 to induce multiple shoot formation. After 5 weeks cultured the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds and the number of shoots per seed were counted. It was found that the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds was increased from 45.9 per mille in the control to 83.3 per mille in seeds irradiated at 24 krad. At the exposure dose of 28 krad the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds was decreased to 80 per mille and was lowest (11.4 per mille) at 40 krad. Multiple shoots formation was completely inhibited at the highest exposure dose of 44 krad. The exposure dose required to reduce the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds by 50 percent (R D 5 0) was 38 krad. Similarly, the number of shoots per multiple shoot-forming seed was increasing as the exposure dose increased from 5.7 shoots in the control to 21.3 shoots in seeds irradiated at 40 krad. The number of shoots per seed was zero at the exposure dose of 44 krad. The multiple shoots regenerated from irradiated seeds were rooted. Then the M 1 R 1 plant lets were transplanted into pots grown under greenhouse conditions

  10. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  11. Substrate Lattice-Guided Seed Formation Controls the Orientation of 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Aljarb, Areej

    2017-08-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDCs) semiconductors are important for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Given the difficulty in growing large single crystals of 2D TMDC materials, understanding the factors affecting the seed formation and orientation becomes an important issue for controlling the growth. Here, we systematically study the growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer on c-plane sapphire with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to discover the factors controlling their orientation. We show that the concentration of precursors, i.e., the ratio between sulfur and molybdenum oxide (MoO3), plays a key role in the size and orientation of seeds, subsequently controlling the orientation of MoS2 monolayers. High S/MoO3 ratio is needed in the early stage of growth to form small seeds that can align easily to the substrate lattice structures while the ratio should be decreased to enlarge the size of the monolayer at the next stage of the lateral growth. Moreover, we show that the seeds are actually crystalline MoS2 layers as revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. There exist two preferred orientations (0° or 60°) registered on sapphire, confirmed by our density functional theory (DFT) simulation. This report offers a facile technique to grow highly aligned 2D TMDCs and contributes to knowledge advancement in growth mechanism.

  12. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  13. 21 CFR 2.25 - Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RULINGS AND DECISIONS Human and Animal Foods § 2.25 Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grain seed treated with poisonous substances; color identification to prevent adulteration of human and animal food. 2.25 Section 2.25 Food and Drugs...

  14. Direct formation of gold nanorods on surfaces using polymer-immobilised gold seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid K. Abyaneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present the formation of gold nanorods (GNRs on novel gold–poly(methyl methacrylate (Au–PMMA nanocomposite substrates with unprecedented growth control through the polymer molecular weight (Mw and gold-salt-to-polymer weight ratio. For the first time, GNRs have been produced by seed-mediated direct growth on surfaces that were pre-coated with polymer-immobilised gold seeds. A Au–PMMA nanocomposite formed by UV photoreduction has been used as the gold seed. The influence of polymer Mw and gold concentration on the formation of GNRs has been investigated and discussed. The polymer nanocomposite formed with a lower Mw PMMA and 20 wt % gold salt provides a suitable medium for growing well-dispersed GNRs. In this sample, the average dimension of produced GNRs is 200 nm in length with aspect ratios up to 10 and a distribution of GNRs to nanoparticles of nearly 22%. Suitable characterization techniques such as AFM and SEM have been used to support concept of the proposed growth method.

  15. Utility of opium seed extract tests in preventing hypersensitivity reactions during surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Pineda, F; Palacios, R; Martín-Gil, F-J; Miguel, A S; Arenal, J J; Tejedor, J; Tef, B M

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis during anaesthesia is fatal in 3-9% of patients and analgesics, including opioids, and is the second most common medicament-related cause, although the prevalence is underestimated. We recently found that patients may generate IgE antibodies to opium seeds. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of specific antibodies to morphine, codeine, rocuronium and oil body and aqueous fractions of Papaver somniferum seeds in the diagnosis and prevention of allergy to opioids. Patients with hypersensitivity reactions during surgery, and severe clinical allergy (pollen, tobacco), and illicit heroin users were selected. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of in vivo and in vitro diagnostic techniques including oil body and aqueous fractions of P. somniferum seeds were measured. We studied 203 patients, with mean age 35.1±17.1 and 200 healthy controls. Patients sensitised to heroin or with hypersensitivity reactions during surgery responded to P. somniferum seed tests. Of patients not known to be sensitised to opioids, the highest positivity was in patients sensitised to tobacco (pOpium seed skin tests and IgE, especially the oil body fraction, were more sensitive (64.2%) and specific (98.4%) than morphine, codeine and rocuronium tests for opioid sensitivity. Pollen allergy was not a risk factor for sensitisation to morphine. Sensitivity to opioids and intraoperative anaphylaxis can be diagnosed by routine tests. IgE and skin tests for the oil body fraction of P. somniferum had the highest sensitivity for sensitisation to opioids. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Seed Exudates on Growth and Biofilm Formation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ALB629 in Common Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Martins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to unravel the events which favor the seed-rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain ALB629 (hereafter ALB629 interaction and which may interfere with the rhizobacterium colonization and growth on the spermosphere of common bean. Seed exudates from common bean were tested in vitro for ALB629 biofilm formation and bacterial growth. Furthermore, the performance of ALB629 on plant-related variables under drought stress was checked. Seed exudates (1 and 5% v/v increased ALB629 biofilm formation. Additionally, the colony forming units for ALB629 increased both in culture and on the bean seed surface. The bean seed exudates up-regulated biofilm operons in ALB629 TasA and EpsD by ca. two and sixfold, respectively. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-coupled with MS showed that malic acid is present as a major organic acid component in the seed exudates. Seeds treated with ALB629 and amended with malic acid resulted in seedlings with a higher bacterial concentration, induced plant drought tolerance, and promoted plant growth. We showed that seed exudates promote growth of ALB629 and malic acid was identified as a major organic acid component in the bean seed exudates. Our results also show that supplementation of ALB629 induced drought tolerance and growth in plants. The research pertaining to the biological significance of seed exudates in plant–microbe interaction is unexplored field and our work shows the importance of seed exudates in priming both growth and tolerance against abiotic stress.

  17. Impact of Seed Exudates on Growth and Biofilm Formation ofBacillus amyloliquefaciensALB629 in Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Samuel J; Medeiros, Flávio H V; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Bais, Harsh P

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to unravel the events which favor the seed-rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain ALB629 (hereafter ALB629) interaction and which may interfere with the rhizobacterium colonization and growth on the spermosphere of common bean. Seed exudates from common bean were tested in vitro for ALB629 biofilm formation and bacterial growth. Furthermore, the performance of ALB629 on plant-related variables under drought stress was checked. Seed exudates (1 and 5% v/v) increased ALB629 biofilm formation. Additionally, the colony forming units for ALB629 increased both in culture and on the bean seed surface. The bean seed exudates up-regulated biofilm operons in ALB629 TasA and EpsD by ca. two and sixfold, respectively. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-coupled with MS showed that malic acid is present as a major organic acid component in the seed exudates. Seeds treated with ALB629 and amended with malic acid resulted in seedlings with a higher bacterial concentration, induced plant drought tolerance, and promoted plant growth. We showed that seed exudates promote growth of ALB629 and malic acid was identified as a major organic acid component in the bean seed exudates. Our results also show that supplementation of ALB629 induced drought tolerance and growth in plants. The research pertaining to the biological significance of seed exudates in plant-microbe interaction is unexplored field and our work shows the importance of seed exudates in priming both growth and tolerance against abiotic stress.

  18. Wine protein haze: mechanisms of formation and advances in prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sluyter, Steven C; McRae, Jacqui M; Falconer, Robert J; Smith, Paul A; Bacic, Antony; Waters, Elizabeth J; Marangon, Matteo

    2015-04-29

    Protein haze is an aesthetic problem in white wines that can be prevented by removing the grape proteins that have survived the winemaking process. The haze-forming proteins are grape pathogenesis-related proteins that are highly stable during winemaking, but some of them precipitate over time and with elevated temperatures. Protein removal is currently achieved by bentonite addition, an inefficient process that can lead to higher costs and quality losses in winemaking. The development of more efficient processes for protein removal and haze prevention requires understanding the mechanisms such as the main drivers of protein instability and the impacts of various wine matrix components on haze formation. This review covers recent developments in wine protein instability and removal and proposes a revised mechanism of protein haze formation.

  19. Meiosis, unreduced gametes, and parthenogenesis: implications for engineering clonal seed formation in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronceret, Arnaud; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Meiosis and unreduced gametes. Sexual flowering plants produce meiotically derived cells that give rise to the male and female haploid gametophytic phase. In the ovule, usually a single precursor (the megaspore mother cell) undergoes meiosis to form four haploid megaspores; however, numerous mutants result in the formation of unreduced gametes, sometimes showing female specificity, a phenomenon reminiscent of the initiation of gametophytic apomixis. Here, we review the developmental events that occur during female meiosis and megasporogenesis at the light of current possibilities to engineer unreduced gamete formation. We also provide an overview of the current understanding of mechanisms leading to parthenogenesis and discuss some of the conceptual implications for attempting the induction of clonal seed production in cultivated plants.

  20. Techunique to depress seeds formation in small sized watermelon [Citrullus lanatus] by using pollen irradiated with soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, K.; Ishida, T.

    2005-01-01

    Pollen irradiated soft X-rays is effective to depress seed formation in fruits of watermelon. In this investigation, it's effect are disucussed on some varieties of small sized water melon on semi-focing and retarding culture. Results are followed; The radiation of soft X-rays to pollen gave less seeds formation in fruits of wide varieties on both cropping season. The fruit setting was normal on the case of using irradiated pollen, and the growth and quality of fruits were equal or better than that of triploid variety of watermelon. The size of emty seeds remained in fruit was big in the variety whitch had originally big size seeds. On variety comparison under two cropping season. 'hitorijime' , 'summerkids' and ' himekannsen' showed excellent quality and less-formation of residual seeds in their fruits. To determine optimum level of soft X-rays irradiation, three levels of irradiation intensity were te sted. Irradiation intensity to pollen did not affect to the furit setting and the growth of fruit. B ut sugarcontent in fruit was generally higher than that of no-treatment. The effect of radiation int ensity to formation of seeds was different on cropping season. The optimum intensity was 1600Gy on r etarding culture. On semi-forcing culture, depressive effect on seeds formation by soft X-rays irrad iation was incresed as the increment of irradiation intensity between 0 to 800Gy, but irradiation av obe 1600Gy gave opposite result. Then optimum irradiation level is 800-1200Gy

  1. Enzymatic treatment for preventing biofilm formation in the paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Claudia Esperanza; Lenon, Giles; Craperi, Delphine; Wilting, Reinhard; Blanco, Angeles

    2011-10-01

    Microbiological control programmes at industrial level should aim at reducing both the detrimental effects of microorganisms on the process and the environmental impact associated to the use of biocides as microbiological control products. To achieve this target, new efficient and environmentally friendly products are required. In this paper, 17 non-specific, commercial enzymatic mixtures were tested to assess their efficacy for biofilm prevention and control at laboratory and pilot plant scale. Pectin methylesterase, an enzyme found in the formulation of two of the mixtures tested, was identified as an active compound able to reduce biofilm formation by 71% compared to control tests.

  2. Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract mitigates lipotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells and prevents atherogenic changes in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipak; Desai, Swati; Gajaria, Tejal; Devkar, Ranjitsinh; Ramachandran, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum L. (CS) in preventing in vitro low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation mediated macrophage modification. Further, an in vivo study was also conducted to confirm upon the efficacy of CS seed extract in alleviating pathophysiological alterations of high cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis in rats. Copper mediated cell free oxidation of LDL accounted for elevated indices of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP)and protein carbonyl (PC) and a progressive increment in conjugate diene (CD) levels whereas, reverse set of changes were recorded in presence of CS extract. Cell mediated LDL oxidation (using RAW 264.7 cells) accounted for lowered MDA production and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) mediated cell death in presence of CS extract and the same was attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials. High cholesterol fed atherogenic rats showed elevated lipid indices, evidences of LDL oxidation, plaque formation in thoracic aorta. The same was further validated with immunostaining of cell adhesion molecules and hematoxylin and eosin (HXE) staining. However, co-supplementation of CS to atherogenic rats recorded significant lowering of the above mentioned parameters further strengthening the claim that CS extract is instrumental in preventing onset and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26417232

  3. Time-resolved and spatially-resolved infrared spectroscopic observation of seeded nucleation controlling geopolymer gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimohammadi, Ailar; Provis, John L; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2011-05-15

    The effect of seeded nucleation on the formation and structural evolution of one-part ("just add water") geopolymer gels is investigated. Gel-forming systems are seeded with each of three different oxide nanoparticles, and seeding is shown to have an important role in controlling the silica release rate from the solid geothermal silica precursor, and in the development of physical properties of the gels. Nucleation accelerates the chemical changes taking place during geopolymer formation. The nature of the seeds affects the structure of the growing gel by affecting the extent of phase separation, identified by the presence of a distinct silica-rich gel in addition to the main, more alumina-rich gel phase. Synchrotron radiation-based infrared microscopy (SR-FTIR) shows the effect of nucleation on the heterogeneous nanostructure and microstructure of geopolymer gels, and is combined with data obtained by time-resolved FTIR analysis to provide a more holistic view of the reaction processes at a level of detail that has not previously been available. While spatially averaged (ATR-FTIR) infrared results show similar spectra for seeded and unseeded samples which have been cured for more than 3 weeks, SR-FTIR results show marked differences in gel structure as a result of seeding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-aluminum-affinity silica is a nanoparticle that seeds secondary aluminosilicate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m(2) g(-1) and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III) binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP) with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III) ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III) species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn. Leaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widyastuti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata Linn. (soursop is one of  tropical plants which have relatively complete chemical compounds. It has flavonoid, tannin, phytosterol, alkaloid, etc. The high antioxidant compound in soursop is believed as cancer prevention so the cancer threat in the world can be minimized. The antioxidant compound in soursop can be found not only in its fruit, but also in other parts like leaves, seeds, etc. Based on that potency, this study aimed to compare antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds, also to study about the utilization of soursop parts which is usually not used. This research began with maceration to extract leaves and seeds with 96% ethanol. Ethanolic extract of soursop leaves and seeds were then tested for antioxidant capacity with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The result showed that antioxidant capacity of soursop leaves and seeds are 85,66875% and 39,0166, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of leaves is higher than seeds due to seed’s extraction difficulty so its antioxidant compound could not be extracted optimally. However, either leaves or seeds extract in this study are potential as antioxidant resources because there are no significant differences between antioxidant capacity of both extract.

  7. Grape seed and skin extract prevents high-fat diet-induced brain lipotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hassine, Fethy Ben; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of dementia and the physiologic mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the brain are poorly understood. The present investigation analyzed the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on brain steatosis and oxidative stress and the intracellular mediators involved in signal transduction, as well as the protection offered by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced ectopic deposition of cholesterol and phospholipid but not triglyceride. Moreover brain lipotoxicity is linked to an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, depletion of manganese and a concomitant increase in ionizable calcium and acetylcholinesterase activity. Importantly GSSE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Altogether our data indicated that HFD could find some potential application in the treatment of manganism and that GSSE should be used as a safe anti-lipotoxic agent in the prevention and treatment of fat-induced brain injury.

  8. Constraining the high-redshift formation of black hole seeds in nuclear star clusters with gas inflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupi, A.; Colpi, M.; Devecchi, B.; Galanti, G.; Volonteri, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a possible route of black hole seed formation that appeals to a model by Davies, Miller & Bellovary who considered the case of the dynamical collapse of a dense cluster of stellar black holes subjected to an inflow of gas. Here, we explore this case in a broad cosmological

  9. Inhibitory effect of liposomal solutions of grape seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Daniela; Gibis, Monika; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-01-08

    The effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) encapsulated in liposomes to inhibit the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) during frying of beef patties was assessed. All liposomal systems were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 22 500 psi. A total of six samples (rapeseed oil (control), GSE at 0.1% and 0.2%, and GSE-containing liposomes with 1%, 2%, and 5% soy lecithin) were investigated. MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found after the marinade application and frying. PhIP concentrations decreased upon marination with GSE (0.1%) and GSE-containing liposomes (1% and 5%) (p oil control (p < 0.01) while no effect on β-carboline formation was observed. Results are in contrast to previous studies that had shown that liposomal encapsulation may enhance effectiveness of polyphenols to inhibit radical reactions. A mechanistic model was proposed to explain the observed differences.

  10. Novel thermosensitive hydrogel for preventing formation of abdominal adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao X

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Gao,1,2 Xiaohui Deng,3 Xiawei Wei,2 Huashan Shi,2 Fengtian Wang,2 Tinghong Ye,2 Bin Shao,2 Wen Nie,2 Yuli Li,2 Min Luo,2 Changyang Gong,2 Ning Huang1 1Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 3Department of Human Anatomy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Adhesions can form after almost any type of abdominal surgery. Postoperative adhesions can be prevented by improved surgical techniques, such as reducing surgical trauma, preventing ischemia, and avoiding exposure of the peritoneal cavity to foreign materials. Although improved surgical techniques can potentially reduce formation of adhesions, they cannot be eliminated completely. Therefore, finding more effective methods to prevent postoperative adhesions is imperative. Recently, we found that a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, ie, poly(ε-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PCEC had the potential to prevent postoperative adhesions. Using the ring-opening polymerization method, we prepared a PCEC copolymer which could be dissolved and assembled at 55°C into PCEC micelles with mean size of 25 nm. At body temperature, a solution containing PCEC micelles could convert into a hydrogel. The PCEC copolymer was biodegradable and had low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that most animals in a hydrogel-treated group (n = 10 did not develop adhesions. In contrast, 10 untreated animals developed adhesions that could only be separated by sharp dissection (P < 0.001. The hydrogel could adhere to peritoneal wounds and degraded gradually over 7–9 days, transforming into a viscous fluid that was completely absorbed within 12 days. The injured parietal and visceral peritoneum remesothelialized over about seven and nine days

  11. Collaborative Falls Prevention: Interprofessional Team Formation, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasater, Kathie; Cotrell, Victoria; McKenzie, Glenise; Simonson, William; Morgove, Megan W; Long, Emily E; Eckstrom, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    As health care rapidly evolves to promote person-centered care, evidence-based practice, and team-structured environments, nurses must lead interprofessional (IP) teams to collaborate for optimal health of the populations and more cost-effective health care. Four professions-nursing, medicine, social work, and pharmacy-formed a teaching team to address fall prevention among older adults in Oregon using an IP approach. The teaching team developed training sessions that included interactive, evidence-based sessions, followed by individualized team coaching. This article describes how the IP teaching team came together to use a unique cross-training approach to teach each other. They then taught and coached IP teams from a variety of community practice settings to foster their integration of team-based falls-prevention strategies into practice. After coaching 25 teams for a year each, the authors present the lessons learned from the teaching team's formation and experiences, as well as feedback from practice team participants that can provide direction for other IP teams. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(12):545-550. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Prevention of organic iodide formation in BWR`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjunen, T. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Laitinen, T.; Piippo, J.; Sirkiae, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    During an accident, many different forms of iodine may emerge. Organic iodides, such as methyl iodide and ethyl iodide, are relatively volatile, and thus their appearance leads to increased concentration of gaseous iodine. Since organic iodides are also relatively immune to most accident mitigation measures, such as sprays and filters, they can affect the accident source term significantly even when only a small portion of iodine is in organic form. Formation of organic iodides may not be limited by the amount of organic substances available. Excessive amounts of methane can be produced, for example, during oxidation of boron carbide, which is used in BWR`s as a neutron absorber material. Another important source is cable insulation. In a BWR, a large quantity of cables is placed below the pressure vessel. Thus a large quantity of pyrolyse gases will be produced, should the vessel fail. Organic iodides can be formed as a result of many different reactions, but at least in certain conditions the main reaction takes place between an organic radical produced by radiolysis and elemental iodine. A necessary requirement for prevention of organic iodide production is therefore that the pH in the containment water pools is kept high enough to eliminate formation of elemental iodine. In a typical BWR the suppression pool water is usually unbuffered. As a result, the pH may be dominated by chemicals introduced during an accident. If no system for adding basic chemicals is operable, the main factor affecting pool water pH may be hydrochloric acid released during cable degradation. Should this occur, the conditions could be very favorable for production of elemental iodine and, consequently, formation of organic iodides. Although high pH is necessary for iodine retention, it could have also adverse effects. High pH may, for example, accelerate corrosion of containment materials and alter the characteristics of the solid corrosion products. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  13. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  14. High-Aluminum-Affinity Silica Is a Nanoparticle That Seeds Secondary Aluminosilicate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m2 g-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III) binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP) with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III) ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III) species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates. PMID:24349573

  15. High-aluminum-affinity silica is a nanoparticle that seeds secondary aluminosilicate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravin Jugdaohsingh

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7 we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP. Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter with a mean specific surface area of about 1,000 m(2 g(-1 and it competes effectively with transferrin for Al(III binding. Aluminum binding to HSP strongly inhibited its decomposition whilst the reaction rate constant for the formation of the β-silicomolybdic acid complex indicated a diameter between 3.6 and 4.1 nm for these aluminum-containing nanoparticles. Similarly, high resolution microscopic analysis of the air dried aluminum-containing silica colloid solution revealed 3.9 ± 1.3 nm sized crystalline Al-rich silica nanoparticles (ASP with an estimated Al:Si ratio of between 2 and 3 which is close to the range of secondary aluminosilicates such as imogolite. Thus the high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer is a nanoparticle that seeds early aluminosilicate formation through highly competitive binding of Al(III ions. In niche environments, especially in vivo, this may serve as an alternative mechanism to polyhydroxy Al(III species binding monomeric silica to form early phase, non-toxic aluminosilicates.

  16. Effect of Nigella sativa seed administration on prevention of febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy among children with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, HebatAlla Fathi Mohamed; Abd-El-Fatah, Nesrin Kamal; Darwish, Olfat Abdel-Hamid; Shehata, Shehata Farag; Fadel, Shady Hassan

    2017-05-01

    Seeds of Nigella sativa (NS) are used to combat various disease conditions through their antibacterial effects. To evaluate the seeds' potential, we studied their effect on the prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) in children with brain tumors. A randomized pretest-post-test control group study including 80 children (2-18 years) with brain tumors undergoing chemotherapy were equally allocated into two groups. Intervention group received 5 g of NS seeds daily throughout treatment while controls received nothing. CBC with differentials, incidence of FN, and LOS were noted on each follow-up. The majority of children 38/40 (95%), of the intervention group, took the seeds for 3-9 consecutive months. Eight out of 372 (2.2%) FN episodes were experienced by children of intervention group compared to controls 63/327 (19.3%) (p = 0.001) and a shorter LOS (median = 2.5 days) vs 5 days in the control group (p = 0.006). Children in both groups belonged to almost same geographical area with similar socio-economic background. Weights of children were almost equal at diagnosis. NS seeds showed a decrease in incidence of FN in children with brain tumors with shortening of subsequent LOS which may improve their outcome and thereby quality of life. Larger scale studies are needed to further evaluate the seeds' potential.

  17. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes from Population III.1 Seeds. I. Cosmic Formation Histories and Clustering Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banik, Nilanjan; Tan, Jonathan C.; Monaco, Pierluigi

    2016-08-15

    We calculate the cosmic distributions in space and time of the formation sites of the first, "Pop III.1" stars, exploring a model in which these are the progenitors of all supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Pop III.1 stars are defined to form from primordial composition gas in dark matter minihalos with $\\sim10^6\\:M_\\odot$ that are isolated from neighboring astrophysical sources by a given isolation distance, $d_{\\rm{iso}}$. We assume Pop III.1 sources are seeds of SMBHs, based on protostellar support by dark matter annihilation heating that allows them to accrete a large fraction of their minihalo gas, i.e., $\\sim 10^5\\:M_\\odot$. Exploring $d_{\\rm{iso}}$ from 10--$100\\:\\rm{kpc}$ (proper distances), we predict the redshift evolution of Pop III.1 source and SMBH remnant number densities. The local, $z=0$ density of SMBHs constrains $d_{\\rm{iso}}\\lesssim 100\\:\\rm{kpc}$ (i.e., $3\\:\\rm{Mpc}$ comoving distance at $z\\simeq30$). In our simulated ($\\sim60\\:\\rm{Mpc}$)$^3$ comoving volume, Pop III.1 stars start forming just after $z=40$. Their formation is largely complete by $z\\simeq25$ to 20 for $d_{\\rm{iso}}=100$ to $50\\:\\rm{kpc}$. We follow source evolution to $z=10$, by which point most SMBHs reside in halos with $\\gtrsim10^8\\:M_\\odot$. Over this period, there is relatively limited merging of SMBHs for these values of $d_{\\rm{iso}}$. We also predict SMBH clustering properties at $z=10$: feedback suppression of neighboring sources leads to relatively flat angular correlation functions. Finally, we consider a simple "Str\\"omgren" model for $d_{\\rm iso}$, based on ionizing feedback from zero age main sequence supermassive Pop III.1 stars that may be the direct progenitors of SMBHs in this scenario. Such models naturally produce feedback effects on scales of $\\sim100\\:$kpc and thus self-consistently generate a SMBH number density similar to the observed value.

  18. Preventing thermoinhibition in a thermosensitive lettuce genotype by seed imbibition at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seed germination is strongly temperature dependent and under high temperatures, germination of most of genotypes can be erratic or completely inhibited. Lettuce seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB were incubated at temperatures ranging from 15degrees to 35degreesC at light and dark conditions. Other seeds were imbibed in dark at 20degrees; 25degrees; 30degrees; and 35degreesC for 8 and 16 hours and then transferred to 20 or 35degreesC, in dark. Seeds were also incubated at constant temperature of 20degrees and 35 degreesC, in the dark, as control. In another treatment, seeds were primed for 3 days at 15degreesC with constant light. DGB lettuce seeds required light to germinate adequately at temperatures above 25degreesC. Seeds incubated at 20degreesC had 97% germination, whereas seeds incubated at 35degreesC did not germinate. Seeds imbibed at 20degreesC for 8 and 16 hours had germination. At 35degreesC, seeds imbibed initially at 20degreesC for 8 and 16 hours, had 89 and 97% germination, respectively. Seeds imbibed at 25degreesC for 16 hours, germinated satisfactory at 35degreesC. High temperatures of imbibition led to no germination. Primed and non-primed seeds had 100% germination at 20degreesC. Primed seeds had 100% germination at 35degreesC, whereas non-primed seeds germinate only 4%. The first hours of imbibition are very critical for lettuce seed germination at high temperatures.

  19. Weed seed spread and its prevention: The role of roadside wash down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Nguyen, Thi; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2018-02-15

    Vehicles are one of the major vectors of long-distance weed seed spread. Viable seed removed from vehicles at roadside wash down facilities was studied at five locations in central Queensland, Australia over a 3-year period. Seed from 145 plant species, belonging to 34 different families, were identified in the sludge samples obtained from the wet particulate matter collection pit of the wash down facilities. Most of the species were annual forbs (50%) with small or very small seed size (weed was observed in these samples. More parthenium weed seed were found in the Rolleston facility and in the spring, but its seed was present in all facilities and in all seasons. The average number of viable seed found within every ton of dry particulate matter removed from vehicles was ca. 68,000. Thus, a typical wash down facility was removing up to ca. 335,000 viable seed from vehicles per week, of which ca. 6700 were parthenium weed seed. Furthermore, 61% of these seed (ca. 200,000) were from introduced species, and about half of these (35% of total) were from species considered to be weeds. Therefore, the roadside wash down facilities found throughout Queensland can remove a substantial amount of viable weed seed from vehicles, including the invasive parthenium weed, and the use of such facilities should be strongly encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract promotes bone formation in rat's mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Maki, Kenshi; Tofani, Iwan; Kimura, Kyoko; Kimura, Mitsutaka

    2005-02-01

    We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) 3 mg added in 100 g high-calcium diet with a calcium content of 1697 mg 100 g(-1) on mandibular condyle bone debility, which was induced by a low-calcium diet. Forty Wistar male rats, 5 week old, were randomly divided into control (Co), low-calcium diet (LC), low-calcium/high-calcium diet (LCH), and low-calcium/high-calcium with supplementary GSPE diet (LCHG) groups for 6 wk. Bone formation of the mandibular condyle was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Significant differences were not seen among the four groups for body weight, measured weekly. The LCHG group scored significantly higher in cortical bone density, total bone cross-sectional area, cortical bone cross-sectional area, cortical bone mineral content, total bone density, total bone mineral content, and in the stress-strain index to the reference axis x when compared with the LCH group. We concluded that a high-calcium diet combined with GSPE supplementation is more effective in reversing mandibular condyle bone debility in rats than is a low-calcium diet, standard diet, or high-calcium diet alone.

  1. Effects of inorganic seeds on secondary organic aerosol formation from photochemical oxidation of acetone in a chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuangshuang; Xu, Yongfu; Jia, Long

    2017-12-01

    Photochemical oxidations of acetone were studied under different inorganic seed (NaCl, (NH4)2SO4 and NaNO3) conditions in a self-made chamber. The results show that no secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be formed in the experiments either in the absence of artificially added seed particles or in the presence of solid status of the added particles. Liquid water content is the key factor for the formation of SOA in the experiments with seeds. The amount of SOA was only about 4-7 μg m-3 in the experiments with the initial acetone of ∼15 ppm under different seed conditions. The analysis of SOA compositions by Exactive-Orbitrap mass spectrometer equipped with electro-spray interface (ESI-MS) shows that chlorine-containing and sulfur-containing compounds were detected in SOA formed from the experiments with NaCl and (NH4)2SO4 seeds, respectively, which were not identified in SOA from those with NaNO3. The compositions of SOA were mainly esters, organonitrates, hydroperoxides, etc. It is concluded that inorganic seed particles participated into the formation of SOA. Acetone SOA was mainly formed in the aqueous phase in which dissolved SOA precursors underwent further oxidation reactions, esterification reactions and/or radical-radical reactions. Our experiments further demonstrate that low-molecular-weight VOCs, such as acetone, can form SOA under certain conditions in the atmosphere, although their contributions to SOA may not be large.

  2. Randomized clinical trial of prevention of seroma formation after mastectomy by local methylprednisolone injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvamme, G; Axelsson, C. K.; Lanng, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seroma formation, the most prevalent postoperative complication after mastectomy, is an inflammatory process that is potentially preventable via local steroid administration. This study investigated the effect of local steroid administration on seroma formation. METHODS: This was a do...

  3. Characterization of storage cell wall polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds and the formation of aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, T T; Rodrigues, N R; Serra, G E; Panegassi, V R; Buckeridge, M S

    1996-05-17

    Cell wall storage polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds of Dimorphandra mollis, Schizolobium parahybum (galactomannans), Copaifera langsdorffii, Hymenaea courbaril (xyloglucans) and the galactan from cotyledons of the Mediterranean species Lupinus angustifolius were extracted and their apparent molecular masses were determined by high-performance size exclusion chromatography analysis. They were, to a large degree, polydisperse, showing molecular masses that varied from 100,000 to 2,000,000. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1500, 4000, 6000 and 8000), sodium citrate and dextran (73,000, 60,000-90,000, 505,000 and 2,000,000) were used for investigating phase formation with the seed polysaccharides. Galactomannans and xyloglucans demonstrated phase formation with sodium citrate concentrations lower than 30%, as well as dextrans and polyethylene glycol, and formed gels in the presence of high concentrations of sodium citrate (above 30%). Galactan did not promote phase formation with any of the reagents used. On the basis of the results obtained, the possibility of using legume seed polysaccharides for the partitioning and purification of polysaccharide enzymes in aqueous two-phase systems is suggested.

  4. Analysis of factors affecting volatile compound formation in roasted pumpkin seeds with selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, T; Barringer, S

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo and maxima) seeds are uniquely flavored and commonly consumed as a healthy roasted snack. The objective was to determine dominant volatiles in raw and roasted pumpkin seeds, and the effect of seed coat, moisture content, fatty acid ratio, total lipids, reducing sugars, and harvest year on volatile formation. Sensory was conducted to evaluate overall liking of seed variety and texture. Seed processing included extraction from the fruit, dehydration, and roasting (150 °C). Oil extraction was done using soxhlet, fatty acid profile using Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector, and reducing sugars using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and UV-spectroscopy. Headspace analysis of seeds was performed by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Volatiles dominating in raw pumpkin seeds were lipid aldehydes, ethyl acetate, 2,3-butandione, and dimethylsulfide. Compounds contributing to roasted aroma include alkylpyrazines and Strecker and lipid aldehydes. Overall, hull-less seeds had higher volatile lipid aldehydes and Strecker aldehydes. Seeds dehydrated to a moisture content of 6.5% before roasting had higher initial and final volatile concentrations than seeds starting at 50% moisture. Higher oil content resulted in higher lipid aldehyde formation during roasting with a moderate correlation between free fatty acid ratio and corresponding lipid aldehyde. Harvest year (2009 compared with 2010) had a significant impact on volatile formation in hull-less seeds, but not as much as variety differences. No significant correlation was found between reducing sugars and volatile formation. Sensory showed that hull-less seeds were liked significantly more than hulled seeds. Elucidation of aromatic flavor development during roasting with SIFT-MS provides information on flavor release and offers better control during processing. Knowledge of volatiles in raw and roasted pumpkin seeds and effects of seed coat, moisture content, seed composition, and

  5. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Stohs, S J; Das, D K; Ray, S D; Kuszynski, C A; Joshi, S S; Pruess, H G

    2000-08-07

    Free radicals have been implicated in over a hundred disease conditions in humans, including arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, advancing age, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many organs, Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, tumor promotion and carcinogenesis, and AIDS. Antioxidants are potent scavengers of free radicals and serve as inhibitors of neoplastic processes. A large number of synthetic and natural antioxidants have been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects on human health and disease prevention. However, the structure-activity relationship, bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the antioxidants differ extensively. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins, naturally occurring antioxidants widely available in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, flowers and bark, have been reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and therapeutic activities against free radicals and oxidative stress. We have assessed the concentration- or dose-dependent free radical scavenging ability of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) both in vitro and in vivo models, and compared the free radical scavenging ability of GSPE with vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. These experiments demonstrated that GSPE is highly bioavailable and provides significantly greater protection against free radicals and free radical-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage than vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. GSPE was also shown to demonstrate cytotoxicity towards human breast, lung and gastric adenocarcinoma cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal human gastric mucosal cells. The comparative protective effects of GSPE, vitamins C and E were examined on tobacco-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in human oral keratinocytes. Oxidative tissue damage was determined by lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, while apoptotic cell death was assessed by flow cytometry. GSPE provided significantly

  6. The involvement of medullary reticular formation in the hypotensive effect of extracts from seeds of Cassia tora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S H; Koo, A; Li, K M

    In pentobarbital anesthetized rats, the medial portion of the medullary reticular formation has been identified to be directly involved in the hypotensive effect of extracts from the seeds of Cassia tora. This conclusion was drawn from the observed decrease in arterial blood pressure following local injection of extracts of this herb into this reticular site and from its inability to promote hypotension when the same reticular site has been electrolytically lesioned. The role of the medullary reticular formation in the Cassia tora-induced hypotension was suggested to be one which modulates the basic cardiovascular reflexes, favoring a decrease in vasomotor tone.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn.) Leaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Ayu Widyastuti; Praptining Rahayu

    2017-01-01

    Annona muricata Linn. (soursop) is one of  tropical plants which have relatively complete chemical compounds. It has flavonoid, tannin, phytosterol, alkaloid, etc. The high antioxidant compound in soursop is believed as cancer prevention so the cancer threat in the world can be minimized. The antioxidant compound in soursop can be found not only in its fruit, but also in other parts like leaves, seeds, etc. Based on that potency, this study aimed to compare antioxidant capacity of soursop lea...

  8. Preventive Effect of Three Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seeds Fractions on Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzd; Taheri, Diana; Gomarian, Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) refers to afflicted inflammation of pancreas with unfavorable adverse effects and developed multiple organ failures. Unfortunately, there is not a certain therapeutic method for this disease. Oxidative stress has a serious role in the pathogenesis of AP. Thus, decreasing of oxidative stress may prevent induction and progression of AP. Punica granatum L. has been extensively used in traditional medicine and possesses various active biological elements. Due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate, it could be considered as a good candidate alternative medicine with beneficial effects on AP. In this study, we decided to study the protective effect of three fractions of pomegranate seeds on cerulein-induced AP. AP was induced in male Syrian mice by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) with 1 h intervals. Treatments with pomegranate freeze-dried powder (PFDP) and hydroalcoholic pomegranate seeds extract (PSE) at doses of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg (i.p.) were started 30 min before pancreatitis induction. Pomegranate seed oil fraction (PSOF) was orally administered (50, 100, 200 μL/kg) and continued for 10 days. Pancreatic tissue was evaluated for histopathological parameters and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as lipase and amylase levels were measured in plasma. The higher doses of three fractions (250 and 500 mg/kg for PFDP and PSE and doses of 100, 200 μL/kg for PSOF) significantly reduced amylase and lipase activity in serum (at least P < 0.01), pancreatic MPO activity (P < 0.001), edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05). These results propose that pomegranate seeds fractions can prevent and/or treat the AP.

  9. Comparing carbohydrate status during norway spruce seed development and somatic embryo formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gösslová, M.; Svobodová, H.; Lipavská, H.; Albrechtová, J.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2001-01-01

    The carbohydrate status of developing seeds of Picea abies was examined in order to provide a frame of reference for the evaluation of changes in carbohydrate content in maturing somatic embryos of the same species. Samples were taken at weekly intervals from 12 May 1998 (estimated time of

  10. Naphthopyrone glucosides from the seeds of Cassia tora with inhibitory activity on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ga Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Jin Sook

    2006-07-01

    Three naphthopyrone glucosides, cassiaside (1), rubrofusarin-6-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (2), and toralactone-9-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (3), were isolated from the BuOH-soluble extract of the seeds of Cassia tora as active constituents, using an in vitro bioassay based on the inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly by extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies. All the isolates (1-3) were evaluated for the inhibitory activity on AGEs formation in vitro.

  11. Does vitamin E-blended UHMWPE prevent biofilm formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dustin L; Vinciguerra, John; Lerdahl, Julia M; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2015-03-01

    Biofilm-related periprosthetic infections are catastrophic to patients and clinicians. Data suggest the addition of vitamin E to UHMWPE may have the ability to reduce biofilm formation on the surface of UHMWPE; however, previous studies were performed using stagnant broth solutions that may not have simulated a physiologic environment. In addition, the observed differences in levels of bacterial attachment, though statistically significant, may not be clinically significant. We blended vitamin E with UHMWPE material and tested it for the ability to resist biofilm formation using a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Three additional materials were tested for comparison: highly crosslinked UHMWPE, compression-molded UHMWPE, and polyetheretherketone. We also determined whether the surface roughness of these materials facilitated biofilm formation. Using a flow cell system, samples of each material type were placed into separate chambers. A 10% solution of brain-heart infusion broth containing 10(5) colony-forming units (CFUs)/mL was flowed through the flow cell over 48 hours. The number of bacteria that adhered to the surface was quantified and biofilm formation was observed qualitatively using scanning electron microscopy. Optical profilometry was used to determine the surface roughness of each material type. Vitamin E-blended UHMWPE did not reduce biofilm formation of a clinically relevant strain of MRSA compared to materials that did not have vitamin E. More specifically, vitamin E-blended materials had similar amounts of biofilm formation (~ 8 log10 CFUs/cm(2)) compared to materials not containing vitamin E (~ 8.1 log10 CFUs/cm(2)) (p > 0.4). The roughness of vitamin E-blended material surfaces (mean ± SD: 1.85 ± 0.46 µm) compared to that of materials without vitamin E (2.06 ± 1.24 µm) did not appear to influence biofilm formation. Under physiologically relevant conditions, vitamin E-blended UHMWPE did not have the ability

  12. Staying Alive: Molecular Aspects of Seed Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Rajjou, Loïc; North, Helen M; Debeaujon, Isabelle; Marion-Poll, Annie; Seo, Mitsunori

    2016-04-01

    Mature seeds are an ultimate physiological status that enables plants to endure extreme conditions such as high and low temperature, freezing and desiccation. Seed longevity, the period over which seed remains viable, is an important trait not only for plant adaptation to changing environments, but also, for example, for agriculture and conservation of biodiversity. Reduction of seed longevity is often associated with oxidation of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Seeds possess two main strategies to combat these stressful conditions: protection and repair. The protective mechanism includes the formation of glassy cytoplasm to reduce cellular metabolic activities and the production of antioxidants that prevent accumulation of oxidized macromolecules during seed storage. The repair system removes damage accumulated in DNA, RNA and proteins upon seed imbibition through enzymes such as DNA glycosylase and methionine sulfoxide reductase. In addition to longevity, dormancy is also an important adaptive trait that contributes to seed lifespan. Studies in Arabidopsis have shown that the seed-specific transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) plays a central role in ABA-mediated seed dormancy and longevity. Seed longevity largely relies on the viability of embryos. Nevertheless, characterization of mutants with altered seed coat structure and constituents has demonstrated that although the maternally derived cell layers surrounding the embryos are dead, they have a significant impact on longevity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sample Preparation of Corn Seed Tissue to Prevent Analyte Relocations for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Jeongkwon; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Tae Geol; Yoon, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Corn seed tissue sections were prepared by the tape support method using an adhesive tape, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was performed. The effect of heat generated during sample preparation was investigated by time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging of corn seed tissue prepared by the tape support and the thaw-mounted methods. Unlike thaw-mounted sample preparation, the tape support method does not cause imaging distortion because of the absence of heat, which can cause migration of the analytes on the sample. By applying the tape-support method, the corn seed tissue was prepared without structural damage and MSI with accurate spatial information of analytes was successfully performed.

  14. Sample Preparation of Corn Seed Tissue to Prevent Analyte Relocations for Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Hye; Kim, Jeongkwon; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Tae Geol; Yoon, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Corn seed tissue sections were prepared by the tape support method using an adhesive tape, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was performed. The effect of heat generated during sample preparation was investigated by time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging of corn seed tissue prepared by the tape support and the thaw-mounted methods. Unlike thaw-mounted sample preparation, the tape support method does not cause imaging distortion because of the absence of heat, which can cause migration of the analytes on the sample. By applying the tape-support method, the corn seed tissue was prepared without structural damage and MSI with accurate spatial information of analytes was successfully performed. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Causes and preventive management of scale formation in oilfield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... removal of at least one scaling component from the system, pH reduction, choosing a surface that resists scale adhesion, application of physical fields example magnetic or electrostatic, the use of scale inhibitors and proactive application of scale prediction models or soft wares. Keywords: Scale formation, oilfield systems ...

  16. Prevention of biofilm formation in dialysis water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ed; Kooman, Jeroen; van der Sande, Frank; Stobberingh, Ellen; Frederik, Peter; Claessens, Piet; Grave, Willem; Schot, Arend; Leunissen, Karel

    2003-04-01

    Biofilm formations in dialysis systems may be relevant because they continuously release bacterial compounds and are resistant against disinfection. The aim of the study was to compare the development of biofilm between a water treatment system based on a single reverse osmosis unit producing purified dialysate water [bacterial count, 350 colony-forming unit (CFU)/L] (center A) and a water treatment system based on double reverse osmosis and electric deionization, which is continuously disinfected with ultraviolet light and treated with ozone once a week (bacterial count, 1 CFU/L) (center B). During a period of 12 weeks, biofilm formation was studied in the tubing segment between the water piping and the dialysis module, using four dialysis monitors in each center. On a weekly basis, tubing samples of 5 cm length (N = 96) were taken under aseptic conditions and investigated for microbiologic contamination [cystine lactose electrolyte-deficient (CLED) Agar], endotoxin levels [limulus amoeben lysate (LAL) gel test, cutoff value, 0.0125 EU/mL], and biofilm formation [electron scanning microscopy (SEM)]. In center A, tube cultures were positive (>100 CFU/mL) in 16% of samples at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C, compared to 3% of samples of center B (P tubing samples of center A and negative in all of the samples of center B (P < 0.05). Biofilm was present in 91.7% of the samples of center A (Fig. 1), and only present in one sample (taken after 9 weeks) of center B (P < 0.05) (Fig. 2). In center A, biofilm formation was already observed after 1 week. In contrast to a standard water treatment system producing purified water, the use of a system producing highly purified water, which is also treated with regular disinfection procedures, leads to a significant reduction in biofilm formation, bacterial growth, and endotoxin levels in a highly vulnerable part of a water treatment system.

