Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena
School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…
Simonds, Thomas Andrew
Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the…
KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill
Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…
Thakore, Rachel V.; Apfeld, Jordan C.; Johnson, Ronald K.; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A. Alex; Sethi, Manish K.
Abstract: Background: Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Methods: Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussi...
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.
Full Text Available In many countries across the world schools are no longer a safe place for both students and school staff. Violence in school is an issue scarcely studied in Serbia and there are few articles in domestic professional literature. At national and local level there are not developed strategies nor programs for preventing violence among students in our schools. There are no data about planned, systematic and organized prevention of violence in the practice of our schools. The data obtained by investigations indicate that it is necessary to apply adequate programs for preventing violence among students in our schools, despite the finding that violence in school is not that much conspicuous and serious problem like in other countries (USA Israel, Japan, Austria, Germany. On the basis of relevant literature review the present paper highlights some very popular and less notorious measures and prevention programs applied in various countries. The aim of the paper is to transmit basic and essential pieces of information so as to gain insight into diverse existing approaches to prevention of violent behavior in school hopefully to encourage our schools to pay more attention to preventing violence in school as soon as possible before it is too late.
Schonfeld, Irvin Sam
The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…
Payton, Erica; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H
Firearm violence remains a significant problem in the US (with 2787 adolescents killed in 2015). However, the research on school firearm violence prevention practices and policies is scant. Parents are major stakeholders in relation to firearm violence by youths and school safety in general. The purpose of this study was to examine what parents thought schools should be doing to reduce the risk of firearm violence in schools. A valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 600 parents who had at least one child enrolled in a public secondary school (response rate = 47%). Parents perceived inadequate parental monitoring/rearing practices (73%), peer harassment and/or bullying (58%), inadequate mental health care services for youth (54%), and easy access to guns (51%) as major causes of firearm violence in schools. The school policies perceived to be most effective in reducing firearm violence were installing an alert system in schools (70%), working with law enforcement to design an emergency response plan (70%), creating a comprehensive security plan (68%), requiring criminal background checks for all school personnel prior to hiring (67%), and implementing an anonymous system for students to report peer concerns regarding potential violence (67%). Parents seem to have a limited grasp of potentially effective interventions to reduce firearm violence.
Stueve, Ann; Dash, Kimberly; O'Donnell, Lydia; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wilson-Simmons, Renée; Slaby, Ronald G; Link, Bruce G
Public concerns about school shootings and safety draw attention to the role bystanders can play in preventing school violence. Although school violence prevention plans are often required, there is little guidance about whether these should address the roles of bystanders and what actions bystanders should take in different circumstances, from more common instances of bullying and fighting to rare, but potentially lethal, threats and use of weapons. Literature pertaining to bystanders is reviewed and applied to the school setting. The definition of bystander is expanded, including parents, teachers, and other school staff as well as youths and those who have information about potential violence as well as those who witness its occurrence. Barriers preventing bystanders from taking positive actions are discussed. The authors call on health promotion researchers and practitioners to work with school communities to identify norms, attitudes, and outcome expectancies that shape bystander behaviors to inform prevention efforts.
Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Burke, Jessica G.; Gielen, Andrea C.
Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between characteristics of the school environment and the likelihood of school violence. However, little is known about the relative importance of various characteristics of the school environment or their differential impact on multiple violence outcomes. Methods: Primarily…
Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K
Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.
Mytton, J; DiGuiseppi, C; Gough, D; Taylor, R; Logan, S
Early aggressive behaviour is a risk factor for later violence and criminal behaviour. Despite over 20 years of violence prevention interventions being delivered in the school setting, questions remain regarding the effectiveness of different interventions for children exhibiting aggressive behaviour. To examine the effect of school based violence prevention programmes for children identified as aggressive or at risk of being aggressive. We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Injuries Group specialised register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, other specialised databases and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and organisations to identify any further studies. We included trials meeting the following criteria; 1) participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups; 2) outcome data were collected concurrently; 3) participants comprised children in mandatory education identified as exhibiting, or at risk of, aggressive behaviour; 4) interventions designed to reduce aggression, violence, bullying, conflict or anger; 5) school based interventions; 6) outcomes included aggressive behaviour, school and agency responses to acts of aggression, or violent injuries. Data were collected on design, participants, interventions, outcomes and indicators of study quality. Results of any intervention to no intervention were compared immediately post-intervention and at 12 months using meta-analysis where appropriate. Of 56 trials identified, none reported data on violent injuries. Aggressive behaviour was significantly reduced in intervention groups compared to no intervention groups immediately post intervention in 34 trials with data, (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) = -0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.56 to -0.26). This effect was maintained in the seven studies reporting 12 month follow-up (SMD = -0.40, (95% CI -0.73 to -0.06)). School or agency disciplinary actions in response to aggressive behaviour were reduced in intervention groups for nine trials
Orpinas, P; Parcel, G S; McAlister, A; Frankowski, R
To evaluate the effect of a violence prevention curriculum and of trained peer leaders on self-reported aggressive behaviors, knowledge about violence and conflict-resolution skills, self-efficacy, and attitudes among 223 6th graders. The effect of two intervention groups (violence prevention curriculum taught by the teacher with or without the assistance of trained peer leaders) and one control group were compared. Ten 6th grade classes (four control and six intervention classes) of four middle schools participated in the study. Students were evaluated before and shortly after the implementation of the curriculum, as well as 3 months later. The intervention reduced self-reported aggressive behaviors among boys, but this reduction was significant only in two of the six intervention classes. Both interventions had an overall significant effect on increasing knowledge about violence and skills to reduce violence. After the intervention, students also developed a more negative attitude toward responding violently when provoked. Attitude change was stronger among students from the teacher plus peer leader group. No intervention effect was observed on self-efficacy nor on attitudes toward skills to reduce violence. Changes were not maintained over time. Results emphasize the need for continuous and comprehensive interventions, follow-up evaluations, and careful selection of peer leaders. Aggressive behaviors, not knowledge alone, should be used as the main dependent variable.