  17. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent the cafeteria-diet-induced decrease of glucagon-like peptide-1 production

    OpenAIRE

    Pinent, M.; Ardèvol, A.; Blay, M.; Martínez, N.; González, N.

    2014-01-01

    10.1021/jf405239p Grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to improve insulin resistance in cafeteria rats. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is involved in glucose homeostasis, the preventive effects of GSPE on GLP-1 production, secretion, and elimination were evaluated in a model of diet-induced insulin resistance. Rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 12 weeks, and 25 mg of GSPE/kg of body weight was administered concomitantly. Vehicle-treated cafeteria-fed rats and c...

  18. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; He, Jingsheng; Tian, Jun; Zeng, Hong; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease. PMID:26133771

  19. Interference and Mechanism of Dill Seed Essential Oil and Contribution of Carvone and Limonene in Preventing Sclerotinia Rot of Rapeseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Ma

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dill (Anethum graveolens L. seed essential oil against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its mechanism of action. The antifungal activities of the two main constituents, namely carvone and limonene, were also measured. Mycelial growth and sclerotial germination were thoroughly inhibited by dill seed essential oil at the 1.00 μL/mL under contact condition and 0.125μL/mL air under vapor condition. Carvone also contributed more than limonene in inhibiting the growth of S. sclerotiorum. Carvone and limonene synergistically inhibited the growth of the fungus. In vivo experiments, the essential oil remarkably suppressed S. sclerotiorum, and considerable morphological alterations were observed in the hyphae and sclerotia. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase activities, and external medium acidification were investigated to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of the essential oil. The seed essential oil of A. graveolens can be extensively used in agriculture for preventing the oilseed crops fungal disease.

  20. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of grape seed oil to enhance process yield and minimize free radical formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böger, Bruna R; Salviato, Aroldo; Valezi, Daniel F; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Georgetti, Sandra R; Kurozawa, Louise E

    2018-03-30

    Grape seeds are a relatively abundant source of oil and bioactive compounds. In order to use this by-product, the current work aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of grape seed oil to obtain greater process yield and minimize free radicals formation in the oil. The optimal condition was 15°C and amplitude of ultrasonic wave of 42 μm, leading to a process yield of 82.9% and content of free radicals of 14.7×10 17 kg -1 and 3.4×10 18 kg -1 for samples stored for 7 and 30 days, respectively. No significant differences in fatty acid composition and acidity and iodine values were observed between samples. The oil obtained by ultrasound had greater phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity by ferric reduction than the control sample (without ultrasound application). However, higher content of free radicals and peroxide value was observed. Sonication improved extraction yield when compared to the process without ultrasound application. Moreover, UAE favored phenolic compounds extraction. Since the proposed condition extraction enhanced process yield with the minimum formation of free radicals, UAE is a promising oil extraction technology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. [Soil seed bank formation during early revegetation of areas affected by mining in a tropical rain forest of Chocó, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois-Cuesta, Hamleth; Martínez-Ruiz, Carolina; Urrutia-Rivas, Yorley

    2017-03-01

    Mining is one of the main economic activities in many tropical regions and is the cause of devastation of large areas of natural tropical forests. The knowledge of the regenerative potential of mining disturbed areas provides valuable information for their ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age of abandonment of mines and their distance from the adjacent forest, on the formation of soil seed bank in abandoned mines in the San Juan, Chocó, Colombia. To do this, we determined the abundance and species composition of the soil seed bank, and the dynamics of seed rain in mines of different cessation period of mining activity (6 and 15 years), and at different distances from the adjacent forest matrix (50 and 100 m). Seed rain was composed by five species of plants with anemocorous dispersion, and was more abundant in the mine of 6 years than in the mine of 15 years. There were no significant differences in the number of seeds collected at 50 m and 100 m from the adjacent forest. The soil seed bank was represented by eight species: two with anemocorous dispersion (common among the seed rain species) and the rest with zoochorous dispersion. The abundance of seeds in the soil did not vary with the age of the mine, but was higher at close distances to the forest edge than far away. During the early revegetation, the formation of the soil seed bank in the mines seems to be related to their proximity to other disturbed areas, rather than their proximity to the adjacent forest or the cessation activity period of mines. Therefore, the establishment of artificial perches or the maintenance of isolated trees in the abandoned mines could favour the arrival of bird-dispersed seeds at mines. However, since the soil seed bank can be significantly affected by the high rainfall in the study area, more studies are needed to evaluate management actions to encourage soil seed bank formation in mines of high-rainfall environments in the Choc

  2. Phorbol esters in seed oil of Jatropha curcas L. (saboodam in Thai) and their association with cancer prevention: from the initial investigation to the present topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suttajit, Maitree; Rawangkan, Anchalee; Iida, Keisuke; Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Umsumarng, Sonthaya; Suganuma, Masami

    2017-08-01

    In 1988, we first reported the complete chemical structure of a new type of phorbol ester, abbreviated to DHPB, found in seed oil of Jatropha curcas L. (Saboodam in Thai) and its tumor-promoting activity on mouse skin. Although this seed oil contains toxic phorbol ester, it was planned to use it as a feasible renewable oil and the extracted seed cake as fertilizer. This utilization value opened a new science of Jatropha curcas. The main experimental results are cited from our publications, and the relevant literature screened from journals and PubMed. This paper begins with our original work on the structural elucidation of a new phorbol ester, 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol (DHPB): its tumor-promoting activity was compared with that of TPA. We think that it is timely to review the following research advances with Jatropha curcas, so numerous topics are classified as follows: (1) historical development of phorbol esters in seed oil; (2) toxicity of phorbol ester based on various bioassays; (3) degradation of phorbol ester; (4) a new pharmaceutical compound in seed; and (5) tumor promotion and progression with endogeneous tumor promoters in human carcinogenesis. The discovery of phorbol ester in seed oil raised awareness of the danger of public use of seed oil and seed cake in Thailand, and also indicated the necessity of discussing the concept of primary and tertiary cancer preventions. It is worthwhile to study the future benefits and cancer risks of globally distributed Jatropha curcas L.

  3. Control of mannose/galactose ratio during galactomannan formation in developing legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M; Scott, C; Gidley, M J; Reid, J S

    1992-04-01

    Galactomannan deposition was investigated in developing endosperms of three leguminous species representative of taxonomic groups which have galactomannans with high, medium and low galactose content. These were fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.; mannose/galactose (Man/Gal) = 1.1), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.; Man/Gal = 1.6) and Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. (Man/Gal = 3.3), respectively. Endosperms were analysed at different stages of seed development for galactomannan content and the levels, in cell-free extracts, of a mannosyltransferase and a galactosyltransferase which have been shown to catalyse galactomannan biosynthesis in vitro (M. Edwards et al., 1989, Planta 178, 41-51). There was a close correlation in each case between the levels of the biosynthetic mannosyl- and galactosyltransferases and the deposition of galactomannan. The relative in vitro activities of the mannosyl- and galactosyltransferases in fenugreek and guar were similar, and almost constant throughout the period of galactomannan deposition. In Senna the ratio mannosyltransferase/galactosyltransferase was always higher than in the other two species, and it increased substantially throughout the period of galactomannan deposition. In fenugreek and guar the galactomannans present in the endosperms of seeds at different stages of development had the Man/Gal ratios characteristic of the mature seeds. By contrast the galactomannan present in Senna endosperms at the earliest stages of deposition had a Man/Gal ratio of about 2.3. During late deposition this ratio increased rapidly, stabilising at about 3.3, the ratio characteristic of the mature seed. The levels of α-galactosidase in the developing endosperms of fenugreek and guar were low and remained fairly constant throughout the deposition of the galactomannan. In Senna, α-galactosidase activity in the endosperm was low during early galactomannan deposition, but increased subsequently, peaking during late galactomannan

  4. Formation of Calcium Carbonate Deposition in the Cotyledons during he Germination of Justicia procumbens L. (Acanthaceae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ling Lin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During seed germination of Justicia procumbens, the formation of lithocysts, trichomes and diacytic stomata in the epidermis of cotyledons was following a specific distribution pattern. During the first 1-3 days, many young stomata and trichome initial cells were formed sporadically in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, but no lithocyst was found. Three to five days after seed sawing, two cotyledons were exposed to light and then opened. In the meantime, some lithocysts were recognized on both adaxial and abaxial epidermises. The lithocysts on the adaxial epidermis occurred in the radially arranged cells located between the central area and the margin. However on the abaxial epidermis, they were found only in the marginal cell layer and their axes were along the margin of cotyledons. The total number of lithocysts in a cotyledon at this stage was 32.2 ± 4.3 and the cystolith inside the lithocyst was spindle in shape and 48.2 ± 21.1 μm in length. Three weeks after seed sowing, the cotyledons were mature and the total number of lithocysts in a cotyledon was 112.2 ± 10.1 and the cystolith in the lithocyst was enlarged to be 119.8 ± 27.8 μm in length. The cystolith was extracellularly formed in the cell wall of lithocyst. Its surface was with many protuberances and surrounded by a cystolith sheath connecting to cytoplasmic strands. The core of cystolith was surrounded by concentrically stratified fibrils and the calcium carbonate was concentrically accumulated. The waved stratified fibrils were also deposited in the protuberances. The EDX spectra showed that the main mineral elemental compositions of cystoliths were Ca and P. Ca was deposited more in the central part of cystolith than in the marginal area.

  5. A Study on Characterization of Light-Induced Electroless Plated Ni Seed Layer and Silicide Formation for Solar Cell Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaloo, Ashkan Vakilipour; Joo, Seung Ki; Es, Firat; Turan, Rasit; Lee, Doo Won

    2018-03-01

    Light-induced electroless plating (LIEP) is an easy and inexpensive method that has been widely used for seed layer deposition of Nickel/Copper (Ni/Cu)-based metallization in the solar cell. In this study, material characterization aspects of the Ni seed layer and Ni silicide formation at different bath conditions and annealing temperatures on the n-side of a silicon diode structure have been examined to achieve the optimum cell contacts. The effects of morphology and chemical composition of Ni film on its electrical conductivity were evaluated and described by a quantum mechanical model. It has been found that correlation exists between the theoretical and experimental conductivity of Ni film. Residual stress and phase transformation of Ni silicide as a function of annealing temperature were evaluated using Raman and XRD techniques. Finally, transmission line measurement (TLM) technique was employed to determine the contact resistance of Ni/Si stack after thermal treatment and to understand its correlation with the chemical-structural properties. Results indicated that low electrical resistive mono-silicide (NiSi) phase as low as 5 mΩ.cm2 was obtained.

  6. Preventing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum infections by anti-adhesion-active components of edible seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmaninov Ofra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to animal/human cells for infection establishment involves adhesive proteins, including its galactose- and fucose-binding lectins PA-IL (LecA and PA-IIL (LecB. The lectin binding to the target-cell receptors may be blocked by compatible glycans that compete with those of the receptors, functioning as anti-adhesion glycodecoys. The anti-adhesion treatment is of the utmost importance for abrogating devastating antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa infections in immunodeficient and cystic fibrosis (CF patients. This strategy functions in nature in protecting embryos and neonates. We have shown that PA-IL, PA-IIL, and also CV-IIL (a PA-IIL homolog produced in the related pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum are highly useful for revealing natural glycodecoys that surround embryos in diverse avian eggs and are supplied to neonates in milks and royal jelly. In the present study, these lectins were used as probes to search for seed embryo-protecting glycodecoys. Methods The lectin-blocking glycodecoy activities were shown by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Lectin-binding glycoproteins were detected by Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled lectins. Results The present work reports the finding - by using PA-IL, PA-IIL, and CV-IIL - of rich glycodecoy activities of low ( 10 kDa compounds (including glycoproteins in extracts of cashew, cocoa, coffee, pumpkin, and tomato seeds, resembling those of avian egg whites, mammal milks, and royal jelly. Conclusions Edible seed extracts possess lectin-blocking glycodecoys that might protect their embryos from infections and also might be useful for hampering human and animal infections.

  7. Ultrafast Formation of ZnO Nanorods via Seed-Mediated Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S T; Yahaya, M; Yap, C C; Umar, A A; Salleh, M M

    2013-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) zinc oxide, ZnO nanostructures have shown promising results for usage in photodiode and optoelectronic device due to their high surface area. Faster and conventional method for synthesis ZnO nanorods has become an attention for researcher today. In this paper, ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized via two-step process, namely alcothermal seeding and seed-mediated microwave hydrolysis process. In typical process, the ZnO nanoseeds were grown in the growth solution that contained equimolar (0.04 M) of zinc nitrate hexahydrate, Zn (NO 3 ).6H 2 O and hexamethylenetetramine, HMT. The growth process was carried inside the inverted microwave within 5- 20 s. The effect of growth parameters (i.e. concentration, microwave power, time reaction) upon the modification of ZnO morphology was studied. ZnO nanostructures were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The densities of nanorods were evaluated by the Image J analysis. It was found that the morphology (e.g. shape and size) of nanostructures has changed drastically with the increment of growth solution concentration. The density of ZnO nanorods was proven to increase with the increasing of reaction time and microwave power. We hypothesize that the microwave power might enhance the rate of nucleation and promote the faster nanostructure growth as compared with the normal heating condition due to the superheating phenomenon. This method might promote a new and faster alternative way in nanostructure growth which can be applied in currently existing application.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrouf Amina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 μg/ml especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510. Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50 was reached with 22 and 60 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

  9. The Influence of Agroclimatic Factors on the Formation of Oil Content In Flax Seeds in the North of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordeyeva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is one of the promising oil crops in the north of Kazakhstan. Over the last 10 years, the total area under this crop in the region has increased fourteen-fold, since flax is a very plastic crop for steppe and dry steppe conditions, and oil seeds are in high demand in the world market. Flaxseed oil, due to the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, occupies one of the first positions among other edible vegetable oils. Depending on environmental conditions, the oil content of the crop may vary from 36.4% to 52.0%, while, as noted by many researchers, the change in oil content depends on genotypic characteristics. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the influence of the genotype and climatic conditions of cultivation on fat biosynthesis in flax seeds in the context of the dry steppe zone of Northern Kazakhstan on dark chestnut soils of the Akmola region. Field experiments were conducted in 2015-2017 with the study of nine oil flaxseed cultivars (of mid-season varieties sown on May 20 at the seeding rate of 7 million seeds/ha based on the traditional technology of cultivation recommended for the region. Climatic parameters were taken into account according to the meteorological service data. Fat content was determined by the extraction method using a Soxhlet apparatus in accordance with GOST (All-Union State Standard 10857-64, and moisture content was determined by the thermogravimetric method according to the National Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2.195-2010, for recalculation of oil content for absolutely dry matter. It was found that the formation of oil depends on climatic parameters and on the sum of active temperatures during the ripening period, in particular. The evaluation of plasticity and stability of the cultivars (genotypes showed that VNIIMK 620, Lirina, Karabalyksky 7 can be considered highly valuable cultivars and Severny, Biryuza, Kazar, Ilyich – valuable cultivars in terms of oil content

  10. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent the cafeteria-diet-induced decrease of glucagon-like peptide-1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abuín, Noemi; Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2014-02-05

    Grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to improve insulin resistance in cafeteria rats. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is involved in glucose homeostasis, the preventive effects of GSPE on GLP-1 production, secretion, and elimination were evaluated in a model of diet-induced insulin resistance. Rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 12 weeks, and 25 mg of GSPE/kg of body weight was administered concomitantly. Vehicle-treated cafeteria-fed rats and chow-fed rats were used as controls. The cafeteria diet decreased active GLP-1 plasma levels, which is attributed to a decreased intestinal GLP-1 production, linked to reduced colonic enteroendocrine cell populations. Such effects were prevented by GSPE. In the same context, GSPE avoided the decrease on intestinal dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity and modulated the gene expression of GLP-1 and its receptor in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, the preventive treatment with GSPE abrogates the effects of the cafeteria diet on intestinal GLP-1 production and DPP4 activity.

  11. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Acetylene (C2H2: seed effect on SOA yields due to organic photochemistry in the aerosol aqueous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Ziemann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The lightest Non Methane HydroCarbon (NMHC, i.e., acetylene (C2H2 is found to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Contrary to current belief, the number of carbon atoms, n, for a NMHC to act as SOA precursor is lowered to n=2 here. The OH-radical initiated oxidation of C2H2 forms glyoxal (CHOCHO as the highest yield product, and >99% of the SOA from C2H2 is attributed to CHOCHO. SOA formation from C2H2 and CHOCHO was studied in a photochemical and a dark simulation chamber. Further, the experimental conditions were varied with respect to the chemical composition of the seed aerosols, mild acidification with sulphuric acid (SA, 3seed, but increased linearly with liquid water content (LWC of the seed. For fixed LWC, YSOA varied by more than a factor of five. Water soluble organic carbon (WSOC photochemistry in the liquid water associated with internally mixed inorganic/WSOC seed aerosols is found responsible for this seed effect. WSOC photochemistry enhances the SOA source from CHOCHO, while seeds containing amino acids (AA and/or SA showed among the lowest of all YSOA values, and largely suppress the photochemical enhancement on the rate of CHOCHO uptake. Our results give first evidence for the importance of heterogeneous photochemistry of CHOCHO in SOA formation, and identify a potential bias in the currently available YSOA data for other SOA precursor NMHCs. We demonstrate that SOA formation via the aqueous phase is not limited to cloud droplets, but proceeds also in the absence of clouds, i.e., does not stop once a cloud droplet evaporates. Atmospheric models need to be expanded to include SOA formation from WSOC photochemistry of CHOCHO, and possibly other α-dicarbonyls, in aqueous aerosols.

  12. Bioinspired seeding of biomaterials using three dimensional microtissues induces chondrogenic stem cell differentiation and cartilage formation under growth factor free conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Moreira Teixeira, Liliana; Bolander, J.; Ji, W.; Vanspauwen, B.; Lammertyn, J.; Schrooten, J.; Luyten, F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Cell laden biomaterials are archetypically seeded with individual cells and steered into the desired behavior using exogenous stimuli to control growth and differentiation. In contrast, direct cell-cell contact is instructive and even essential for natural tissue formation. Namely, microaggregation

  13. Nicorandil prevents sirolimus-induced production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombus formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Aizawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sirolimus (SRL is widely used to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, its beneficial effect is hampered by complications of thrombosis. Several studies imply that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a critical role in endothelial dysfunction and thrombus formation. The present study investigated the protective effect of nicorandil (NIC, an anti-angina agent, on SRL-associated thrombosis. In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs, SRL stimulated ROS production, which was prevented by co-treatment with NIC. The preventive effect of NIC on ROS was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate but not by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. NIC also inhibited SRL-induced up-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox mRNA. Co-treatment with NIC and SRL significantly up-regulated superoxide dismutase 2. NIC treatment significantly improved SRL-induced decrease in viability of HCAECs. The functional relevance of the preventive effects of NIC on SRL-induced ROS production and impairment of endothelial viability was investigated in a mouse model of thrombosis. Pretreatment with NIC inhibited the SRL-induced acceleration of FeCl3-initiated thrombus formation and ROS production in the testicular arteries of mice. In conclusion, NIC prevented SRL-induced thrombus formation, presumably due to the reduction of ROS and to endothelial protection. The therapeutic efficacy of NIC could represent an additional option in the prevention of SRL-related thrombosis.

  14. High-Aluminum-Affinity Silica Is a Nanoparticle That Seeds Secondary Aluminosilicate Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Brown, Andy; Dietzel, Martin; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance and abundance of aluminosilicates throughout our natural surroundings, their formation at neutral pH is, surprisingly, a matter of considerable debate. From our experiments in dilute aluminum and silica containing solutions (pH ~ 7) we previously identified a silica polymer with an extraordinarily high affinity for aluminium ions (high-aluminum-affinity silica polymer, HSP). Here, further characterization shows that HSP is a colloid of approximately 2.4 nm in diameter w...

  15. Osmoconditioning prevents the onset of microtubular cytoskeleton and activation of cell cycle and is detrimental for germination of Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, C D; Loureiro, M B; Ribeiro, P R; Vasconcelos, P C T; Fernandez, L G; de Castro, R D

    2016-11-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oilseed crop renowned for its tolerance to a diverse range of environmental stresses. In Brazil, this species is grown in semiarid regions where crop establishment requires a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying appropriate seed, seedling and plant behaviour under water restriction conditions. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the physiological and cytological profiles of J. curcas seeds in response to imbibition in water (control) and in polyethylene glycol solution (osmoticum). Seed germinability and reactivation of cell cycle events were assessed by means of different germination parameters and immunohistochemical detection of tubulin and microtubules, i.e. tubulin accumulation and microtubular cytoskeleton configurations in water imbibed seeds (control) and in seeds imbibed in the osmoticum. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increasing accumulation of tubulin and appearance of microtubular cytoskeleton in seed embryo radicles imbibed in water from 48 h onwards. Mitotic microtubules were only visible in seeds imbibed in water, after radicle protrusion, as an indication of cell cycle reactivation and cell proliferation, with subsequent root development. Imbibition in osmoticum prevented accumulation of microtubules, i.e. activation of cell cycle, therefore germination could not be resumed. Osmoconditioned seeds were able to survive re-drying and could resume germination after re-imbibition in water, however, with lower germination performance, possibly due to acquisition of secondary dormancy. This study provides important insights into understanding of the physiological aspects of J. curcas seed germination in response to water restriction conditions. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Colloidal Magnetic Heterostructured Nanocrystals with Asymmetric Topologies: Seeded-Growth Synthetic Routes and Formation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Scarfiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals, free-standing crystalline nanostructures generated and processed in solution phase, represent an important class of advanced nanoscale materials owing to the flexibility with which their physical–chemical properties can be controlled through synthetic tailoring of their compositional, structural and geometric features and the versatility with which they can be integrated in technological fields as diverse as optoelectronics, energy storage/ conversion/production, catalysis and biomedicine. In recent years, building upon mechanistic knowledge acquired on the thermodynamic and kinetic processes that underlie nanocrystal evolution in liquid media, synthetic nanochemistry research has made impressive advances, opening new possibilities for the design, creation and mastering of increasingly complex colloidal molecules, in which nanocrystal modules of different materials are clustered together via solid-state bonding interfaces into free-standing, easily processable multifunctional nanocomposite systems. This Review will provide a glimpse into this fast-growing research field by illustrating progress achieved in the wet-chemical development of last-generation breeds of all-inorganic heterostructured nanocrystals (HNCs in asymmetric non-onionlike geometries, inorganic analogues of polyfunctional organic molecules, in which distinct nanoscale crystalline modules are interconnected in hetero-dimer, hetero-oligomer and anisotropic multidomain architectures via epitaxial heterointerfaces of limited extension. The focus will be on modular HNCs entailing at least one magnetic material component combined with semiconductors and/or metals, which hold potential for generating enhanced or unconventional magnetic properties, while offering diversified or even new chemical-physical properties and functional capabilities. The available toolkit of synthetic strategies, all based on the manipulation of seeded-growth techniques

  17. Positive or negative? The impact of X-ray feedback on the formation of direct collapse black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-09-01

    A nearby source of Lyman-Werner (LW) photons is thought to be a central component in dissociating H2 and allowing for the formation of a direct collapse black hole seed. Nearby sources are also expected to produce copious amounts of hydrogen ionizing photons and X-ray photons. We study here the feedback effects of the X-ray photons by including a spectrum due to high-mass X-ray binaries on top of a galaxy with a stellar spectrum. We explicitly trace photon packages emerging from the nearby source and track the radiative and chemical effects of the multifrequency source (Ephoton = 0.76 eV → 7500 eV). We find that X-rays have a strongly negative feedback effect, compared to a stellar only source, when the radiative source is placed at a separation greater than ≳ 1 kpc. The X-rays heat the low and medium density gas in the envelope surrounding the collapsing halo suppressing the mass inflow. The result is a smaller enclosed mass compared to the stellar only case. However, for separations of ≲ 1 kpc, the feedback effects of the X-rays becomes somewhat neutral. The enhanced LW intensity at close separations dissociates more H2 and this gas is heated due to stellar photons alone, the addition of X-rays is then not significant. This distance dependence of X-ray feedback suggests that a Goldilocks zone exists close to a forming galaxy where X-ray photons have a much smaller negative feedback effect and ideal conditions exist for creating massive black hole seeds.

  18. Unfolding, aggregation, and seeded amyloid formation of lysine-58-cleaved beta(2)-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Jørgensen, T.J.D.; Rozlosnik, N.

    2005-01-01

    . Using amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry, we show that Delta K58-beta(2)m has increased unfolding rates compared to wt-beta(2)m and that unfolding is highly temperature dependent. The unfolding rate is I order of magnitude faster in Delta K58-beta(2)M than in wt-beta(2)m...... in wt-beta(2)m shows extensive amyloid fibrillation in Delta K58-beta(2)m samples. The results highlight the instability and amyloidogenicity under near physiological conditions of a slightly modified beta(2)m variant generated by limited proteolysis and illustrate stages of amyloid formation from early...

  19. Influence of initial seed distribution on the pattern formation of the phase field crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodumov, Ilya; Galenko, Peter; Kropotin, Nikolai; Alexandrov, Dmitri V.

    2017-11-01

    The process of crystal growth can be expressed as a transition of atomic structure to a finally stable state or to a metastable state. In the Phase Field Crystal Model (PFC-model) these states are described by regular distributions of the atomic density. Getting the system into any metastable condition may be caused by the peculiarities of the computational domain, initial and boundary conditions. However, an important factor in the formation of the crystal structure can be the initial disturbance. In the report we show how different types of initial disturbance can change the finally stable state of crystal structure in equilibrium.

  20. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  1. The use of theory based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: formative research for CDC's Prevention Marketing Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M

    1996-01-01

    Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research.

  2. The formation of cosmic structure in a texture-seeded cold dark matter cosmogony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Andrew K.; Park, Changbom; Spergel, David N.; Turok, Neil; Gott, Richard, III

    1992-01-01

    The growth of density fluctuations induced by global texture in an Omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony is calculated. The resulting power spectra are in good agreement with each other, with more power on large scales than in the standard inflation plus CDM model. Calculation of related statistics (two-point correlation functions, mass variances, cosmic Mach number) indicates that the texture plus CDM model compares more favorably than standard CDM with observations of large-scale structure. Texture produces coherent velocity fields on large scales, as observed. Excessive small-scale velocity dispersions, and voids less empty than those observed may be remedied by including baryonic physics. The topology of the cosmic structure agrees well with observation. The non-Gaussian texture induced density fluctuations lead to earlier nonlinear object formation than in Gaussian models and may also be more compatible with recent evidence that the galaxy density field is non-Gaussian on large scales. On smaller scales the density field is strongly non-Gaussian, but this appears to be primarily due to nonlinear gravitational clustering. The velocity field on smaller scales is surprisingly Gaussian.

  3. Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS). II. Formamide in protostellar shocks: Evidence for gas-phase formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caselli, P.; Balucani, N.; Barone, V.; Fontani, F.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Viti, S.; Feng, S.; Bachiller, R.; Bianchi, E.; Dulieu, F.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Holdship, J.; Neri, R.; Pineda, J. E.; Pon, A.; Sims, I.; Spezzano, S.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Alves, F.; Bizzocchi, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Chacón-Tanarro, A.; Choudhury, R.; Coutens, A.; Favre, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Kahane, C.; Jaber Al-Edhari, A.; Laas, J.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Ospina, J.; Oya, Y.; Punanova, A.; Puzzarini, C.; Quenard, D.; Rimola, A.; Sakai, N.; Skouteris, D.; Taquet, V.; Testi, L.; Theulé, P.; Ugliengo, P.; Vastel, C.; Vazart, F.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Yamamoto, S.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Modern versions of the Miller-Urey experiment claim that formamide (NH2CHO) could be the starting point for the formation of metabolic and genetic macromolecules. Intriguingly, formamide is indeed observed in regions forming solar-type stars and in external galaxies. Aims: How NH2CHO is formed has been a puzzle for decades: our goal is to contribute to the hotly debated question of whether formamide is mostly formed via gas-phase or grain surface chemistry. Methods: We used the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) interferometer to image NH2CHO towards the L1157-B1 blue-shifted shock, a well-known interstellar laboratory, to study how the components of dust mantles and cores released into the gas phase triggers the formation of formamide. Results: We report the first spatially resolved image (size 9″, 2300 AU) of formamide emission in a shocked region around a Sun-like protostar: the line profiles are blueshifted and have a FWHM ≃ 5 km s-1. A column density of NNH2CHO = 8 × 1012 cm-1 and an abundance, with respect to H-nuclei, of 4 × 10-9 are derived. We show a spatial segregation of formamide with respect to other organic species. Our observations, coupled with a chemical modelling analysis, indicate that the formamide observed in L1157-B1 is formed by a gas-phase chemical process and not on grain surfaces as previously suggested. Conclusions: The Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) interferometric observations of formamide provide direct evidence that this potentially crucial brick of life is efficiently formed in the gas phase around Sun-like protostars. The reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/L3

  4. Formative research in a school-based obesity prevention program for Native American school children (Pathways)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Evans, Marguerite; Helitzer, Deborah; Anliker, Jean; Story, Mary; Metcalfe, Lauve; Davis, Sally; Cloud, Patty Iron

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how formative research was developed and implemented to produce obesity prevention interventions among school children in six different Native American nations that are part of the Pathways study. The formative assessment work presented here was unique in several ways: (1) it represents the first time formative research methods have been applied across multiple Native American tribes; (2) it is holistic, including data collection from parents, children, teachers, administrators and community leaders; and (3) it was developed by a multi-disciplinary group, including substantial input from Native American collaborators. The paper describes the process of developing the different units of the protocol, how data collection was implemented and how analyses were structured around the identification of risk behaviors. An emphasis is placed on describing which units of the formative assessment protocol were most effective and which were less effective. PMID:10181023

  5. Control and prevention of ice formation and accretion on heat exchangers for ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Afshari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In cold climates, the application of mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery like are airto-air exchangers is used for reducing energy consumption for heating buildings by transferring heat exhausted air to supply air. However, increase efficiency of heat exchanger results in lower...... exhaust air temperatures and Ice formation on heat exchanger fins, which can cause problem and is not favourable. Therefore, prevention and control of ice formation on heat exchangers is necessary. The existing methods are divided into two different methods: active and passive ice control methods...

  6. Parathyroid hormone may maintain bone formation in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Seth W; Galley, Sarah A; Vaughan, Michael R; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Demers, Laurence M; Vance, Josef L; McGee, Meghan E

    2006-05-01

    Mechanical unloading of bone causes an imbalance in bone formation and resorption leading to bone loss and increased fracture risk. Black bears (Ursus americanus) are inactive for up to six months during hibernation, yet bone mineral content and strength do not decrease with disuse or aging. To test whether hibernating bears have biological mechanisms to prevent disuse osteoporosis, we measured the serum concentrations of hormones and growth factors involved in bone metabolism and correlated them with the serum concentration of a bone formation marker (osteocalcin). Serum was obtained from black bears over a 7-month duration that included periods of activity and inactivity. Both resorption and formation markers increased during hibernation, suggesting high bone turnover occurred during inactivity. However, bone formation appeared to be balanced with bone resorption. The serum concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was higher in the hibernation (P=0.35) and post-hibernation (P=0.006) seasons relative to pre-hibernation levels. Serum leptin was lower (Phibernation relative to pre-hibernation and hibernation periods. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) decreased (Phibernation relative to pre-hibernation and reached its highest value during remobilization. There was no difference (P=0.64) in 25-OH vitamin D between the three seasons. Serum osteocalcin (bone formation marker) was significantly correlated with PTH, but not with leptin, IGF-I or 25-OH vitamin D. Osteocalcin and PTH were positively correlated when samples from all seasons were pooled and when only hibernation samples were considered, raising the possibility that the anabolic actions of PTH help maintain bone formation to prevent disuse osteoporosis. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release from MC3T3 osteoblastic cells was significantly affected by treatment with bear serum from different seasons (i.e. hibernation versus active periods). The seasonal changes in PGE(2) release showed trends similar to the

  7. Anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in preventing cyclosporine A-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Sukru; Ozkan, Gulsum; Yucesan, Fulya Balaban; Ersöz, Şafak; Orem, Asim; Alkanat, Mehmet; Yuluğ, Esin; Kaynar, Kubra; Al, Sait

    2012-05-01

    Although the pathogenesis of cyclosporine (CsA) nephropathy is not completely understood, it is attributed to oxidative damage and apoptosis. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a molecule with anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Our aim was to demonstrate the effects of GSPE in preventing CsA nephropathy. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control, GSPE, CsA and CsA+GSPE groups were given 1 mL olive oil, 100 mg/kg GSPE, 25 mg/kg CsA and 100 mg/kg GSPE+25 mg/kg CsA, respectively. On day 21, blood samples were taken for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and CsA levels, and renal tissue was used for total oxidant system (TOS), total anti-oxidant system (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) measurements. In addition to renal histopathology, apoptosis staining was performed on renal tissue. The BUN, creatinine, TOS, OSI, MDA, histopathological score, and apoptotic index exhibited increases in the CsA group. In the CsA+GSPE group, however, BUN, creatinine, OSI, MDA, renal histopathological score and apoptotic index (AI) decreased and TAS levels increased. In addition, there was no difference between the CsA and CsA+GSPE groups with regard to CsA levels. We demonstrated that GSPE prevents CsA nephropathy and that this effect is achieved by anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. We also achieved a significant recovery in kidney functions without affecting CsA plasma levels. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  8. The educative prevention of the early stage of educationist’s formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Alfonso Nazco; Evaristo Reinoso Porra; Ana Consuelo Figueroa Carbonell

    2010-01-01

    The article introduces a characterization of the educative prevention stage at the early professional formation process of educacionist in Sancti Spìritus province. The study is done by the indication analysis of assistant, learning, permanence and behavior at youths who course pedagogical carrers, and haven’t expressed a desire stage yet. The main shown results dealt with the assumption of the searching variables and its indicators, the construction of instruments and the definition of aspec...

  9. Formative research to inform intervention development for diabetes prevention in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, L M; Gittelsohn, J; Alfred, J; Palafox, N A

    2001-12-01

    Formative research was conducted in the Republic of the Marshall Islands to help develop a diabetes prevention intervention. Methods included in-depth interviews, semistructured interviews, and direct observation of household behaviors in urban and remote settings. Foods were classified into two main conceptual spheres: foods from the islands/Marshallese foods and imported/American foods. Diabetes (nanimij in tonal) is a highly salient illness and is believed to be caused by foods high in fat and sugar, consumption of imported/American foods, family background, and the atomic bomb testing. Physical activity and eating a traditional diet were viewed as important for preventing diabetes. The traditional belief system links a large body with health, and a thin body with illness; however, perceptions are changing with increased acculturation and education about the health risks of obesity. These findings were used to develop a diabetes prevention home visit intervention currently being implemented and evaluated in Marshallese households.

  10. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  11. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O. C. M.; van Diepen, Janna A.; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Westbroek, Irene; Keizer, Hiskias; Gambelli, Luisa; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Zondag, Gerben C. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oil (PUA) was fed for 12weeks to

  12. Effect of three mound-building ant species on the formation of soil seed bank in mountain grassland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 200, - (2005), s. 148-158 ISSN 0367-2530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : myrmecochory * Lasius * soil seed bank Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.086, year: 2005

  13. Preventing Crystal Agglomeration of Pharmaceutical Crystals Using Temperature Cycling and a Novel Membrane Crystallization Procedure for Seed Crystal Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Simone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel membrane crystallization system was used to crystallize micro-sized seeds of piroxicam monohydrate by reverse antisolvent addition. Membrane crystallization seeds were compared with seeds produced by conventional antisolvent addition and polymorphic transformation of a fine powdered sample of piroxicam form I in water. The membrane crystallization process allowed for a consistent production of pure monohydrate crystals with narrow size distribution and without significant agglomeration. The seeds were grown in 350 g of 20:80 w/w acetone-water mixture. Different seeding loads were tested and temperature cycling was applied in order to avoid agglomeration of the growing crystals during the process. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM; and particle vision and measurement (PVM were used to monitor crystal growth; nucleation and agglomeration during the seeded experiments. Furthermore; Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor solute concentration and estimate the overall yield of the process. Membrane crystallization was proved to be the most convenient and consistent method to produce seeds of highly agglomerating compounds; which can be grown via cooling crystallization and temperature cycling.

  14. Formative research in clinical trial development: attitudes of patients with arthritis in enhancing prevention trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Holly A; Sugarman, Jeremy; Pisetsky, David S; Bathon, Joan

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA), formative research was conducted to enhance the design of such trials. The objectives of this research were to (1) determine patients' educational needs as they relate to the necessary elements of informed consent; and (2) assess patients' interest in enrolling in a hypothetical prevention trial. In‐depth interviews were conducted with nine patients. Seven patients were women and all but one white. The mean age was 48 years. During the 4‐month enrolment period, only three patients with EIA were identified; six patients with longer duration of symptoms were also interviewed. Most patients were able to express the primary aim of a hypothetical prevention trial presented. Factors cited by patients favouring enrolment were potential for direct medical benefit and knowledge that they would be withdrawn from the trial if they developed symptoms. Factors cited by patients against enrolment were the inclusion of a placebo and general uncertainty regarding treatment required by the RCT design. Pending larger‐scale empirical projects to explore patients' attitudes about prevention trials, small‐scale formative research in advance of such trials ought to be conducted. PMID:16984939

  15. Potent protein glycation inhibition of plantagoside in Plantago major seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Nobuyasu; Aradate, Tadashi; Kurosaka, Chihiro; Ubukata, Makoto; Kittaka, Shiho; Nakaminami, Yuri; Gamo, Kanae; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Mitsuharu

    2014-01-01

    Plantagoside (5,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-3'-O-glucoside) and its aglycone (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavanone), isolated from a 50% ethanol extract of Plantago major seeds (Plantaginaceae), were established to be potent inhibitors of the Maillard reaction. These compounds also inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products in proteins in physiological conditions and inhibited protein cross-linking glycation. These results indicate that P. major seeds have potential therapeutic applications in the prevention of diabetic complications.

  16. Grape seed and skin extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced renal lipotoxicity and prevents copper depletion in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; El May, Ahmed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to morbidity and mortality from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancers. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the link between obesity-induced oxidative stress, renal steatosis, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and were either treated or not treated with grape seed and skin extract. Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the kidney with a special emphasis on transition metals. High-fat diet induced triglyceride deposition and disturbances in kidney function parameters, which are linked to an oxidative stress status and depletion of copper from the kidney. Grape seed and skin extract abrogated almost all fat-induced kidney disturbances. Grape seed and skin extract exerted potential protection against fat-induced kidney lipotoxicity and should find potential application in other kidney-related diseases.

  17. Application of chimeric glucanase comprising mutanase and dextranase for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ryoko; Imai, Susumu; Murata, Takatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsumori, Hideaki; Kakuta, Erika; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Momoi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) produced by mutans streptococci, an important cariogenic pathogen, plays an important role in the formation of dental biofilm and adhesion of biofilm to tooth surfaces. Glucanohydrolases, such as mutanase (α-1,3-glucanase) and dextranase (α-1,6-glucanase), are able to hydrolyze WIG. The purposes of this study were to construct bi-functional chimeric glucanase, composed of mutanase and dextranase, and to examine the effects of this chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm. The mutanase gene from Paenibacillus humicus NA1123 and the dextranase gene from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were cloned and ligated into a pE-SUMOstar Amp plasmid vector. The resultant his-tagged fusion chimeric glucanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and partially purified. The effects of chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm formed on a glass surface by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 glucosyltransferases were then examined. This biofilm was fractionated into firmly adherent, loosely adherent, and non-adherent WIG fractions. Amounts of WIG in each fraction were determined by a phenol-sulfuric acid method, and reducing sugars were quantified by the Somogyi-Nelson method. Chimeric glucanase reduced the formation of the total amount of WIG in a dose-dependent manner, and significant reductions of WIG in the adherent fraction were observed. Moreover, the chimeric glucanase was able to decompose biofilm, being 4.1 times more effective at glucan inhibition of biofilm formation than a mixture of dextranase and mutanase. These results suggest that the chimeric glucanase is useful for prevention of dental biofilm formation. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Chemoselective Methylation of Phenolic Hydroxyl Group Prevents Quinone Methide Formation and Repolymerization During Lignin Depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Dutta, Tanmoy; Walter, Eric D.; Isern, Nancy G.; Cort, John R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2017-03-30

    Chemoselective blocking of the phenolic hydroxyl (Ar-OH) group by methylation was found to suppress secondary repolymerization and charring during lignin depolymerization. Methylation of Ar-OH prevents formation of reactive quinone methide intermediates, which are partly responsible for undesirable secondary repolymerization reactions. Instead, this structurally modified lignin produces more relatively low molecular weight products from lignin depolymerization compared to unmodified lignin. This result demonstrates that structural modification of lignin is desirable for production of low molecular weight phenolic products. This approach could be directed toward alteration of natural lignification processes to produce biomass more amenable to chemical depolymerization.

  19. Effect of Resveratrol on the Prevention of Intra-Abdominal Adhesion Formation in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbing Wei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intra-abdominal adhesions are a very common complication following abdominal surgery. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the inhibition of inflammation at the sites of peritoneal injury can prevent the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions. Resveratrol is a natural extract with a broad range of anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we propose that resveratrol can reduce the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on intra-abdominal adhesion prevention in a rat model with surgery-induced peritoneal adhesions. Materials and Methods: The cecum wall and its opposite parietal peritoneum were abraded following laparotomy to induce intra-abdominal adhesion formation. Varying doses of resveratrol were administered to the animals. On the eighth day after surgery, the adhesion score was assessed using a visual scoring system. Picrosirius red staining and a hydroxyproline assay were used to assess the amount of collagen deposition in the adhesion tissues. The levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Western blotting was performed to determine the protein expression of TGF-β1, fibrinogen, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in rat peritoneal adhesion tissue. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of TGF-β1, fibrinogen, and α-SMA. Results: Resveratrol significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation and fibrin deposition in the rat model. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly reduced the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1. The protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1, fibrinogen, and α-SMA in the rat peritoneum and adhesion tissues were also down-regulated due to resveratrol intervention. Conclusion: Resveratrol can effectively prevent the formation of postoperative intra

  20. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel. The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%, AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L, and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  3. Prevention of H-Aggregates Formation in Cy5 Labeled Macromolecules

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    Jing Kang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available H-aggregates of the cyanine dye Cy5 are formed during covalent linkage to the cationic macromolecule Poly(allylamine (PAH. The nonfluorescent H-aggregates strongly restrict the usage of the dye for analytical purposes and prevent a quantitative determination of the labeled macromolecules. The behavior of the H-aggregates has been studied by investigation of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the dye polymer in dependence on solvent, label degree and additional sulfonate groups. H-aggregate formation is caused by an inhomogeneous distribution of the Cy5 molecules on the polymer chain. The H-aggregates can be destroyed by conformational changes of the PAH induced by interactions with polyanions or in organic solvents. It has been found that the polymer labeling process in high content of organic solvents can prevent the formation of H-aggregates. The results offer a better understanding and improvement of the use of the Cy5 dye for labeling purposes in fluorescence detection of macromolecules.

  4. Methylene blue 1% solution on the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesion formation in a dog model

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    Marco Augusto Machado Silva

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal adhesions usually are formed after abdominal surgeries and may cause technical difficulties during surgical intervention, chronic abdominal pain and severe obstructions of the gastrointestinal tract. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of methylene blue (MB 1% solution on the prevention of intraperitoneal postsurgical adhesion formation in a canine surgical trauma model. Twenty bitches were submitted to falciform ligament resection, omentectomy, ovariohysterectomy and scarification of a colonic segment. Prior to abdominal closure, 10 bitches received 1mg kg-1 MB intraperitoneally (MB group and 10 bitches received no treatment (control group, CT. On the 15th postoperative day the bitches were submitted to laparoscopy to assess adhesions. The mean adhesion scores were 13.9 (±5.6 for MB group and 20.5 (±6.4 for the CT group (P=0,043. In conclusion, the 1% MB solution was efficient on the prevention of intraperitoneal postoperative adhesion formation in bitches, especially those involving the colonic serosa.

  5. Can Dietary Polyphenols Prevent the Formation of Toxic Compounds from Maillard Reaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Turco, Serena; Basta, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are functional compounds in edible vegetable and food such as tea, coffee and red wine and increasing evidence demonstrates a positive link between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and disease prevention. In this review we have focused on the current knowledge of the potential anti-glycation effects of polyphenols, particularly in regard to their influence on Maillard reaction, a non-enzymatic reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that contributes to the production of toxic compounds, mainly reactive carbonyl species, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and other toxicants. The Maillard reaction occurs in the human body during hyperglycemic condition, but it is well known as browning reaction in thermally processed foods and it is responsible for flavor and toxicant formation. Dietary polyphenols can have anti-glycation effects and actively participate in Maillard reaction, mitigating the AGE formation and the heat-induced production of toxic compounds. In a time in which the role of a healthy diet in the prevention of chronic diseases is welcome and the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin, an improved mechanistic knowledge of how polyphenols can function to reduce harmful and unhealthy substances is mandatory.

  6. Niclosamide prevents the formation of large ubiquitin-containing aggregates caused by proteasome inhibition.

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    Esther Gies

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and has been linked to the failure to degrade misfolded and damaged proteins. In the cell, aberrant proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system that mainly targets short-lived proteins, or by the lysosomes that mostly clear long-lived and poorly soluble proteins. Both systems are interconnected and, in some instances, autophagy can redirect proteasome substrates to the lysosomes.To better understand the interplay between these two systems, we established a neuroblastoma cell population stably expressing the GFP-ubiquitin fusion protein. We show that inhibition of the proteasome leads to the formation of large ubiquitin-containing inclusions accompanied by lower solubility of the ubiquitin conjugates. Strikingly, the formation of the ubiquitin-containing aggregates does not require ectopic expression of disease-specific proteins. Moreover, formation of these focused inclusions caused by proteasome inhibition requires the lysine 63 (K63 of ubiquitin. We then assessed selected compounds that stimulate autophagy and found that the antihelmintic chemical niclosamide prevents large aggregate formation induced by proteasome inhibition, while the prototypical mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin had no apparent effect. Niclosamide also precludes the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins and of p62 upon proteasome inhibition. Moreover, niclosamide induces a change in lysosome distribution in the cell that, in the absence of proteasome activity, may favor the uptake into lysosomes of ubiquitinated proteins before they form large aggregates.Our results indicate that proteasome inhibition provokes the formation of large ubiquitin containing aggregates in tissue culture cells, even in the absence of disease specific proteins. Furthermore our study suggests that the autophagy-inducing compound niclosamide may promote the selective clearance of ubiquitinated proteins in the absence

  7. Core/Shell Microstructure Induced Synergistic Effect for Efficient Water-Droplet Formation and Cloud-Seeding Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yanlong; Liang, Haoran; Zaki, Abdelali; El Hadri, Nabil; Abshaev, Ali M; Huchunaev, Buzgigit M; Griffiths, Steve; Jouiad, Mustapha; Zou, Linda

    2017-12-26

    Cloud-seeding materials as a promising water-augmentation technology have drawn more attention recently. We designed and synthesized a type of core/shell NaCl/TiO 2 (CSNT) particle with controlled particle size, which successfully adsorbed more water vapor (∼295 times at low relative humidity, 20% RH) than that of pure NaCl, deliquesced at a lower environmental RH of 62-66% than the hygroscopic point (h g.p ., 75% RH) of NaCl, and formed larger water droplets ∼6-10 times its original measured size area, whereas the pure NaCl still remained as a crystal at the same conditions. The enhanced performance was attributed to the synergistic effect of the hydrophilic TiO 2 shell and hygroscopic NaCl core microstructure, which attracted a large amount of water vapor and turned it into a liquid faster. Moreover, the critical particle size of the CSNT particles (0.4-10 μm) as cloud-seeding materials was predicted via the classical Kelvin equation based on their surface hydrophilicity. Finally, the benefits of CSNT particles for cloud-seeding applications were determined visually through in situ observation under an environmental scanning electron microscope on the microscale and cloud chamber experiments on the macroscale, respectively. These excellent and consistent performances positively confirmed that CSNT particles could be promising cloud-seeding materials.

  8. Prevention of Risky Sexual Behaviour through the Formation of Psychological Readiness to Parenthood

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    Krysko A.A.,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world there are tendencies of early entering into sexual relations and simultaneous withdrawal of the age of marriage, an increase in the number of early pregnancies and abortions among minors. Existing programs for the prevention of risky sexual behavior are ineffective, since they are one-time, narrowly focused. The author presents the results of an experiment on the prevention of risky sexual behavior in adolescents based on the formation of their ideas of parenting and child-parent relations, and through the prism of this topic, allowing to build an image of reproductive behavior in the present and future. The program is designed taking into account the psychology of modern adolescents, in accordance with the principles of awareness and responsibility, is based on a restorative approach and resource approach to the formation of psychological readiness for parenthood M.E. Lantsburg. The program for the development of psychological preparedness for parenting in adolescents has two targets: the nearest: preventing adolescent pregnancy and reducing its negative consequences in the event of an early pregnancy, and strategic - preparing for the planning and birth of the coveted child in the future. The results prove that the adolescents' views about the family depend both on the experiences they experienced in their own childhood and on the trends in the social and political space discussed in this topic. The study showed that adolescents' views on sexual relations, family and parenthood can be purposefully influenced through a program based on the knowledge of age-related psychology, resource and recovery approaches and using interactive methods of teaching relevant to this age group.

  9. A failure of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in the prevention of rat intracranial aneurysm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, T.J.; Kallmes, D.F.; Marx, W.F.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition with doxycycline would decrease the incidence of intracranial aneurysm formation in a rat aneurysm model. We performed common carotid artery ligation on 96 Long-Evans rats. A treatment group of 48 animals was chosen at random to receive oral doxycycline (3 mg/kg) in addition to standard rat chow, and the control group of 48 animals received standard rat chow only. The major circle of Willis arteries was dissected at 1 year following carotid ligation, and the proportions of animals with aneurysms were compared between groups using Fisher's exact test. Four animals given oral doxycycline and ten control animals expired before 1 year. Of the examined animals, eight saccular intracranial aneurysms were found in 8 of 45 animals which had received doxycycline (17.8%) and seven saccular intracranial aneurysms were found in 7 of 37 control animals (18.9%). There was no significant difference in aneurysm formation between the doxycycline-treated and control groups (P=0.894). Nonspecific MMP inhibition with doxycycline is not effective in preventing intracranial aneurysm formation in a rat model. (orig.)

  10. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Katrin; Bhide, Amey S; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Becker, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  11. Phytic acid prevents oxidative stress in seeds: evidence from a maize (Zea mays L.) low phytic acid mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Enrico; Galleschi, Luciano; Calucci, Lucia; Pinzino, Calogero; Pilu, Roberto; Cassani, Elena; Nielsen, Erik

    2009-01-01

    A maize mutant defective in the synthesis of phytic acid during seed maturation was used as a tool to study the consequences of the lack of this important reserve substance on seed survival. Data on germinability, free iron level, free radical relative abundance, protein carbonylation level, damage to DNA, degree of lipid peroxidation, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol amount and antioxidant capacity were recorded on seeds of maize B73 and of an isogenic low phytic acid mutant (lpa1-241), either unaged or incubated for 7 d in accelerated ageing conditions (46 degrees C and 100% relative humidity). The lpa1-241 mutant, compared to wild type (wt), showed a lower germination capacity, which decreased further after accelerated ageing. Whole lpa1-241 mutant kernels contained about 50% more free or weakly bound iron than wt ones and showed a higher content of free radicals, mainly concentrated in embryos; in addition, upon accelerated ageing, lpa1-241 seed proteins were more carbonylated and DNA was more damaged, whereas lipids did not appear to be more peroxidated, but the gamma-tocopherol content was decreased by about 50%. These findings can be interpreted in terms of previously reported but never proven antioxidant activity of phytic acid through iron complexation. Therefore, a novel role in plant seed physiology can be assigned to phytic acid, that is, protection against oxidative stress during the seed's life span. As in maize kernels the greater part of phytic acid (and thus of metal ions) is concentrated in the embryo, its antioxidant action may be of particular relevance in this crop.

  12. Development and formative evaluation of a family-centred adolescent HIV prevention programme in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maretha; Thurman, Tonya R; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Taylor, Tory M; Nice, Johanna K; Finestone, Michelle

    2018-03-06

    Preventing HIV among young people is critical to achieving and sustaining global epidemic control. Evidence from Western settings suggests that family-centred prevention interventions may be associated with greater reductions in risk behaviour than standard adolescent-only models. Despite this, family-centred models for adolescent HIV prevention are nearly non-existent in South Africa - home to more people living with HIV than any other country. This paper describes the development and formative evaluation of one such intervention: an evidence-informed, locally relevant, adolescent prevention intervention engaging caregivers as co-participants. The programme, originally consisting of 19 sessions for caregivers and 14 for adolescents, was piloted with 12 groups of caregiver-adolescent dyads by community-based organizations (CBOs) in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng provinces. Literature and expert reviews were employed in the development process, and evaluation methods included analysis of attendance records, session-level fidelity checklists and facilitator feedback forms collected during the programme pilot. Facilitator focus group discussions and an implementer programme workshop were also held. Results highlighted the need to enhance training content related to cognitive behavioural theory and group management techniques, as well as increase the cultural relevance of activities in the curriculum. Participant attendance challenges were also identified, leading to a shortened and simplified session set. Findings overall were used to finalize materials and guidance for a revised 14-week group programme consisting of individual and joint sessions for adolescents and their caregivers, which may be implemented by community-based facilitators in other settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  14. Manipulating the kinetics of seeded growth for edge-selective metal deposition and the formation of concave au nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Moitree; Zhong, Xiaolan; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2013-10-01

    By manipulating the kinetics of seeded growth through judicious control of reaction conditions, edge-selective metal deposition can be achieved to synthesize new Au nanostructures with face-centered concavities, referred to herein as Au overgrown trisoctahedra. These nanostructures display higher sensitivity to changes in refractive index compared to both Au traditional trisoctahedra and the Au nanocube seeds from which they are grown. Often, concave nanostructures are achieved by selective etching processes or corner-selective overgrowth and adopt a stellated profile rather than a profile with face-centered concavities. The presented results illustrate another strategy toward concave nanostructures and can facilitate the synthesis of new concave nanostructures for applications in catalysis and chemical sensing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections and Biofilm Formation

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    Kyung-Soo Hahm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a continuous search to overcome or control such problems, which has resulted in antimicrobial peptides being considered as an alternative to conventional drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules in living organisms. These peptides have been identified in diverse organisms and synthetically developed by using peptidomimic techniques. This review was conducted to demonstrate the mode of action by which antimicrobial peptides combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and prevent biofilm formation and to introduce clinical uses of these compounds for chronic disease, medical devices, and oral health. In addition, combinations of antimicrobial peptides and conventional drugs were considered due to their synergetic effects and low cost for therapeutic treatment.

  16. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

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    Baranowski Janice

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, targeted mediator validation, intervention procedure validation, and pilot feasibility intervention. Implementing these studies would establish the relationships at each step in the mediating variable model, thereby maximizing the likelihood that an intervention would work and its effects would be detected. Building consensus among researchers, funding agencies, and journal editors on distinct intervention development studies should avoid identified limitations and move the field forward.

  17. Mouse Prion Protein Polymorphism Phe-108/Val-189 Affects the Kinetics of Fibril Formation and the Response to Seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Leonardo M.; Kumar, Jitendra; Renault, Ludovic; Young, Howard S.; Sim, Valerie L.

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with the polymerization of the cellular form of prion protein (PrPC) into an amyloidogenic β-sheet infectious form (PrPSc). The sequence of host PrP is the major determinant of host prion disease susceptibility. In mice, the presence of allele a (Prnpa, encoding the polymorphism Leu-108/Thr-189) or b (Prnpb, Phe-108/Val-189) is associated with short or long incubation times, respectively, following infection with PrPSc. The molecular bases linking PrP sequence, infection susceptibility, and convertibility of PrPC into PrPSc remain unclear. Here we show that recombinant PrPa and PrPb aggregate and respond to seeding differently in vitro. Our kinetic studies reveal differences during the nucleation phase of the aggregation process, where PrPb exhibits a longer lag phase that cannot be completely eliminated by seeding the reaction with preformed fibrils. Additionally, PrPb is more prone to propagate features of the seeds, as demonstrated by conformational stability and electron microscopy studies of the formed fibrils. We propose a model of polymerization to explain how the polymorphisms at positions 108 and 189 produce the phenotypes seen in vivo. This model also provides insight into phenomena such as species barrier and prion strain generation, two phenomena also influenced by the primary structure of PrP. PMID:23283973

  18. Blood Vessel Formation and Bone Regeneration Potential of the Stromal Vascular Fraction Seeded on a Calcium Phosphate Scaffold in the Human Maxillary Sinus Floor Elevation Model

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    Elisabet Farré-Guasch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone substitutes are used as alternatives for autologous bone grafts in patients undergoing maxillary sinus floor elevation (MSFE for dental implant placement. However, bone substitutes lack osteoinductive and angiogenic potential. Addition of adipose stem cells (ASCs may stimulate osteogenesis and osteoinduction, as well as angiogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the vascularization in relation to bone formation potential of the ASC-containing stromal vascular fraction (SVF of adipose tissue, seeded on two types of calcium phosphate carriers, within the human MSFE model, in a phase I study. Autologous SVF was obtained from ten patients and seeded on β-tricalcium phosphate (n = 5 or biphasic calcium phosphate carriers (n = 5, and used for MSFE in a one-step surgical procedure. After six months, biopsies were obtained during dental implant placement, and the quantification of the number of blood vessels was performed using histomorphometric analysis and immunohistochemical stainings for blood vessel markers, i.e., CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Bone percentages seemed to correlate with blood vessel formation and were higher in study versus control biopsies in the cranial area, in particular in β-tricalcium phosphate-treated patients. This study shows the safety, feasibility, and efficiency of the use of ASCs in the human MSFE, and indicates a pro-angiogenic effect of SVF.

  19. Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extracts prevent formation of renal calculi in lithiatic rats

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    Mahendra Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum, commonly known as Pattharcaṭṭa, is used traditionally in ethnomedicinal practices for the treatment of kidney stone and urinary insufficiency. Aim: The present study evaluated the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum on ethylene glycol (EG-induced renal calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Renal calculi were induced in rats by administration of 0.75% EG in drinking water and co-treated orally with standard drug, Cystone (750 mg/kg, or alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extracts in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 days. Weekly body weights were recorded. On day 29, urolithiasis was confirmed by assessing the urinary parameters (urine volume, pH, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, oxalate, magnesium and creatinine clearance, serum biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, oxidative stress parameters and histology of kidney. Results: Treatment with extracts attenuated the EG-induced decrease in body weight and elevation in urinary parameters (uric acid, calcium, phosphorus and oxalate and serum biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Extract treatment also reversed EG-induced decrease in urine volume, pH, magnesium and creatinine clearance, oxidative and histological damages in kidneys. Results were comparable to standard drug, Cystone. Results indicated that EG administration caused renal calculi formation which is prevented by treatment with extracts. The observed antilithiatic effect may be attributed to the presence of high content of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in the extracts. Conclusion: Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves showed preventive effect against renal calculi formation and validates its ethnomedicinal use in urinary disorders. It further supports its therapeutic potential for the treatment of urinary calculi.

  20. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

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    Saliba Debra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1 interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2 reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3 abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of

  1. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-05-23

    Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. To evaluate the intervention we: 1) interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2) reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3) abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of evaluation due to insufficient resources and a waning of local

  2. Inhibition of multidrug efflux as a strategy to prevent biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Stephanie; Phillips, Charlotte R; Ekanayaka, Aruna S; Piddock, Laura J V; Webber, Mark A

    2014-03-01

    We have recently shown that inactivation of any of the multidrug efflux systems of Salmonella results in loss of the ability to form a competent biofilm. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism linking multidrug efflux and biofilm formation, and to determine whether inhibition of efflux is a viable antibiofilm strategy. Mutants lacking components of the AcrAB-TolC system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were investigated for their ability to aggregate, produce biofilm matrix components and form a biofilm. The potential for export of a biofilm-relevant substrate via efflux pumps was investigated and expression of genes that regulate multidrug efflux and production of biofilm matrix components was measured. The ability of efflux inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, chlorpromazine and phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide to prevent biofilm formation by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus under static and flow conditions was assessed. Mutants of Salmonella Typhimurium that lack TolC or AcrB, but surprisingly not AcrA, were compromised in their ability to form biofilms. This defect was not related to changes in cellular hydrophobicity, aggregative ability or export of any biofilm-specific factor. The biofilm defect resulted from transcriptional repression of curli biosynthesis genes and consequent inhibition of production of curli. All three efflux inhibitors significantly reduced biofilm production in both static and flow biofilm assays, although different concentrations of each inhibitor were most active against each species. This work shows that both genetic inactivation and chemical inhibition of efflux pumps results in transcriptional repression of biofilm matrix components and a lack of biofilm formation. Therefore, inhibition of efflux is a promising antibiofilm strategy.

  3. Lychee Seed Saponins Improve Cognitive Function and Prevent Neuronal Injury via Inhibiting Neuronal Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Xiuling Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and possesses many activities, including hypoglycemia, liver protection, antioxidation, antivirus, and antitumor. However, its effect on neuroprotection is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed saponins (LSS on neuroprotection and associated mechanisms. We established a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD by injecting Aβ25–35 into the lateral ventricle of rats and evaluated the effect of LSS on spatial learning and memory ability via the Morris water maze. Neuronal apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis, and mRNA expression of caspase-3 and protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that LSS remarkably improved cognitive function and alleviated neuronal injury by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus of AD rats. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and the protein expression of Bax were downregulated, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were increased by LSS. We demonstrate that LSS significantly improves cognitive function and prevent neuronal injury in the AD rats via regulation of the apoptosis pathway. Therefore, LSS may be developed as a nutritional supplement and sold as a drug for AD prevention and/or treatment.

  4. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xiang, Wenpei [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yinna [Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 10051-5A BST 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zhang, Xiaoying [Department of Medicine/Endocrinology Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Billiar, Timothy R., E-mail: billiartr@upmc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-06-22

    that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC complex upon the binding of TNF to TNFR1. In conclusion, our study shows that cAMP prevents TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes by inhibiting DISC complex formation.

  5. Contribution of formative research to design an environmental program for obesity prevention in schools in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Théodore, Florence L; Safdie, Margarita; Duque, Tiffany; Villanueva, María Ángeles; Torres, Catalina; Rivera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and key findings of formative research conducted to design a school-based program for obesity prevention. Formative research was based on the ecological model and the principles of social marketing. A mixed method approach was used. Qualitative (direct observation, indepth interviews, focus group discussions and photo-voice) and quantitative (closed ended surveys, checklists, anthropometry) methods were employed. Formative research key findings, including barriers by levels of the ecological model, were used for designing a program including environmental strategies to discourage the consumption of energy dense foods and sugar beverages. Formative research was fundamental to developing a context specific obesity prevention program in schools that seeks environment modification and behavior change.

  6. Effect of hydrophilic organic seed aerosols on secondary organic aerosol formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A; Shilling, John E; Alexander, M Lizabeth; Newburn, Matt

    2011-09-01

    Gas-particle partitioning theory is widely used in atmospheric models to predict organic aerosol loadings. This theory predicts that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yield of an oxidized volatile organic compound product will increase as the mass loading of preexisting organic aerosol increases. In a previous work, we showed that the presence of model hydrophobic primary organic aerosol (POA) had no detectable effect on the SOA yields from ozonolysis of α-pinene, suggesting that the condensing SOA compounds form a separate phase from the preexisting POA. However, a substantial faction of atmospheric aerosol is composed of polar, hydrophilic organic compounds. In this work, we investigate the effects of model hydrophilic organic aerosol (OA) species such as fulvic acid, adipic acid, and citric acid on the gas-particle partitioning of SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis. The results show that only citric acid seed significantly enhances the absorption of α-pinene SOA into the particle-phase. The other two seed particles have a negligible effect on the α-pinene SOA yields, suggesting that α-pinene SOA forms a well-mixed organic aerosol phase with citric acid and a separate phase with adipic acid and fulvic acid. This finding highlights the need to improve the thermodynamics treatment of organics in current aerosol models that simply lump all hydrophilic organic species into a single phase, thereby potentially introducing an erroneous sensitivity of SOA mass to emitted OA species.

  7. Ultraviolet light-irradiated photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel to prevent bone formation in both rat skull and fibula bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshifumi; Hattori, Hidemi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Satoko; Amako, Masatoshi; Arino, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    In the field of orthopaedic surgery, an orthopaedic surgeon sometimes requires to suppress excessive bone formation, such as ectopic bone formation, ossifying myositis and radio-ulnar synostosis, etc. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of a photocrosslinkable chitosan (Az-CH-LA) generates an insoluble hydrogel within 30 s. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the photocrosslinked chitosan hydrogel (PCH) to inhibit bone formation in an experimental model of bone defect. Rat calvarium and fibula were surgically injured and PCH was implanted into the resultant bone defects. The PCH implants significantly prevented bone formation in the bone defects during the 4 and 8 week observation periods. In the PCH-treated defects, fibrous tissues infiltrated by inflammatory cells were formed by day 7, completely filling the bone defects. In addition to these findings, expression of osteocalcin and runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2) mRNA, both markers of bone formation, was lower in the PCH-treated defects than in the controls. In contrast, collagen type 1α2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA levels were significantly higher in the PCH-treated defects after 1 week. PCH stimulated the formation of fibrous tissue in bone defects while inhibiting bone formation. Thus, PCH might be a promising new therapeutic biomaterial for the prevention of bone formation in orthopaedic surgery. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Novel application for the prevention and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traba, Christian

    Formation of bacterial biofilms at solid-liquid interfaces creates numerous problems in both industrial and biomedical sciences. In this dissertation, the application of plasma from two very different facets was studied. In part one, the susceptibility of pre-formed Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on biomaterials to different plasmas was investigated. It was found that the distinct chemical/physical properties of plasmas generated from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon all demonstrated very potent but very different anti-biofilm mechanisms of action. An in depth analysis of these results show: 1) different reactive species produced in each plasma demonstrate specific activity, and 2) the commonly associated etching effect could be manipulated and even controlled, depending on experimental conditions and the discharge gas. These studies provide insights into the anti-biofilm mechanisms of plasma as well as the effects of different reactive species on biofilm inactivation. Under experimental parameters, bacterial cells in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were killed (>99.9%) by plasmas within minutes of exposure and no bacteria nor biofilm re-growth from discharge gas treated biofilms was observed throughout the life-span of the re-growth experiment. The decontamination ability of plasmas for the treatment of biofilm related infections on biomedical materials was confirmed and novel applications involving the use of low power argon and oxygen for the treatment of biofilm contaminated biomaterials and indwelling devices is proposed. The second facet of this dissertation explores the interaction between biofilm forming Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on different antibacterial/anti-biofilm surfaces. The antibiotic-free anti-fouling surfaces constructed in this study were generated from the plasma-assisted graft polymerization technique. These sophisticated surfaces were stable, biocompatible and capable of preventing biofilm formation on biomaterials and medical devices. Under

  9. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (pgrape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  11. Prevention of biofilm formation by dairy products and N-acetylcysteine on voice prostheses in an artificial throat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwandt, LQ; Van Weissenbruch, R; Stokroos, [No Value; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Albers, FWJ

    Objective - To evaluate the preventive effect of buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine on biofilm formation on voice prostheses in vitro. Material and Methods - Groningen button and Provox(R) 2 voice prostheses were inoculated with a mixture of bacteria and yeasts

  12. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Therapeutic Implications of Black Seed and Its Constituent Thymoquinone in the Prevention of Cancer through Inactivation and Activation of Molecular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad H. Rahmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer is probably the most dreaded disease in both men and women and also major health problem worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact molecular mechanisms of the development and progression are not fully understood. The current chemotherapy/radiotherapy regime used to treat cancer shows adverse side effect and may alter gene functions. Natural products are generally safe, effective, and less expensive substitutes of anticancer chemotherapeutics. Based on previous studies of their potential therapeutic uses, Nigella sativa and its constituents may be proved as good therapeutic options in the prevention of cancer. Black seeds are used as staple food in the Middle Eastern Countries for thousands of years and also in the treatment of diseases. Earlier studies have shown that N. sativa and its constituent thymoquinone (TQ have important roles in the prevention and treatment of cancer by modulating cell signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the role of N. sativa and its constituents TQ in the prevention of cancer through the activation or inactivation of molecular cell signaling pathways.

  14. Fungal disease prevention in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses by growth-promoting seed-associated endophytic bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satish K.; Kingsley, Kathryn L.; Bergen, Marshall S.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James F.

    2018-01-01

    Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium, Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusariumblights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), or annual bluegrass (Poa annua) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. We found that three bacteria belonging to genus Pseudomonas spp. (SLB4-P. fluorescens, SLB6-Pseudomonas sp. and SY1-Pseudomonassp.) promoted seedling development, including enhancement of root and shoot growth, and stimulation of root hair formation. These bacteria were also found to increase phosphate solubilization in in vitro experiments. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) significantly protected grass seedlings from Fusarium infection. In co-culture experiments, strain SY1 strongly inhibited fungal pathogens with 85.71% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum, 86.33% growth inhibition of Curvularia sp. and 82.14% growth inhibition of Alternaria sp. Seedlings previously treated with bacteria were found much less infected by F. oxysporum in comparison to non-treated controls. On microscopic observation we found that bacteria appeared to degrade fungal mycelia actively. Metabolite products of strain SY1 in agar were also found to inhibit fungal growth on nutrient media. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) was found to produce antifungal volatiles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers for pyrrolnitirin synthesis and HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production

  15. Preventive and treatment effects of a hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) meal protein hydrolysate against high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    This work determined the ability of hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH)-containing diets to attenuate elevated blood pressure (hypertension) development in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Effects of diets on plasma levels of renin and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) in the SHRs were also determined. Defatted hemp seed protein meal was hydrolyzed using simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion with pepsin followed by pancreatin, and the resulting HMH used as a source of antihypertensive peptides. The HMH was substituted for casein at 0.5 and 1.0% levels and fed to young growing rats for 8 weeks (preventive phase) or adult rats for 4 weeks (treatment phase). Feeding of young growing SHRs with HMH resulted in attenuation of the normal increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP) with an average value of ~120 mmHg when compared to the casein-only group of rats (control) with a maximum of 158 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Feeding adult rats (SBP ~145 mmHg) with same diets during a 4-week period led to significant (p < 0.05) reduction in SBP to ~119 mmHg in comparison with 150 mmHg for the control rats. Plasma ACE activity was significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed (0.047-0.059 U/mL) in HMH-fed rats when compared to control rats (0.123 U/mL). Plasma renin level was also decreased for HMH-fed rats (0.040-0.054 μg/mL) when compared to control rats that were fed only with casein (0.151 μg/mL). The results suggest that HMH with strong hypotensive effects in SHRs could be used as a therapeutic agent for both the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  16. Prevention of malignant seeding at drain sites after invasive procedures (surgery and/or thoracoscopy) by hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Salvo, Maurizio; Gambaro, Giuseppina; Pagella, Simonetta; Manfredda, Irene; Casadio, Caterina; Krengli, Marco (Radiotherapy, Univ. of Piemonte Orientale-Hospital Maggiore della Carit, Novara (Italy))

    2008-07-15

    Introduction. Literature data show that mesothelioma cells can implant along the surgical pathway of invasive procedures such as thoracotomy and thoracoscopy. We investigated the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy for preventing such malignant seeding. Material and methods. Thirty-two consecutive patients diagnosed with pleural mesothelioma were included in the present retrospective study. All patients underwent surgery and/or thoracoscopy for diagnosis, staging or talc pleurodesis. They were treated with electron external beam radiation therapy (21 Gy in 3 fractions over 1 week), directed to the surgical pathway after the invasive procedure. After completion of radiation treatment, 20 of 32 patients (63%) underwent chemotherapy. Results. After a mean follow-up of 13.6 months (range 3-41) from the end of radiation therapy, no patient had tumour progression in the treated area. The treatment was well tolerated, as only erythema grade I (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, RTOG, scale) was noted in 11 patients. Seventeen patients died of disease with local progression after a mean survival time of 12.6 months (range 3-27); thirteen patients are alive with disease after a mean follow-up of 13.9 months (range 4-41); two patients are alive without evidence of disease after a mean follow-up of 16.50 months (range 6-27). Discussion. The present study shows the efficacy and safety of local radiotherapy in preventing malignant seeding after thoracoscopy in patients with pleural mesothelioma although larger prospective trials are probably still needed to validate this treatment approach.

  17. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-05-20

    Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Magnesium prevents vascular calcification in vitro by inhibition of hydroxyapatite crystal formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braake, A.D. ter; Tinnemans, P.T.; Shanahan, C.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Baaij, J.H.F. de

    2018-01-01

    Magnesium has been shown to effectively prevent vascular calcification associated with chronic kidney disease. Magnesium has been hypothesized to prevent the upregulation of osteoblastic genes that potentially drives calcification. However, extracellular effects of magnesium on hydroxyapatite

  19. Gogo receptor contributes to retinotopic map formation and prevents R1-6 photoreceptor axon bundling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Hein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Topographic maps form the basis of neural processing in sensory systems of both vertebrate and invertebrate species. In the Drosophila visual system, neighboring R1-R6 photoreceptor axons innervate adjacent positions in the first optic ganglion, the lamina, and thereby represent visual space as a continuous map in the brain. The mechanisms responsible for the establishment of retinotopic maps remain incompletely understood. RESULTS: Here, we show that the receptor Golden goal (Gogo is required for R axon lamina targeting and cartridge elongation in a partially redundant fashion with local guidance cues provided by neighboring axons. Loss of function of Gogo in large clones of R axons results in aberrant R1-R6 fascicle spacing. Gogo affects target cartridge selection only indirectly as a consequence of the disordered lamina map. Interestingly, small clones of gogo deficient R axons perfectly integrate into a proper retinotopic map suggesting that surrounding R axons of the same or neighboring fascicles provide complementary spatial guidance. Using single photoreceptor type rescue, we show that Gogo expression exclusively in R8 cells is sufficient to mediate targeting of all photoreceptor types in the lamina. Upon lamina targeting and cartridge selection, R axons elongate within their individual cartridges. Interestingly, here Gogo prevents bundling of extending R1-6 axons. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we propose that Gogo contributes to retinotopic map formation in the Drosophila lamina by controlling the distribution of R1-R6 axon fascicles. In a later developmental step, the regular position of R1-R6 axons along the lamina plexus is crucial for target cartridge selection. During cartridge elongation, Gogo allows R1-R6 axons to extend centrally in the lamina cartridge.

  20. Prevention of Human Lymphoproliferative Tumor Formation in Ovarian Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A. Butler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in preclinical drug development for ovarian cancer has stimulated development of patient-derived xenograft (PDX or tumorgraft models. However, the unintended formation of human lymphoma in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV–infected human lymphocytes can be problematic. In this study, we have characterized ovarian cancer PDXs which developed human lymphomas and explore methods to suppress lymphoproliferative growth. Fresh human ovarian tumors from 568 patients were transplanted intraperitoneally in SCID mice. A subset of PDX models demonstrated atypical patterns of dissemination with mediastinal masses, hepatosplenomegaly, and CD45-positive lymphoblastic atypia without ovarian tumor engraftment. Expression of human CD20 but not CD3 supported a B-cell lineage, and EBV genomes were detected in all lymphoproliferative tumors. Immunophenotyping confirmed monoclonal gene rearrangements consistent with B-cell lymphoma, and global gene expression patterns correlated well with other human lymphomas. The ability of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, to suppress human lymphoproliferation from a patient's ovarian tumor in SCID mice and prevent growth of an established lymphoma led to a practice change with a goal to reduce the incidence of lymphomas. A single dose of rituximab during the primary tumor heterotransplantation process reduced the incidence of CD45-positive cells in subsequent PDX lines from 86.3% (n = 117 without rituximab to 5.6% (n = 160 with rituximab, and the lymphoma rate declined from 11.1% to 1.88%. Taken together, investigators utilizing PDX models for research should routinely monitor for lymphoproliferative tumors and consider implementing methods to suppress their growth.

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  2. Prevention of Addictive Behavior Based on the Formation of Teenagers' Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Shubnikova, Ekaterina G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the development of a new stage of prevention and the need to justify new educational goals and objectives of the pedagogical prevention of addictive behavior in the educational environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the totality of the necessary and sufficient individual resources, that are…

  3. Seed production and quality of pinus durangensis mart., from seed areas and a seed stand in durango, mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V.B.; Ruiz, J.A.P.; Parra, A.C.; Zagoya, R.A.; Rodriguez, H.G

    2014-01-01

    Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development. (author)

  4. Garcinia kola seeds may prevent cognitive and motor dysfunctions in a type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model partly by mitigating neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seke Etet, Paul F; Farahna, Mohammed; Satti, Gwiria M H; Bushara, Yahia M; El-Tahir, Ahmed; Hamza, Muaawia A; Osman, Sayed Y; Dibia, Ambrose C; Vecchio, Lorella

    2017-04-15

    Background We reported recently that extracts of seeds of Garcinia kola, a plant with established hypoglycemic properties, prevented the loss of inflammation-sensible neuronal populations like Purkinje cells in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Here, we assessed G. kola extract ability to prevent the early cognitive and motor dysfunctions observed in this model. Methods Rats made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were treated daily with either vehicle solution (diabetic control group), insulin, or G. kola extract from the first to the 6th week post-injection. Then, cognitive and motor functions were assessed using holeboard and vertical pole behavioral tests, and animals were sacrificed. Brains were dissected out, cut, and processed for Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. Results Hyperglycemia (209.26 %), body weight loss (-12.37 %), and T1DM-like cognitive and motor dysfunctions revealed behavioral tests in diabetic control animals were not observed in insulin and extract-treated animals. Similar, expressions of inflammation markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF), iba1 (CD68), and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as well as decreases of neuronal density in regions involved in cognitive and motor functions (-49.56 % motor cortex, -33.24 % medial septal nucleus, -41.8 % /-37.34 % cerebellar Purkinje /granular cell layers) were observed in diabetic controls but not in animals treated with insulin or G. kola. Conclusions Our results indicate that T1DM-like functional alterations are mediated, at least partly, by neuroinflammation and neuronal loss in this model. The prevention of the development of such alterations by early treatment with G. kola confirms the neuroprotective properties of the plant and warrant further mechanistic studies, considering the potential for human disease.

  5. Sugar maple seed production in northern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Raymond E. Graber

    1995-01-01

    Large numbers of sugar maple seed are dispersed every second or third year. Very little seed was damaged by insects or mammals prior to dispersal. The trapping methods used prevented major losses following seed fall. Seed production was positively correlated with tree diameter but not with age of seed trees.

  6. Thermal oxidation of seeds for the hydrothermal growth of WO{sub 3} nanorods on ITO glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Chai Yan [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak, E-mail: khairunisak@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); NanoBiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lockman, Zainovia, E-mail: zainovia@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-11-30

    This work reports a simple seed formation method for the hydrothermal growth of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) nanorods. A WO{sub 3} seed layer was prepared by thermal oxidation, where a W-sputtered substrate was heated and oxidized in a furnace. Oxidation temperatures and periods were varied at 400–550 °C and 5–60 min, respectively, to determine an appropriate seed layer for nanorod growth. Thermal oxidation at 500 °C for 15 min was found to produce a seed layer with sufficient crystallinity and good adhesion to the substrate. These properties prevented the seed from peeling off during the hydrothermal process, thereby allowing nanorod growth on the seed. The nanorod film showed better electrochromic behavior (higher current density of − 1.11 and + 0.65 mA cm{sup −2}) than compact film (lower current density of − 0.54 and + 0.28 mA cm{sup −2}). - Highlights: • A simple seed formation method (thermal oxidation) on sputtered W film is reported. • Crystalline seed with good adhesion to substrate is required for nanorod growth. • The appropriate temperature and period for seed formation were 500 °C and 15 min. • WO{sub 3} nanorods exhibited higher electrochromic current density than WO{sub 3} compact film.

  7. Parthenocarpy and seed predation by insects in Bursera morelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ordoñez, María F; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Del Coro Arizmendi, Ma

    2008-11-01

    While parthenocarpy (meaning the production of fruits without seeds) may limit fecundity in many plants, its function is not clear; it has been proposed, however, that it might be associated with a strategy to avoid seed predation. Bursera morelensis is a dioecious endemic plant that produces fruits with and without seeds, and its fruits are parasitized by insects. Its reproductive system is not well described and no published evidence of parthenocarpy exists for the species. The purpose of this work was to describe the breeding system of B. morelensis and its relationship to seed predation by insects. The breeding system was described using pollination experiments, verifying the presence of parthenocarpic fruits and apomictic seeds. Reproductive structures from flower buds to mature fruits were quantified. For fruits, an anatomical and histological characterization was made. The number of fruits in which seeds had been predated by insects was correlated with parthenocarpic fruit production. The major abortion of reproductive structures occurred during fruit set. The results discard the formation of apomictic seeds. Flowers that were not pollinated formed parthenocarpic fruits and these could be distinguished during early developmental stages. In parthenocarpic fruits in the first stages of development, an unusual spread of internal walls of the ovary occurred invading the locule and preventing ovule development. Unlike fruits with seeds, parthenocarpic fruits do not have calcium oxalate crystals in the ovary wall. Both fruit types can be separated in the field at fruit maturity by the presence of dehiscence, complete in seeded and partial in parthenocarpic fruits. Trees with more parthenocarpic fruits had more parasitized fruits. This is the first time the anatomy of parthenocarpic fruits in Burseraceae has been described. Parthenocarpic fruits in B. morelensis might function as a deceit strategy for insect seed predators as they are unprotected both chemically

  8. Potent Protein Glycation Inhibition of Plantagoside in Plantago major Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyasu Matsuura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantagoside (5,7,4′,5′-tetrahydroxyflavanone-3′-O-glucoside and its aglycone (5,7,3′,4′,5′-pentahydroxyflavanone, isolated from a 50% ethanol extract of Plantago major seeds (Plantaginaceae, were established to be potent inhibitors of the Maillard reaction. These compounds also inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products in proteins in physiological conditions and inhibited protein cross-linking glycation. These results indicate that P. major seeds have potential therapeutic applications in the prevention of diabetic complications.

  9. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography studies on the formation and distribution of polar compounds in camellia seed oil during heating*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong-xia; Sam, Rokayya; Jiang, Lian-zhou; Li, Yang; Cao, Wen-ming

    2016-01-01

    Camellia seed oil (CSO) is rich in oleic acid and has a high number of active components, which give the oil high nutritional value and a variety of biological activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in the content and distribution of total polar compounds (TPC) in CSO during heating. TPC were isolated by means of preparative flash chromatography and further analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The TPC content of CSO increased from 4.74% to 25.29%, showing a significantly lower formation rate as compared to that of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and soybean oil (SBO) during heating. Furthermore, heating also resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in the distribution of TPC among these oils. Though the content of oxidized triacylglycerol dimers, oxidized triacylglycerol oligomers, and oxidized triacylglycerol monomers significantly increased in all these oils, their increased percentages were much less in CSO than those in EVOO, indicating that CSO has a greater ability to resist oxidation. This work may be useful for the food oil industry and consumers in helping to choose the correct oil and to decide on the useful lifetime of the oil. PMID:27819135

  10. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography studies on the formation and distribution of polar compounds in camellia seed oil during heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong-Xia; Sam, Rokayya; Jiang, Lian-Zhou; Li, Yang; Cao, Wen-Ming

    Camellia seed oil (CSO) is rich in oleic acid and has a high number of active components, which give the oil high nutritional value and a variety of biological activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in the content and distribution of total polar compounds (TPC) in CSO during heating. TPC were isolated by means of preparative flash chromatography and further analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The TPC content of CSO increased from 4.74% to 25.29%, showing a significantly lower formation rate as compared to that of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and soybean oil (SBO) during heating. Furthermore, heating also resulted in significant differences (Poils. Though the content of oxidized triacylglycerol dimers, oxidized triacylglycerol oligomers, and oxidized triacylglycerol monomers significantly increased in all these oils, their increased percentages were much less in CSO than those in EVOO, indicating that CSO has a greater ability to resist oxidation. This work may be useful for the food oil industry and consumers in helping to choose the correct oil and to decide on the useful lifetime of the oil.

  11. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage pa...

  12. Potential for seed bank formation of two weed species from Brazilian Amazonia Potencial para a formação de banco de sementes de duas espécies de plantas daninhas da Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr B. Dias-Filho

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential for seed bank formation of two perennial weed species, Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. M. Vahl (Verbenaceae, both common in Amazonia , was evaluated in a degraded pasture area in eastern Brazilian Amazonia . Seeds were enclosed in nylon mesh packets and placed at the soil surface or buried at 5 or 10 cm deep. The number of viable seeds was recorded at 6, 10, 14 and 18 months after burial. Results showed that S. cayennensis has the ability to form persistent soil seed bank, while I. asarifolia seeds do not build up in the soil seed bank. For S. cayennensis and, to some extent, for I. asarifolia, seed survival was highest at greater burial depths.O potencial para a formação de banco de sementes de duas espécies perenes de plantas daninhas, Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult. (Convolvulaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. M. Vahl (Verbenaceae, ambas comuns na Amazônia, foi avaliado em uma área de pastagem degradada na Amazônia oriental brasileira. As sementes foram inseridas em envelopes de tela de nylon e colocadas na superfície do solo ou enterradas a cinco ou 10 cm de profundidade. O número de sementes viáveis foi avaliado aos 6, 12, 14 e 18 meses após o início do ensaio. Os resultados mostraram que S. cayennensis tem o potencial para formar banco de sementes persistente, enquanto que as sementes de I. asarifolia não apresentam esse potencial. Em S. cayennensis e, de certo modo, em I. asarifolia, a sobrevivência de sementes foi maior nas maiores profundidades.