Blout, JoAnn D.; Rose, Kathleen C.; Suessmann, Mary; Coleman, Kara; Selekman, Janice
Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) advance safe school environments by promoting the prevention and reduction of school violence. School nurses collaborate with school personnel, healthcare providers, parents, and community members to identify and implement evidence-based educational programs. The…
DuRant, R H; Treiber, F; Getts, A; McCloud, K; Linder, C W; Woods, E R
To compare the effectiveness of the Violence Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents to the Conflict Resolution: A Curriculum for Youth Providers among middle school students. A sample (N = 225) of adolescents (males = 48%) representing 20% of the student population in two middle schools were administered a pretest questionnaire. Of these students, 89% were African-American, 10% were white, and 1% were Native-American and lived in public housing (40%) or in neighborhoods adjacent to public housing (60%). Each school was randomly assigned to one of the curricula. Each curriculum was administered during 10 50-min sessions held twice a week over 5 weeks. One week later, 209 students who completed the 10 sessions were tested with the same questionnaire. The data were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Students who received either curriculum reported significant decreases in their self-reported use of violence in hypothetical conflict situations, frequency of use of violence in the previous 30 days, and frequency of physical fights in the previous 30 days. The conflict resolution curriculum was more effective in reducing the frequency of fights resulting in an injury requiring medical treatment in the previous 30 days. Both curricula were successful in reducing three indicators of violence. However, the conflict resolution approach was more successful in reducing the frequency of more severe physical fights requiring medical treatment. The latter finding is of particular importance, because that physical fighting is the form of violence behavior in which young adolescents most often engage.
Yavuzer, Yasemin; Gundogdu, Rezzan
It is generally acknowledged that teachers play an important role in preventing or reducing violence in schools. The objectives of this study were: (a) to identify teachers' responsibilities in terms of preventing violence among school children and (b) to solicit teachers' views as what they have been doing in preventing violence. Sample for the…
Schick, Andreas; Cierpka, Manfred
Schools and kindergartens are particularly suitable for the implementation of violence prevention programs. Many German schools and kindergartens have securely established the violence prevention curriculum Faustlos. The Faustlos programs for kindergartens and elementary schools are now complemented with the version for middle schools. As the kindergarten- and elementary school versions the middle school program too focuses on the theoretically profound, age group-tailored promotion of empathy, impulse control and anger management. These dimensions are subdivided into the five themes "understanding the problem" "training for empathy"; "anger management", "problem solving" and "applying skills" and taught stepwise, highly structured and based on several video sequences in 31 lessons. US-American evaluation studies proof the effectiveness and the violence prevention potential of the program. With the curriculum for middle schools a comprehensive Faustlos program package is now made available to sustainably promote core violence prevention competences of children and adolescents on a developmentally appropriate level and with a consistent didactic approach.
Research has demonstrated that a positive school climate is an essential part of violence prevention. Many factors influence the association between school climate and behavioral outcomes. Positive school climate alone cannot prevent all variables that may contribute to the expression of aggression. Nevertheless, positive school climates influence…
McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon
This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) advance safe school environments by promoting the prevention and reduction of school violence. School nurses collaborate with school personnel, health care providers, parents, and community members to identify and implement evidence-based educational programs promoting violence prevention. The curriculum used should improve students' communication, behavior management, and conflict resolution skills. School nurses assess and refer at-risk students in need of evaluation and treatment for symptoms of aggression and victimization.
Viriam Leiva Díaz
Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders
Botvin, Gilbert J; Griffin, Kenneth W; Nichols, Tracy Diaz
Violence is an important public health problem among adolescents in the United States. Substance use and violence tend to co-occur among adolescents and appear to have similar etiologies. The present study examined the extent to which a comprehensive prevention approach targeting an array of individual-level risk and protective factors and previously found effective in preventing tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is capable of decreasing violence and delinquency. Schools (N=41) were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Participants in the 20 intervention schools received the Life Skills Training prevention program including material focusing on violence and the media, anger management, and conflict resolution skills. Survey data were collected from 4,858 sixth grade students prior to the intervention and three months later after the intervention. Findings showed significant reductions in violence and delinquency for intervention participants relative to controls. Stronger prevention effects were found for students who received at least half of the preventive intervention. These effects include less verbal and physical aggression, fighting, and delinquency. The results of this study indicate that a school-based prevention approach previously found to prevent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use can also prevent violence and delinquency.