  13. Cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins prevent formation of Candida albicans biofilms in artificial urine through biofilm- and adherence-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Hallie S; Bernardo, Stella M; Howell, Amy B; Lee, Samuel A

    2014-02-01

    Candida albicans is a common cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is responsible for increased morbidity and healthcare costs. Moreover, the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired catheter-associated UTIs. Thus, development of specific approaches for the prevention of Candida urinary infections is needed. Cranberry juice-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) have efficacy in the prevention of bacterial UTIs, partially due to anti-adherence properties, but there are limited data on their use for the prevention and/or treatment of Candida UTIs. Therefore, we sought to systematically assess the in vitro effect of cranberry-derived PACs on C. albicans biofilm formation in artificial urine. C. albicans biofilms in artificial urine were coincubated with cranberry PACs at serially increasing concentrations and biofilm metabolic activity was assessed using the XTT assay in static microplate and silicone disc models. Cranberry PAC concentrations of ≥16 mg/L significantly reduced biofilm formation in all C. albicans strains tested, with a paradoxical effect observed at high concentrations in two clinical isolates. Further, cranberry PACs were additive in combination with traditional antifungals. Cranberry PACs reduced C. albicans adherence to both polystyrene and silicone. Supplementation of the medium with iron reduced the efficacy of cranberry PACs against biofilms. These findings indicate that cranberry PACs have excellent in vitro activity against C. albicans biofilm formation in artificial urine. We present preliminary evidence that cranberry PAC activity against C. albicans biofilm formation is due to anti-adherence properties and/or iron chelation.

  14. Preventive effects of a phospholipid polymer coating on PMMA on biofilm formation by oral streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yukie; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-12-01

    The regulation of biofilm formation on dental materials such as denture bases is key to oral health. Recently, a biocompatible phospholipid polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) coating, was reported to inhibit sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic bacterium, on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture bases. However, S. mutans is a minor component of the oral microbiome and does not play an important role in biofilm formation in the absence of sucrose. Other, more predominant oral streptococci must play an indispensable role in sucrose-independent biofilm formation. In the present study, the effect of PMB coating on PMMA was evaluated using various oral streptococci that are known to be initial colonizers during biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. PMB coating on PMMA drastically reduced sucrose-dependent tight biofilm formation by two cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus), among seven tested oral streptococci, as described previously [N. Takahashi, F. Iwasa, Y. Inoue, H. Morisaki, K. Ishihara, K. Baba, J. Prosthet. Dent. 112 (2014) 194-203]. Streptococci other than S. mutans and S. sobrinus did not exhibit tight biofilm formation even in the presence of sucrose. On the other hand, all seven species of oral streptococci exhibited distinctly reduced glucose-dependent soft biofilm retention on PMB-coated PMMA. We conclude that PMB coating on PMMA surfaces inhibits biofilm attachment by initial colonizer oral streptococci, even in the absence of sucrose, indicating that PMB coating may help maintain clean conditions on PMMA surfaces in the oral cavity.

  15. A new experimental method to prevent paraffin - wax formation on the crude oil wells: A field case study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaddad Elnori E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.

  16. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  17. Chlorhexidine efficacy in preventing lesion formation in enamel and dentine: an in situ study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strijp, A.J.P.; Gerardu, V.A.M.; Buijs, M.J.; van Loveren, C.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies on the caries-preventive properties of chlorhexidine mouthrinses are limited and the results are inconclusive. Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of a 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse to the protection of enamel and dentine against

  18. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  19. Streptomyces lunalinharesii 235 prevents the formation of a sulfate-reducing bacterial biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pacheco da Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Streptomyces lunalinharesii strain 235 produces an antimicrobial substance that is active against sulfate reducing bacteria, the major bacterial group responsible for biofilm formation and biocorrosion in petroleum reservoirs. The use of this antimicrobial substance for sulfate reducing bacteria control is therefore a promising alternative to chemical biocides. In this study the antimicrobial substance did not interfere with the biofilm stability, but the sulfate reducing bacteria biofilm formation was six-fold smaller in carbon steel coupons treated with the antimicrobial substance when compared to the untreated control. A reduction in the most probable number counts of planktonic cells of sulfate reducing bacteria was observed after treatments with the sub-minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal inhibitory concentration, and supra-minimal inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial substance. Additionally, when the treated coupons were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, the biofilm formation was found to be substantially reduced when the supra-minimal inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial substance was used. The coupons used for the biofilm formation had a small weight loss after antimicrobial substance treatment, but corrosion damage was not observed by scanning electron microscopy. The absence of the dsrA gene fragment in the scraped cell suspension after treatment with the supra-minimal inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial substance suggests that Desulfovibrio alaskensis was not able to adhere to the coupons. This is the first report on an antimicrobial substance produced by Streptomyces active against sulfate reducing bacteria biofilm formation. The application of antimicrobial substance as a potential biocide for sulfate reducing bacteria growth control could be of great interest to the petroleum industry.

  20. Controlled release of chlorhexidine from a mesoporous silica-containing macroporous titanium dental implant prevents microbial biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cremer, K; Braem, A; Gerits, E; De Brucker, K; Vandamme, K; Martens, J A; Michiels, J; Vleugels, J; Cammue, B P; Thevissen, K

    2017-01-11

    Roughened surfaces are increasingly being used for dental implant applications as the enlarged contact area improves bone cell anchorage, thereby facilitating osseointegration. However, the additional surface area also entails a higher risk for the development of biofilm associated infections, an etiologic factor for many dental ailments, including peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, we designed a dental implant composed of a porous titanium-silica (Ti/SiO2) composite material and containing an internal reservoir that can be loaded with antimicrobial compounds. The composite material consists of a sol-gel derived mesoporous SiO2 diffusion barrier integrated in a macroporous Ti load-bearing structure obtained by powder metallurgical processing. The antimicrobial compounds can diffuse through the porous implant walls, thereby reducing microbial biofilm formation on the implant surface. A continuous release of µM concentrations of chlorhexidine through the Ti/SiO2 composite material was measured, without initial burst effect, over at least 10 days and using a 5 mM chlorhexidine solution in the implant reservoir. Metabolic staining, CFU counting and visualisation by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on the implant surface was almost completely prevented due to chlorhexidine release (preventive setup). Moreover, we demonstrated efficacy of released chlorhexidine against mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms (curative setup). In conclusion, we provide a proof of concept of the sustained release of chlorhexidine, one of the most widely used oral antiseptics, through the Ti/SiO2 material thereby preventing and eradicating biofilm formation on the surface of the dental implant. In principle, our flexible design allows for the use of any bioactive compound, as discussed.

  1. Environment of estates and crime prevention through urban environment formation and modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matlovičová Kvetoslava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant impact of criminality on the quality of life in a particular territory, criminality is attracting more and more attention from local authorities which are trying to reduce it. In this respect, the concept of CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design which is quite often used out­side of Slovakia and is based on prevention of criminality through the appropriate design of urban environments, seems to be useful. The study offers the characteristics of CPTED principles and also suggests possibilities for its application within innercity criminality on model territories of the city of Prešov (Slovakia as an usable way of reducing crime in other mainly East-central European cities.

  2. Corrosive inorganic contamination on wafer surfaces after nickel-iron electroplating formation mechanisms and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritzer, P. [Freudenberg Nonwovens KG, Technical Nonwovens Div., Weinheim (Germany); Diel, W.; Barber, P.H. [IBM Speichersysteme Deutschland GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Romankiw, L.T. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Electroplating of Nickel-Iron alloys is widely used in the production of magnetic heads for storage systems. Usually, the plating process is performed in acidic, salt-containing solutions. After the plating step, a complete removal of the plating salts is necessary to receive a clean surface. In disadvantageous cases, a precipitation of sticky particles is observed that cannot be removed from the plated surface without damaging the surface. Some of these substances (esp. nickel sulfates) might lead to severe local corrosion and thus might act as ''time-bomb'' in the later product. Non-corrosive precipitations (i.e. nickel hydroxides) strongly hinder or even prevent the following production steps. In the present paper, the mechanisms of the origin of the different kinds of precipitation are described and the principle actions for their prevention are given. An outlook is given for other possible technical applications. (orig.)

  3. Control and Prevention of Ice Formation on the Surface of an Aluminum Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral

    In cold climates, mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery, e.g. air-to-air exchangers, are often used to reduce energy demand for heating by recovering the heat from the exhausted air. This, however, creates a risk of ice accretion on the fins of the heat exchanger as warm and humid...... exhausted air cools down. Due to the reduction in heat exchanger efficiency due to ice formation, this phenomenon has been studied for many decades. There are two approaches to controlling ice formation on heat exchangers: active and passive. The active methods, e.g. bypass, recirculation, preheating etc......., require energy and consequently reduce the overall efficiency of the system. They are not addressed in this work and have already been studied extensively by many researchers. The passive methods, which are related to the surface characteristics of the heat exchanger fins and their effect on the initial...

  4. UV-Induced prevention of biofilm formation inside medical tubes and catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Kristian Mølgaard; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation inside medical tubes and catheters may often cause unwanted infections, illness andimpaired wound healing during medical treatment, resulting in extended hospitalization and - in worst case– life threatening conditions of the patients. In fact, it is estimated, that the infectio......-light propagation or by other meansintegrating optical fiber technology into the tube walls, such as to gradually release UV-light into theinterior, efficiently killing off bacteria present inside....

  5. Kaempferide Prevents Titanium Particle Induced Osteolysis by Suppressing JNK Activation during Osteoclast Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zixian; Xu, Weifeng; Zheng, Jisi; Shen, Pei; Qin, An; Zhang, Shanyong; Yang, Chi

    2017-11-30

    Kaempferide (KF) is an O-methylated flavonol, a natural plant extract, which is often found in Kaempferia galanga. It has a variety of effects including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether KF effectively inhibits titanium particle induced calvarial bone loss via down regulation of the JNK signaling pathway. In the mice with titanium particle induced calvarial osteolysis, the Low dose of KF mildly reduced the resorption pits while in the high dose group, fewer scattered pits were observed on the surface of calvarium. Histological examination showed fewer osteoclasts formation in the KF group. In mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells, KF significantly inhibited the osteoclast formation and bone resorption at 12.5 μM. However, KF does not affect the mature osteoclast F-actin ring formation. But when being co-treated with KF and anisomycin, BMMs differentiated into mature osteoclasts. At the molecular levels, the JNK phosphorylation was inhibited and the osteoclastogenesis-related specific gene expression including V-ATPase d2, TRAP, calcitonin receptor (CTR), c-Fos and NFATc1 was markedly suppressed. In conclusion, these results indicated that KF is a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

  6. Antioxidant Compounds in Traditional Indian Pickles May Prevent the Process-Induced Formation of Benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Mahesh M; Adiani, Vanshika; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2016-01-01

    Pickles in the Indian market contain ascorbic acid from the raw material used and benzoate as an added preservative that are involved in the formation of benzene in soft drinks. In this work, 24 market pickle samples were surveyed for benzene content, as well as its precursors and other constituents that influence its formation. The analysis showed that pickle samples were high in acid content (low pH) and showed significant amount of ascorbic acid, minerals (Cu and Fe), and benzoic acid present in them. Also, most samples exhibited high antioxidant activity that might be attributed to the ingredients used, such as fruits and spices. The solid-phase microextraction headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed in-house for benzene analysis. Eleven of 24 samples had benzene, with the highest concentration of 4.36 ± 0.82 μg of benzene per kg of pickle for a lime pickle that was also reported to have highest benzoic acid and considerably less hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) scavenging activity. However, benzene levels for all 11 samples were considerably below the World Health Organization regulatory limit of 10 μg/kg for benzene in mineral water. Studies on model systems revealed that the high antioxidant activity of Indian pickles may have had a strong inhibitory effect on benzene formation.

  7. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  9. PDZK1 prevents neointima formation via suppression of breakpoint cluster region kinase in vascular smooth muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ru Lee

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI and its adaptor protein PDZK1 mediate responses to HDL cholesterol in endothelium. Whether the receptor-adaptor protein tandem serves functions in other vascular cell types is unknown. The current work determined the roles of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vascular smooth muscle (VSM. To evaluate possible VSM functions of SR-BI and PDZK1 in vivo, neointima formation was assessed 21 days post-ligation in the carotid arteries of wild-type, SR-BI-/- or PDZK1-/- mice. Whereas neointima development was negligible in wild-type and SR-BI-/-, there was marked neointima formation in PDZK1-/- mice. PDZK1 expression was demonstrated in primary mouse VSM cells, and compared to wild-type cells, PDZK1-/- VSM displayed exaggerated proliferation and migration in response to platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry revealed that PDZK1 interacts with breakpoint cluster region kinase (Bcr, which contains a C-terminal PDZ binding sequence and is known to enhance responses to PDGF in VSM. PDZK1 interaction with Bcr in VSM was demonstrated by pull-down and by coimmunoprecipitation, and the augmented proliferative response to PDGF in PDZK1-/- VSM was abrogated by Bcr depletion. Furthermore, compared with wild-type Bcr overexpression, the introduction of a Bcr mutant incapable of PDZK1 binding into VSM cells yielded an exaggerated proliferative response to PDGF. Thus, PDZK1 has novel SR-BI-independent function in VSM that affords protection from neointima formation, and this involves PDZK1 suppression of VSM cell proliferation via an inhibitory interaction with Bcr.

  10. Licochalcone A Prevents Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation through the Inhibition of PLCγ2-PKC, Akt, and MAPK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Li-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Huang, Li-Ting; Tseng, Mei-Fang; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade; Lu, Wan-Jung

    2017-07-12

    Platelet activation is involved in cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Licochalcone A (LA), an active ingredient of licorice, exhibits multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. However, its role in platelet activation remains unclear. Therefore, the study investigated the antiplatelet mechanism of LA. Our data revealed that LA (2-10 μM) concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin and U46619. LA markedly attenuated collagen-stimulated ATP release, P-selectin secretion, calcium mobilization, and GPIIbIIIa activation, but did not interfere with the collagen binding to platelets. Moreover, LA significantly reduced the activation of PLCγ2, PKC, Akt and MAPKs. Thus, LA attenuates platelet activation, possibly by inhibiting collagen receptor downstream signaling but not by blocking the collagen receptors. In addition, LA prevented adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced acute pulmonary thrombosis, fluorescein sodium-induced platelet thrombus formation, and middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion-induced brain injury in mice, but did not affect normal hemostasis. This study demonstrated that LA effectively reduced platelet activation and thrombus formation, in part, through the inhibition of PLCγ2-PKC, Akt, and MAPK pathways, without the side effect of bleeding. These findings also indicate that LA may provide a safe and alternative therapeutic approach for preventing thromboembolic disorders such as stroke.

  11. Sustained prevention of biofilm formation on a novel silicone matrix suitable for medical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Søren Langer; Merete H., Vestergaard,; Jensen, Minna Grønning

    2015-01-01

    ciprofloxacin was loaded into the polymer matrix by a post-polymerization loading procedure. Sustained release of ciprofloxacin was demonstrated, and the release could be controlled by varying the hydrogel content in the range 13–38% (w/w) and by changing the concentration of ciprofloxacin during loading...... in the range of 1–20 mg/mL. Devices containing 25% (w/w) hydrogel and loaded with ciprofloxacin displayed a strong antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus bacterial colonization and subsequent biofilm formation on the device material was inhibited for 29 days. In conclusion, the hydrogel...

  12. Radiation-induced formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and its prevention by scavengers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Jeding, I B; Loft, S

    1994-01-01

    measured 8-OHdG formation in calf thymus DNA exposed to ionizing radiation under conditions generating either hydroxyl radicals (OH.), superoxide anions (O2-) or both. Additionally, we investigated the relationship between the scavenger effect of the drug 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and increasing OH...... and 100 Gy radiation, i.e. within a wide range of OH. exposure, which is useful information considering clinical applications where the exact amount of ROS formed is unknown. Both 5-ASA and ascorbate at low concentrations (

  13. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  14. Cosuppression of the α Subunits of β-Conglycinin in Transgenic Soybean Seeds Induces the Formation of Endoplasmic Reticulum–Derived Protein Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Anthony J.; Jung, Rudolf; Herman, Eliot M.

    2001-01-01

    The expression of the α and α′ subunits of β-conglycinin was suppressed by sequence-mediated gene silencing in transgenic soybean seed. The resulting seeds had similar total oil and protein content and ratio compared with the parent line. The decrease in β-conglycinin protein was apparently compensated by an increased accumulation of glycinin. In addition, proglycinin, the precursor of glycinin, was detected as a prominent polypeptide band in the protein profile of the transgenic seed extract. Electron microscopic analysis and immunocytochemistry of maturing transgenic soybean seeds indicated that the process of storage protein accumulation was altered in the transgenic line. In normal soybeans, the storage proteins are deposited in pre-existing vacuoles by Golgi-derived vesicles. In contrast, in transgenic seed with reduced β-conglycinin levels, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–derived vesicles were observed that resembled precursor accumulating–vesicles of pumpkin seeds and the protein bodies accumulated by cereal seeds. Their ER–derived membrane of the novel vesicles did not contain the protein storage vacuole tonoplast-specific protein α-TIP, and the sequestered polypeptides did not contain complex glycans, indicating a preGolgi and nonvacuolar nature. Glycinin was identified as a major component of these novel protein bodies and its diversion from normal storage protein trafficking appears to be related to the proglycinin buildup in the transgenic seed. The stable accumulation of proteins in a protein body compartment instead of vacuolar accumulation of proteins may provide an alternative intracellular site to sequester proteins when soybeans are used as protein factories. PMID:11340189

  15. Biosurfactants prevent in vitro Candida albicans biofilm formation on resins and silicon materials for prosthetic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochis, Andrea; Fracchia, Letizia; Martinotti, Maria Giovanna; Rimondini, Lia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the preventive antiadhesion activity of biosurfactants against Candida albicans biofilm. Disks of silicon and acrylic resin for denture prostheses were precoated with increasing concentrations of biosurfactants obtained from endophyte biofilms selected from Robinia pseudoacacia and from Nerium oleander, and afterward infected with C. albicans cells. The number of biofilm cells were detected by colony-forming unit (CFU) counting, cell viability was established by the 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) assay, and biosurfactant cytotoxicity was evaluated by the [3-(4,5-dimethyliazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (MTT) assay. Chlorhexidine was used as control. Precoating with biosurfactants caused a greater reduction (P biosurfactants was observed at low concentrations (78.12 μg/mL and 156.12 μg/mL) which were noncytotoxic. This study demonstrated the preventive antiadhesion activity of biosurfactants against C. albicans biofilm. These agents are amphiphilic, interfere with microbial adhesion, and demonstrate cycompatibility with epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Calculus formation in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection of the prostate: causes, treatment and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Cheng, Wen; Zhou, Wen-Quan; Ge, Jing-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Gao, Jian-Ping

    2012-05-01

    To study the causes, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention of calculus that develops in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection of the prostate. We reported 11 cases of calculus that developed in the prostatic cavity after transurethral resection or transurethral plasmakinetic resection of prostate. The patients complained of repeated symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition and urodynia after operation, accompanied with urinary tract infection and some with urinary obstruction, which failed to respond to anti-infective therapies. Cystoscopy revealed calculi in the prostatic cavity, with eschar, sphacelus, uneven wound surface and small diverticula in some cases. After diagnosis, 1 case was treated by holmium laser lithotripsy and a second transurethral resection of the prostate, while the other 10 had the calculi removed under the cystoscope, followed by 1 -2 weeks of anti-infective therapy. After treatment, all the 11 cases showed normal results of routine urinalysis, and no more symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition and urodynia. Three- to six-month follow-up found no bladder irritation symptoms and urinary tract infection. Repeated symptoms of frequent micturition, urgent micturition, urodynia and urinary tract infection after transurethral resection of the prostate should be considered as the indicators of calculus in the prostatic cavity, which can be confirmed by cystoscopy. It can be treated by lithotripsy or removal of the calculus under the cystoscope, or even a second transurethral resection of the prostate. For its prevention, excessive electric coagulation and uneven wound surface should be avoided and anti-infection treatment is needed.

  17. Extract of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance prevents thrombus formation through antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Won-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Jin; Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Myung, Chang-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2013-09-01

    Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (Ulmaceae) has been used as a traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of edema, mastitis, gastric cancer and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ulmus macrocarpa extract (UME) on thrombus formation in vivo, platelet activation ex vivo and fibrinolytic activity in vitro. To identify the antithrombotic activity of UME in vivo, we used an arterial thrombosis model. UME delayed the occlusion time by 13.4 and 13.9 min at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. UME significantly inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation induced by collagen and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), respectively, but did not affect the coagulation times following activated partial thromboplastin and prothrombin activation. Therefore, to investigate the antiplatelet effect of UME, the effect of UME on collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro was examined. UME exhibited antiplatelet aggregation activity, induced by ADP and collagen. Furthermore, the fibrinolytic activity of UME was investigated. The results showed that UME significantly increased fibrinolysis at 1,000 mg/ml. In conclusion, the results suggested that UME may significantly inhibit artery thrombus formation in vivo, potentially due to antiplatelet activity, and also exhibits potential as a clot‑dissolving agent for thrombolytic therapy.

  18. Improving Prevention Curricula: Lessons Learned Through Formative Research on the Youth Message Development Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREENE, KATHRYN; CATONA, DANIELLE; ELEK, ELVIRA; MAGSAMEN-CONRAD, KATE; BANERJEE, SMITA C.; HECHT, MICHAEL L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes formative research (a pilot study, interviews, and focus groups) conducted as part of a feasibility test of 2 versions (Analysis vs. Planning) of a brief media literacy intervention titled Youth Message Development (YMD). The intervention targets high school student alcohol use with activities to understand persuasion strategies, increase counter-arguing, and then apply these new skills to ad analysis or a more engaging ad poster planning activity. Based on the theory of active involvement (Greene, 2013), the Planning curriculum is proposed to be more effective than the Analysis curriculum. Overall, results of the formative research indicated that students (N = 182) and mentors/teachers (N = 53) perceived the YMD Planning curriculum as more interesting, involving, and novel, and these ratings were associated with increased critical thinking about the impact of advertising, lower alcohol use intentions, and fewer positive expectations about the effects of alcohol use. Qualitative feedback indicated a need to supplement alcohol-focused ad stimuli with ads targeting other advertising images, use incentives and competition-based activities to further enhance student motivation, and provide flexibility to enhance the appropriateness of the curriculum to various settings. These concerns led to the development of a revised curriculum and plans for further study. PMID:27684111

  19. Superhydrophilic nanopillar-structured quartz surfaces for the prevention of biofilm formation in optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soo; Ji, Seungmuk; Abdullah, Abdullah; Kim, Duckil; Lim, Hyuneui; Lee, Donghyun

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation on optical devices such as contact lenses, optical glasses, endoscopic devices, and microscopic slides and lenses are major concerns in the field of medicine and biomedical engineering. To solve these problems, here we present the first report of superhydrophilic transparent nanopillar-structured surfaces with bactericidal properties. To construct bactericidal surfaces, we imitated a topological mechanism found in nature in which nanopillar-structured surfaces cause a mechanical disruption of the outer cell membranes of bacteria, resulting in bacterial cell death. We used nanosphere lithography to fabricate nanopillars with various sharpnesses and heights on a quartz substrate. Water contact angle and light reflectance measurements revealed superhydrophilic, antifogging and antireflective properties, which are important for use in optical devices. To determine bactericidal efficiency, the fabricated surfaces were incubated and tested against two Gram-negative bacteria associated with biofilm formation and various diseases in humans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The highest bactericidal activity was achieved with nanopillars that measured 300 nm in height and 10 nm in apex diameter. Quartz substrates patterned with such nanopillars killed ∼38,000 P. aeruginosa and ∼27,000 E. coli cells cm-2 min-1, respectively. Thus, the newly designed nanopillar-structured bactericidal surfaces are suitable for use in the development of superhydrophilic and transparent optical devices.

  20. Photoprotection by Cichorum endivia extracts: prevention of UVB-induced erythema, pyrimidine dimer formation and IL-6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enk, C D; Hochberg, M; Torres, A; Lev, O; Dor, I; Srebnik, M; Dembitsky, V M

    2004-01-01

    In the gradual process of evolution, plants have developed natural sun protecting substances that enable continuous survival under direct and intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As part of our studies of plant-derived pigments that might constitute an alternative to conventional sunscreens, we have tested the ethanolic extracts of roots, stalks, and inflorescences of populations of wild Cichorum endivia subsp. Divaricatum (Asteraceae) in terms of protection against sunburn, and in prevention of UVB-induced pyrimidine dimer formation and IL-6 mRNA expression in the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Using ELISA technique for detection of pyrimidine dimers and RT-PCR for detection of IL-6, we found that the ethanolic extract of C. endivia roots absorbs radiation in the UVB spectrum and partially prevents induction of pyrimidine dimers and IL-6 expression. Application of the root extract on the skin prior to UVB irradiation totally prevented erythema. Our findings suggest that C. endivia extracts might possess sun-protective qualities that make them useful as sunscreens. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Dental calculus: recent insights into occurrence, formation, prevention, removal and oral health effects of supragingival and subgingival deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D J

    1997-10-01

    radius of plaque induced periodontal injury. Removal of subgingival plaque and calculus remains the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Calculus formation is the result of petrification of dental plaque biofilm, with mineral ions provided by bathing saliva or crevicular fluids. Supragingival calculus formation can be controlled by chemical mineralization inhibitors, applied in toothpastes or mouthrinses. These agents act to delay plaque calcification, keeping deposits in an amorphous non-hardened state to facilitate removal with regular hygiene. Clinical efficacy for these agents is typically assessed as the reduction in tartar area coverage on the teeth between dental cleaning. Research shows that topically applied mineralization inhibitors can also influence adhesion and hardness of calculus deposits on the tooth surface, facilitating removal. Future research in calculus may include the development of improved supragingival tartar control formulations, the development of treatments for the prevention of subgingival calculus formation, the development of improved methods for root detoxification and debridement and the development and application of sensitive diagnostic methods to assess subgingival debridement efficacy.

  2. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  3. Measures to prevent foam formation in the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet in biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Moeller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of persistent foaming is observed in many anaerobic digesters that have sugar beet as their feedstock. The formation of foam entails a significant risk of damage to biogas plants, as gas pipes can become blocked. For this reason, foaming tests have been conducted to investigate which measures lead to reductions in foam development. It was found that generally available fertilizers such as urea, ammonium nitrate and calcium cyanamide have a foam-reducing effect. However, batch fermentation tests showed inhibition of biogas production at higher concentrations of these substances, which means that they should be used with care. Calcium cyanamide was found to be very unsuitable, as this substance inhibited biogas production even at low concentrations and caused the fermentation process to come to a complete stop at higher concentrations.

  4. Dietary strawberry seed oil affects metabolite formation in the distal intestine and ameliorates lipid metabolism in rats fed an obesogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Jurgoński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To answer the question whether dietary strawberry seed oil rich in α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (29.3 and 47.2% of total fatty acids, respectively can beneficially affect disorders induced by the consumption of an obesogenic diet. Design: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and fed with a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fiber diet that contained either strawberry seed oil or an edible rapeseed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. Results: After 8 weeks of feeding, the obesogenic diet increased the body weight and the liver mass and fat content, whereas decreased the cecal acetate and butyrate concentration. This diet also altered the plasma lipid profile and decreased the liver sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c content. However, the lowest liver SREBP-1c content was observed in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Moreover, dietary strawberry seed oil decreased the cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate, propionate, and butyrate regardless of the diet type, whereas the cecal β-glucuronidase activity was considerably increased only in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing strawberry seed oil. Dietary strawberry seed oil also lowered the liver fat content, the plasma triglyceride level and the atherogenic index of plasma. Conclusions: Strawberry seed oil has a potent lipid-lowering activity but can unfavorably affect microbial metabolism in the distal intestine. The observed effects are partly due to the synergistic action of the oil and the obesogenic diet.

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is involved in seed formation and modulation of primary and lateral root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bucio, J S; Dubrovsky, J G; Raya-González, J; Ugartechea-Chirino, Y; López-Bucio, J; de Luna-Valdez, L A; Ramos-Vega, M; León, P; Guevara-García, A A

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) cascades are signal transduction modules highly conserved in all eukaryotes regulating various aspects of plant biology, including stress responses and developmental programmes. In this study, we characterized the role of MAPK 6 (MPK6) in Arabidopsis embryo development and in post-embryonic root system architecture. We found that the mpk6 mutation caused altered embryo development giving rise to three seed phenotypes that, post-germination, correlated with alterations in root architecture. In the smaller seed class, mutant seedlings failed to develop the primary root, possibly as a result of an earlier defect in the division of the hypophysis cell during embryo development, but they had the capacity to develop adventitious roots to complete their life cycle. In the larger class, the MPK6 loss of function did not cause any evident alteration in seed morphology, but the embryo and the mature seed were bigger than the wild type. Seedlings developed from these bigger seeds were characterized by a primary root longer than that of the wild type, accompanied by significantly increased lateral root initiation and more and longer root hairs. Apparently, the increment in primary root growth resulted from an enhanced cell production and cell elongation. Our data demonstrated that MPK6 plays an important role during embryo development and acts as a repressor of primary and lateral root development.

  6. Surface zwitterionization: Effective method for preventing oral bacterial biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungjin; Kim, Heejin; Seo, Jiae; Kang, Minji; Kang, Sunah; Jang, Joomyung; Lee, Yan; Seo, Ji-Hun

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we conducted surface zwitterionization of hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces by immersing them in the zwitterionic polymer solutions to provide anti-bacterial properties to the HA surface. Three different monomers containing various zwitterionic groups, i.e., phosphorylcholine (PC), sulfobetaine (SB), and carboxybetaine (CB), were copolymerized with the methacrylic monomer containing a Ca2+-binding moiety, using the free radical polymerization method. As a control, functionalization of the copolymer containing the Ca2+-binding moiety was synthesized using a hydroxy group. The stable immobilization of the zwitterionic functional groups was confirmed by water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conducted after the sonication process. The zwitterionized HA surface showed significantly decreased protein adsorption, whereas the hydroxyl group-coated HA surface showed limited efficacy. The anti-bacterial adhesion property was confirmed by conducting Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion tests for 6 h and 24 h. When furanone C-30, a representative anti-quorum sensing molecule for S. mutans, was used, only a small amount of bacteria adhered after 6 h and the population did not increase after 24 h. In contrast, zwitterionized HA surfaces showed almost no bacterial adhesion after 6 h and the effect was retained for 24 h, resulting in the lowest level of oral bacterial adhesion. These results confirm that surface zwitterionization is a promising method to effectively prevent oral bacterial adhesion on HA-based materials.

  7. High wind speeds prevent formation of a distinct bacterioneuston community in the sea-surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlff, Janina; Stolle, Christian; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Ribas-Ribas, Mariana; Hodapp, Dorothee; Wurl, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) at the boundary between atmosphere and hydrosphere represents a demanding habitat for bacteria. Wind speed is a crucial but poorly studied factor for its physical integrity. Increasing atmospheric burden of CO2, as suggested for future climate scenarios, may particularly act on this habitat at the air-sea interface. We investigated the effect of increasing wind speeds and different pCO2 levels on SML microbial communities in a wind-wave tunnel, which offered the advantage of low spatial and temporal variability. We found that enrichment of bacteria in the SML occurred solely at a U10 wind speed of ≤5.6 m s-1 in the tunnel and ≤4.1 m s-1 in the Baltic Sea. High pCO2 levels further intensified the bacterial enrichment in the SML during low wind speed. In addition, low wind speed and pCO2 induced the formation of a distinctive bacterial community as revealed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and influenced the presence or absence of individual taxonomic units within the SML. We conclude that physical stability of the SML below a system-specific wind speed threshold induces specific bacterial communities in the SML entailing strong implications for ecosystem functioning by wind-driven impacts on habitat properties, gas exchange and matter cycling processes. © FEMS 2017.

  8. Oral Administration of Thioflavin T Prevents Beta Amyloid Plaque Formation in Double Transgenic AD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Paule, Merle G; Schmued, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and most common cause of adult-onset dementia. The major hallmarks of AD are the formation of senile amyloid plaques made of beta amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) which are primarily composed of phosphorylated tau protein. Although numerous agents have been considered as providing protection against AD, identification of potential agents with neuroprotective ability is limited. Thioflavin T has been used in the past to stain amyloid beta plaques in brain. In this study, Thioflavin T (ThT) and vehicle (infant formula) were administered orally by gavage to transgenic (B6C3 APP PS1; AD-Tg) mice beginning at 4 months age and continuing until sacrifice at 9 months of age at 40 mg/kg dose. The number of amyloid plaques was reduced dramatically by ThT treatment in both male and female transgenic mice compared to those in control mice. Additionally, GFAP and Amylo-Glo labeling suggest that astrocytic hypertrophy is minimized in ThT-treated animals. Similarly, CD68 labeling, which detects activated microglia, along with Amylo-Glo labeling, suggests that microglial activation is significantly less in ThT-treated mice. Both Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 concentrations in blood rose significantly in the ThT-treated animals suggesting that ThT may inhibit the deposition, degradation, and/or clearance of Aβ plaques in brain.

  9. Intraperitoneal tenoxicam to prevent abdominal adhesion formation in a rat peritonitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezberci, Fikret; Bulbuloglu, Ertan; Ciragil, Pinar; Gul, Mustafa; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Bozkurt, Serdar; Kale, I Taner

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of intraperitoneal tenoxicam on the development of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions and oxidative stress in a model of bacterial peritonitis. Bacterial peritonitis was induced in 24 rats by cecal ligation and puncture. The rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 (n = 8) received 2 ml saline intraperitoneally, group 2 (n = 8) received 2 ml (0.5 mg/kg) tenoxicam (Oksamen) intraperitoneally, and group 3 (n = 8) was a control, which did not receive any injection. All animals were killed 14 days later so we could assess the adhesion score and measure anastomotic bursting pressures. Tissue antioxidant levels were measured in 1-g tissue samples taken from the abdominal wall. The adhesion score was significantly lower in the tenoxicam group than in the saline and control groups. The anastomotic bursting pressures were higher in the saline and tenoxicam groups than in the control group. The catalase (CAT) levels were higher in the saline and tenoxicam groups than in the control group. The malondialdehyde (MDH) levels were higher in the saline group than in the tenoxicam and control groups. Intraperitoneal tenoxicam inhibited the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions without compromising wound healing in this bacterial peritonitis rat model. Tenoxicam also decreased the oxidative stress during peritonitis.

  10. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  11. Prevention of Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Soft Contact Lenses Using Natural Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ganiny, Amira M; Shaker, Ghada H; Aboelazm, Abeer A; El-Dash, Heba A

    2017-12-01

    In eye care field, contact lenses (CL) have a great impact on improving vision, but their use can be limited by ocular infection. CL- associated infections can be reduced by good attention to CL storage case practice. CL-care solutions should be able to control microbial growth on CL. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of CL-care solutions (found in Egyptian market) with some natural compounds in removal and inhibition of bacterial biofilm formed on soft CL. Clinical isolates were recovered from patients having conjunctivitis from Benha University Hospital and identified microbiologically. Quantification of biofilm was done using microtiter plate assay. Three multipurpose CL-care solutions were examined for their ability to remove and inhibit biofilm. Also four natural extracts having antibacterial activity and are safe on eye were tested for their anti-biofilm activity. The major bacterial isolates from eye infections were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (36%) and Staphylococcus spp. (37.8%). Only 33.3% of isolates showed ability to produce weak to moderate biofilm. The tested multi-purpose CL-care solutions showed moderate ability to remove preformed biofilm. Among the tested natural compounds, Calendula officinalis and Buddleja salviifolia extracts showed an excellent efficacy in inhibition of biofilm and also removal of preformed biofilm. This study demonstrated that isolates from infected eye and CL-cases showed weak to moderate biofilm formation. Calendula officinalis and Buddleja salviifolia extracts showed excellent effect on inhibition and removal of biofilm, these extracts could be added into CL-care solutions which could markedly reduce eye-infections during CL-wear.

  12. Candesartan restores pressure-induced vasodilation and prevents skin pressure ulcer formation in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danigo, Aurore; Nasser, Mohamad; Bessaguet, Flavien; Javellaud, James; Oudart, Nicole; Achard, Jean-Michel; Demiot, Claire

    2015-02-18

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers have beneficial effects on neurovascular complications in diabetes and in organ's protection against ischemic episodes. The present study examines whether the AT1R blocker candesartan (1) has a beneficial effect on diabetes-induced alteration of pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV, a cutaneous physiological neurovascular mechanism which could delay the occurrence of tissue ischemia), and (2) could be protective against skin pressure ulcer formation. Male Swiss mice aged 5-6 weeks were randomly assigned to four experimental groups. In two groups, diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg.kg(-1)). After 6 weeks, control and STZ mice received either no treatment or candesartan (1 mg/kg-daily in drinking water) during 2 weeks. At the end of treatment (8 weeks of diabetes duration), C-fiber mediated nociception threshold, endothelium-dependent vasodilation and PIV were assessed. Pressure ulcers (PUs) were then induced by pinching the dorsal skin between two magnetic plates for three hours. Skin ulcer area development was assessed during three days, and histological examination of the depth of the skin lesion was performed at day three. After 8 weeks of diabetes, the skin neurovascular functions (C-fiber nociception, endothelium-dependent vasodilation and PIV) were markedly altered in STZ-treated mice, but were fully restored by treatment with candesartan. Whereas in diabetes mice exposure of the skin to pressure induced wide and deep necrotic lesions, treatment with candersartan restored their ability to resist to pressure-induced ulceration as efficiently as the control mice. Candesartan decreases the vulnerability to pressure-induced ulceration and restores skin neurovascular functions in mice with STZ-induced established diabetes.

  13. The chloride channel inhibitor NS3736 [corrected] prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats without changing bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Kim; Sveigaard, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channel activity is essential for osteoclast function. Consequently, inhibition of the osteoclastic chloride channel should prevent bone resorption. Accordingly, we tested a chloride channel inhibitor on bone turnover and found that it inhibits bone resorption without affecting bone...... for osteoporosis, daily treatment with 30 mg/kg orally protected bone strength and BMD by approximately 50% 6 weeks after surgery. Most interestingly, bone formation assessed by osteocalcin, mineral apposition rate, and mineralized surface index was not inhibited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of chloride......, appearing mainly in osteoclasts, ovaries, appendix, and Purkinje cells. This highly selective distribution predicts that inhibition of ClC-7 should specifically target osteoclasts in vivo. We suggest that NS3736 is inhibiting ClC-7, leading to a bone-specific effect in vivo. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION...

  14. Prevention of parastomal hernias with 3D funnel meshes in intraperitoneal onlay position by placement during initial stoma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, G; Hofmann, A; Lechner, M; Mayer, F; Wundsam, H; Emmanuel, K; Fortelny, R H

    2016-02-01

    In patients with terminal ostomies, parastomal hernias (PSHs) occur on a frequent basis. They are commonly associated with various degrees of complaints and occasionally lead to life-threatening complications. Various strategies and measures have been tested and evaluated, but to date there is a lack of published evidence with regard to the best surgical technique for the prevention of PSH development. We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of eighty patients, who underwent elective permanent ostomy formation between 2009 and 2014 by means of prophylactic implantation of a three-dimensional (3D) funnel mesh in intraperitoneal onlay (IPOM) position. PSH developed in three patients (3.75%). No mesh-related complications were encountered and none of the implants had to be removed. Ostomy-related complications had to be noted in seven (8.75%) cases. No manifestation of ostomy prolapse occurred. Follow-up time was a median 21 (range 3-47) months. The prophylactical implantation of a specially shaped, 3D mesh implant in IPOM technique during initial formation of a terminal enterostomy is safe, highly efficient and comparatively easy to perform. As opposed to what can be achieved with flat or keyhole meshes, the inner boundary areas of the ostomy itself can be well covered and protected from the surging viscera with the 3D implants. At the same time, the vertical, tunnel-shaped part of the mesh provides sufficient protection from an ostomy prolapse. Further studies will be needed to compare the efficacy of various known approaches to PSH prevention.

  15. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  16. Comparative evaluation of turmeric and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of plaque formation and gingivitis: a clinical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, P F; Chaudhari, A U; Karhadkar, V M; Jamkhande, A S

    2011-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of turmeric mouthwash and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of gingivitis and plaque formation. A total of 100 randomly selected subjects visiting the Department of Periodontology at Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Dental College and Hospital, were considered for the study. The gingival index (GI) by Loe and Silness was recorded which was followed by Turesky- Gilmore-Glickman modification of Quigley Hein plaque index (TQHPI) at 0, 14 and 21 days. Individuals who gave an informed consent, subjects in the age group of 25 to 35 years with having fair and poor gingival index scores and a score >1 for plaque index, were included in the study. Results showed statistically significant reduction (p plaque index (PI) with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash when compared with turmeric mouthwash. No significant difference in mean gingival index (GI) was seen when chlorhexidine mouthwash was compared with turmeric mouthwash. Significant reduction in total microbial count (p chlorhexidine mouthwash was compared with turmeric mouthwash. From the above observations, it can be concluded that chlorhexidine gluconate as well as turmeric mouthwash can be effectively used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control methods in prevention of plaque and gingivitis. Chlorhexidine gluconate has been found to be more effective when antiplaque property was considered. From this study, it could be stated that turmeric is definitely a good adjunct to mechanical plaque control. Further studies are required on turmeric based mouthwash to establish it as a low cost plaque control measure.

  17. A metagenomic study of the preventive effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on intestinal polyp formation in ApcMin/+mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y; Wong, V H Y; Tai, W C S; Li, J; Wong, W Y; Lee, M M L; Fong, F L Y; El-Nezami, H; Panagiotou, G

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the in vivo effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on intestinal polyp development and the interaction between this single-organism probiotic and the gut microbiota therein. The Apc Min/+ mouse model was used to study the potential preventive effect of LGG on intestinal polyposis, while shotgun metagenomic sequencing was employed to characterize both taxonomic and functional changes within the gut microbial community. We found that the progression of intestinal polyps in the control group altered the community functional profile remarkably despite small variation in the taxonomic diversity. In comparison, the consumption of LGG helped maintain the overall functional potential and taxonomic profile in the resident microbes, thereby leading to a 25% decrease of total polyp counts. Furthermore, we found that LGG enriched those microbes or microbial activities related to short-chain fatty acid production (e.g. Roseburia and Coprococcus), as well as suppressed the ones that can lead to inflammation (e.g. Bilophila wadsworthia). Our study using shotgun metagenomics highlights how single probiotic LGG may exert its beneficial effects and decrease polyp formation in mice by maintaining gut microbial functionality. This probiotic intervention targeting microbiota may be used in conjugation with other dietary supplements or drugs as part of prevention strategies for early-stage colon cancer, after further clinical validations in human. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Formative research and strategic development of a physical activity component to a social marketing campaign for obesity prevention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Gould, Susan Martin; Auld, Garry

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight in childhood, including preschoolers, continues to rise. While efforts focusing on school-aged children are encouraging, obesity prevention programs to address nutrition and physical activity in the child care center are lacking. Food Friends is a successfully evaluated nutrition program aimed at enhancing preschoolers' food choices, the addition of a physical activity program would improve the programs overall efforts to establish healthful habits early in life. This study describes the formative research conducted with secondary influencers of preschoolers-teachers and parents-for the development of a physical activity program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with preschool teachers and parents, respectively, to examine current physical activity practices, as well as attitudes, opinions, and desired wants and needs for physical activity materials. Findings illustrate that teachers provided physical activity; however, most did not use a structured program. Teachers identified time, space and equipment as barriers to providing activity in their classroom. Focus group findings identified activities of preschoolers', parents' perceptions of the adequacy of activity levels, and items to help parents engage their children in more physical activity. Barriers were also identified by parents and included time, safety, inclement weather, and lack of knowledge and self-efficacy. Findings from this formative research were used to develop a marketing strategy to guide the development of a physical activity component, Food Friends Get Movin' with Mighty Moves , as part of a larger social marketing campaign aimed to decrease the risk for obesity in low-income preschoolers.

  19. Prevention of biofilm formation by dairy products and N-acetylcysteine on voice prostheses in an artificial throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Leonora Q; Van Weissenbruch, Ranny; Stokroos, Ietse; Van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Albers, Frans W J

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the preventive effect of buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine on biofilm formation on voice prostheses in vitro. Groningen button and Provox 2 voice prostheses were inoculated with a mixture of bacteria and yeasts isolated from previously explanted Groningen button voice prostheses. After 5 h, separate throats were flushed with buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink, N-acetylcysteine or phosphate-buffered saline, which served as a control. After 7 days, the microflora on each voice prosthesis was determined. On Groningen button voice prostheses, buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine all reduced the amount of both bacteria and yeasts. On Provox 2 voice prostheses, buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine reduced the amount of bacteria but, conversely, increased the amount of yeasts. These in vitro experiments demonstrate that biofilm formation on voice prostheses is reduced in an artificial throat by the use of buttermilk, Yakult Light fermented milk drink and N-acetylcysteine. However, the structural differences between the type of voice prostheses may influence the ultimate effects.

  20. Pathobiology of cholesterol gallstone disease: from equilibrium ternary phase diagram to agents preventing cholesterol crystallization and stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portincasa, Piero; Moschetta, Antonio; Calamita, Giuseppe; Margari, Antonio; Palasciano, Giuseppe

    2003-03-01

    The primum movens in cholesterol gallstone formation is hypersecretion of hepatic cholesterol, chronic surpersaturation of bile with cholesterol and rapid precipitation of cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder from cholesterol-enriched vesicles. Associated events include biochemical defects (increased biliary mucin, and increased proportions of hydrophobic bile salts in the intestine and gallbladder), motility defects (gallbladder smooth muscle hypocontractility in vitro and gallbladder stasis in vivo, sluggish intestinal transit), and an abnormal genetic background. The study of physical-chemical factors and pathways leading to cholesterol crystallization in bile has clinical relevance and the task can be carried out in different ways. The lithogenicity of bile is investigated in artificial model biles made by three biliary lipids - cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids - variably combined in systems plotting within the equilibrium ternary phase diagram; also, crystallization propensity of ex vivo incubated human bile is studied by biochemical analysis of precipitated crystals, polarizing quantitative light microscopy and turbidimetric methods. The present review will focus on the recent advances in the field of pathobiology of cholesterol gallstones, by underscoring the role of early events like water transport, lipid transport, crystallization phenomena - including a genetic background - in gallstone pathogenesis. Agents delaying or preventing precipitation of cholesterol crystals and gallstone formation in bile will also be discussed.

  1. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  2. A randomised controlled trial on melatonin and rosiglitazone for prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Orhan; Yilmaz, Bulent; Gungor, Tayfun; Sirvan, Levent; Sut, Necdet; Inan, Ismet; Kalyoncu, Senol; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of melatonin and rosiglitazone in reducing postoperative adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model. Thirty non-pregnant female Wistar albino rats, weighing 180-220 g, were used as a model for postoperative adhesion formation. The rats were randomised into three groups after seven standard lesions were inflicted in a 2-cm segment of each uterine horn and lower abdominal sidewall using bipolar cauterisation. The rats were treated with 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal melatonin, and 1 mg/kg per day peroral rosiglitazone. No medication was given to the control group. As much as 20 uterine horns of 10 rats were evaluated in each group. Extent, severity, and degree of the adhesions to the uterine horns and, inflammation and fibrosis scores (histopathologically) were evaluated after 2 weeks of the treatment. There was no mortality in the groups and all of the rats recovered without incident after operation. Rosiglitazone group had lower adhesion scores [median (min-max ranges)] regarding extent, severity, and degree of the adhesions [0 (0-3), 0 (0-3) and 0 (0-3), respectively], which were significantly different (P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) from those of the controls [1 (0-3), 2 (0-2) and 2 (0-3), respectively]; however, there were no statistically significant differences between rosiglitazone versus melatonin groups [1 (0-4), 2 (0-3) and 1 (0-3), respectively] and melatonin versus control groups. Moreover, no significant differences were determined between groups regarding histopathologic findings. Rosiglitazone, but not melatonin, is effective in prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

  3. Quorum-sensing contributes to virulence, twitching motility, seed attachment and biofilm formation in the wild type strain Aac-5 of Acidovorax citrulli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seed-borne pathogen that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits including melon and watermelon. We investigated the roles of quorum sensing in the wild-type group II strain Aac-5 of A. citrulli by generating aacR and aacI knockout mutants and their complementation strain...

  4. Digital Bangladesh: Using Formative Research to Develop Phone Messages for the Prevention and Control of Diabetes in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Maria Jennings

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: As with many low-income countries, diabetes is an increasing issue in Bangladesh affecting an estimated 20% to 30% of the population either as intermediate hyperglycaemia or fully expressed diabetes mellitus (Bhowmik et al., 2012. The Bangladesh D-MAGIC project is a cluster randomised control trial to test the effectiveness of interventions to improve detection, management and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh. One of these interventions is an mHealth intervention, which involves sending health promotion voice messages to individuals’ mobile phones to target diabetes prevention and management. In-depth formative research (interviews and focus group discussions has been undertaken in rural Faridpur District in order to gain a greater understanding of people’s beliefs, practices and behaviour regarding diabetes prevention and control and their access to and use of mobile phones. The findings of the research, used within the COM-B framework (Michie et al 2011, are being used to inform and appropriately tailor the voice messages to the needs of the target population. This presentation will highlight key findings of the formative research and discuss how these findings are being used to design the mHealth intervention. Aim: To identify key issues for the content and delivery of voice messages regarding the prevention and control of diabetes in rural Bangladesh through in-depth formative research. Methods: We conducted sixteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled diabetics, non-diabetics and health professionals. In addition, nine focus group discussions with diabetics and non-diabetics were conducted in villages in three sub-districts of Faridpur. We explored beliefs and behaviour regarding diet, exercise, smoking, stress and care-seeking. The findings from the interviews and focus group discussions were analysed thematically, and specific enablers and barriers to behaviour change related to diabetes identified

  5. Role of ultraviolet irradiation and oxidative stress in cataract formation-medical prevention by nutritional antioxidants and metabolic agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Shambhu D; Kovtun, Svitlana; Hegde, Kavita R

    2011-07-01

    Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability with relatively high incidence. It has been proposed that such high incidence is related to oxidative stress induced by continued intraocular penetration of light and consequent photochemical generation of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and singlet oxygen and their derivatization to other oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. The latter two can also interact to generate singlet oxygen by Haber-Weiss reaction. It has been proposed that in addition to the endogenous enzymatic antioxidant enzymes, the process can be inhibited by many nutritional and metabolic oxyradical scavengers, such as ascorbate, vitamin E, pyruvate, and xanthine alkaloids, such as caffeine. Initial verification of the hypothesis has been done primarily by rat and mouse lens organ culture studies under ambient as well as ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation and determining the effect of such irradiation on its physiology in terms of its efficiency of active membrane transport activity and the levels of certain metabolites such as glutathione and adenosine triphosphate as well as in terms of apoptotic cell death. In vivo studies on the possible prevention of oxidative stress and cataract formation have been conducted by administering pyruvate and caffeine orally in drinking water and by their topical application using diabetic and galactosemic animal models. Photosensitized damage to lens caused by exposure to visible light and UVA has been found to be significantly prevented by ascorbate and pyruvate. Caffeine has been found be effective against UVA and UVB. Oral or topical application of pyruvate has been found to inhibit the formation of cataracts induced by diabetes and galactosemia. Caffeine has also been found to inhibit cataract induced by sodium selenite and high levels of galactose. Studies with diabetes are in progress. Various in vitro and in vivo studies summarized in this review strongly support the

  6. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment Increases Bone Formation and Prevents Bone Loss in Weight-Reduced Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie R; Hartmann, Bolette; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten; Torekov, Signe S

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss-induced bone mass reduction. Randomized control study. Outpatient research hospital clinic. Thirty-seven healthy obese women with body mass index of 34 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) and age 46 ± 2 years. After a low-calorie-diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2 mg/d) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be replaced with a low-calorie-diet product to maintain the weight loss. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone markers [C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] were investigated before and after weight loss and after 52-week weight maintenance. Primary endpoints were changes in BMC and bone markers after 52-week weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance in the control group (P GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low-calorie diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent.

  7. Unidirectional Movement of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Epidermal Cells Deposit Cellulose Involved in Mucilage Extrusion, Adherence, and Ray Formation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Patricia; Young, Robin; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-01-01

    CELLULOSE SYNTHASE5 (CESA5) synthesizes cellulose necessary for seed mucilage adherence to seed coat epidermal cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The involvement of additional CESA proteins in this process and details concerning the manner in which cellulose is deposited in the mucilage pocket are unknown. Here, we show that both CESA3 and CESA10 are highly expressed in this cell type at the time of mucilage synthesis and localize to the plasma membrane adjacent to the mucilage pocket. The isoxaben resistant1-1 and isoxaben resistant1-2 mutants affecting CESA3 show defects consistent with altered mucilage cellulose biosynthesis. CESA3 can interact with CESA5 in vitro, and green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA5, CESA3, and CESA10 proteins move in a linear, unidirectional fashion around the cytoplasmic column of the cell, parallel with the surface of the seed, in a pattern similar to that of cortical microtubules. Consistent with this movement, cytological evidence suggests that the mucilage is coiled around the columella and unwinds during mucilage extrusion to form a linear ray. Mutations in CESA5 and CESA3 affect the speed of mucilage extrusion and mucilage adherence. These findings imply that cellulose fibrils are synthesized in an ordered helical array around the columella, providing a distinct structure to the mucilage that is important for both mucilage extrusion and adherence. PMID:25926481

  8. Unidirectional movement of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells deposit cellulose involved in mucilage extrusion, adherence, and ray formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jonathan S; Šola, Krešimir; Kushwaha, Rekha; Lam, Patricia; Tateno, Mizuki; Young, Robin; Voiniciuc, Cătălin; Dean, Gillian; Mansfield, Shawn D; DeBolt, Seth; Haughn, George W

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose synthase5 (CESA5) synthesizes cellulose necessary for seed mucilage adherence to seed coat epidermal cells of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The involvement of additional CESA proteins in this process and details concerning the manner in which cellulose is deposited in the mucilage pocket are unknown. Here, we show that both CESA3 and CESA10 are highly expressed in this cell type at the time of mucilage synthesis and localize to the plasma membrane adjacent to the mucilage pocket. The isoxaben resistant1-1 and isoxaben resistant1-2 mutants affecting CESA3 show defects consistent with altered mucilage cellulose biosynthesis. CESA3 can interact with CESA5 in vitro, and green fluorescent protein-tagged CESA5, CESA3, and CESA10 proteins move in a linear, unidirectional fashion around the cytoplasmic column of the cell, parallel with the surface of the seed, in a pattern similar to that of cortical microtubules. Consistent with this movement, cytological evidence suggests that the mucilage is coiled around the columella and unwinds during mucilage extrusion to form a linear ray. Mutations in CESA5 and CESA3 affect the speed of mucilage extrusion and mucilage adherence. These findings imply that cellulose fibrils are synthesized in an ordered helical array around the columella, providing a distinct structure to the mucilage that is important for both mucilage extrusion and adherence. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Curcumin Prevents Formation of Polyglutamine Aggregates by Inhibiting Vps36, a Component of the ESCRT-II Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Abhishek; Naidu, Swarna; Bhadra, Ankan Kumar; Kukreti, Ritushree; Taneja, Vibha

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules with antioxidative properties have been implicated in amyloid disorders. Curcumin is the active ingredient present in turmeric and known for several biological and medicinal effects. Adequate evidence substantiates the importance of curcumin in Alzheimer's disease and recent evidence suggests its role in Prion and Parkinson's disease. However, contradictory effects have been suggested for Huntington's disease. This difference provided a compelling reason to investigate the effect of curcumin on glutamine-rich (Q-rich) and non-glutamine-rich (non Q-rich) amyloid aggregates in the well established yeast model system. Curcumin significantly inhibited the formation of htt72Q-GFP (a Q-rich) and Het-s-GFP (a non Q-rich) aggregates in yeast. We show that curcumin prevents htt72Q-GFP aggregation by down regulating Vps36, a component of the ESCRT-II (Endosomal sorting complex required for transport). Moreover, curcumin disrupted the htt72Q-GFP aggregates that were pre-formed in yeast and cured the yeast prion, [PSI +]. PMID:22880132

  10. Low molecular weight heparins prevent the induction of autophagy of activated neutrophils and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; D'Angelo, Armando; Maugeri, Norma

    2017-09-01

    The protection exerted by neutrophils against invading microbes is partially mediated via the generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In sterile conditions NETs are damaging species, enriched in autoantigens and endowed with the ability to damage the vessel wall and bystander tissues, to promote thrombogenesis, and to impair wound healing. To identify and reposition agents that can be used to modulate the formation of NETs is a priority in the research agenda. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are currently used, mostly on an empirical basis, in conditions in which NETs play a critical role, such as pregnancy complications associated to autoimmune disease. Here we report that LMWHs induce a profound change in the ability of human neutrophils to generate NETs and to mobilize the content of the primary granules in response to unrelated inflammatory stimuli, such as IL-8, PMA and HMGB1. Autophagy consistently accompanies NET generation in our system and autophagy inhibitors, 3-MA and wortmannin, prevent NET generation. Pretreatment with LMWH in vitro critically jeopardizes neutrophil ability to activate autophagy, a mechanism that might contribute to neutrophil unresponsiveness. Finally, we verified that treatment of healthy volunteers with a single prophylactic dose of parnaparin abrogated the ability of neutrophils to activate autophagy and to generate NETs. Together, these results support the contention that neutrophils, and NET generation in particular, might represent a preferential target of the anti-inflammatory action of LMWH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayratne, Upekala C; Pyke, David A

    2012-03-01

    Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30-40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and seeds in the seed bank was highly heterogeneous both spatially and temporally, and attrition varied significantly by region. Our study suggests that Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  12. The use of silicone occlusive sheeting (Sil-K) and silicone occlusive gel (epiderm) in the prevention of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, FB; Spauwen, PHM; Robinson, PH; Fidler, [No Value; Kon, M

    1998-01-01

    The development of hypertrophic scars and keloids is an unsolved problem in the process of found healing. For this reason, a successful treatment to prevent excessive scar formation still has not been found. Over the last decade, however, a promising new treatment has been introduced. Silicone

  13. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-12-01

    Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds.

  14. Proteomic analysis of embryonic proteins synthesized from long-lived mRNAs during germination of rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Permana, Hadian; Kumada, Ryota; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Tanabata, Takanari; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki

    2012-04-01

    Dry seeds contain translatable, long-lived mRNAs that are stored during seed maturation. Early studies using transcriptional inhibitors supported the view that protein synthesis during the initial phase of germination occurs on long-lived mRNA templates. Rice seeds were treated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D), and the embryonic proteins translated from long-lived mRNAs during germination were identified using a proteomic analysis. De novo transcription was not required for germination of rice seeds, since >80% of seeds germinated when transcription was prevented by treatment with Act D. In contrast, germination was completely inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of translation. Thus, de novo protein synthesis is necessary for germination of rice seeds. The proteomic analysis revealed that 20 proteins are up-regulated during germination, even after Act D treatment. Many of the up-regulated proteins are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cytoskeleton formation. These results indicate that some of the germination-specific proteins involved in energy production and maintenance of cell structure in rice seeds are synthesized from long-lived mRNAs. The timing of translation of eight up-regulated proteins was clearly later than that of the other up-regulated proteins under conditions in which transcription was inhibited by Act D, suggesting that translation of long-lived mRNAs in rice seeds is regulated according to the germination phase.

  15. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-31

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.

  16. THEOS-2 Orbit Design: Formation Flying in Equatorial Orbit and Damage Prevention Technique for the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin

    2016-07-01

    Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) has initiative THEOS-2 project after the THEOS-1 has been operated for more than 7 years which is over the lifetime already. THEOS-2 project requires not only the development of earth observation satellite(s), but also the development of the area-based decision making solution platform comprising of data, application systems, data processing and production system, IT infrastructure improvement and capacity building through development of satellites, engineering model, and infrastructures capable of supporting research in related fields. The developing satellites in THEOS-2 project are THAICHOTE-2 and THAICHOTE-3. This paper focuses the orbit design of THAICHOTE-2 & 3. It discusses the satellite orbit design for the second and third EOS of Thailand. In this paper, both THAICHOTE will be simulated in an equatorial orbit as a formation flying which will be compared the productive to THAICHOTE-1 (THEOS-1). We also consider a serious issue in equatorial orbit design, namely the issue of the geomagnetic field in the area of the eastern coast of South America, called the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). The high-energy particles of SAMA comprise a radiation environment which can travel through THAICHOTE-2 & 3 material and deposit kinetic energy. This process causes atomic displacement or leaves a stream of charged atoms in the incident particles' wake. It can cause damage to the satellite including reduction of power generated by solar arrays, failure of sensitive electronics, increased background noise in sensors, and exposure of the satellite devices to radiation. This paper demonstrates the loss of ionizing radiation damage and presents a technique to prevent damage from high-energy particles in the SAMA.

  17. Seed lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, I A

    1966-12-02

    Many of the newly discovered seedoil acids have reactive or unusual functional groups or other facets of molecular structure that permit their ready differentiation from oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and the other most prevalent saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The recognition and availability of the new acids, coupled with methods that make detection and determination easy, will help studies of lipid biosynthesis in the plant and of lipid metabolism and utilization in animals, and will stimulate more studies in depth on the fine points of seedlipid structure. Correlations of structural patterns in seed lipids of particular groups of plants with classical taxonomic categories will permit clarifications, raise needed questions concerning classifications, and accelerate research in chemotaxonomy and phylogenetics. Seed lipids are particularly well suited for establishing relationships among plants because of their great variety in structure compared to the more limited structural types of amino acids, sugars, purines, and many other plant substances. The newly characterized seed oils are potentially important industrial raw materials whenever they come from agronomically promising plant species. The molecular structures of seed triglycerides have major influence on their physical properties and therefore advances in knowledge in that sphere have practical implications. For example, the unusual characteristics of cocoa butter that make it so valuable for food and confectionery use are attributed to the specific arrangement of fatty acids it its triglycerides. The glycerides are almost all 2-oleic-1,3-disaturated acid triglycerides. The physical characteristics of lard are advantageously changed by catalytically rearranging fatty acyl groups among the glycerides initially in the fat to achieve a more nearly random distribution, followed sometimes by further fractionation to remove more saturated glycerides. Through this change of glyceride structures a

  18. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  19. The beginning of a seed: regulatory mechanisms of double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Alter, Svenja; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    THE LAUNCH OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN FLOWERING PLANTS (ANGIOSPERMS) IS INITIATED BY THE PROCESS OF DOUBLE FERTILIZATION: two male gametes (sperm cells) fuse with two female gametes (egg and central cell) to form the precursor cells of the two major seed components, the embryo and endosperm, respectively. The immobile sperm cells are delivered by the pollen tube toward the ovule harboring the female gametophyte by species-specific pollen tube guidance and attraction mechanisms. After pollen tube burst inside the female gametophyte, the two sperm cells fuse with the egg and central cell initiating seed development. The fertilized central cell forms the endosperm while the fertilized egg cell, the zygote, will form the actual embryo and suspensor. The latter structure connects the embryo with the sporophytic maternal tissues of the developing seed. The underlying mechanisms of double fertilization are tightly regulated to ensure delivery of functional sperm cells and the formation of both, a functional zygote and endosperm. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge about the processes of directed pollen tube growth and its communication with the synergid cells resulting in pollen tube burst, the interaction of the four gametes leading to cell fusion and finally discuss mechanisms how flowering plants prevent multiple sperm cell entry (polyspermy) to maximize their reproductive success.

  20. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  1. Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  2. The beginning of a seed: regulatory mechanisms of double fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBleckmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The launch of seed development in flowering plants (angiosperms is initiated by the process of double fertilization: two male gametes (sperm cells fuse with two female gametes (egg and central cell to form the precursor cells of the two major seed components, the embryo and endosperm, respectively. The immobile sperm cells are delivered by the pollen tube towards the ovule harboring the female gametophyte by species-specific pollen tube guidance and attraction mechanisms. After pollen tube burst inside the female gametophyte, the two sperm cells fuse with the egg and central cell initiating seed development. The fertilized central cell forms the endosperm while the fertilized egg cell, the zygote, will form the actual embryo and suspensor. The latter structure connects the embryo with the sporophytic maternal tissues of the developing seed. The underlying mechanisms of double fertilization are tightly regulated to ensure delivery of functional sperm cells and the formation of both, a functional zygote and endosperm. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge about the processes of directed pollen tube growth and its communication with the synergid cells resulting in pollen tube burst, the interaction of the four gametes leading to cell fusion and finally discuss mechanisms how flowering plants prevent multiple sperm cell entry (polyspermy to maximize their reproductive success.

  3. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  4. Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár, S

    2010-01-01

    Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar.

  5. Structural mechanics of seed deterioration: Standing the test of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds die unexpectedly during storage and current understanding of seed quality and storage conditions does not allow reliable means to predict or prevent this critical problem. Chemical degradation of seed components likely occurs through oxidative damage, but the rate of these reactions is domina...

  6. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  7. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  8. Reduced workfunction intermetallic seed layers allow growth of porous n-GaN and low resistivity, ohmic electron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilousov, Oleksandr V; Carvajal, Joan J; Drouin, Dominique; Mateos, Xavier; Díaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2012-12-01

    Porous GaN crystals have been successfully grown and electrically contacted simultaneously on Pt- and Au-coated silicon substrates as porous crystals and as porous layers. By the direct reaction of metallic Ga and NH(3) gas through chemical vapor deposition, intermetallic metal-Ga alloys form at the GaN-metal interface, allowing vapor-solid-solid seeding and subsequent growth of porous GaN. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements confirm that the intermetallic seed layers prevent interface oxidation and give a high-quality reduced workfunction contact that allows exceptionally low contact resistivities. Additionally, the simultaneous formation of a lower workfunction intermetallic permits ohmic electron transport to n-type GaN grown using high workfunction metals that best catalyze the formation of porous GaN layers and may be employed to seed and ohmically contact a range of III-N compounds and alloys for broadband absorption and emission.

  9. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  10. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  11. Combination of grafted Schwann cells and lentiviral-mediated prevention of glial scar formation improve recovery of spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Thi, Anh; Perrin, Florence E; Desclaux, Mathieu; Saillour, Paulette; Amar, Lahouari; Privat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques

    2016-10-01

    The present study was intended to combine three therapeutic approaches in a well-defined rat model of spinal cord injury, a lateral hemisection at thoracic level. A guidance channel was implanted at the lesion site. This channel was seeded with native Schwann cells or Schwann cells that had been previously transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying the GDNF gene. Thereafter, these experiences were reproduced in animals injected with lentiviral vectors carrying a shRNA for GFAP (Lv-shGFAP), which has recently been shown to block glial scar formation. Functional evaluations showed that Lv-shGFAP induced a significant improvement in recovery in animals grafted with Schwann cells. Histological studies demonstrated the outgrowth of axons in the guidance channel containing Schwann cells transduced or not with GDNF. This axonal growth was enhanced in rats receiving Lv-shGFAP vector. Also, a significant increase of serotonergic innervation of the injured hemicord, distal to the lesion, was found only in animals treated with Lv-shGFAP vectors. Importantly, this study confirms that glial scar formation is a major impediment for axonal sprouting after spinal cord injury, and emphasizes the importance of serotonergic innervation for locomotor function. Moreover we show a significant additive effect of a combinatorial approach to axonal regeneration in the injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of antioxidants in prevention of pyrimidine dimer formation in UVB irradiated human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Malka; Kohen, Ron; Enk, Claes D

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation in human keratinocytes, and to examine the modulating activity of low molecular weight antioxidants. To demonstrate the involvement of ROS, we examined the protective capacity of alpha-tocopherol, tempamine, and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on CPD formation in intact cells and naked DNA. HaCaT cells and naked DNA in water solution were irradiated with UVB in the presence of the antioxidants and CPD was determined by ELISA. We found that all three antioxidants provided protection against UVB induced CPD formation. The protection was observed in intact cells only and not in naked DNA. Since some of the tested antioxidants do not possess UV absorbing qualities, our findings suggest that in a cellular environment ROS play a role in CPD formation.

  13. SIRT1 prevents pulmonary thrombus formation induced by arachidonic acid via downregulation of PAF receptor expression in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hak; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, In Suk; Chang, Chulhun L; Oh, Sae Ock; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-12-01

    SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase, is critically involved in cellular response to stress and modulates cardiovascular risk factors. However, its role in thrombus formation is largely unknown. Thus, this study investigated the effect of SIRT1 on pulmonary thrombus formation, and then identified its role in the modulation of platelet aggregation. In isolated human platelets, cell aggregation was increased by various platelet activators, such as platelet activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA), ADP, and thrombin. AA- and PAF-mediated platelet aggregations were suppressed by WEB2086, a PAF receptor (PAFR) antagonist. Pulmonary thrombus formation induced by PAF or AA was also attenuated by WEB2086, suggesting that PAFR plays a key role in AA-induced platelet aggregation. In platelets isolated from SIRT1-TG mice as well as in platelets treated with resveratrol or reSIRT1, PAFR expression was decreased, whereas this expressional downregulation by SIRT1 activators was inhibited in platelets treated with MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor) or NH 4 Cl (a lysosome inhibitor). Furthermore, platelet aggregation induced by AA was markedly attenuated by resveratrol and reSIRT1. Likewise, the increased pulmonary thrombus formation in mice treated with AA was also attenuated by SIRT1 activators. In line with these results, pulmonary thrombus formation was markedly attenuated in SIRT1-TG mice. Taken together, this study showed that SIRT1 downregulates PAFR expression on platelets via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, and that this downregulation inhibits platelet aggregation in vitro and pulmonary thrombus formation in vivo.

  14. Unreduced gamete formation in wheat × Aegilops spp. hybrids is genotype specific and prevented by shared homologous subgenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Zhaleh; Mirzaghaderi, Ghader; Ahmadian, Samira; Mason, Annaliese S

    2016-05-01

    The presence of homologous subgenomes inhibited unreduced gamete formation in wheat × Aegilops interspecific hybrids. Unreduced gamete rates were under the control of the wheat nuclear genome. Production of unreduced gametes is common among interspecific hybrids, and may be affected by parental genotypes and genomic similarity. In the present study, five cultivars of Triticum aestivum and two tetraploid Aegilops species (i.e. Ae. triuncialis and Ae. cylindrica) were reciprocally crossed to produce 20 interspecific hybrid combinations. These hybrids comprised two different types: T. aestivum × Aegilops triuncialis; 2n = ABDU(t)C(t) (which lack a common subgenome) and T. aestivum × Ae. cylindrica; 2n = ABDD(c)C(c) (which share a common subgenome). The frequency of unreduced gametes in F1 hybrids was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads, and the frequency of viable pollen, germinated pollen and seed set were recorded. Different meiotic abnormalities recorded in the hybrids included precocious chromosome migration to the poles at metaphase I and II, laggards in anaphase I and II, micronuclei and chromosome stickiness, failure in cell wall formation, premature cytokinesis and microspore fusion. The mean frequency of restitution meiosis was 10.1 %, and the mean frequency of unreduced viable pollen was 4.84 % in T. aestivum × Ae. triuncialis hybrids. By contrast, in T. aestivum × Ae. cylindrica hybrids no meiotic restitution was observed, and a low rate of viable gametes (0.3 %) was recorded. This study present evidence that high levels of homologous pairing between the D and D(c) subgenomes may interfere with meiotic restitution and the formation of unreduced gametes. Variation in unreduced gamete production was also observed between T. aestivum × Ae. triuncialis hybrid plants, suggesting genetic control of this trait.

  15. Communicating the benefits of chronic preventive therapy: does the format of efficacy data determine patients' acceptance of treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hux, J E; Naylor, C D

    1995-01-01

    Patients' informed acceptance of chronic medical therapy hinges on communicating the potential benefits of drugs in quantitative terms. In a hypothetical scenario of treatment initiation, the authors assessed how three different formats of the same data affected the willingness of 100 outpatients to take what were implied to be three different lipid-lowering drugs. Side-effects were declared negligible and costs insured. Subjects make a "yes-no" decision about taking such a medication, and graded the decision on a certainty scale. Advised of a relative risk reduction--"34% reduction in heart attacks"--88% of the patients assented to therapy. All other formats elicited significantly more refusals (p benefits are presented. Multiple complementary formats may be most appropriate. The results imply that many patients may decline treatment if briefed on the likelihood or extent of benefit.

  16. Formation of students of higher educational institutions ready to use injury-prevention knowledge in professional work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilenko I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the theoretical model of the readiness of future teachers of physical culture to use injury-prevention knowledge in professional work. Professional readiness of future teachers to teaching involves his professional qualifications and a set of personal qualities and properties. In order to assess the effectiveness of the model components have been identified as signs proving the degree of quality training for students. Efficiency of the model is evaluated on specific indicators, taking into account the level of preparedness for future professionals in injury-prevention activities.

  17. Formative assessment in the development of an obesity prevention component for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...

  18. A Formative Evaluation of Healthy Heroes: A Photo Comic Book-Social Cognitive Theory Based Obesity Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Housley, Alexandra; Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Hayes, Logan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Low consumption of fruits and vegetables is often associated with poor diet quality, and childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, and conduct a formative evaluation, of Healthy Heroes, an innovative, social cognitive theory-based program that uses child created photo-comic books to promote fruit and…

  19. Storage crambe seed treated with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cabral e Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of low quality seeds with a lower physiological reflects one of the major causes of low productivity. Thus the storage conditions of seed must be taken into consideration. This research aimed to evaluate the influence of natural and synthetic insecticides on emergence and seed storage of crambe, as these substances are essential to prevent infestation of seeds of other species by harmful organisms. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 3 x 8 ( 8 substances and 3 storage times with 4 replications. We assessed the following natural insecticides: saffron, lime, ash, neem, diatomaceous earth, and synthetic: chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin; besides the control consisting of seeds without any treatment. We evaluated the percentage of emergence, speed of emergence index and time to reach 50 % of emergency. In all characteristics, it was found that no influence of neem on seed vigor. There are disadvantages in the application of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and diatomaceous earth, which interfered with the emergence rate of seeds of crambe. The seeds treated with other insecticides had different behavior of untreated seeds after 120 days of storage to assess the time that they take to reach 50 % germination.

  20. Microscale Insight into Microbial Seed Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Fisk, Melany C; Lennon, J T

    2016-01-01

    Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs.

  1. Using culture-centered qualitative formative research to design broadcast messages for HIV prevention for African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer R; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Carey, Michael P; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry; Diclemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Stanton, Bonita; Valois, Robert F

    2008-06-01

    The need for formative research in designing mass media health-education messages is widely accepted; however, distinct methodologies for developing such messages are less well documented. This article describes a culture-centered approach for developing messages to promote sexual risk reduction in urban African American adolescents. The method uses qualitative formative research to identify "competing narratives" that support healthy behavior despite the dominance of messages that favor risk-taking behavior. The method is illustrated using qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 124 adolescents. Analysis focuses on two barriers to sexual risk reduction: (a) social pressure for early initiation of sexual intercourse and (b) perceptions that condoms reduce sexual pleasure. We demonstrate how competing narratives identified in the analysis can be featured in radio and television messages advocating healthy behavior by modeling risk-reducing negotiation skills.

  2. Prevention of melanin formation during aryl alcohol oxidase production under growth-limited conditions using an Aspergillus nidulans cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Prade, Rolf A; Müller, Michael; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    An Aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO). The cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. This phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). This study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield. Removal of copper from the medium recipe reduced melanin formation in agar cultures and increased enzyme activities by 48% in agitated liquid cultures. Copper has been reported as a key element for tyrosinase, an enzyme responsible for melanin production. Ascorbic acid (0.44g/L) stopped melanin accumulation, did not affect growth parameters and resulted in AAO activity that was more than two-fold greater than a control treatment with no ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrate formation in drilling fluids: prevention and countering; Formacao de hidratos em fluidos de perfuracao: prevencao e controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas Boas, Mario Barbosa [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Sudeste. Setor de Fluidos de Perfuracao

    1988-12-31

    The possibility of hydrates forming during deep water well drilling is analyzed under conditions typical of the state of Rio de Janeiro`s coastal ocean bed. Relying on an extensive review of technical literature, an effort has been made to ascertain the conditions which favor the occurrence of such hydrates in gas-contaminated water-based drilling muds. Based on this study, methods are proposed for preventing and countering this problem. (author) 58 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Role of dietary fiber in formation and prevention of small intestinal ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic techniques such as capsule endoscopy have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause ulcers in the small intestine in humans, but there are few effective agents for treatment of small intestinal ulcers. Although the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced intestinal ulcer has been widely studied, dietary factors have seldom been considered. In the present review, the role of dietary fiber (DF) in the formation of NSAID-induced intestinal ulcers is discussed. In previous studies, small intestinal lesions were not observed when NSAIDs were administered to fasted rats, dogs, and cats, but were observed in conventionally-fed animals, suggesting the importance of feeding in the formation of intestinal lesions induced by NSAIDs. However, in animals fed diets containing low or no DF, indomethacin (IND) did not produce lesions in the small intestine, but did produce lesions in animals fed diets supplemented with insoluble dietary fiber (IDF, cellulose). The results suggest that IDF in the diet plays an important role in the formation of NSAID-induced intestinal lesions. On the other hand, addition of soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) such as pectin or mucin to regular diet markedly decreased NSAID-induced intestinal lesions. Thus, IDF and SDF have opposing effects on IND-induced intestinal lesions, i.e., IDF is harmful while SDF is protective. SDFs potentially represent a novel and safe means for protecting the small intestine against NSAID-induced intestinal lesions.

  5. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient

  6. Inhibition of miR-155, a therapeutic target for breast cancer, prevented in cancer stem cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiangcheng; Yu, Yalan; Zhu, Man; Jing, Wei; Yu, Mingxia; Chai, Hongyan; Liang, Chunzi; Tu, Jiancheng

    2018-02-06

    Breast cancer is a common cancer in women of worldwide. Cancer cells with stem-like properties played important roles in breast cancer, such as relapse, metastasis and treatment resistance. Micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) is a well-known oncogenic miRNA overexpressed in many human cancers. The expression levels of miR-155 in 38 pairs of cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues from breast cancer patients were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. The invasive cell line MDA-MB-231 was used to quantify the expression of miR-155 by tumor-sphere forming experiment. Soft agar colony formation assay and tumor xenografts was used to explore whether the inhibition of miR-155 could reduce proliferation of cancer cells in vivo and vitro. In the study, we found miR-155 was upregulated in BC. Soft agar colony formation assay and tumor xenografts showed inhibition of miR-155 could significantly reduce proliferation of cancer cells in vivo and vitro, which confirmed that miR-155 is an effective therapeutic target of breast cancer. Sphere-forming experiment showed that overexpression of miR-155 significantly correlated with stem-like properties. Expressions of ABCG2, CD44 and CD90 were repressed by inhibition of miR-155, but CD24 was promoted. Interestingly, inhibition of miR-155 rendered MDA-MB-231 cells more sensitive to Doxorubicinol, which resulted in an increase of inhibition rate from 20.23% to 68.72%. Expression of miR-155 not only was a therapeutic target but also was associated with cancer stem cell formation and Doxorubicinol sensitivity. Our results underscore the importance of miR-155 as a therapeutic target and combination of Doxorubicinol and miR-155-silencing would be a potential way to cure breast cancer.

  7. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated coagulation factor IX prevents inhibitor formation and fatal anaphylaxis in hemophilia B mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dheeraj; Moghimi, Babak; LoDuca, Paul A; Singh, Harminder D; Hoffman, Brad E; Herzog, Roland W; Daniell, Henry

    2010-04-13

    To address complications of pathogenic antibody or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in protein replacement therapy for patients with hemophilia or other inherited protein deficiencies, we have developed a prophylactic protocol using a murine hemophilia B model. Oral delivery of coagulation factor IX fused with cholera toxin beta-subunit (with or without a furin cleavage site; CTB-FFIX or CTB-FIX), expressed in chloroplasts (up to 3.8% soluble protein or 0.4 mg/g leaf tissue), bioencapsulated in plant cells, effectively blocked formation of inhibitory antibodies (undetectable or up to 100-fold less than controls). Moreover, this treatment eliminated fatal anaphylactic reactions that occurred after four to six exposures to intravenous F.IX. Whereas only 20-25% of control animals survived after six to eight F.IX doses, 90-93% of F.IX-fed mice survived 12 injections without signs of allergy or anaphylaxis. Immunostaining confirmed delivery of F.IX to Peyer's patches in the ileum. Within 2-5 h, feeding of CTB-FFIX additionally resulted in systemic delivery of F.IX antigen. This high-responder strain of hemophilia B mice represents a new animal model to study anaphylactic reactions. The protocol was effective over a range of oral antigen doses (equivalent to 5-80 microg recombinant F.IX/kg), and controlled inhibitor formation and anaphylaxis long-term, up to 7 months (approximately 40% life span of this mouse strain). Oral antigen administration caused a deviant immune response that suppressed formation of IgE and inhibitory antibodies. This cost-effective and efficient approach of antigen delivery to the gut should be applicable to several genetic diseases that are prone to pathogenic antibody responses during treatment.

  8. Sildenafil inhibits superoxide formation and prevents endothelial dysfunction in a mouse model of secondhand smoke induced erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Sussan, Thomas E; Gebska, Melina A; Strong, Travis D; Berkowitz, Dan E; Biswal, Shyam; Burnett, Arthur L; Champion, Hunter C

    2009-02-01

    We determined the effect of passive secondhand cigarette smoke on 1) erectile function in vivo, 2) molecular mechanisms involved in penile vascular function, and 3) erectile function and penile molecular signaling in the presence of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy. Four groups of mice were used, including group 1--controls, group 2--mice exposed to 3 weeks of secondhand smoke (5 hours per day for 5 days per week), group 3--control plus sildenafil (100 mg/kg per day) and group 4--smoke exposed plus sildenafil (100 mg/kg per day). Cavernous nerve electrical stimulation and intracavernous injection of acetylcholine were done to assess erectile function. Constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, reactive oxygen species generation, nitrotyrosine formation and superoxide anion levels were assessed. Decreased erectile responses to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation and impaired endothelium dependent erectile responses to ACh in mice exposed to secondhand smoke were observed. Superoxide anion was increased in endothelial and corporeal smooth muscle cells of smoking mouse penises. In mice exposed to secondhand smoke constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity was decreased, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, reactive oxygen species generation and nitrotyrosine formation increased. Sildenafil therapy restored constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity in the penis of smoking mice, decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, reactive oxygen species generation and nitrotyrosine formation, and improved erectile responses to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation and acetylcholine. Short-term exposure to secondhand smoke impairs erectile function through excessive penile reactive oxygen species signaling and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity. Decreased penile constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity may be attributable to the decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity resulting from increased oxidative

  9. Scatter hoarding of seeds confers survival advantages and disadvantages to large-seeded tropical plants at different life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Kuprewicz

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarding of seeds by animals contributes significantly to forest-level processes, including plant recruitment and forest community composition. However, the potential positive and negative effects of caching on seed survival, germination success, and seedling survival have rarely been assessed through experimental studies. Here, I tested the hypothesis that seed burial mimicking caches made by scatter hoarding Central American agoutis (Dasyprocta punctate enhances seed survival, germination, and growth by protecting seeds from seed predators and providing favorable microhabitats for germination. In a series of experiments, I used simulated agouti seed caches to assess how hoarding affects seed predation by ground-dwelling invertebrates and vertebrates for four plant species. I tracked germination and seedling growth of intact and beetle-infested seeds and, using exclosures, monitored the effects of mammals on seedling survival through time. All experiments were conducted over three years in a lowland wet forest in Costa Rica. The majority of hoarded palm seeds escaped predation by both invertebrates and vertebrates while exposed seeds suffered high levels of infestation and removal. Hoarding had no effect on infestation rates of D. panamensis, but burial negatively affected germination success by preventing endocarp dehiscence. Non-infested palm seeds had higher germination success and produced larger seedlings than infested seeds. Seedlings of A. alatum and I. deltoidea suffered high mortality by seed-eating mammals. Hoarding protected most seeds from predators and enhanced germination success (except for D. panamensis and seedling growth, although mammals killed many seedlings of two plant species; all seedling deaths were due to seed removal from the plant base. Using experimental caches, this study shows that scatter hoarding is beneficial to most seeds and may positively affect plant propagation in tropical forests, although

  10. Radiation-induced glomerular thrombus formation and nephropathy are not prevented by the ADP receptor antagonist clopidogrel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poele, Johannes A.M. te; Kleef, Ellen M. van; Wal, Anja F. van der; Dewit, Luc G.H.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of kidney irradiation on glomerular adenosine diphosphatase (ADPase) activity and intraglomerular microthrombus formation, and their correlation to the development of renal functional impairment. Methods and Materials: C3H/HenAf-nu + mice were given single-dose or fractionated kidney irradiations. Glomerular ADPase activity was measured using a cerium-based histochemical method. Microthrombus formation within the glomeruli was assessed by a semiquantitative immunohistochemical analysis of fibrinogen/fibrin deposits. Renal function was assessed by the [ 51 Cr]EDTA retention assay. Results: The ADPase activity was significantly reduced, to approximately 50% of pretreatment value, 4-40 weeks after 10-16 Gy single-dose irradiation and at 44 weeks after 20x2 Gy. No dose-effect relationship was found. An approximately fourfold increase in glomerular fibrinogen/fibrin staining was observed at 1 year after irradiation. This increase was not influenced by treating the mice with daily, oral clopidogrel, a platelet ADP receptor antagonist, which reduced platelet aggregation by more than 75%. Radiation-induced impairment of glomerular filtration was also not affected by the clopidogrel treatment. Conclusion: These data indicate that irradiation significantly reduced glomerular ADPase activity, which correlated with an increased glomerular fibrinogen/fibrin deposition. We were not able to reduce these prothrombotic changes, nor to protect against radiation nephropathy, by pharmacological intervention with an ADP-receptor antagonist

  11. Proteins in Soy Might Have a Higher Role in Cancer Prevention than Previously Expected: Soybean Protein Fractions Are More Effective MMP-9 Inhibitors Than Non-Protein Fractions, Even in Cooked Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lima

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The search for anticancer MMP-9 inhibitors (MMPIs in food products has become a major goal for research. MMPIs in soy have been related only to saponins and isoflavones, but recently, low specific protein fractions in soybeans were shown to reduce MMP-9 activity as well. The present work aimed at comparing the MMPI potential of protein fractions (P and non-protein fractions (NP isolated from soybean seeds, before and after soaking and cooking, mimicking dietary exposures. Reverse and substrate zymography, as well as a fluoregenic DQ gelatin assay were used to evaluate MMP-9 activities. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation was also tested in HT29 cells. Regarding MMP-9 inhibition, proteins in soy presented IC50 values 100 times lower than non-protein extracts, and remained active after cooking, suggesting that proteins may be more effective MMP-9 inhibitors than non-protein compounds. Using the determined IC50 concentrations, NP fractions were able to induce higher inhibitions of HT29 cell migration and proliferation, but not through MMP-9 inhibition, whilst protein fractions were shown to specifically inhibit MMP-9 activity. Overall, our results show that protein fractions in soybeans might have a higher role in soy-related cancer prevention as MMPIs than previously expected. Being nontoxic and active at lower concentrations, the discovery of these heat-resistant specific MMPI proteins in soy can be of significant importance for cancer preventive diets, particularly considering the increasing use of soy proteins in food products and the controversy around isoflavones amongst consumers.

  12. The cellular RNA helicase UAP56 is required for prevention of double-stranded RNA formation during influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisskirchen, Christian; Ludersdorfer, Thomas H; Müller, Dominik A; Moritz, Eva; Pavlovic, Jovan

    2011-09-01

    The cellular DEAD box RNA helicase UAP56 plays a pivotal role in the efficient transcription/replication of influenza A virus. UAP56 is recruited by the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A viruses, and recent data revealed that the RNA helicase is required for the nuclear export of a subset of spliced and unspliced viral mRNAs. The fact that influenza viruses do not produce detectable amounts of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates during transcription/replication suggests the involvement of cellular RNA helicases. Hence, we examined whether the RNA-unwinding activity of UAP56 or its paralog URH49 plays a role in preventing the accumulation of dsRNA during infection. First, our data showed that not only UAP56 but also its paralog URH49 can interact with NPs of avian and human influenza A viruses. The small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of either RNA helicase reduced the transport of M1 and hemagglutinin (HA) mRNAs and, to a lesser extent, NP and NS1 mRNAs into the cytoplasm. Moreover, we found that virus infection of UAP56-depleted cells leads to the rapid accumulation of dsRNA in the perinuclear region. In parallel, we observed a robust virus-mediated activation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR), indicating that the cellular RNA helicase UAP56 may be recruited by influenza virus to prevent dsRNA formation. The accumulation of dsRNA was blocked when actinomycin D or cycloheximide was used to inhibit viral transcription/replication or translation, respectively. In summary, we demonstrate that UAP56 is utilized by influenza A viruses to prevent the formation of dsRNA and, hence, the activation of the innate immune response.

  13. The use of additive ceramic hollow spheres on cement slurry to prevent lost circulation in formation `X' having low pressure fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Novia; Mursyidah, Syahindra, Michael

    2018-03-01

    When drilling, if the hydrostatic pressure is higher than formation pressure (fracture pressure) it will cause lost circulation during cementing process. To solve this problem, hydrostatic pressure of slurry can be decreased by lowering the slurry density by using some additives. Ceramic Hollow Spheres (CHS) is lightweight additive. This additive comes with low specific gravity so it can lowered the slurry density. When the low-density slurry used in cementing process, it can prevent low circulation and fractured formation caused by cement itself. Class G cement is used in this experiment with the standard density of this slurry is 15.8 ppg. With the addition of CHS, slurry density lowered to 12.5 ppg. CHS not only used to lower the slurry density, it also used to make the same properties with the standard slurry even the density has been lowered. Both thickening time and compressive strength have not change if the CHS added to the slurry. With addition of CHS, thickening time at 70 Bc reached in 03 hours 12 minutes. For the compressive strength, 2000 psi reached in 07 hours 07 minutes. Addition of CHS can save more time in cementing process of X formation.

  14. Use of Acrylic Acid Sodium Acrylate Polymer to Maintain Cocoa Seed Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Pudji Rahardjo; Faila Sophia Hartatri

    2010-01-01

    The main problem of cocoa seed storage is moisture content of the seeds because cocoa seeds will germinate if cocoa seeds moisture content is high. The objective of this research is to maintain the cocoa seeds viability in storage using acrylic acid sodium acrylate polymer (AASAP). The function of AASAP is to absorb humidity in storage due to their ability to retain water and to prevent water loss. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute ...

  15. Ecological longevity of Polaskia chende (Cactaceae) seeds in the soil seed bank, seedling emergence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Salanueva, C A; Orozco-Segovia, A; Canales-Martínez, M; Seal, C E; Pritchard, H W; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2017-11-01

    Soil seed banks are essential elements of plant population dynamics, enabling species to maintain genetic variability, withstand periods of adversity and persist over time, including for cactus species. However knowledge of the soil seed bank in cacti is scanty. In this study, over a 5-year period we studied the seed bank dynamics, seedling emergence and nurse plant facilitation of Polaskia chende, an endemic columnar cactus of central Mexico. P. chende seeds were collected for a wild population in Puebla, Mexico. Freshly collected seeds were sown at 25 °C and 12-h photoperiod under white light, far-red light and darkness. The collected seeds were divided in two lots, the first was stored in the laboratory and the second was use to bury seeds in open areas and beneath a shrub canopy. Seeds were exhumed periodically over 5 years. At the same time seeds were sown in open areas and beneath shrub canopies; seedling emergence and survival were recorded over different periods of time for 5 years. The species forms long-term persistent soil seed banks. The timing of seedling emergence via germination in the field was regulated by interaction between light, temperature and soil moisture. Seeds entered secondary dormancy at specific times according to the expression of environmental factors, demonstrating irregular dormancy cycling. Seedling survival of P. chende was improved under Acacia constricta nurse plants. Finally, plant facilitation affected the soil seed bank dynamics as it promoted the formation of a soil seed bank, but not its persistence. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment......CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss induced...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...

  17. Small RNA Library Preparation Method for Next-Generation Sequencing Using Chemical Modifications to Prevent Adapter Dimer Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Sabrina; Henderson, Jordana M; Lebedev, Alexandre; Salcedo, Michelle P; Zon, Gerald; McCaffrey, Anton P; Paul, Natasha; Hogrefe, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    For most sample types, the automation of RNA and DNA sample preparation workflows enables high throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation. Greater adoption of small RNA (sRNA) sequencing has been hindered by high sample input requirements and inherent ligation side products formed during library preparation. These side products, known as adapter dimer, are very similar in size to the tagged library. Most sRNA library preparation strategies thus employ a gel purification step to isolate tagged library from adapter dimer contaminants. At very low sample inputs, adapter dimer side products dominate the reaction and limit the sensitivity of this technique. Here we address the need for improved specificity of sRNA library preparation workflows with a novel library preparation approach that uses modified adapters to suppress adapter dimer formation. This workflow allows for lower sample inputs and elimination of the gel purification step, which in turn allows for an automatable sRNA library preparation protocol.

  18. MHD heat and seed recovery technology project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Johnson, T. R.

    1980-08-01

    The MHD Heat and Seed Recovery Technology Project at Argonne National Laboratory is obtaining information for the design and operation of the steam plant downstream of the MHD channel-diffuser, and of the seed regeneration process. The project goal is to supply the engineering data required in the design of components for prototype and demonstration MHD facilities. The work is being done in close cooperation with the Heat Recovery-Seed Recovery facility, which will be a 20-MW pilot plant of the MHD steam bottoming system. The primary effort of the HSR Technology Project is directed toward experimental investigations of critical issues, such as 1) NO/sub x/ behavior in the radiant boiler and secondary combustor; 2) radiant boiler design to meet the multiple requirements of steam generation, NO/sub x/ decomposition, and seed slag separation; 3) effects of solid or liquid seed deposits on heat transfer and gas flow in the steam and air heaters; 4) formation, growth, and deposition of seed-slag particles, 5) character of the combustion gas effluents, and 6) the corrosion and erosion of ceramic and metallic materials of construction. These investigations are performed primarily in a 2-MW test facility, Argonne MHD Process Engineering Laboratory (AMPEL). Other project activities are related to studies of the thermochemistry of the seed-slag combustion gas system, identification of ceramic and metallic materials for service in the MHD-steam plant, and evaluation of seed regeneration processes. Progress is reported.

  19. Pirfenidone vs. sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose as prevention of the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions after colonic surgery. A randomized study in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Guerrero, Jorge Alberto; Cruz-Santiago, César Alberto; Luna-Martínez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Up to 93% of patients undergoing abdominal surgery will develop intra-abdominal adhesions with the subsequent morbidity that they represent. Various substances have been tested for the prevention of adhesions with controversial results; the aim of our study is to compare the capability of pirfenidone in adhesion prevention against sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose. A randomized, prospective, longitudinal experimental study with Winstar rats. They were divided into 3 groups. The subjects underwent an exploratory laparotomy and they had a 4cm(2) cecal abrasion. The first group received saline on the cecal abrasion, and groups 2 and 3 received pirfenidone and sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose respectively. All rats were sacrificed on the 21st day after surgery and the presence of adhesions was evaluated with the modified Granat scale. Simple frequency, central tendency and dispersion measures were recorded. For the statistical analysis we used Fisher's test. To evaluate adhesions we used the Granat's modified scale. The control group had a median adhesion formation of 3 (range 0-4). The pirfenidone group had 1.5 (range 0-3), and the sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose group had 0 (range 0-1). There was a statistically significant difference to favor sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose against saline and pirfenidone (P<0.009 and P<.022 respectively). The use of sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose is effective for the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions. More experimental studies are needed in search for the optimal adhesion prevention drug. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Red strain oryza sativa-unpolished thai rice prevents oxidative stress and colorectal aberrant crypt foci formation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammasakchai, Achiraya; Reungpatthanaphong, Sareeya; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Rattanachitthawat, Sirichet; Suwannalert, Prasit

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in colorectal cancer development. Many dark pigments of plants have potent oxidative stress preventive properties. In this study, unpolished Thai rice was assessed for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. Red strain unpolished Thai rice was also administered to rats exposed to azoxymethane (AOM) for induction of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated for cellular oxidative stress and serum antioxidants, respectively. Red pigment unpolished Thai rice demonstrated high antioxidant activity and was found to significantly and dose dependently decrease the total density and crypt multiplicity of ACF. Consumption of Thai rice further resulted in high serum antioxidant activity and low MDA cellular oxidative stress. Interestingly, the density of ACF was strongly related to MDA at r=0.964, while it was inversely related with FRAP antioxidants (r=-0.915, pred strain of unpolished Thai rice may exert potentially beneficial effects on colorectal cancer through decrease in the level of oxidative stress.

  1. The evolution of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Graeber, Kai; Knight, Charles; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that determine seed size. We complement this with a special emphasis on the evolution of dormancy, the characteristic of seeds that allows for long 'distance' time travel. Answering the 'why' question involves proposed hypotheses of how natural selection has operated to favor the seed life-history phenomenon. The recent flurry of research describing the comparative biology of seeds is discussed. The review will be divided into sections dealing with: (1) the development and anatomy of seeds; (2) the endosperm; (3) dormancy; (4) early seed-like structures and the transition to seeds; and (5) the evolution of seed size (mass). In many cases, a special distinction is made between angiosperm and gymnosperm seeds. Finally, we make some recommendations for future research in seed biology.

  2. Abdominal closure reinforcement by using polypropylene mesh functionalized with poly-ε-caprolactone nanofibers and growth factors for prevention of incisional hernia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plencner, Martin; East, Barbora; Tonar, Zbyněk; Otáhal, Martin; Prosecká, Eva; Rampichová, Michala; Krejčí, Tomáš; Litvinec, Andrej; Buzgo, Matej; Míčková, Andrea; Nečas, Alois; Hoch, Jiří; Amler, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Incisional hernia affects up to 20% of patients after abdominal surgery. Unlike other types of hernia, its prognosis is poor, and patients suffer from recurrence within 10 years of the operation. Currently used hernia-repair meshes do not guarantee success, but only extend the recurrence-free period by about 5 years. Most of them are nonresorbable, and these implants can lead to many complications that are in some cases life-threatening. Electrospun nanofibers of various polymers have been used as tissue scaffolds and have been explored extensively in the last decade, due to their low cost and good biocompatibility. Their architecture mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We tested a biodegradable polyester poly-ε-caprolactone in the form of nanofibers as a scaffold for fascia healing in an abdominal closure-reinforcement model for prevention of incisional hernia formation. Both in vitro tests and an experiment on a rabbit model showed promising results.

  3. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions. PMID:27446159

  4. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...

  5. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  6. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  7. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghyun; Jo, Kyuhyung; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kim, Chan-Sik; Kim, Jin Sook

    2016-01-01

    Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE) against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling)-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs) binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells. PMID:27657123

  8. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  9. Anthocyanin Extracted from Black Soybean Seed Coats Prevents Autoimmune Arthritis by Suppressing the Development of Th17 Cells and Synthesis of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Such Cells, via Inhibition of NF-κB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ki Min

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Anthocyanin is a plant antioxidant. We investigated the therapeutic effects of anthocyanin extracted from black soybean seed coats (AEBS in a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and explored possible mechanisms by which AEBS might exert anti-arthritic effects.CIA was induced in DBA/1J mice. Cytokine levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Joints were assessed in terms of arthritis incidence, clinical arthritis scores, and histological features. The extent of oxidative stress in affected joints was determined by measuring the levels of nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase. NF-κB activity was assayed by measuring the ratio of phosphorylated IκB to total IκB via Western blotting. Th17 cells were stained with antibodies against CD4, IL-17, and STAT3. Osteoclast formation was assessed via TRAP staining and measurement of osteoclast-specific mRNA levels.In the CIA model, AEBS decreased the incidence of arthritis, histological inflammation, cartilage scores, and oxidative stress. AEBS reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in affected joints of CIA mice and suppressed NF-κB signaling. AEBS decreased Th17 cell numbers in spleen of CIA mice. Additionally, AEBS repressed differentiation of Th17 cells and expression of Th17-associated genes in vitro, in both splenocytes of naïve DBA/1J mice and human PBMCs. In vitro, the numbers of both human and mouse tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase+ (TRAP multinucleated cells fell, in a dose-dependent manner, upon addition of AEBS.The anti-arthritic effects of AEBS were associated with decreases in Th17 cell numbers, and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines synthesized by such cells, mediated via suppression of NF-κB signaling. Additionally, AEBS suppressed osteoclastogenesis and reduced oxidative stress levels.

  10. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The ab- dominal sternite is cream-white. The femur of the hind leg is thick. The compound eyes are black. This study showed that the larvae developed within the shells, on surface of the seeds, rotten. Infestation by Megaselia rufipes Meigen on germinated oil palm seeds ... 29. Fig. 5: Cracked seeds infested with maggots.

  11. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  12. Prevention of Bone Bridge Formation Using Transplantation of the Autogenous Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Physeal Defects: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Plánka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Physeal cartilage is known to have poor self-repair capacity after injury. Evaluation of the ability of cultured mesenchymal stem cells to repair damaged physis is the topic of current research. In 10 immature New Zealand white rabbits autogenous mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into a iatrogenic physeal defect in a lateral portion of the distal growth plate of the right femur. The same defect without stem cells transplantation in the left femoral distal physis served as a control. In our study, we used our own technique of implantation of MSCs with a newly modified gel scaffold (New Composite Hyaluronate/Collagen Type I/Fibrin Scaffold. The rabbits were euthanized 4 months after transplantation. Bone length discrepancy and valgus deformity were measured from femoral radiographs. Healing of the defect was investigated histologically. The ability of mesenchymal stem cells to survive and promote cartilage healing in the physeal defect was assessed by immunofluorescence. Average difference in femur length measured from surgery to euthanasia (4 months was 0.61 ± 0.19 cm after preventive transplantation of MSCs in the right femur, but only 0.11 ± 0.07 cm in the left femur. Average angular (valgus deformity of the right femur with MSCs preventively transplanted to iatrogenically damaged distal femoral physis was 1.2 ± 0.72 °. Valgus deformity in the left femur was 5.4 ± 2.5 °. Prophylactic transplantation of autogenous mesenchymal stem cells to iatrogenically damaged distal growth plate of the rabbit femur prevented a bone bridge formation and resulted in healing of the physeal defect with hyaline cartilage. Immunofluorescence examination showed that the chondrocytes newly formed in growth zone are the result of implanted MSCs differentiation. Femur growth in traumatized physis was maintained even after transplantation of autogenous MSCs. As compared with the opposite femur (with physeal defect but without transplanted MSCs, the bone

  13. Pollination effects on antioxidant content of Perilla frutescens seeds analysed by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Paola; Vercelli, Monica; Chakir, Amina; Romane, Abderrahmane; Mattana, Monica; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The effects of Perilla frutescens pollination on the content of seed antioxidants were analysed by agronomical and pollination trials, comparing seeds produced from bagged plants in 2013 (A) to prevent access to pollinating insects, and seeds from open-pollinated plants in 2013 (B) and 2015 (C). The seeds of open-pollinated plants were significantly more numerous and heavier than those of self-pollinated plants. 1 H NMR seed analysis showed a higher presence of phenolic compounds in open-pollinated seeds, mainly rosmarinic acid and flavonoids, apigenin and luteolin. Flavonoids were present in the glucosylated form in seeds (A) and (C), and in the aglycone form in seeds from (B) plants. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic, linoleic and linolenic) were more abundant in seeds from self-pollinated flowers. Pollination performed almost exclusively by the honeybee notably increased the antioxidant content in perilla seeds and gave rise to a reduction in the fatty acid content.

  14. Seed longevity of dominant plant species from degraded savanna in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The low decay constant of some species is an indication of their abilities to form persistent seed banks. The intermittent and extended germination of seeds of the same species from the same batch shown by some species may be regarded as an ecological adaptation to prevent synchronous germination in unpredictable ...

  15. Factors affecting Bromus tectorum seed bank carryover in western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane C. Smith; Susan E. Meyer; V. J. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a winter annual weed that presents a serious obstacle to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors regulating the size and persistence of cheatgrass carryover seed banks on semiarid sites in western Utah. We prevented current-year seed production in each of...

  16. Application of artificial seeds in rapid multiplication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 3

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... 1School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang, Henan 455000, China. ... Seed root cultivation in soil is time- .... Effect of storage time on seedling formation of artificial seed. (A) Sterile culture. (B) Soil culture. The medium of 1/4 MS containing 1.0 mg l-1 6-BA and ...

  17. A seeded ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment of AMD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seeded ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment of AMD waters: magnetite formation in the presence and absence of calcium ions under steady state operation. ... promising for AMD treatment. Keywords: Ferrite process, Magnetite seed, Calcium interference, Acid mine drainage (WaterSA: 2003 29(2): 117-124) ...

  18. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  19. Hydrate prevention during formation test of gas in deep water; Prevencao de formacao de hidratos durante teste de formacao de poco de gas em lamina d'agua profunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Renato Cunha [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work shows a scenery of formation test in deep water, for a well of gas, for which, there were made simulations with objective of identifying possible pairs of points (Pressure x Temperature), favorable to the hydrates formation. Besides, they were made comparisons of the values obtained in the simulation with the values registered during the formation test for the well Alfa of the field Beta. Of ownership of those information, we made an evaluation of the real needs of injection of inhibitors with intention of preventing the hydrates formation in each phase of the test. In an including way, the work has as objective recommends the volumes of hydrates inhibitors to be injected in each phase of a test of formation of well of gas in deep water, in way to assure that the operations are made without there is risk of hydrates formation. (author)

  20. Hydrates prevention during deep-water formation gas well test; Prevencao de formacao de hidratos durante teste de formacao de poco de gas em lamina d'agua profunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Renato Cunha [Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Engenharia de Poco, ES (Brazil)], e-mail: renatocr@petrobras.com.br; Freitas, Alexandre Mussumeci Valim de [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Elevacao e Escoamento da Producao (Brazil)], e-mail: amfreitas@petrobras.com.br; Nishimura, Nelson Satiro [E and P Engenharia de Producao. Reservas e Reservatorios. Gerencia de Avaliacao de Reservatorios (Brazil)], e-mail: nishimura@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    This study examines the situation of a deep water formation test for a gas well in which simulations were made to identify possible pairs of points (Pressure versus Temperature), favorable to hydrate formation. Furthermore, the values obtained in the simulation were compared with the values registered during the formation test for the Alfa well in the Beta Field. With this information, an evaluation was made of the necessity to inject inhibitors intended to prevent hydrate formation in each test phase. In a wider sense, the study's objective was to recommend the volumes of hydrate inhibitors to be injected in each phase of a deep water formation test of a gas well to assure the operation be done without the risk of hydrate formation. (author)

  1. Modeling of formation and prevention of a pure water zone in capillary isoelectric focusing with narrow pH range carrier ampholytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takácsi-Nagy, Anna; Kilár, Ferenc; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    This paper comprises a continuation of computer simulation studies dealing with carrier ampholyte based CIEF in presence of narrow pH gradients. With this technique, amphoteric sample components with pI values outside the pH gradient are migrating isotachophoretically toward the cathode or anode whereas components with pI values within the gradient become focused. In order to understand the processes occurring in presence of the electric field, the behavior of both carrier ampholytes and amphoteric sample components is investigated by computer modeling. Characteristics of two pH unit gradients with end components having pI values at or around 7.00 and conditions that lead to the formation of a water zone at neutrality were investigated. Data obtained reveal that a zone of water is formed in focusing with carrier ampholytes when the applied pH range does not cover the neutral region, ends at pH 7.00 or begins at pH 7.00. The presence of additional amphoteric components that cover the neutrality region prevent water zone formation under current flow. This situation is met in experiments with narrow pH gradients that end or begin around neutrality. Simulation data reveal that no water zone evolves when atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolved in the catholyte causes the migration of carbonic acid (in the form of carbonate and/or hydrogen carbonate ions) from the catholyte through the focusing structure. An electrolyte change in the electrode solution does not have an impact on the focusing part but does change the isotachophoretic pattern migrating behind the leading ion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A randomized controlled experimental study of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid for the prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Murat; Cetinkaya, Nilufer; Bas, Sevda; Korkmaz, Elmas; Ozgu, Emre; Terzioglu, Gokay Serdar; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Akbay, Serap; Caydere, Muzaffer; Gungor, Tayfun

    2016-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been known to possess an efficacy in tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PRP on post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat study. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, hyaluronic acid, and PRP treatment groups and operated on for uterine horn adhesion modeling. Blood was collected to produce a PRP with platelet counts of 688 × 10(3)/μL, and 1 ml of either hyaluronic acid gel or PRP was administered over the standard lesions, while the control group received no medication. The evaluation of post-operative adhesions was done on the 30th post-operative day. The location, extent, type, and tenacity of adhesions as well as total adhesion scores, tissue inflammation, fibrosis and transforming growth factor-1beta (TGF-1β) expressions were evaluated. The total adhesion score was significantly lower in the PRP group (3.2 ± 1.5) compared with the hyaluronic acid (5.0 ± 1.3) and control (8.1 ± 1.7) groups. The extent of the adhesions was significantly lower in the PRP group. There was no significant difference in the type and tenacity of adhesions between the hyaluronic acid and the PRP group. The level of inflammation was significantly higher in the control group than the others, while there was no difference between the PRP and hyaluronic acid groups. TGF-1β expression was significantly lesser in the PRP group than the control and hyaluronic acid groups. PRP is more effective than hyaluronic acid treatment in preventing post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat uterine horn adhesion model.

  3. Seeding black holes in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Kobayashi, C.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass-velocity dispersion relation, and the size-velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is ˜103 M⊙, which is orders of magnitude smaller than that which has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.

  4. Timing of slash burning with the seed crop—a case history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy R. Silen

    1952-01-01

    Studies by Isaac indicate that regeneration to Douglas-fir following logging often fails because a good seed crop is destroyed in the slash fire. To prevent this loss during a good seed year, early burning before seed fall starts has been recommended. If early burning is too hazardous, only the concentrations of slash should be burned later in the fall. In contrast,...

  5. Pathways of invasive plant spread to Alaska: III. contaminants in crop and grass seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive plants disperse to new areas via numerous pathways. Study of these pathways helps to focus limited budgets for prevention and early detection. This study examined seed contaminants in imported crop and grass seed as pathway for plant dispersal to Alaska. Crop and grass seed were purchased f...

  6. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  7. Songlines from Direct Collapse Seed Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aykutalp, Aycin; Wise, John; Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin

    In the last decade, the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) has been intricately linked to galaxy formation and evolution, and is a key ingredient in the assembly of galaxies. Observations of SMBHs with masses of 109 solar at high redshifts (z~7) poses challenges to the theory of seed black

  8. Assessment of the Antioxidant Activity of Silybum marianum Seed Extract and Its Protective Effect against DNA Oxidation, Protein Damage and Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Serçe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using diff erent in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals was also effi ciently inhibited, which was confirmed by the presence of protein damage markers, such as protein carbonyl formation and by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE. The present study shows that milk thistle seeds have good DPPH free radical scavenging activity and can prevent lipid peroxidation. Therefore, Silybum marianum can be used as potentially rich source of antioxidants and food preservatives. The results suggest that the seeds may have potential beneficial health effects providing opportunities to develop value-added products.

  9. Grazing influences Stipa breviflora seed germination in desert grasslands of the Inner Mongolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenting; Wang, Tianle; Zhang, Shuang; Ding, Lijun

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination plays an important role in determining the composition and regeneration of plant populations (Stipa breviflora). However, the influencing factors and strategies employed for seed germination in desert grasslands under grazing remain unknown. Therefore, in this study, the reproductive allocation, seed density, seed properties, and corresponding seed germination rates of S. breviflora were examined. Possible situations encountered during dispersal were also simulated to determine their effects on seed germination. The results showed that reproductive individual density not subjected to grazing were significantly higher than those subjected to moderate and heavy grazing. For seed density and seed bank in soil, the highest values were observed for the no grazing treatment, followed by the moderate and heavy grazing treatments. The seed density for germination of soil seed banks was nearly one-fourth of seed density during the growing season. In addition, grazing treatments affected the phenotypic characteristics of seeds and reduced the lower limit of the weight of germinable seeds. Awn removal significantly increased germination. The longest germination time was observed for seeds that entered the soil at an angle of 0°. Our research demonstrated that grazing negatively affected the desert grassland edificator. Individual plants adopted different adaptation strategies under different grazing intensities; for example, a fixed proportion of the seed number and seed germination number of S. breviflora in the soil seed bank was maintained by exceeding the minimum weight of a seed for seed germination. During seed dispersion, the awn effectively prevented germination under unfavourable conditions and helped seeds enter the soil at an optimal angle for promoting germination. PMID:29507838

  10. Use of Acrylic Acid Sodium Acrylate Polymer to Maintain Cocoa Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of cocoa seed storage is moisture content of the seeds because cocoa seeds will germinate if cocoa seeds moisture content is high. The objective of this research is to maintain the cocoa seeds viability in storage using acrylic acid sodium acrylate polymer (AASAP. The function of AASAP is to absorb humidity in storage due to their ability to retain water and to prevent water loss. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute and in Kaliwining Experimental Garden. This experiment was arranged by factorial randomized complete design, in wich AASAP dosages 0%; 0.1% (0.1 g/100 seeds; 0.2% (0.2 g/100 seeds, 0.3% (0.3 g/100 seeds, 0,4% (0,4g/100 seeds, combined with seeds storage period 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The experiment used 3 replications and each repli cation used 100 seeds. Parameter of observation consisted of percentage of seeds germinated in storage, percentage of seeds infected by fungi in storage, seeds moisture content, percentage of seeds germination after storage, and early growth of cocoa seedlings. The results of the experiment showed that AASAP application with some dosages cocoa seeds storage cause to germinate in storage during 2 weeks. AASAP application with some dosages in cocoa seeds storage for 2 weeks would not result in infection by fungi and did not significantly affect seed germination after storage for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and percentage of germination of cocoa seed after storage for 3 weeks decreased with increase dosage of AASAP. Higher dosage of AASAP would reduce early growth of cocoa seedling. Key words : Theobroma cacao, seed, acrylic acid sodium acrylate, seed storage, viabilty.

  11. 6-Bromoisatin Found in Muricid Mollusc Extracts Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis, Preventing Early Stage Tumor Formation in a Colorectal Cancer Rodent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Esmaeelian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Muricid molluscs are a natural source of brominated isatin with anticancer activity. The aim of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of synthetic 6-bromoisatin for reducing the risk of early stage colorectal tumor formation. The purity of 6-bromoisatin was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, then tested for in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. A mouse model for colorectal cancer was utilized whereby colonic apoptosis and cell proliferation was measured 6 h after azoxymethane treatment by hematoxylin and immunohistochemical staining. Liver enzymes and other biochemistry parameters were measured in plasma and haematological assessment of the blood was conducted to assess potential toxic side-effects. 6-Bromoisatin inhibited proliferation of HT29 cells at IC50 223 μM (0.05 mg/mL and induced apoptosis without increasing caspase 3/7 activity. In vivo 6-bromoisatin (0.05 mg/g was found to significantly enhance the apoptotic index (p ≤ 0.001 and reduced cell proliferation (p ≤ 0.01 in the distal colon. There were no significant effects on mouse body weight, liver enzymes, biochemical factors or blood cells. However, 6-bromoisatin caused a decrease in the plasma level of potassium, suggesting a diuretic effect. In conclusion this study supports 6-bromoisatin in Muricidae extracts as a promising lead for prevention of colorectal cancer.

  12. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of misoprostol and hyaluronic acid in preventing adhesion formation after gynecological surgery: a rat uterine horn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cihan; Sever, Nurten; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yıldız, Şükrü; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of misoprostol in the reduction of adhesion formation after gynecological surgery. A double blind, randomized controlled experimental study was designed. Twenty-one female Wistar Hannover rats were divided into three groups as control, misoprostol and Hyalobarrier(®) groups. A uterine horn adhesion model was created. After anesthesia induction, 1.5-2cm injuries were made to the each uterine horn by cautery. The control group received no special medications except for the standard surgical procedure. The misoprostol group received 10μcg/kg misoprostol in addition to the standard surgical procedure, and the Hyalobarrier(®) group received 1cm(3) ready-for-use Hyalobarrier(®) gel intraperitoneally in addition to the standard surgical procedure. After 14 days from the first surgical procedure, adhesion scores were evaluated. The extent (p<0.001), severity (p<0.001), degree (p<0.001) and total adhesion score (p<0.001) values of the control group were statistically higher than the values of misoprostol and Hyalobarrier(®) groups. The inflammation score value of misoprostol group was statistically lower than control and Hyalobarrier(®) groups (p<0.001). In this study, we have found a new therapeutic potential of misoprostol that may be useful in preventing pelvic adhesion and reducing inflammation scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CDK1 Inhibition Targets the p53-NOXA-MCL1 Axis, Selectively Kills Embryonic Stem Cells, and Prevents Teratoma Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle E. Huskey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs have adopted an accelerated cell-cycle program with shortened gap phases and precocious expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs. We examined the effect of CDK inhibition on the pathways regulating proliferation and survival of ESCs. We found that inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 leads to activation of the DNA damage response, nuclear p53 stabilization, activation of a subset of p53 target genes including NOXA, and negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1 in human and mouse ESCs, but not differentiated cells. We demonstrate that MCL1 is highly expressed in ESCs and loss of MCL1 leads to ESC death. Finally, we show that clinically relevant CDK1 inhibitors prevent formation of ESC-derived tumors and induce necrosis in established ESC-derived tumors. Our data demonstrate that ES cells are uniquely sensitive to CDK1 inhibition via a p53/NOXA/MCL1 pathway.

  14. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  15. TRANSPLANTATION OF CRYOPRESERVED FETAL LIVER CELLS SEEDED INTO MACROPOROUS ALGINATE-GELATIN SCAFFOLDS IN RATS WITH LIVER FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Grizay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the therapeutic potential of cryopreserved fetal liver cells seeded into macroporous alginategelatin scaffolds after implantation to omentum of rats with hepatic failure.Materials and methods.Hepatic failure was simulated by administration of 2-acetyl aminofl uorene followed partial hepatectomy. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds, seeded with allogenic cryopreserved fetal liver cells (FLCs were implanted into rat omentum. To prevent from colonization of host cells scaffolds were coated with alginate gel shell. Serum transaminase activity, levels of albumin and bilirubin as markers of hepatic function were determined during 4 weeks after failure model formation and scaffold implantation. Morphology of liver and scaffolds after implantation were examined histologically. Results. Macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds after implantation to healthy rats were colonized by host cells. Additional formation of alginate gel shell around scaffolds prevented the colonization. Implantation of macroporous scaffolds seeded with cryopreserved rat FLCs and additionally coated with alginate gel shell into omentum of rats with hepatic failure resulted in signifi cant improvement of hepatospecifi c parameters of the blood serum and positive changes of liver morphology. The presence of cells with their extracellular matrix within the scaffolds was confi rmed after 4 weeks post implantation.Conclusion. The data above indicate that macroporous alginate-gelatin scaffolds coated with alginate gel shell are promising cell carriers for the development of bioengineered liver equivalents.

  16. Effect of seed priming on seed vigor and early seedling growth in maize under optimal and suboptimal temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanak Petar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature has a negative effect on germination parameters and early seedling growth. Seed priming is a beneficial pre-sowing treatment that partially hydrates the seeds to the point of germination process initiation, followed by drying which prevents radicle protrusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different seed priming treatments on some maize seed vigor and early seedlings growth parameters at different temperature conditions. Seeds were primed in water (hydropriming and KNO3 solution (0,1% and 0,5% at 25°C for 17 h. Germination was tested at 25°C, 15/25°C and 15°C. Seed priming treatments had more improving effects on studied seed and seedlings traits under suboptimal (15°C and 15/25°C than at optimal temperature conditions. Seed priming treatment with 0,5% KNO3 had the most beneficial effects and increased the most of studied parameters under suboptimal conditions. Seed priming with KNO3 could be used to achieve higher seed vigor and seedling growth at suboptimal temperature conditions in maize.

  17. Antimicrobial GL13K peptide coatings killed and ruptured the wall of Streptococcus gordonii and prevented formation and growth of biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available Infection is one of the most prevalent causes for dental implant failure. We have developed a novel antimicrobial peptide coating on titanium by immobilizing the antimicrobial peptide GL13K. GL13K was developed from the human salivary protein BPIFA2. The peptide exhibited MIC of 8 µg/ml against planktonic Pseudonomas aeruginosa and their biofilms were reduced by three orders of magnitude with 100 µg/ml GL13K. This peptide concentration also killed 100% of Streptococcus gordonii. At 1 mg/ml, GL13K caused less than 10% lysis of human red blood cells, suggesting low toxicity to mammalian cells. Our GL13K coating has also previously showed bactericidal effect and inhibition of biofilm growth against peri-implantitis related pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. The GL13K coating was cytocompatible with human fibroblasts and osteoblasts. However, the bioactivity of antimicrobial coatings has been commonly tested under (quasistatic culture conditions that are far from simulating conditions for biofilm formation and growth in the oral cavity. Oral salivary flow over a coating is persistent, applies continuous shear forces, and supplies sustained nutrition to bacteria. This accelerates bacteria metabolism and biofilm growth. In this work, the antimicrobial effect of the coating was tested against Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer that provides attachment for the biofilm accretion by P. gingivalis, using a drip-flow biofilm bioreactor with media flow rates simulating salivary flow. The GL13K peptide coatings killed bacteria and prevented formation and growth of S. gordonii biofilms in the drip-flow bioreactor and under regular mild-agitation conditions. Surprisingly the interaction of the bacteria with the GL13K peptide coatings ruptured the cell wall at their septum or polar areas leaving empty shell-like structures or exposed protoplasts. The cell wall rupture was not detected under regular culture conditions, suggesting that cell

  18. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  19. (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds cultivated in the ... Key words: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Apiaceae, seed, fatty acids composition, petroselinic acid, maturation. ..... atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorder, diabetes and other diseases.

  20. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Overexpression of sinapine esterase BnSCE3 in oilseed rape seeds triggers global changes in seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Kathleen; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Böttcher, Christoph; Roth, Mary R; Welti, Ruth; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Scheel, Dierk; Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism.

  2. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  3. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  4. Formação das substâncias de reserva durante o desenvolvimento de sementes de urucum (Bixa orellana L. - Bixaceae Formation of reserve substances during the development of annatto, Bixa orellana L. - Bixaceae, seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes I. V. do Amaral

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de urucum não germinam durante os primeiros estádios de seu desenvolvimento devido em parte à insuficiência de materiais de reserva. A análise in situ do material de reserva das sementes revelou que ocorrem principalmente proteínas e amido nas células do endosperma. Durante os estádios iniciais do desenvolvimento, o formato dos grãos de amido mostrou-se elíptico, devido a menor quantidade de amilose. Durante o desenvolvimento, os grãos tornaram-se mais esféricos devido ao aumento de amilose em relação a amilopectina. As células do endosperma não possuem corpos protéicos, mas armazenam proteínas. Durante o desenvolvimento houve acúmulo de proteínas dispersas pelo citoplasma. No estádio final do desenvolvimento, as proteínas tornaram-se compactadas devido à desidratação das sementes, que faz parte do processo global de maturação de sementes ortodoxas. A utilização de fluorescência natural revelou a presença de aminoácidos aromáticos no conteúdo protéico, principalmente triptofano e tirosina. Nestas sementes o conteúdo de matéria seca alcançou o máximo quando a semente apresentou cerca de 60% de umidade. Nesta fase a semente apresentou capacidade germinativa máxima.Annatto seeds do not germinate during early stages of their development because of insufficient reserve substances. In situ analysis showed that the principal reserves are proteins and starch, deposited in endosperm cells. During the early stages of development, the starch grains were elliptic, because amylose was the minor component. During development, these grains became more spherical due to an increase in amylose relative to amylopectin. Endosperm cells do not contain protein bodies, but they accumulate proteins dispersed in the cytoplasm. At the final stage of development the proteins became compacted due to the dehydration of the seeds wich is part of the global process of orthodox seeds maturation. Natural fluorescence revealed

  5. Effect of polyethylene glycol 6000 and storage period on seed quality of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiti Rahayu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity of cocoa needs high quality of cocoa seeds which are generally provided by certified seed gardens located far from smallholders farm, where seed delivery takes long time and may reduce physiological quality of seeds. One effort to maintain the seed quality is by treatment the seeds with polyethylene glycol6000 (PEG 6000. This study was aimed to study the interaction of PEG 6000 concentration and storage period on cocoa seed quality, and to determine the best concentration of PEG 6000 and storage period to maintain cocoa seed quality. The research was conducted in seed storage room, seed laboratory and green houseof PPPPTK, Cianjur. The experimental design used was a factorial completely randomized design and each combination treatment repeated three times. The first factor was concentration of PEG 6000 of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%, and the second factor was the storage period of 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 9 weeks, and 12 weeks. The results showed that concentration of PEG 60% with three weeks storage period was able to minimize the number of moldy seeds. The concentration of PEG 20%, 40%, and 60% were able to prevent seed germination in storage until six weeks. Concentration of PEG 6000 20% was able to maintain moisture content, seed germination, and germination rate.Key words:cocoa seed, storage, recalcitrant, PEG

  6. Effect of seed invigoration by osmopriming on seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of osmopriming techniques on seed lots of three Capsicum species. The seeds were primed using seven different solutions for three different priming durations. Primed seed lots were evaluated for seed germination, seedling vigour index, seedling emergence and ...

  7. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  8. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from each harvest were subjected to different seed quality tests and data generated were analyzed. Seed quality traits were considerably affected by the genotypes and growing conditions i.e. plant population and cropping seasons. Genotypes with superior seed quality were prevalent at 166.667 and 266.667 plants ...

  9. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm, the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII, and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP. The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars.

  10. The significance of fertile pigs vaccination against porcine parvovirus infection in the prevention of intrauterine infection and formation of colostrum piglets immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanac Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to come closer to the knowledge of piglets protection during intrauterine life, as well as formation of colostrum immunity against Porcine Parvovirus Infection (PPV, on the basis of detailed antibody titer analysis from the blood serum of pigs 7 days before previous weaning, 30 days before mating and their piglets during first 3 days of life. The research included 60 fertile pigs and 300 of their offspring. For that purpose we have examined antibody titer specific for PPV in blood serum of vaccinated fertile pigs on 70th and 113th day of gestation, and in the blood serum of piglets originated from itemized fertile pigs during first day of life, before colostrums consummation and also during 3rd day of life. On the 70th day of gestation, in the fertile pigs blood serum, average antibody titer specific for PPV, value of 12.60 was determined, what represents adequate level for solid protection against PPV infection. This was confirmed undoubtedly by examination results of antibodies in the blood serum of piglets before colostrum consummation, which was 100% negative. Titer drop in the blood serum of fertile pigs, on 113th day of gestation (on the level of 8.7 came as a result of specific antibodies transfer from the mother’s blood flow to the colostrum. The above-mentioned is supported by the fact that on the 3rd day of life there was confirmed high average body titer level (13.37 in newborn piglets body serum has been confirmed. The principle of fertile pigs vaccination 7 days before weaning and one month before gilts insemination is an efficient measure which prevents intrauterine infection occurrence during the entire gestation process. The level of antibodies specific for PPV which is determined in gilts blood serum after vaccination can be a result of both primary and secondary immune response (animal infected before first vaccination, as well as absence of gilts revaccination, what is usually recommended by

  11. Abdominal closure reinforcement by using polypropylene mesh functionalized with poly-Ԑ-caprolactone nanofibers and growth factors for prevention of incisional hernia formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plencner M

    2014-07-01

    architecture mimics the natural extracellular matrix. We tested a biodegradable polyester poly-Ԑ-caprolactone in the form of nanofibers as a scaffold for fascia healing in an abdominal closure-reinforcement model for prevention of incisional hernia formation. Both in vitro tests and an experiment on a rabbit model showed promising results. Keywords: nanofibers, growth factors, surgical mesh, hernia regeneration, in vivo

  12. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  13. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not ... ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called chia ...

  14. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  15. A role for fruit structure in seed survival and germination of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi beyond dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, T A A; Rodrigues-Junior, A G; Davide, A C; Nakamura, A T; Toorop, P E

    2018-03-01

    Diaspore structure has been hypothesised to play a role in seed viability and/or germination of recalcitrant seeds, especially for Swartzia langsdorffii. Thus, this work aims to (i) investigate the in situ contribution of pericarp and aril on seed viability and germination, and (ii) identify morphoanatomical traits of S. langsdorffii diaspores that allow its desiccation-sensitive seeds to remain viable. The role of the pericarp and aril in seed survival and germination was investigated by placing the whole fruit, whole seeds (arillate seed) and bare seeds (without aril) in soil in the forest understorey, assessing germination, emergence, dead, firm and predated seeds, and water content of pericarps, arils and seeds. Correlation analysis was performed between environmental variables and physiological parameters. Histochemical features of diaspores were also investigated. Pericarp water content fell after several months, while the aril maintained its water content. Seeds did not lose water even without the presence of the pericarp and aril. However, presence of the pericarp promoted seed water content, viability and germination long after dispersal. The embryo had a thickened outer periclinal cell wall. Pericarp and aril are not essential to prevent water loss in seeds, but do help to retain seed moisture, favouring viability maintenance and promoting germination during the rainy season. Morphoanatomical features of seeds are suggested as main factors that reduce water loss. Survival of these desiccation-sensitive seeds upon dispersal during the dry season appears to be facilitated by multiple diaspore features that prevent viability loss. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Major Polyphenols in Grape Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Adisakwattana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The major polyphenols in grape seed have been shown to have beneficial health effects in the prevention of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. In this present study, we investigated the cholesterol-lowering activity of three major polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed. The results showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin significantly inhibited pancreatic cholesterol esterase in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they bound to taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycodeoxycholic acid at levels ranging from 38.6% to 28.2%. At the concentration of 0.2 mg/mL, gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin reduced the formation of cholesterol micelles 27.26 ± 2.17%, 11.88 ± 0.75%, and 19.49 ± 3.71%, respectively. These findings clearly demonstrate that three major polyphenolic compounds present in a particular grape seed have cholesterol-lowering activity by inhibiting pancreatic cholesterol esterase, binding of bile acids, and reducing solubility of cholesterol in micelles which may result in delayed cholesterol absorption.

  17. Detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected watermelon seeds using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbit diseases caused by cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) have led to a serious problem to growers and seed producers because it is difficult to prevent spreading through causal agent of seeds. Conventional detection methods for infected seed such as a biological, serological, and m...

  18. Tree Seed Technology Training Course - Instructor's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  19. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  20. An SNP caused loss of seed shattering during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Saeko; Izawa, Takeshi; Lin, Shao Yang; Ebana, Kaworu; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Sasaki, Takuji; Yano, Masahiro

    2006-06-02

    Loss of seed shattering was a key event in the domestication of major cereals. We revealed that the qSH1 gene, a major quantitative trait locus of seed shattering in rice, encodes a BEL1-type homeobox gene and demonstrated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5' regulatory region of the qSH1 gene caused loss of seed shattering owing to the absence of abscission layer formation. Haplotype analysis and association analysis in various rice collections revealed that the SNP was highly associated with shattering among japonica subspecies of rice, implying that it was a target of artificial selection during rice domestication.

  1. Manufacture of low-benzo(a)pyrene sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) oil using a self-designed apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ji Yoon; Kim, Hui Ju; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to lower benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) contents in sesame seed oil (SSO) during manufacture by using a self-designed apparatus, to determine its optimal conditions, and to analyze antioxidants in SSO which might be related to BaP content reduction. Washing and spin-drying steps reduce exogenous BaP contamination, and the reduced moisture in seeds lowered BaP content in final SSO. A ventilation system in the roasting step inhibits BaP formation and reabsorption, followed by a controlled compression step. The optimal condition, a single washing cycle with 2-min spin-drying, 1350-rpm ventilation, and a single compression cycle, reduced the BaP content in SSO to 2.93 μg/kg, where the raw seeds had been spiked with 10-μg/kg BaP. Total phenolic contents showed a reversal pattern to the distribution of BaP contents. Sesamol and sesamolin were quantified by a high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector, and it was suggested that sesamol which is a strong antioxidant might have prevented BaP formation during the roasting step. This study enabled the commercial production of low-BaP SSO, and the data could be used in further investigations of the BaP content reduction mechanism with quantitative chemical analysis of the SSO composition.

  2. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 μm. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  3. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Sepi-Esime, Zacatenco. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' . Col. Lindavista. Mexico D.F., CP 07738 (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther, E-mail: fartur@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV - IPN, A. P. 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 {mu}m. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  4. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernández Aguilar, Claudia; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Martínez Ortiz, Efraín; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 μm. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  5. Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: using the extended parallel process model to conduct formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth; Kuthy, Raymond; Ortiz, Cristina; Hanson, Jessica D; Damiano, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Parents' perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents' self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  7. Seed germination of three provenances of arbutus Andrachne L. in response to different pretreatments, temperature and light

    OpenAIRE

    Tilki, Fahrettin; Güner, Sinan

    2007-01-01

    Seeds of Arbutus andrachne possess a physiological dormancy that prevents synchronized and rapid germina­ tion. The seeds were subjected to different pretreatments involving hot water, concentrated sulphuric acid, gibberellic acid and cold-moist stratification to break the dormancy. To determine the effects of temperature and light on seed germination they were treated with gibberellic acid and incubated at 20 and 24°C in light or dark. Gennination ability of seeds from different sources was ...

  8. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  9. Fruit and seed heteromorphism in the cold desert annual ephemeral Diptychocarpus strictus (Brassicaceae) and possible adaptive significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juanjuan; Tan, Dunyan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Diptychocarpus strictus is an annual ephemeral in the cold desert of northwest China that produces heteromorphic fruits and seeds. The primary aims of this study were to characterize the morphology and anatomy of fruits and seeds of this species and compare the role of fruit and seed hetermorphism in dispersal and germination. Methods Shape, size, mass and dispersal of siliques and seeds and the thickness of the mucilage layer on seeds were measured, and the anatomy of siliques and seeds, the role of seed mucilage in water absorption/dehydration, germination and adherence of seeds to soil particles, the role of pericarp of lower siliques in seed dormancy and seed after-ripening and germination phenology were studied using standard procedures. Key Results Plants produce dehiscent upper siliques with a thin pericarp containing seeds with large wings and a thick mucilage layer and indehiscent lower siliques with a thick pericarp containing nearly wingless seeds with a thin mucilage layer. The dispersal ability of seeds from the upper siliques was much greater than that of intact lower siliques. Mucilage increased the amount of water absorbed by seeds and decreased the rate of dehydration. Seeds with a thick mucilage layer adhered to soil particles much better than those with a thin mucilage layer or those from which mucilage had been removed. Fresh seeds were physiologically dormant and after-ripened during summer. Non-dormant seeds germinated to high percentages in light and in darkness. Germination of seeds from upper siliques is delayed until spring primarily by drought in summer and autumn, whereas the thick, indehiscent pericarp prevents germination for >1 year of seeds retained in lower siliques. Conclusions The life cycle of D. strictus is morphologically and physiologically adapted to the cold desert environment in time and space via a combination of characters associated with fruit and seed heteromorphism. PMID:20348559

  10. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differ...

  11. Control of seed borne diseasees in organic seed propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The key control measure of plant diseases in organic agriculture is crop rotation, mixed cropping and moderate fertilization. A wide range of plant diseases can be controlled or minimized in this way. However, at least one group of plant diseases, the seed borne diseases, cannot. The seed borne diseases are not transmitted through the soil, and crop rotation is therefore an insufficient tool. Mixed cropping is impractical in seed propagation, where seed purity according to the...

  12. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen genetically diverse sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes were grown under three diverse .... genetic line. GenotypiC differences in the quality of seed provide an opportunity for employing. genotypiC selection as a method of improving seed quality (Adebisi,. 2004). ...... Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seed vigour ...

  13. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  14. Cowpea seed coat chemical analysis in relation to storage seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field emergence of stored cowpea seeds in the tropical environment is a major limitation to its production, particularly in cultivars with unpigmented seed coats. To determine the storage potential of cowpea, seeds of five cultivars comprising two pigmented and three unpigmented ones were subjected to controlled ...

  15. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  16. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  17. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistanc...

  18. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Low seed quality was observed in ... Seed quality did not vary between cultivars. Regardless of the fermentation process and cultivars used, the best seed and seedling qualities were observed when the amount of rainfall during the experiment ..... wet (Bouaziz and Hicks, 1990; Evans and Etherington.

  19. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  20. Utility of avocado pear seed ( Persea Americana ), mango seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of three plant materials, Avocado pear seed (Persea americana), mango seed (Magifera indica) and bean seed coat (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined. Crude protein varied from 2.0 ± 0.06% in Magifera indica to 3.73 ± 0.08% in Persea americana. Generally, the amino ...

  1. Lower seed rates favor seed multiplication ratio with minimal impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in split plot design of three replications to determine effects of four sowing rates (50, 75, 100, 125 kg ha-1) and three row spacing (10, 20, 30 cm) on seed multiplication ratio, seed yield, and seed quality of wheat at Kulumsa and Assasa from 2012 to 2014. Results indicated that ...

  2. The importance of good seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.

  3. Use of seeds to control precipitation of calcium carbonate and determination of seed nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Marcel; Bowen, Paul; Jongen, Nathalie; Lemaître, Jacques; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2005-01-04

    Understanding and controlling precipitation reactions is a major challenge for industrial crystallization. Calcium carbonate is a widely studied system: more than 3000 papers have been devoted to the subject over the past 10 years. The first step of the precipitation of calcium carbonate, from relatively concentrated solutions (0.01 mol/L), involves the formation of an initial gel phase which later transforms into calcite, vaterite, or a mixture of both phases. Our work aimed at controlling this first step. Nanosized seeds (8 nm), formed in situ, were used in order to control the often chaotic nucleation step which normally leads to poor phase selection and broad particle size distributions. Seeding has often been used to avoid spontaneous nucleation in metastable solutions for growth mechanism investigations of single-crystal calcium carbonate. Here the ability of a seeding method to control the precipitation reaction evolution even in the case of high supersaturation is demonstrated. The seeds and the presence of a polymeric additive (poly(acrylic acid)) allow the control of the precipitated polymorph and the specific surface area, while maintaining a narrow particle size distribution in the submicron range. Direct characterization methods did not succeed in identifying these nanoseeds; indirect methods using solubility calculations are used to demonstrate their existence and quantify size and number density of the nanosized seeds.

  4. Dormancy-specific imprinting underlies maternal inheritance of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskurewicz, Urszula; Iwasaki, Mayumi; Susaki, Daichi; Megies, Christian; Kinoshita, Tetsu; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Mature seed dormancy is a vital plant trait that prevents germination out of season. In Arabidopsis, the trait can be maternally regulated but the underlying mechanisms sustaining this regulation, its general occurrence and its biological significance among accessions are poorly understood. Upon seed imbibition, the endosperm is essential to repress the germination of dormant seeds. Investigation of genomic imprinting in the mature seed endosperm led us to identify a novel set of imprinted genes that are expressed upon seed imbibition. Remarkably, programs of imprinted gene expression are adapted according to the dormancy status of the seed. We provide direct evidence that imprinted genes play a role in regulating germination processes and that preferential maternal allelic expression can implement maternal inheritance of seed dormancy levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19573.001 PMID:28005006

  5. MHD seed recovery and regeneration, Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by the Space and Technology Division of the TRW Space and Electronics Group for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for the Econoseed process. This process involves the economical recovery and regeneration of potassium seed used in the MHD channel. The contract period of performance extended from 1987 through 1994 and was divided into two phases. The Phase II test results are the subject of this Final Report. However, the Phase I test results are presented in summary form in Section 2.3 of this Final Report. The Econoseed process involves the treatment of the potassium sulfate in spent MHD seed with an aqueous calcium formate solution in a continuously stirred reactor system to solubilize, as potassium formate, the potassium content of the seed and to precipitate and recover the sulfate as calcium sulfate. The slurry product from this reaction is centrifuged to separate the calcium sulfate and insoluble seed constituents from the potassium formate solution. The dilute solids-free potassium formate solution is then concentrated in an evaporator. The concentrated potassium formate product is a liquid which can be recycled as a spray into the MHD channel. Calcium formate is the seed regenerant used in the Econoseed process. Since calcium formate is produced in the United States in relatively small quantities, a new route to the continuous production of large quantities of calcium formate needed to support an MHD power industry was investigated. This route involves the reaction of carbon monoxide gas with lime solids in an aqueous medium.

  6. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    OpenAIRE

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after c...

  7. Seed coat sculpturing in Halophila

    OpenAIRE

    Japar, Sidik Bujang; Muta, Harah Zakaria; Suzalina, Akma Awing; Nojima, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    This study furnishes information on external morphology of the seed coats of selected Halophila. Fruiting plants of Halophila beccarii, H. ovalis, H. decipiens, Halophila sp. were collected from various locations around Malaysia and including Halophila stipulacea from Mauritus. Seeds extracted from mature fruits were fixed in 2.5% glutaradehyde. Fixed seeds were washed in 0.1M Sodium cacodylate buffer at 4℃ for 10 minutes. The washing procedure was repeated three times. The seeds were dehydra...

  8. Seed cone anatomy of Cheirolepidiaceae (Coniferales): reinterpreting Pararaucaria patagonica Wieland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, Ignacio H; Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A; Cúneo, N Rubén

    2012-06-01

    Seed cone morphology and anatomy reflect some of the most important changes in the phylogeny and evolutionary biology of conifers. Reexamination of the enigmatic Jurassic seed cone Pararaucaria patagonica reveals previously unknown systematically informative characters that demonstrate affinities with the Cheirolepidiaceae. This paper documents, for the first time, internal anatomy for seed cones of this important extinct Mesozoic conifer family, which may represent the ghost lineage leading to modern Pinaceae. Morphology and anatomy of cones from the Jurassic La Matilde Formation in Patagonia are described from a combination of polished wafers and thin section preparations. New photographic techniques are employed to reveal histological details of thin sections in which organic cell wall remains are not preserved. Specific terminology for conifer seed cones is proposed to help clarify hypotheses of homology for the various structures of the cones. Specimens are demonstrated to have trilobed ovuliferous scale tips along with a seed enclosing pocket of ovuliferous scale tissue. Originally thought to represent a seed wing in P. patagonica, this pocket-forming tissue is comparable to the flap of tissue covering seeds of compressed cheirolepidiaceous cones and is probably the most diagnostic character for seed cones of the family. Pararaucaria patagonica is assigned to Cheirolepidiaceae, documenting anatomical features for seed cones of the family and providing evidence for the antiquity of pinoid conifers leading to the origin of Pinaceae. A list of key morphological and anatomical characters for seed cones of Cheirolepidiaceae is developed to facilitate assignment of a much broader range of fossil remains to the family. This confirms the presence of Cheirolepidiaceae in the Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere, which was previously suspected from palynological records.

  9. Prevention of adhesion formation in Wistar-albino rats by increased bowel movements achieved with oral Ricinus oil use for 8 days postoperatively: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Serkan; Timur, Hakan; Kaba, Metin; Kahyaoglu, Inci; Sirvan, Levent; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2012-12-01

    Adhesion formation frequently occurs after abdominopelvic surgery and can cause significant morbidity for patients. Meticulous hemostasis, minimal access surgery and utilization of surgical adjuvants intraoperatively are clinically useful measures to minimize adhesion formation. We investigated the clinical efficiency of oral Ricinus oil treatment for 8 days postoperatively to decrease adhesion formation in this case-control study in a rat model. Following computer-generated randomization, 24 female Wistar-albino rats were operated on, with 10 standard cautery lesions on the right uterine horn and two simple suture lesions on left uterine horn generated with absorbable material. Half (n=12) the rats received 0.13 g (0.2 ml) Ricinus oil emulsion (40 g/60 ml) via the oral route during the first 8 days postoperatively, and the remaining rats (n=11) were considered as controls. The extent, severity, degree, total adhesion scores and histopathological features of the adhesions were the main outcome measures. The degree and total adhesion formation scores in the Ricinus oil group and control group revealed significant differences in adhesion extent and severity. The total adhesion scores of the Ricinus oil and control groups were 3.00 ± 2.21 and 5.18 ± 2.78 respectively (P0.05). Ricinus oil treatment following abdominopelvic surgery for the 8-day period that covers the completion of tissue healing process may be a promising, cheap and cost-effective treatment strategy for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against genotoxicity induced by azathioprine

    OpenAIRE

    Elfiky, S.A.; Elelaimy, I.A.; Hassan, A.M.; Ibrahim, H.M.; Elsayad, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin is a leafy green vegetable; it belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin seed oil supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of azathioprine. Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment of azathioprine was effective in the reduction of the frequencies of Mn-PCEs, decreased the DNA fragmentation, total ...

  11. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  12. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented

  13. Sexual reproduction, seeds, and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter T. McDonough

    1985-01-01

    Natural genetic interchange and extensive colonization of aspen by seed strongly depends upon favorable climatic and microclimatic conditions and upon human intervention. At times, in regions with the right combination of environmental conditions, there is significant L, reproduction by seed; elsewhere such establishment is rare. Seed production generally is profuse;...

  14. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  15. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... In the Middle East, lupin seeds are consumed as a snack after they are soaked in water, scalded and ... used as roasted bean 'kolo' and to prepare local alcoholic drink 'katikala' and other food products .... Switzerland), followed 15 min cooling under running tap water and finally centrifuged at 2000 x g for ...

  16. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  17. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  18. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  19. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  20. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  1. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    When seed producers and seed users are geographically or functionally separated, seeds are transferred from producers to users. In market-oriented systems, transfer includes the pricing of seed, which reflects the procurement cost and seed quality. Physiological quality is documented via the seed...

  2. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if...

  3. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed...

  4. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  5. [Effects of seed priming on vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Xiu; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ru

    2008-03-01

    To select an effective way to enhance vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds. Three population seeds were treated at the 20 degrees C and dark enviroment. Priming with 20% - 30% PEG and 200 - 400 mg x L(-1) GA3 could enhance seeds germination and vigor. Germination percentage of three population seeds treated with 0. 6% - 3.0% NaCl reduced, but they started to germinate in advance. Treated with 0.6% - 2.4% KNO3-KH2PO4, germination rate and vigor of seeds in Zijinshan and Pan' an both increased and the one in Bozhou decreased. Vigor of P. vulgaris seed treated with PEG and GA3 under proper concentration increases, while treated with KNO3-KH2PO, and NaCl low vigor seeds germination rate reduces.

  6. Passifloraceae seeds from the late Eocene of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Camila

    2017-12-01

    The plant fossil record for the neotropics is still sparse and temporally discontinuous. The location and description of new fossil material are fundamental for understanding evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of lineages. A new fossil record of Passifloraceae from the late Eocene of Colombia is described in this study. Plant fossils were collected from a new locality from the Eocene Esmeraldas Formation. Eighteen fossil seeds were selected, described, and compared with fossil and extant angiosperm seeds based on the literature and herbarium collections. Taxonomic affinities of the fossil seeds within Passifloraceae s.l. were evaluated by comparing morphological characters of the seeds in a phylogenetic context. Stratigraphic information associated with the fossil locality was used to interpret the environment and taphonomic processes associated with fossil deposition. A new seed fossil genus and species, Passifloroidesperma sogamosense gen. and sp. nov., is described and associated with the subfamily Passifloroideae based on the presence of a foveolate seed surface, ruminate endosperm, and a seed coat with prismatic palisade cells. The depositional environment of the locality is described as a floodplain associated with river channels. A detailed review of the Passifloraceae fossil record indicates that P. sogamosense is the oldest confirmed record of Passifloraceae. Its late Eocene age provides a minimum age that can be used as a calibration point for the crown Passifloroideae node in future dating analyses that together with its neotropical geographic location can shed light on the origin and diversification of the subfamily. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivan Isídio Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and harvest time may influence the formation and maturation processes, as well as the physiological quality of seeds. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of fertilization on the physiological maturation of sesame seeds. The following variables were evaluated: fruit color, dry mass and water content of fruits and seeds, germination, first germination count, germination speed, emergence and emergence speed. No significant fertilization effect was observed on fruit maturation for water content or dry mass. However, there was significance for these variables in the seeds. The harvest time had a significant effect on water content and dry mass of fruits and seeds. For the variables that evaluated the seed viability and vigor, both the fertilization and harvest time influenced the physiological maturation. The physiological maturity of the sesame seeds, whose plants were grown with and without fertilization, was reached between 52 and 54 days after anthesis, when the fruits were classified as yellow-greenish 7.5 Y 8/6 and yellow to yellow-red 10.R 4/6.

  8. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  9. Deposit and scale prevention methods in thermal sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Introductory remarks deal with the 'fouling factor' and its influence on the overall heat transfer coefficient of msf evaporators. The composition of the matter dissolved in sea water and the thermal and chemical properties lead to formation of alkaline scale or even hard, sulphate scale on the heat exchanger tube walls and can hamper plant operation and economics seriously. Among the scale prevention methods are 1) pH control by acid dosing (decarbonation), 2) 'threshold treatment' by dosing of inhibitors of different kind, 3) mechanical cleaning by sponge rubber balls guided through the heat exchanger tubes, in general combined with methods no. 1 or 2, and 4) application of a scale crystals germ slurry (seeding). Mention is made of several other scale prevention proposals. The problems encountered with marine life (suspension, deposit, growth) in desalination plants are touched. (orig.) [de

  10. Bioengineered self-seeding heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, James E; Williams, J Koudy; Lee, Sang-Jin; Raghavan, Devanathan; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical and biological prostheses are used to replace damaged heart valves but are associated with significant morbidities. Although there is increased interest in bioengineering cell-seeded heart valve scaffolds, it is a time-consuming and technically difficult process. The goal of this project was to engineer self-seeding heart valves that mature quickly in vivo and have a shorter preparation time. Porcine pulmonary valves were decellularized using detergent methods and then either (1) left untreated (unconjugated, n = 6), (2) reseeded with autologous endothelial progenitor cell-derived endothelial cells (cell-seeded, n = 4), or (3) conjugated with CD133 antibodies (conjugated, n = 8). The valve constructs were transplanted into the pulmonary position of sheep using standard surgical techniques. After 1 or 3 months, the implants were removed and assessed for cell and matrix content as well as biomechanical properties. Endothelial cells expressing von Willebrand factor lined the entire length of both ventricular and arterial surfaces of conjugated valves by 1 month after implantation. Interstitial cell and structural protein content of conjugated valves increased from 1 month to 3 months with interstitial expression of metalloproteinase-9 and new collagen formation. In contrast, there were few endothelial or interstitial cells associated with unconjugated, or cell-seeded valves at any time point. No calcification or thrombi were noted on any of the valves. Young's modulus and tensile strength was greater in the conjugated valves versus unconjugated or cell-seeded valves. Results indicate that tissue-engineered heart valve replacement constructs can be made quickly and therefore may be a clinically relevant option for patients needing heart valve surgery in a timely fashion. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under...

  12. Grass seeding and soil erosion in a steep, logged area in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Helvey; W.B. Fowler

    1979-01-01

    This case study tested the common belief that grass seeding is needed to prevent erosion after areas are clearcut in the Blue Mountains. Changes in the soil surface height at about 500 points each in a seedbed and an unseeded area were measured on four dates covering a 20-month period. Average vertical displacement was not consistently related to seeding nor to degree...

  13. Nephroprotective and diuretic effect of Nigella sativa L seeds oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to study the influences, preventive and diuretic, of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil (NSSO) on calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis induced in Wistar male rats. Methodology: Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (N.S) were analysed for the evaluation of the concentration ...

  14. Strategies for Effective Eating Development-SEEDS: Design of an obesity prevention program to promote healthy food preferences and eating self-regulation in children from low-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a scientifically based childhood obesity prevention program supporting child eating self-regulation and taste preferences. This article describes the research methods for the Strategies for Effective Eating Development program. A logic model is provided that depicts a visual presentation ...

  15. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahasin Ali Khan

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... In this study,. Pinus arunachalensis sp. nov. is described on the basis of two well preserved winged seeds. The occurrence of winged seeds provides unequivocal evidence that Pinus trees were part of Arunachal. Pradesh flora during the middle to late Miocene. (Dafla Formation). This taxon does not occur.

  16. Method and apparatus for separating parts, in particular seeds, having different densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; De Koning, J.R.A.

    2009-01-01

    A method for separating seeds of different densities in a process stream, wherein the seeds are introduced into a magnetic process fluid for the formation of the process stream, which process stream is subjected to a magnetic field for the realization of a density stratification in the process

  17. Strategies for Effective Eating Development-SEEDS: Design of an Obesity Prevention Program to Promote Healthy Food Preferences and Eating Self-Regulation in Children From Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley; Betz, Drew; Calodich, Shirley; Goodell, L Suzanne; Hill, Laura G; Hill, Rachael; Jaramillo, J Andrea; Johnson, Susan L; Lanigan, Jane; Lawrence, Adair; Martinez, AnaMaria Diaz; Nesbitt, Merrianneeta; Overath, Irene; Parker, Louise; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    To develop a scientifically based childhood obesity prevention program supporting child eating self-regulation and taste preferences. This article describes the research methods for the Strategies for Effective Eating Development program. A logic model is provided that depicts a visual presentation of the activities that will be used to guide the development of the prevention program. Randomized, controlled prevention program, pretest, posttest, 6 months, and 12 months. Two sites: Houston, TX and Pasco, WA. Each trial will last 7 weeks with 8-10 mother-child dyads in each arm (prevention and control). Recruitment at Head Start districts (Texas; n = 160) and Inspire Child Development Center including Early Childhood Education and Head Start (Washington; n = 160). Sixteen trials with 16-20 parent-child dyads per trial will provide adequate power to detect moderate effects. Multicomponent family-based prevention program incorporating a dialogue approach to adult learning and self-determination theory. Child assessments will include observed taste preferences, caloric compensation, and eating in the absence of hunger. Parent assessments will include parent-reported feeding, feeding emotions, acculturation, child eating behaviors, child food preferences, and child dietary intake. Heights and weights will be measured for parent and child. A multilevel growth modeling analysis will be employed to consider the nested nature of the data: time points (level 1) within families (level 2) within trials (level 3). Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L. Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-01-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits. PMID:25240065

  19. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  20. Potential of plant growth regulator and chlormequat chloride on alfalfa seed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. S.; Lin, H.; Han, W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) has opened new prospects for increased seed production in grasses and legumes, but little information is available on the effects of PGRs combination with chlormequat chloride (CCC) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield components. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of applying chlormequat chloride in combination with three PGRs (Naphthylacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid 3 (GA), and brassinolide (BR)) on seed yield, aboveground biomass, plant height, lodging, yield components. CCC was applied annually at the stooling stage while three PGRs were applied twice each year at the stages of flower bud formation and peak flowering. Results provides evidence that: (i) each PGR consistently increased seed yields, and the numbers of seeds per stem compared to untreated plants; (ii) CCC treatment reduced plant height and lodging, but also significantly decreased seed yield and did not affect aboveground biomass. (iii) effectiveness of CCC application depends on climatic conditions, especially in North-east China. (iiii) the optimum combination of CCC with a PGR to increase alfalfa seed production was failed to identify. (iiiii) no interactions between PGRs and CCC on seed yield were observed and neither the PGRs nor the CCC. But alfalfa seed yield could be improved by combining a PGR such as NAA. Our Results suggest that these PGRs could be used in alfalfa breeding to increase seed yield while maintaining high seed quality. (author)

  1. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  2. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  3. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  4. Effect of Ti seed and spacer layers on structure and magnetic properties of FeNi thin films and FeNi-based multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalov, A.V., E-mail: andrey.svalov@ehu.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} films and FeNi-based multilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The samples were deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature. • Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. • The thick Cu seed increases the coercive force of the magnetic layer. • The thin Ti spacer restores the magnetic softness of the Cu/Ti/FeNi multilayers. - Abstract: The microstructure and magnetic properties of sputtered permalloy films and FeNi-based multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. Ti/FeNi bilayers with high crystallographic quality have relatively low resistivity. The Ti seed layer does not influence the magnetic properties of FeNi film in Ti/FeNi bilayers, but the thick Cu seed layer leads to an increase of the coercive force of the magnetic layer. For the FeNi films deposited on thick Cu seed layer, the (0 1 0) and (0 0 2) diffraction peaks of hcp nickel were clearly observed. The thin Ti spacer between Cu and FeNi layers prevents the formation of the nickel phase and restores the magnetic softness of the FeNi layer in the Cu/Ti/FeNi sample. Obtained results can be important for the development of multilayer sensitive elements for giant magnetoimpedance or magnetoresistance detectors.

  5. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  6. Use of a Fibrinogen/Thrombin-Based Collagen Fleece (TachoComb, TachoSil) With a Stapled Closure to Prevent Pancreatic Fistula Formation Following Distal Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Kazuhito; Ito, Hideto; Murabayashi, Ryo; Asakawa, Hideki; Nabetani, Masashi; Kamasako, Akira; Koizumi, Kazuya; Hayashi, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula formation remains a source of significant morbidity following distal pancreatectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of clinically significant fistulas (International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula grade B and grade C) after distal pancreatectomy using a fibrinogen/thrombin-based collagen fleece (TachoComb, TachoSil) with a stapled closure. Seventy-five patients underwent distal pancreatectomy at our institution between January 2005 and March 2014. A fibrinogen/thrombin-based collagen fleece was applied to the staple line of the pancreas before stapling. Twenty-six patients (34.7%) developed a pancreatic fistula, 8 patients (10.7%) developed a grade B fistula, and no patients developed a grade C fistula. The duration of the drain was significantly different in patients with or without a pancreatic fistula (8.0 ± 4.5 vs. 5.4 ± 1.3 days, P = .0003). Histological analysis showed that there was a tight covering with the fibrinogen/thrombin-based collagen fleece. The fibrinogen/thrombin-based collagen fleece (TachoComb, TachoSil) with a stapled closure has low rates of fistula formation and provides a safe alternative to the conventional stapled technique in distal pancreatectomy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. EW-7197 eluting nano-fiber covered self-expandable metallic stent to prevent granulation tissue formation in a canine urethral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Geun; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Kim, Kun Yung; Kim, Min Tae; Gang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Dae-Kee; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Song, Ho-Young

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate an EW-7197-eluting nanofiber-covered stent (NFCS) for suppressing granulation tissue formation after stent placement in a canine urethral model. Materials and methods All experiments were approved by the committee of animal research. A total of 12 NFCSs were placed in the proximal and distal urethras of six dogs. Dogs were divided into two groups with 3 dogs each. The control stent (CS) group received NFCSs and the drug stent (DS) group received EW-7197 (1000 μg)-eluting NFCSs. All dogs were sacrificed 8 weeks after stent placement Histologic findings of the stented urethra were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Stent placement was technically successful in all dogs without procedure-related complications. On urethrographic analysis, the mean luminal diameter was significantly larger in the DS group than in the CS group at 4 and 8 weeks after stent placement (all p 0.05). Conclusion The EW-7197-eluting NFCS is effective and safe for suppressing granulation tissue formation after stent placement in a canine urethral model. PMID:29447198

  8. Methyl Gallate Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Function by Suppressing Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ Signaling and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Baek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of bone research, various natural derivatives have emerged as candidates for osteoporosis treatment by targeting abnormally elevated osteoclastic activity. Methyl gallate, a plant-derived phenolic compound, is known to have numerous pharmacological effects against inflammation, oxidation, and cancer. Our purpose was to explore the relation between methyl gallate and bone metabolism. Herein, we performed screening using methyl gallate by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining and revealed intracellular mechanisms responsible for methyl gallate-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of methyl gallate on the characteristics of mature osteoclasts. We found that methyl gallate significantly suppressed osteoclast formation through Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ signaling. The blockade of these pathways was confirmed through transduction of cells with a CA-Akt retrovirus and evaluation of Ca2+ influx intensity (staining with Fluo-3/AM. Indeed, methyl gallate downregulated the formation of actin ring-positive osteoclasts and resorption pit areas. In agreement with in vitro results, we found that administration of methyl gallate restored osteoporotic phenotype stimulated by acute systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide in vivo according to micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. Our data strongly indicate that methyl gallate may be useful for the development of a plant-based antiosteoporotic agent.

  9. Methyl Gallate Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Function by Suppressing Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ Signaling and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Chang Hoon; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su

    2017-03-07

    In the field of bone research, various natural derivatives have emerged as candidates for osteoporosis treatment by targeting abnormally elevated osteoclastic activity. Methyl gallate, a plant-derived phenolic compound, is known to have numerous pharmacological effects against inflammation, oxidation, and cancer. Our purpose was to explore the relation between methyl gallate and bone metabolism. Herein, we performed screening using methyl gallate by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and revealed intracellular mechanisms responsible for methyl gallate-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, we assessed the effects of methyl gallate on the characteristics of mature osteoclasts. We found that methyl gallate significantly suppressed osteoclast formation through Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca 2+ signaling. The blockade of these pathways was confirmed through transduction of cells with a CA-Akt retrovirus and evaluation of Ca 2+ influx intensity (staining with Fluo-3/AM). Indeed, methyl gallate downregulated the formation of actin ring-positive osteoclasts and resorption pit areas. In agreement with in vitro results, we found that administration of methyl gallate restored osteoporotic phenotype stimulated by acute systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide in vivo according to micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. Our data strongly indicate that methyl gallate may be useful for the development of a plant-based antiosteoporotic agent.

  10. Overexpression of Sinapine Esterase BnSCE3 in Oilseed Rape Seeds Triggers Global Changes in Seed Metabolism1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, Kathleen; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Böttcher, Christoph; Roth, Mary R.; Welti, Ruth; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Scheel, Dierk; Milkowski, Carsten; Strack, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Sinapine (O-sinapoylcholine) is the predominant phenolic compound in a complex group of sinapate esters in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Sinapine has antinutritive activity and prevents the use of seed protein for food and feed. A strategy was developed to lower its content in seeds by expressing an enzyme that hydrolyzes sinapine in developing rape seeds. During early stages of seedling development, a sinapine esterase (BnSCE3) hydrolyzes sinapine, releasing choline and sinapate. A portion of choline enters the phospholipid metabolism, and sinapate is routed via 1-O-sinapoyl-β-glucose into sinapoylmalate. Transgenic oilseed rape lines were generated expressing BnSCE3 under the control of a seed-specific promoter. Two distinct single-copy transgene insertion lines were isolated and propagated to generate homozygous lines, which were subjected to comprehensive phenotyping. Sinapine levels of transgenic seeds were less than 5% of wild-type levels, whereas choline levels were increased. Weight, size, and water content of transgenic seeds were significantly higher than those of wild-type seeds. Seed quality parameters, such as fiber and glucosinolate levels, and agronomically important traits, such as oil and protein contents, differed only slightly, except that amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose were about 30% higher in transgenic compared with wild-type seeds. Electron microscopic examination revealed that a fraction of the transgenic seeds had morphological alterations, characterized by large cavities near the embryonic tissue. Transgenic seedlings were larger than wild-type seedlings, and young seedlings exhibited longer hypocotyls. Examination of metabolic profiles of transgenic seeds indicated that besides suppression of sinapine accumulation, there were other dramatic differences in primary and secondary metabolism. Mapping of these changes onto metabolic pathways revealed global effects of the transgenic BnSCE3 expression on seed metabolism. PMID

  11. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  12. Sunflower seed allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  14. Production of a low calorie mandarin juice by enzymatic conversion of constituent sugars to oligosaccharides and prevention of insoluble glucan formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; Cho, Jae-Young; Seo, Ye-Seul; Woo, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hwa-Kyoung; Kim, Ghahyun J; Jhon, Deok-Young; Kim, Doman

    2015-03-01

    Over 99% of sucrose in mandarin juice (57.1 g/l in original juice to 428.4 g/l in concentrated juice) was enzymatically converted to glucooligosaccharides using 3 U dextransucrase/ml prepared from Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 28 °C. The oligosaccharide synthesis yields were 51 and 47% for the original and the concentrated mandarin juice, respectively. The degree of polymerization of oligosaccharides in the enzyme-modified juice was 2-7. Calories in the original and modified mandarin juice were 433 and 301 kcal/l (30.5% reduction). Compared with the original juice, the enzyme-modified juice showed 82% decrease of insoluble glucan formation by mutansucrase from Streptococcus mutans. A sensory evaluation of the juices revealed that the original and modified mandarin juices had sweetness values of 4.5 and 4.9 and the same values for overall acceptability.

  15. The efficacy of different anti-microbial metals at preventing the formation of, and eradicating bacterial biofilms of pathogenic indicator strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugala, Natalie; Lemire, Joe A; Turner, Raymond J

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the prevalence of biofilm-related infections have generated a demand for alternative anti-microbial therapies. Metals have not been explored in adequate detail for their capacity to combat infectious disease. Metal compounds can now be found in textiles, medical devices and disinfectants-yet, we know little about their efficacy against specific pathogens. To help fill this knowledge gap, we report on the anti-microbial and antibiofilm activity of seven metals: silver, copper, titanium, gallium, nickel, aluminum and zinc against three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To evaluate the capacity of metal ions to prevent the growth of, and eradicate biofilms and planktonic cells, bacterial cultures were inoculated in the Calgary Biofilm Device (minimal biofilm eradication concentration) in the presence of the metal salts. Copper, gallium and titanium were capable of preventing planktonic and biofilm growth, and eradicating established biofilms of all tested strains. Further, we observed that the efficacies of the other tested metal salts displayed variable efficacy against the tested strains. Further, contrary to the enhanced resistance anticipated from bacterial biofilms, particular metal salts were observed to be more effective against biofilm communities versus planktonic cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that the identity of the bacterial strain must be considered before treatment with a particular metal ion. Consequent to the use of metal ions as anti-microbial agents to fight multidrug-resistant and biofilm-related infections increases, we must aim for more selective deployment in a given infectious setting.

  16. Application of artificial seeds in rapid multiplication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a method which produces artificial seeds of Pseudostellaria heterophylla was presented. The micro-tubers induced from virus-free seedlings were used as explants, and the coating material was sodium alginate. The results show that the appropriate medium for P. heterophylla micro-tubers formation was the ...

  17. Seed storage behavior of forest tree species seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of five forest species were classified according to their physiological storage behavior. Seeds of Casearia sylvestris Swart (Salicaceae, Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae, Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. (Meliaceae, Eremanthus incanus Less. (Asteraceae, Protium heptaphyllum March. (Burseraceae were collected and taken to the laboratory, where they were processed and submitted to both rapid and slow drying, storage and assayed for viability. After physiological classification regarding storage behavior, it was observed that seeds of C. sylvestris and E. incanus presented orthodox behavior. Seeds of G. kunthiana and P. heptaphyllum were classified as recalcitrant and Q. grandiflora as an intermediate, which did not tolerate low moisture content.

  18. Glimepiride reduces the expression of PrPc, prevents PrPSc formation and protects against prion mediated neurotoxicity in cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Bate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A hallmark of the prion diseases is the conversion of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP(C into a disease related, alternatively folded isoform (PrP(Sc. The accumulation of PrP(Sc within the brain is associated with synapse loss and ultimately neuronal death. Novel therapeutics are desperately required to treat neurodegenerative diseases including the prion diseases. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Treatment with glimepiride, a sulphonylurea approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, induced the release of PrP(C from the surface of prion-infected neuronal cells. The cell surface is a site where PrP(C molecules may be converted to PrP(Sc and glimepiride treatment reduced PrP(Sc formation in three prion infected neuronal cell lines (ScN2a, SMB and ScGT1 cells. Glimepiride also protected cortical and hippocampal neurones against the toxic effects of the prion-derived peptide PrP82-146. Glimepiride treatment significantly reduce both the amount of PrP82-146 that bound to neurones and PrP82-146 induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A(2 (cPLA(2 and the production of prostaglandin E(2 that is associated with neuronal injury in prion diseases. Our results are consistent with reports that glimepiride activates an endogenous glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-phospholipase C which reduced PrP(C expression at the surface of neuronal cells. The effects of glimepiride were reproduced by treatment of cells with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC and were reversed by co-incubation with p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonate, an inhibitor of endogenous GPI-PLC. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results indicate that glimepiride may be a novel treatment to reduce PrP(Sc formation and neuronal damage in prion diseases.

  19. Seed tolerance to deterioration in arabidopsis is affected by virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, Eduardo; Serrano, Ramón; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A

    2017-07-01

    Seed longevity is the period during which the plant seed is able to germinate. This property is strongly influenced by environment conditions experienced by seeds during their formation and storage. In the present study we have analyzed how the biotic stress derived from the infection of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) affects seed tolerance to deterioration measuring germination rates after an accelerated aging treatment. Arabidopsis wild type plants infected with AMV and CMV rendered seeds with improved tolerance to deterioration when compared to the non-inoculated plants. On the other hand, CaMV infection generated seeds more sensitive to deterioration. No seeds were obtained from TuMV infected plants. Similar pattern of viral effects was observed in the double mutant athb22 athb25, which is more sensitive to accelerated seed aging than wild type. However, we observed a significant reduction of the seed germination for CMV (65% vs 55%) and healthy (50% vs 30%) plants in these mutants. The seed quality differences were overcomed using the A. thaliana athb25-1D dominant mutant, which over accumulated gibberellic acid (GA), except for TuMV which generated some siliques with low seed tolerance to deterioration. For AMV and TuMV (in athb25-1D), the seed quality correlated with the accumulation of the messengers of the gibberellin 3-oxidase family, the mucilage of the seed and the GA1. For CMV and CaMV it was not a good correlation suggesting that other factors are affecting seed viability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Supersonic gas streams enhance the formation of massive black holes in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kuiper, Rolf

    2017-09-29

    The origin of super-massive black holes in the early universe remains poorly understood. Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is a promising initial process, but theoretical studies have difficulty growing the black hole fast enough. We report numerical simulations of early black hole formation starting from realistic cosmological conditions. Supersonic gas motions left over from the Big Bang prevent early gas cloud formation until rapid gas condensation is triggered in a protogalactic halo. A protostar is formed in the dense, turbulent gas cloud, and it grows by sporadic mass accretion until it acquires 34,000 solar masses. The massive star ends its life with a catastrophic collapse to leave a black hole-a promising seed for the formation of a monstrous black hole. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  2. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  3. The study of antioxidants in grapevine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Tomášková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine seeds contain a large amount of antioxidant components, and are therefore recommended in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. For this research, we studied the antioxidant properties of grapevine seeds from the Marlen variety, as evidence suggests that these types have higher resistance against fungal diseases. Through high-performance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detection, a total of 10 antioxidant components were selected for further investigation, specifically: catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, caftaric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid. The antioxidant activity was determinated spectrophotometrically through the adoption of three fundamentally different methods (the DPPH assay, the ABTS method, and the FRAP method. Using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, it was possible to determine the content of all the polyphenolic compounds. The results of the assessment antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenolic compounds were recalculated to gallic acid equivalents (GAE. The values of the antioxidant activity as determinated by the DPPH test were 6643 (±154 mg of GAE; 1984 (±88 mg of GAE when using the FRAP method; and 812 (±31 mg of GAE when the ABTS method was utilised. The content of the total polyphenolic compounds came to 6982 (±221 mg of GAE. The most abundant antioxidant was catechin, with a content of 115 mg.L-1, whilst the least represented compound was ferulic acid (0.139 mg.L-1. Overall, this study showed a high antioxidant potential of grapevine seeds

  4. Protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against genotoxicity induced by azathioprine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Elfiky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin is a leafy green vegetable; it belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin seed oil supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of azathioprine. Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment of azathioprine was effective in the reduction of the frequencies of Mn-PCEs, decreased the DNA fragmentation, total sperm abnormalities and significantly increased sperm count, percentage of PCEs, and enhanced the ratio of PCEs to NCEs. However, random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD showed distinct differences in animal groups intoxicated with azathioprine before and after pumpkin seed oil treatment, which reflected a DNA protective effect of pumpkin seed oil. Depletion of glutathione content in the testis was also observed in azathioprine treated mice, which was improved by an oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment with azathioprine.

  5. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  6. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  7. Chapter 24. Seed collection, cleaning, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent R. Jorgensen; Richard Stevens

    2004-01-01

    Acquisition of quality seed in the quantity needed is essential for successful restoration and revegetation programs. Seed is grown and harvested as a crop, or collected from native stands. In the past, when native species were seeded, it was either collect the seed yourself, or go without. Now, there are dealers who supply seed of many native species on a regular...

  8. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules and...

  9. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  10. Seed mucilage from Ipomoea dasysperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Pandey, M; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, V

    2007-04-01

    A non-ionic water-soluble galactomannan, having galactose and mannose in 1:6 molar ratio, was isolated from endosperm of the seeds of Ipomoea dasysperma. The seed mucilage was found to have a structure having a linear chain of beta (1-->4) linked mannopyranosyl units with D-galactose side chains attached through alpha (1-->6) linkage to the main chain. I. dasysperma seed gum possesses non-ionic characteristics of commercial seed gums and has potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  12. High acid invertase activity for a prolonged period in developing seeds/podwall of wild chickpea is detrimental to seed filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harinderjeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Kaur, Narinder; Sandhu, Jeet Singh

    2012-10-01

    In the present study factors responsible for low seed biomass in wild Cicer species has been investigated. Cicer judaicum and chickpea cultivar PBG-1 were investigated to compare activities of some enzymes involved in carbon metabolism in podwall and seeds during crop development. Seed filling duration in wild species was about 15 days shorter than that of cultivated varieties due to rapid loss of moisture content and hence resulted in earlier maturity and reduced seed biomass. Longer seed filling duration appeared to be an important factor responsible for greater biomass of chickpea seeds. Because of absence of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase from 25-35 days after flowering and low sucrose synthase activities, the podwall of C. judaicum is not in a position to contribute significantly to the sink filling capacity of seeds. High acid invertase, low sucrose synthase activities during seed storage phase cause detrimental effect on seed filling and resulting in highly reduced sink strength and productivity of wild species. Successful transfer of stress tolerance from wild Cicer species to chickpea cultivars need to prevent the transfer of these observed unfavourable biochemical factors so that the productivity of chickpea crop remains unaffected during utilization of wild Cicer species in chickpea improvement.

  13. Erastin-Like Anti-Warburg Agents Prevent Mitochondrial Depolarization Induced by Free Tubulin and Decrease Lactate Formation in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHart, David N; Lemasters, John J; Maldonado, Eduardo N

    2018-01-01

    In Warburg metabolism, suppression of mitochondrial metabolism contributes to a low cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio favoring enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Flux of metabolites across the mitochondrial outer membrane occurs through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC). In cancer cells, free dimeric tubulin induces VDAC closure and dynamically regulates mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ). Erastin, a small molecule that binds to VDAC, antagonizes the inhibitory effect of tubulin on VDAC and hyperpolarizes mitochondria in intact cells. Here, our aim was to identify novel compounds from the ChemBridge DIVERSet library that block the inhibitory effect of tubulin on ΔΨ using cell-based screening. HCC4006 cells were treated with nocodazole (NCZ) to increase free tubulin and decrease ΔΨ in the presence or absence of library compounds. Tetramethylrhodamine methylester (TMRM) fluorescence was assessed by high-content imaging to determine changes in ΔΨ. Compounds were considered positive if ΔΨ increased in the presence of NCZ. Using confocal microscopy, we identified and validated six lead molecules that antagonized the depolarizing effect of NCZ. Lead compounds and erastin did not promote microtubule stabilization, so changes in ΔΨ were independent of tubulin dynamics. The most potent lead compound also decreased lactate formation. These novel small molecules represent a potential new class of anti-Warburg drugs.

  14. Pharmacological blockade of aquaporin-1 water channel by AqB013 restricts migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells and prevents endothelial tube formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, Hilary S; Du, Alice; Bruhn, Maressa A; Wrin, Joseph; Pei, Jinxin V; Evdokiou, Andreas; Price, Timothy J; Yool, Andrea J; Hardingham, Jennifer E

    2016-02-24

    Aquaporins (AQP) are water channel proteins that enable fluid fluxes across cell membranes, important for homeostasis of the tissue environment and for cell migration. AQP1 knockout mouse models of human cancers showed marked inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, and in pre-clinical studies of colon adenocarcinomas, forced over-expression of AQP1 was shown to increase angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. We have synthesized small molecule antagonists of AQP1. Our hypothesis is that inhibition of AQP1 will reduce migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells, and the migration and tube-forming capacity of endothelial cells in vitro. Expression of AQP1 in cell lines was assessed by quantitative (q) PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence, while expression of AQP1 in human colon tumour tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of varying concentrations of the AQP1 inhibitor AqB013 was tested on human colon cancer cell lines expressing high versus low levels of AQP1, using wound closure (migration) assays, matrigel invasion assays, and proliferation assays. The effect of AqB013 on angiogenesis was tested using an endothelial cell tube-formation assay. HT29 colon cancer cells with high AQP1 levels showed significant inhibition of migration compared to vehicle control of 27.9% ± 2.6% (p colon cancer.

  15. Herbal Extracts Combination (WNK Prevents Decline in Spatial Learning and Memory in APP/PS1 Mice through Improvement of Hippocampal Aβ Plaque Formation, Histopathology, and Ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-hong Cong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cognitive enhancement effect of WNK, an extracts combination of P. ginseng,  G. biloba, and C. sativus L. and possible mechanisms, 5-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice were used in this study. After 3 months of administration, all mice received Morris water maze (MWM training and a probe test. Mouse brain sections were detected by immunohistochemistry, HE staining, and transmission electron microscopy. MWM results showed significant difference between transgenic mice and nontransgenic littermates (P<0.05, P<0.01. WNK-treated mice exhibited enhanced maze performance over the training progression, especially better spatial memory retention in probe test compared to transgenic mice (P<0.05, P<0.01 and better spatial learning and memory at the fourth day of MWM test compared to EGB761- (G. biloba extract- treated ones (P<0.05. Hippocampal Aβ plaque burden significantly differed between APP/PS1 and littermate mice (P<0.001, while decreased Aβ plaque appeared in WNK- or EGB761-treated transgenic brains (P<0.05. Neurodegenerative changes were evident from light microscopic and ultrastructural observations in transgenic brains, which were improved by WNK or EGB761 treatment. These data indicate WNK can reduce the decline in spatial cognition, which might be due to its effects on reducing Aβ plaque formation and ameliorating histopathology and ultrastructure in hippocampus of APP/PS1 mouse brain.

  16. The use of autologous platelet-leukocyte-enriched plasma to minimize drain burden and prevent seroma formation in latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J Garrett; Elliott, L Franklyn; Bergey, Patti

    2012-05-01

    Seromas and drains are major sources of morbidity associated with latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction. Our goal was to look at an autologous platelet-leukocyte-enriched plasma spray and to assess its efficacy in reducing drain burden and seroma formation. We performed a single surgeon, patient-controlled, blinded study on bilateral latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction patients in which we applied autologous platelet-leukocyte-enriched plasma to one side and measured drain amounts, time to drain removal, and seroma rate. Twelve patients were included in this study. The average age was 41.1 years, and the average body mass index was 21.6 kg/m. Average volume of drain output showed neither difference (789 mL spray side vs. 790 mL control side) nor average time to drain removal (11.83 days spray side vs. 11.5 days control side). There were 2 complications reported: 1 hematoma (8.33%) and 1 seroma (8.33%) that required aspiration in a postoperative visit. It appears after 12 patients that there is no demonstrable difference regarding drain output, time to drain removal, or seroma incidence between the study and the control group. We feel a larger study population would add power and confirm these findings.

  17. Preparation and mechanism analysis of an environment-friendly maize seed coating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Defang; Fan, Zhao; Tian, Xu; Wang, Wenjin; Zhou, Mingchun; Li, Haochuan

    2017-11-23

    Traditional seed coating agents often contain toxic ingredients, which contaminate the environment and threaten human health. This paper expounds a method of preparing a novel environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize and researches its mechanism of action. The natural polysaccharide polymer, which is the main active ingredient of this environment-friendly seed coating agent, has the characteristics of innocuity and harmlessness, and it can replace the toxic ingredients used in traditional seed coating agents. This environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize was mainly made up of the natural polysaccharide polymer and other additives. The field trials results showed that the control efficacy of Helminthosporium maydis came to 93.72%, the anti-feeding rate of cutworms came to 81.29%, and the maize yield was increased by 17.75%. Besides, the LD 50 value (half the lethal dose in rats) of this seed coating agent was 10 times higher than that of the traditional seed coating agents. This seed coating agent could improve the activity of plant protective enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and superoxidase dismutase) and increase the chlorophyll content. This seed coating agent has four characteristics of disease prevention, desinsectization, increasing yield and safety. Results of mechanism analyses showed that this seed coating agent could enhance disease control effectiveness by improving plant protective enzymes activity and increase maize yield by improving chlorophyll content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Evaluation of Seed Germination and Seed Vigor of Different Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Cultivars Under Different Planting Dates in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gorzin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean seed germination and seed vigor potential is lower compared with other crops, and it often greatly reduces at the planting time. The occurrence of unfavorable conditions during seed formation in field causes severe deterioration of seeds and reduces the seed quality. Planting date is one of the most important influencing factors on seed quality of soybean in field conditions. Since planting date affect seed quality by changing the environmental conditions including temperature, relative humidity and rainfall during seed development and maturation. Materials and Methods To evaluate the seed germination and seed vigor of soybean seeds wshich were obtained from various planting dates, a field experiment was conducted with a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design in three replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2011. Main plot included five planting dates April 20, May 13, June 3, June 29 and July 22, and sub plot consisted of three cultivars (Williams, Sahar and DPX. About 50 plants were selected and harvested during R7 (physiological maturity stage from each plot, and their pods were removed by hand. Then, pods were dried in shade. To avoid mechanical damage, the seeds were removed by hand from the pods. Ultimately, seed quality was assessed by seed germination and seed vigor including accelerated aging, seedling growth rate (SGR and electrical conductivity tests. Results and Discussion According to obtained results, the use of different planting dates caused the change at the beginning and ending time of seed filling period (R5-R7 of all three cultivars. This event in turn leads to creation different conditions in terms of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity during seed filling period in all three cultivars. Therefore Williams cultivar coincided with high temperatures more than two other cultivars, especially in the early planting dates. While DPX that

  19. Biogenesis of protein bodies during legumin accumulation in developing olive (Olea europaea L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan D; Rodríguez-García, Maria I

    2016-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about seed development and differentiation regarding reserves synthesis and accumulation come from monocot (cereals) plants. Studies in dicotyledonous seeds differentiation are limited to a few species and in oleaginous species are even scarcer despite their agronomic and economic importance. We examined the changes accompanying the differentiation of olive endosperm and cotyledon with a focus on protein bodies (PBs) biogenesis during legumin protein synthesis and accumulation, with the aim of getting insights and a better understanding of the PBs' formation process. Cotyledon and endosperm undergo differentiation during seed development, where an asynchronous time-course of protein synthesis, accumulation, and differential PB formation patterns was found in both tissues. At the end of seed maturation, a broad population of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, was distinguishable in terms of number per cell and morphometric and cytochemical features. Olive seed development is a tissue-dependent process characterized by differential rates of legumin accumulation and PB formation in the main tissues integrating seed. One of the main features of the impressive differentiation process is the specific formation of a broad group of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, which might depend on selective accumulation and packaging of proteins and specific polypeptides into PBs. The nature and availability of the major components detected in the PBs of olive seed are key parameters in order to consider the potential use of this material as a suitable source of carbon and nitrogen for animal or even human use.

  20. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  1. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  2. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... This study was conducted to evaluate the response of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seeds under accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test was carried out at three different temperatures: 41, 43 and 45°C with four duration periods of 48, 72, 96, 144 and a relative humidity of 100%. The two seed lots of F.

  3. Genetic variation in Pinus brutia Ten. seed stands and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... have been completed and progeny tests have been esta- blished on multiple sites to evaluate the genetic merits of the selected trees. There are also well distributed clonal seed orchards established to represent the breeding zones of the species. Some of these seed orchards, how- ever, are still too young ...

  4. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... the effect of seed priming with 5 g/L NaCl on germination and seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to five salinity levels ... Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling ..... Beneficial effects of silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress.

  5. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Cueff, G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Rajjou, L.; Bentsink, L.

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  6. Effect of Seed Density on Splash Cup Seed Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Patrick; Pepper, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    Splash cup plants are plants that utilize a small, mm-sized cup filled with seeds as a method of seed dispersal. The cup uses kinetic energy of an incident raindrop in order to project the seeds away from the plant up to 1 meter. The dispersal distance is important to ensure the offspring are not clustered too tightly to the parent plant. It has previously been found that a cup angle of 40 degrees to the horizontal is optimal for maximum dispersal of water from cups with no seeds. In this study we examine if the 40 degree cup is optimal for cups containing seeds with varying densities. We released uniform water drops above 5.0 mm 3D printed models of splash cups, using 1.0 mm plastic and glass microspheres of varying densities to simulate seeds. We observed the dispersal characteristics of each bead type by measuring the final seed locations after each splash, and by recording high speed video to determine the angle and velocity of the seeds as they exited the cup.

  7. Ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the response of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seeds under accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test was carried out at three different temperatures: 41, 43 and 45°C with four duration periods of 48, 72, 96, 144 and a relative humidity of 100%. The two seed lots of F. excelsior were ...

  8. Dietary polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, isolated from carrots prevents the formation of neoplastic lesions in the colon of azoxymethane-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; El-Houri, Rime B; Christensen, Lars P; Al-Najami, Issam; Fretté, Xavier; Baatrup, Gunnar

    2017-03-22

    Falcarinol (FaOH) and falcarindiol (FaDOH) are found in many food plants of the Apiaceae family. Carrots are a major dietary source of these polyacetylenes. Feeding azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rats with carrots and purified FaOH have previously been shown to inhibit neoplastic transformations in the colon. FaOH and FaDOH have also shown to have a synergistic effect in vitro, resulting in a significant increased cytotoxic activity. Based on these findings the antineoplastic effect of FaOH and FaDOH (purity > 99%) was investigated in the AOM-induced rat model. Twenty rats received rat diet containing 7 μg FaOH per g feed and 7 μg FaDOH per g feed and 20 rats were controls receiving only rat diet. Then carcinogenesis was induced in all 40 rats with the carcinogen AOM. All animals received the designated diet for 2 weeks before AOM induction and continued on the designated diet throughout the experiment. Rats were euthanized 18 weeks after the first AOM injection and macroscopic polyp/cancers were measured, harvested and stained for histology. The difference in sizes of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were analysed in a Wilcoxon rank sum test, in which the median number of small ACF was 218 in controls and 145 in polyacetylene treated rats (P < 0.001). Fifteen control rats and 8 treated rats had macroscopic tumors (P = 0.027). The number of tumors larger than 3 mm were 6 and 1 in control and treated rats, respectively (P = 0.032). In conclusion dietary supplements with FaOH and FaDOH reduced the number of neoplastic lesions as well as the growth rate of the polyps suggesting a preventive effect of FaOH and FaDOH on the development of colorectal cancer.

  9. Prevention of heterotopic bone formation with early post operative irradiation in high risk patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty: comparison of 10.00 Gy vs 20.00 Gy schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, P.; Keys, H.; Evarts, C.M.; Rubin, P.; Lush, C.

    1987-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) to the hip area following total hip replacement (THR) surgery in preventing the development of heterotopic bone formation in patients considered to be at high risk for development of this complication. Previously, patients received 20.00 Gy in 10 fractions (fx) over 2 weeks, beginning as soon postop as medically feasible (usually post-op day 2). In an effort to reduce hospital stay and risk of secondary malignancy, a prospective treatment program was initiated April 1982 using a reduced dose of 10.00 Gy in 5 fx over 5-7 days. As of February 1984, 46 consecutive hips determined to be at high risk were treated with this reduced dose. Prior studies have demonstrated that heterotopic bone is always radiographically evident by 8 weeks. Of the 46 hips, 41 had been evaluated with the minimum required 8 week follow-up X ray. Twenty-five of these hips, 61%, had a mean long term follow-up of 12 months. It historical control group, consisting of 54 consecutive high risk post-THR's, was shown to have a 68.5% incidence of heterotopic bone. The 20.00 Gy group, when RT was started by post-op day 5, demonstrated a 3.2% incidence, compared to 4.9% in the 10.00 Gy group. Complication rates were also comparable in the two RT groups, 19.4% and 7.3% respectively; 10.00 Gy is apparently as effective as 20.00 Gy in preventing heterotopic bone formation in high risk post-THR patients

  10. A systematic nurse-led approach to withdrawal risk screening, prevention and treatment among inpatients with an alcohol use disorder in an ear, nose, throat and jaw surgery department-A formative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Deborah Linda; Fierz, Katharina; Hinck, Andreas; Bodmer, Daniel; Hasemann, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Among patients with head and neck cancer comorbid alcohol use disorder is frequent which contributes to higher risk of developing perioperative alcohol withdrawal syndrome/delirium or delirium due to medical conditions. Although guidelines emphasize prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal in hospitalized patients, a validated systematic approach for management of these patients is still lacking. Our aim was to formatively evaluate our newly developed systematic approach in view of nurses' adherence to screening patients for regular alcohol consumption and managing their withdrawal symptoms using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised. We conducted a formative evaluation to improve the project's design and performance and used a retrospective chart review in a consecutive sample of all adult inpatients with head and neck cancer being assigned for surgery in a university hospital. Our bundle of interventions consisted of nurses' screenings for regular alcohol consumption, withdrawal risk assessment, offering patients a substitution therapy, nurses' assessments of withdrawal symptoms and symptom oriented withdrawal management. Proximate endpoints were analyzed descriptively at each component of the bundle in terms of frequencies and severity of withdrawal symptoms, frequencies of nurses' and doctors' screenings and nurses' assessments performed as required. Between 2013 and 2014, 87 inpatients met inclusion criteria and screenings by doctors/ nurses revealed 49 alcohol consumers, where six screenings were omitted by nurses and six by doctors. Twenty-one consumers were at risk and six of them developed an alcohol withdrawal syndrome. None of the 87 showed an alcohol withdrawal delirium, but five developed a delirium due to medical conditions. Nurses correctly conducted all preventive elements of the intervention bundle in 14 (58%) patients at risk but overall, only performed 50% of the required assessments. Although nurses safely

  11. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Saasveld Forestry Research Centre, George. Many species of Cape Proteaceae have seeds dispersed by ants. Ants may reduce seed predation by rapidly transporting and burying seeds in their nests. Three field experiments using ant and ...

  12. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  13. Glucose metabolism in gamma-irradiated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Hasegawa, H.; Hori, S.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation of 30 kR in rice seeds caused marked inhibition in seedling growth, and prevented the release of reduced sugar during the period of 25 to 76hr after soaking. The C 6 /C 1 ratio following irradiation continued to decrease up to the 76th hour of soaking; the control's ratio tended to increase with comparable soaking time. The percentage recovery of 14 C in carbon dioxide from glucose -1- 14 C was lower in irradiated than in control seeds. These results indicate that gamma-irradiation reduces the participation of the pentose phosphate pathway in glucose catabolism during an early period of germination. (author)

  14. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  15. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  16. Storage of Water Tupelo Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; H. E. Kennedy

    1973-01-01

    Water tupelo seeds can be stored for at least 30 months without significant losses in viability. Moisture contents of 20 percent or lower and polyethylene bags with walls 4 mils thick gave the best results at 38F. At 14F, seed moisture must be below 10 percent.

  17. on germination of chickpea seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patience

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... electric field (by varying voltage) on the water absorption and germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. Chickpea seeds were exposed to the electric field (by varying voltage from zero to 1300 V) for 15 min at three different temperatures (13, 16 and 19°C). The present study was conducted to find ...

  18. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  19. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  20. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  1. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  2. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  3. The fate of seeds in the soil: a review of the influence of overland flow on seed removal and its consequences for the vegetation of arid and semiarid patchy ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, E.

    2015-01-01

    erosion and by selecting for plant traits that prevent seed loss. Moreover, the interaction of seed transport by overland flow with the high seed trapping capacity of vegetated patches results in a "patch-to-patch" transport of seeds that plays a relevant role in vegetation establishment and patterning in arid and semiarid patchy ecosystems. Overall, this review shows how the knowledge about seed fate in overland flow can be used to explain a number of important characteristics of whole plant communities. It also underlines important gaps in knowledge that should be filled in. Future lines of research are proposed in order to broaden our understanding of the origin, maintenance and dynamics of patchiness in arid and semiarid ecosystems and to improve restoration success of intensively eroded ecosystems. Among the most exciting challenges, empirical studies are needed to understand the relevance of short-distance seed displacements in the origin and maintenance of patchiness, addressing the feedbacks between structure and function and abiotic and biotic components, in order to validate existing models about the dynamics of arid and semiarid ecosystems and help to predict future changes under the scenarios of climate change.

  4. De novo transcriptome assembly and quantification reveal differentially expressed genes between soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Cao, Shangyin; Li, Haoxian; Zhang, Jie; Niu, Juan; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Fuhong; Zhao, Diguang

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) belongs to Punicaceae, and is valued for its social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic values, as well as more recently for its health benefits. The ‘Tunisia’ variety has softer seeds and big arils that are easily swallowed. It is a widely popular fruit; however, the molecular mechanisms of the formation of hard and soft seeds is not yet clear. We conducted a de novo assembly of the seed transcriptome in P. granatum L. and revealed differential gene expression between the soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate varieties. A total of 35.1 Gb of data were acquired in this study, including 280,881,106 raw reads. Additionally, de novo transcriptome assembly generated 132,287 transcripts and 105,743 representative unigenes; approximately 13,805 unigenes (37.7%) were longer than 1,000 bp. Using bioinformatics annotation libraries, a total of 76,806 unigenes were annotated and, among the high-quality reads, 72.63% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. Gene expression and differentially expressed genes were analyzed. The seed formation of the two pomegranate cultivars involves lignin biosynthesis and metabolism, including some genes encoding laccase and peroxidase, WRKY, MYB, and NAC transcription factors. In the hard-seed pomegranate, lignin-related genes and cellulose synthesis-related genes were highly expressed; in soft-seed pomegranates, expression of genes related to flavonoids and programmed cell death was slightly higher. We validated selection of the identified genes using qRT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of P. granatum L. This transcription sequencing greatly enriched the pomegranate molecular database, and the high-quality SSRs generated in this study will aid the gene cloning from pomegranate in the future. It provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of soft seeds in pomegranate. PMID:28594931

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly and quantification reveal differentially expressed genes between soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate (Punica granatum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xue

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belongs to Punicaceae, and is valued for its social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic values, as well as more recently for its health benefits. The 'Tunisia' variety has softer seeds and big arils that are easily swallowed. It is a widely popular fruit; however, the molecular mechanisms of the formation of hard and soft seeds is not yet clear. We conducted a de novo assembly of the seed transcriptome in P. granatum L. and revealed differential gene expression between the soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate varieties. A total of 35.1 Gb of data were acquired in this study, including 280,881,106 raw reads. Additionally, de novo transcriptome assembly generated 132,287 transcripts and 105,743 representative unigenes; approximately 13,805 unigenes (37.7% were longer than 1,000 bp. Using bioinformatics annotation libraries, a total of 76,806 unigenes were annotated and, among the high-quality reads, 72.63% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. Gene expression and differentially expressed genes were analyzed. The seed formation of the two pomegranate cultivars involves lignin biosynthesis and metabolism, including some genes encoding laccase and peroxidase, WRKY, MYB, and NAC transcription factors. In the hard-seed pomegranate, lignin-related genes and cellulose synthesis-related genes were highly expressed; in soft-seed pomegranates, expression of genes related to flavonoids and programmed cell death was slightly higher. We validated selection of the identified genes using qRT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of P. granatum L. This transcription sequencing greatly enriched the pomegranate molecular database, and the high-quality SSRs generated in this study will aid the gene cloning from pomegranate in the future. It provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of soft seeds in pomegranate.

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly and quantification reveal differentially expressed genes between soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate (Punica granatum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Cao, Shangyin; Li, Haoxian; Zhang, Jie; Niu, Juan; Chen, Lina; Zhang, Fuhong; Zhao, Diguang

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) belongs to Punicaceae, and is valued for its social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic values, as well as more recently for its health benefits. The 'Tunisia' variety has softer seeds and big arils that are easily swallowed. It is a widely popular fruit; however, the molecular mechanisms of the formation of hard and soft seeds is not yet clear. We conducted a de novo assembly of the seed transcriptome in P. granatum L. and revealed differential gene expression between the soft-seed and hard-seed pomegranate varieties. A total of 35.1 Gb of data were acquired in this study, including 280,881,106 raw reads. Additionally, de novo transcriptome assembly generated 132,287 transcripts and 105,743 representative unigenes; approximately 13,805 unigenes (37.7%) were longer than 1,000 bp. Using bioinformatics annotation libraries, a total of 76,806 unigenes were annotated and, among the high-quality reads, 72.63% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. Gene expression and differentially expressed genes were analyzed. The seed formation of the two pomegranate cultivars involves lignin biosynthesis and metabolism, including some genes encoding laccase and peroxidase, WRKY, MYB, and NAC transcription factors. In the hard-seed pomegranate, lignin-related genes and cellulose synthesis-related genes were highly expressed; in soft-seed pomegranates, expression of genes related to flavonoids and programmed cell death was slightly higher. We validated selection of the identified genes using qRT-PCR. This is the first transcriptome analysis of P. granatum L. This transcription sequencing greatly enriched the pomegranate molecular database, and the high-quality SSRs generated in this study will aid the gene cloning from pomegranate in the future. It provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of soft seeds in pomegranate.

  7. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  8. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: farmers' varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides

  9. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  10. effect of neem seed husk ash em seed husk ash em seed husk ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    therefore can be used for non-structural and mass concrete application structural and ... ilable material with minor. Waste materials can concrete if they are not term properties of. Neem seed husk ash (NSHA) the waste husk obtained during the ex from neem seed. ... strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was designed using.

  11. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien De Giorgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties.

  12. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubery, Sylvain; Utz-Pugin, Anne; Bailly, Christophe; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties. PMID:26681322

  13. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, Julien; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Loubery, Sylvain; Utz-Pugin, Anne; Bailly, Christophe; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties.

  14. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  15. Differentially expressed seed aging responsive heat shock protein OsHSP18.2 implicates in seed vigor, longevity and improves germination and seedling establishment under abiotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmeet eKaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (sHSP are a diverse group of proteins and are highly abundant in plant species. Although majority of these sHSPs were shown to express specifically in seed, their potential function in seed physiology remains to be fully explored. Our proteomic analysis revealed that OsHSP18.2, a class II cytosolic HSP is an aging responsive protein as its abundance significantly increased after artificial aging in rice seeds. OsHSP18.2 transcript was found to markedly increase at the late maturation stage being highly abundant in dry seeds and sharply decreased after germination. Our biochemical study clearly demonstrated that OsHSP18.2 forms homooligomeric complex and is dodecameric in nature and functions as a molecular chaperon. OsHSP18.2 displayed chaperone activity as it was effective in preventing thermal inactivation of Citrate Synthase. Further, to analyze the function of this protein in seed physiology, seed specific Arabidopsis overexpression lines for OsHSP18.2 were generated. Our subsequent functional analysis clearly demonstrated that OsHSP18.2 has ability to improve seed vigor and longevity by reducing deleterious ROS accumulation in seeds. In addition, transformed Arabidopsis seeds displayed better performance in germination and cotyledon emergence under adverse conditions as well. Collectively, our work demonstrates that OsHSP18.2 is an aging responsive protein which functions as a molecular chaperon and possibly protect and stabilize the cellular proteins from irreversible damage particularly during maturation drying, desiccation and aging in seeds by restricting ROS accumulation and thereby improves seed vigor, longevity and seedling establishment.

  16. Differentially expressed seed aging responsive heat shock protein OsHSP18.2 implicates in seed vigor, longevity and improves germination and seedling establishment under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu P; Kamble, Nitin U; Singh, Ajeet; Rao, Venkateswara; Salvi, Prafull; Ghosh, Shraboni; Majee, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a diverse group of proteins and are highly abundant in plant species. Although majority of these sHSPs were shown to express specifically in seed, their potential function in seed physiology remains to be fully explored. Our proteomic analysis revealed that OsHSP18.2, a class II cytosolic HSP is an aging responsive protein as its abundance significantly increased after artificial aging in rice seeds. OsHSP18.2 transcript was found to markedly increase at the late maturation stage being highly abundant in dry seeds and sharply decreased after germination. Our biochemical study clearly demonstrated that OsHSP18.2 forms homooligomeric complex and is dodecameric in nature and functions as a molecular chaperone. OsHSP18.2 displayed chaperone activity as it was effective in preventing thermal inactivation of Citrate Synthase. Further, to analyze the function of this protein in seed physiology, seed specific Arabidopsis overexpression lines for OsHSP18.2 were generated. Our subsequent functional analysis clearly demonstrated that OsHSP18.2 has ability to improve seed vigor and longevity by reducing deleterious ROS accumulation in seeds. In addition, transformed Arabidopsis seeds also displayed better performance in germination and cotyledon emergence under adverse conditions. Collectively, our work demonstrates that OsHSP18.2 is an aging responsive protein which functions as a molecular chaperone and possibly protect and stabilize the cellular proteins from irreversible damage particularly during maturation drying, desiccation and aging in seeds by restricting ROS accumulation and thereby improves seed vigor, longevity and seedling establishment.

  17. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  18. Herbicidal Activity of Glucosinolate Degradation Products in Fermented Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEVENS, JAN F.; REED, RALPH L.; ALBER, SUSAN; PRITCHETT, LARRY; MACHADO, STEPHEN

    2009-01-01

    Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is an oilseed crop grown in western Oregon. After extraction of the oil from the seeds, the remaining seed meal contains 2-4% of the glucosinolate, glucolimnanthin. We investigated the effect of fermentation of seed meal on its chemical composition and the effect of the altered composition on downy brome (Bromus tectorum) coleoptile emergence. Incubation of enzyme-inactive seed meal with enzyme-active seeds (1% by weight) resulted in complete degradation of glucolimnanthin and formation of 3-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate in 28% yield. Fermentation in the presence of an aqueous solution of FeSO4 (10 mM) resulted in the formation of 3-methoxyphenylacetonitrile and 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethanethioamide, a novel natural product. The formation of the isothiocyanate, the nitrile and the thioamide, as a total, correlated with an increase of herbicidal potency of seed meal (r2 = 0.96). The results of this study open new possibilities for the refinement of glucosinolate-containing seed meals for use as bioherbicides. PMID:19170637

  19. Seed-mediated growth of gold nanocrystals: changes to the crystallinity or morphology as induced by the treatment of seeds with a sulfur species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiqun; Luo, Ming; Tao, Jing; Peng, Hsin-Chieh; Wan, Dehui; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2014-12-11

    We report our observation of changes to the crystallinity or morphology during seed-mediated growth of Au nanocrystals. When single-crystal Au seeds with a spherical or rod-like shape were treated with a chemical species such as S2O3(2-) ions, twin defects were developed during the growth process to generate multiply twinned nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the S2O3(2-) ions were chemisorbed on the surfaces of the seeds during the treatment. The chemisorbed S2O3(2-) ions somehow influenced the crystallization of Au atoms added onto the surface during a growth process, leading to the formation of twin defects. In contrast to the spherical and rod-like Au seeds, the single-crystal structure was retained to generate a concave morphology when single-crystal Au seeds with a cubic or octahedral shape were used for a similar treatment and then seed-mediated growth. The different outcomes are likely related to the difference in spatial distribution of S2O3(2-) ions chemisorbed on the surface of a seed. This approach based on surface modification is potentially extendable to other noble metals for engineering the crystallinity and morphology of nanocrystals formed via seed-mediated growth.

  20. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Oblique cone formation in Ge by Ar+ sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chini, T.K.; Bhattaracharyya, S.R.; Ghose, D.; Basu, D.

    1992-01-01

    Sharp oblique cones are only formed on polished germanium surfaces by 30 keV Ar + bombardment, in the presence of tungsten seed atoms; substantiating Wehner's hypothesis that higher melting point seed material is the crucial factor for cone formation. The morphology of the cone is characterized by the formation of a sloped ridge, consistent with the observations of earlier workers. Moreover, some strange wing-like structures are associated with these cones. (author)

  2. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  3. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  4. Loss of I-125 seeds after perineal implantation of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopereis, A.J.M.; Moerland, M.A.; Koning, J.H.A.G. de; Battermann, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: One of the treatment modalities of early stage prostate cancer is the permanent implantation of I-125 seeds. The aim of this study was to obtain insight in the loss of seeds after implantation. Methods and Materials: During the past 6 years, 100 patients were treated and examined. Radiographs of the prostate area were taken at discharge (after 2 or 3 days) and combined with a follow-up appointment, successively after 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. 10 patients were excluded from this study because of a later performed prostatectomy or TURP. During the hospitalisation period the patient's excrements were examined for lost seeds. Furthermore patients were instructed to urinate through a tea-strainer in the first month following implantation in order to prevent seeds from entering the sewage system. Results: We observed an overall loss of 5% during the entire follow-up period of 2 years. Further analysis of the obtained data showed that most of the seeds (3% of the implanted seeds) were lost in the first 2 days after implantation. Due to special attention paid to safety measures, 94% of the lost seeds were retrieved during the admission period. Because of adequate instructions given to the patients, 70% of the seeds lost during the first month after discharge (0.5% of the total number of remaining implanted seeds) were also retrieved. Losing seeds during the first month after implantation did not increase the chance of further loss later on. A total of 13 seeds (in all patients) was lost after 1 month (of which 6 were lost after more then one year and are for radiation safety reasons not of importance). Conclusions: Most seeds are lost during the first days after implantation. Therefore, radiographs are indicated at discharge, after 1 month (for evaluation of safety precautions) and after 1 year as a conclusion to the treatment

  5. Dormancy and germination: How does the crop seed decide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, K; Meng, Y J; Shuai, H W; Liu, W G; Du, J B; Liu, J; Yang, W Y

    2015-11-01

    Whether seeds germinate or maintain dormancy is decided upon through very intricate physiological processes. Correct timing of these processes is most important for the plants life cycle. If moist conditions are encountered, a low dormancy level causes pre-harvest sprouting in various crop species, such as wheat, corn and rice, this decreases crop yield and negatively impacts downstream industrial processing. In contrast, a deep level of seed dormancy prevents normal germination even under favourable conditions, resulting in a low emergence rate during agricultural production. Therefore, an optimal seed dormancy level is valuable for modern mechanised agricultural systems. Over the past several years, numerous studies have demonstrated that diverse endogenous and environmental factors regulate the balance between dormancy and germination, such as light, temperature, water status and bacteria in soil, and phytohormones such as ABA (abscisic acid) and GA (gibberellic acid). In this updated review, we highlight recent advances regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy and germination processes, including the external environmental and internal hormonal cues, and primarily focusing on the staple crop species. Furthermore, future challenges and research directions for developing a full understanding of crop seed dormancy and germination are also discussed. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Biodegradation of genetically modified seeds and plant tissues during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tim; Alexander, Trevor W; Xu, Weiping; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-03-15

    The increasing global market of genetically modified (GM) crops amplifies the potential for unintentional contamination of food and feed with GM plants. Methods proposed for disposal of crop residues should be assessed to prevent unintended distribution of GM materials. Composting of organic material is inexpensive and location-independent. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of composting for disposal of GM plants in terms of reducing seed viability and promoting the degradation of endogenous as well as transgenic DNA. Duplicate samples of corn kernels, alfalfa leaves, and GM canola seeds, meal and pellets were sealed in porous nylon bags and implanted in duplicate 85,000 kg (initial weight) feedlot manure compost piles. Samples were collected at intervals over 230 days of composing. Canola seeds and corn kernels were not viable after 14 days of composting with temperatures in the piles exceeding 50 degrees C. In all samples, PCR analyses revealed that plant endogenous and transgenic fragments were substantially degraded after 230 days of composting. Southern blotting of genomic DNA isolated from canola seeds identified differences in the persistence of endogenous, transgenic, and bacterial DNA. Composting GM and non-GM plant materials with manure rendered seeds non-viable, and resulted in substantial, although not complete, degradation of endogenous and transgenic plant DNA. This study demonstrates that composting could be effective for disposing of GM crops in the event of their inadvertent entry into the food or feed chain.

  7. Germination and dormancy of single tomato seeds : a study using non-invasive molecular and biophysical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, P.

    2002-01-01

    Formation , germination and dormancy of seeds are important steps in the life cycle of higher plants. The seed is the generative dispersal unit, which enables plants to spread and survive through periods or seasons of less favourable conditions. In agriculture tomato is

  8. Longevity and germination of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Arecaceae seeds and its ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Gabriel Soares Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Syagrus romanzoffiana is a palm tree native and widely distributed of South America. The present study investigated the longevity and germination of the buried seeds of this species in an experimental seed bank. Laboratory germination and viability tests were performed for comparison with field results. Pyrenes (seeds enclosed by the endocarp were buried in a forest fragment edge in July 2012 (dry season and exhumed monthly during one year, for the assessment of water content and percentage of germinated and viable seeds. Germination tests were conducted in a Mangelsdorf-type germinator at 30°C under constant light and the viability was assessed by the tetrazolium test. An additional sample of pyrenes was buried to evaluate the percentage of seedling emergence and survival. Climatic and soil moisture data were recorded. In the laboratory, the pyrenes were stored for one year in a temperature-controlled room at 20ºC and 75% (±10% relative air humidity to assess changes in the percentage of germination and viability over time. In the field, a reduction in seed viability was observed over the study period, with a total loss of viability of non-germinated seeds at seven months after burial. The maximum germination (close to 26% was observed in the samples that were exhumed between five and seven months after burial. In the field, seedling emergence did not exceed 10% and seedling mortality was not observed. The percentages of germination and of viable seeds decreased both in burial and stored seeds. The stored seeds maintained viability at up to six months, with marked reduction thereafter. After the germination tests (four months in the laboratory, all of the remaining seeds were nonviable. The ecological, physiological and reproductive characteristics of the species are discussed, and we concluded that S. romanzoffiana seeds have short longevity after imbibition, and low potential for soil seed bank formation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2: 333

  9. Release of allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed meal powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ruyan; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2014-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a wide-spectrum antimicrobial compound found in mustard seeds, produced when their tissues are disrupted. The formation of AITC in mustard seed is mediated by the myrosinase enzyme which catalyzes the release of volatile AITC from a glucosinolate-sinigrin. Since water is a substrate in the reaction, humidity from the air can be used to activate the release of AITC from mustard seed. In this study, defatted and partially defatted mustard seed meals were ground into powders with particle size ranging from 5 to 300 μm. The mustard seed meal powder (MSMP) samples were enclosed within hermetically sealed glass jars wherein the headspace air was adjusted to 85% or 100% relative humidity at 5, 20, or 35 °C. Data from gas chromatography analysis showed that AITC release rate and amount increased with increasing relative humidity and temperature. Moreover, the release rate can be manipulated by particle size and lipid content of the MSMP samples. The amount of AITC released ranged from 2 to 17 mg/g MSMP within 24 h under the experimental conditions tested. In view of the antimicrobial properties of AITC, the mustard meal powder may be used as a natural antimicrobial material for extending the shelf life of food products. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Anatomy and ontogeny of Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae: Faboideae seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. T. Oliveira

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the anatomy and ontogeny of Pterodon emarginatus seed using the usual techniques. The ovules are campilotropous, crassinucelate, and bitegmic. The following processes occur during integument development: anticlinal divisions and phenolic compound accumulations in the exotesta, whose cells become palisade; predominantly periclinal divisions and cell expansion in the mesotesta, where the rapheal bundle differentiates; differentiation of the hourglass-cell layer adjacent to the palisade; fusion of outer and inner integuments, which remain individualized structures only at the micropylar end; and intense pectin impregnation in the mesotesta thicker walls with lignification restricted to the xylem. At the hilar pole, the Faboideae seed characteristic structure develops, with double palisade layer, subhilar parenchyma, and tracheid bar. The younger nucellus shows thicker pectic cell walls and is consumed during seed formation. The endosperm is nuclear and, after cellularization, shows peripheral cells with dense lipid content; the seeds are albuminous. The axial embryo shows fleshy cotyledons, which accumulate lipid and protein reserves; starch is rare. Although the seed structure is characteristic of the Fabaceae, the inner integument coalesces into the outer integument without being reabsorbed.

  11. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  12. Quality of cowpea seeds treated with chemicals and stored in controlled and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucicléia Mendes de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea is a Fabaceae originated in Africa cultivated in the northern and northeastern of Brazil, where stands out as the main source of protein for the population. For the establishment of culture, seeds are treated to control and prevent pest attacks and diseases, can also attach nutrients to the seeds which will be available for plant development. The objective of the research was to evaluate the performance of cowpea seeds treated with chemical products and stored in controlled and uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The following seeds treatments were applied: control (no treatment; micronutrient Comol 118, insecticide thiamethoxam, fipronil and pyraclostrobin+thiophanate-methyl and imidacloprid+thiodicarb were then stored in a cold environment and natural. The assessment of physiological seed quality was made initially and every 45 days through the germination and vigor. Among all products used, the imidacloprid + thiodicarb and fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl provides stimulating effect on seed performance; seeds treated with thiamethoxam were less affected by storage than the untreated seeds; seeds treated with micronutrients exhibits similar behavior to untreated seeds and storage in a controlled environment better preserves the seed physiological quality.

  13. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  14. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  15. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal syphilis screening and treatment for the prevention of congenital syphilis in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia: results of qualitative formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkamba, Dalau; Mwenechanya, Musaku; Kilonga, Arlette Mavila; Cafferata, Maria Luisa; Berrueta, Amanda Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Althabe, Fernando; Garcia-Elorrio, Ezequiel; Tshefu, Antoniette K; Chomba, Elwyn; Buekens, Pierre M; Belizan, Maria

    2017-08-14

    The impact of untreated syphilis during pregnancy on neonatal health remains a major public health threat worldwide. Given the high prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy in Zambia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Preventive Congenital Syphilis Trial (PCS Trial), a cluster randomized trial, was proposed to increase same-day screening and treatment of syphilis during antenatal care visits. To design an accepted and feasible intervention, we conducted a qualitative  formative research. Our objective was to identify context-specific  barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal screening and treatment during pregnancy. Qualitative research included in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinic administrators, group interviews with health care providers, and focus groups with pregnant women in primary care clinics (PCCs) in Kinshasa (DRC) and Lusaka (Zambia). A total of 112 individuals participated in the interviews and focus groups. Barriers for the implementation of syphilis testing and treatment were identified at the a) system level: fragmentation of the health system, existence of ANC guidelines in conflict with proposed intervention, poor accessibility of clinics (geographical and functional), staff and product shortages at the PCCs; b) healthcare providers' level: lack of knowledge and training about evolving best practices, reservations regarding same-day screening and treatment; c) Pregnant women level: late enrollment in ANC, lack of knowledge about consequences and treatment of syphilis, and stigma. Based on these results, we developed recommendations for the design of the PCS Trial intervention. This research allowed us to identify barriers and facilitators to improve the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral intervention. Formative research is a critical step in designing appropriate and effective interventions by closing the "know-do gap".

  16. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  17. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  18. Efeito da prevenção de produção de sementes pelas plantas daninhas e da aplicação de herbicida em jato dirigido na densidade de infestação na cultura do milho em anos sucessivos Effect of weed seed production prevention and 10-year herbicide direct spray on weed density in corn during sucessive years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Skóra Neto

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com dez anos de duração foi realizado em Ponta Grossa-PR para avaliar o efeito da prevenção de produção de sementes pelas plantas daninhas e da aplicação de herbicida em jato dirigido na densidade de infestação em plantios direto e convencional. As plantas daninhas predominantes na área foram capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea, capim-colchão (Digitaria ciliaris, amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis e guanxuma (Sida rhombifolia. O controle da frutificação das plantas daninhas durante dez anos reduziu a densidade das espécies presentes em mais de 99%. A redução foi variável entre as espécies, mas em todas elas foi mais intensa nos primeiros anos. A densidade populacional em anos subseqüentes, quando se permitia a reinfestação da área após o controle inicial das plantas daninhas (testemunha, variou conforme as condições climáticas e culturais. A aplicação de herbicida em jato-dirigido foi uma prática eficiente no controle da frutificação das plantas daninhas suscetíveis aos herbicidas, mas selecionou o capim-colchão quando o controle desta espécie foi insatisfatório. A equação que descreve o comportamento dos tratamentos sem ressemeadura e com jato dirigido foi do tipo exponencial negativa. Os resultados obtidos por meio da densidade de plantas emergidas são confirmados pela avaliação do banco de sementes em cada tratamento.A ten-year corn field experiment was conducted at Ponta Grossa (Parana, Brazil to evaluate the effect of weed seed production prevention and herbicide direct spray on weed density in successive years, under two different tillage treatments (conventional and no-till. The main weeds in the area were Alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea, crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris, wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla, pusley (Richardia brasiliensis and arrowleaf sida (Sida rhombifolia. The prevention of weed seed production during ten years

  19. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.