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…
Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper
Examines the school nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and development of violence prevention strategies in the school and community, offering an overview of school violence; risk factors for youth violence (gender, age, race, ethnicity, behavior, family, school, and community); risk factors for school shootings; and implications for…
... Programs Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first step in preventing school violence is to understand the extent and nature ...
Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper
School violence is a growing area of concern for school nurses across the nation. Recent national data and a compilation of risk factors for youth violence and school shootings are presented as a general guide to identifying students who may be in need of assistance. The nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and developing violence prevention strategies in the school and the community are examined.
Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharrón-del Río, María R.
In this article we argue that efforts to eradicate school violence should include an understanding of the complex social, cultural, and historical contexts in which violence is perpetrated. Specifically, we assert that the production and perpetuation of hegemonic/dominant masculinity plays a pivotal role in various forms of aggression and violence…
Casella, Ronnie; Burstyn, Joan
Examines how school staff conceptualize their work with alternative school adolescents after undergoing at least 1 year of a whole school violence prevention program. Results highlight the importance of linking social learning and academics in violence prevention strategies and of sustaining collaborative efforts that connect conflict resolution…
Knowles, Cynthia R.
This book helps educators produce assessments of their schools' drug and violence prevention programs. It contains over 30 separate resources that can be adapted to specific evaluations (e.g., sample youth and adult participant feedback sheets, sample classroom observation sheets and teacher implementation logs, sample en-route participant…
Gomez, Diane Diaz
The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After…
Patterson, Rita Mabon; Maldonado, Nancy; Howe, Mary
Violence is a problem that affects the family structure, schools, and communities. Although some violence takes place behind closed doors, the effects are devastating to society and the community. The overwhelming results are seen with the increase of visits to abuse shelters and emergency rooms. Domestic violence in households tends to continue…
Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert
The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…
Mulhern, Sean; And Others
Increased violence in schools, represented by possession of weapons, sexual or racial harassment, bullying, verbal intimidation, gang or cult activity, arson, or corporal punishment of students, for example, is a growing concern among students, educators, and communities. Since educators alone cannot ensure safety in schools, collaboration among…
Full Text Available School violence can be prevented. Research shows that prevention efforts by teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and even students can reduce violence and improve the overall school environment. Prevention efforts should ultimately reduce risk factors and promote protective factors at these multiple levels of influence. This article reviews the experience preventing school violence, based on the school psychologists practical and theoretical findings. School SMURTO PREVENCIJOS GALIMYBĖS MOKYKLOJE. JAUNIMO PATIRTYS KNYGOJE 103 „AŠ ĮVEIKIAU, NEBIJOK KOVOTI“ Violence: Prevention tools and resources were reviewed in this article. Based on the real school experience, it was described Olweus, Selezian and other violence prevention, educational programs. Based on the book “I stopped the school violence. You can do the same” were reviewed youths real experiences reducing the risk for violence. Were reviewed implications for crisis intervention and given recommendations for brief treatment practices, how to stop the violence in the school settings, strengthening young people’s abilities effectively solve difficulties.
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…
Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.
Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…
Lester, Soraya; Lawrence, Cayleigh; Ward, Catherine L
Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2015; in English; considered school-based interventions for children and measured violence as an outcome. Many systematic reviews were found, thus we completed a systematic review of systematic reviews. Only systematic reviews on interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) and peer aggression were found. These reviews were generally of moderate quality. Research on both types of violence was largely completed in North America. Only a handful of programmes demonstrate promise in preventing IPV. Cognitive behavioral, social-emotional and peer mentoring/mediation programmes showed promise in reducing the levels of perpetration of peer aggression. Further research needs to determine the long-term effects of interventions, potential moderators and mediators of program effects, program effects across different contexts and key intervention components.
Thompkins, Amanda C; Chauveron, Lisa M; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F
While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session curriculum-based universal violence prevention program that promotes healthy conflict resolution skills among urban adolescents. Using a review of program record data and a multisite quasi-experimental study design, we examined the effectiveness of a New York City-based violence prevention program entitled the Violence Prevention project (VPP) optimized to meet school needs. We analyzed survey data from 1112 9th- and 10th-grade students in 13 New York City public high schools across 4 consecutive school years. Both participants and nonparticipants were surveyed. Review of program record data indicated that the program was implemented with acceptable fidelity to the core component structure, and that participant responsiveness to the model was high. Multilevel modeling indicated that VPP participation was protective for academic self-concept and promoted conflict resolution skills. Findings indicate that semester-long violence prevention programs optimized to meet the needs of a typical high school can be effective at promoting healthy conflict resolution skills in urban adolescents. © 2014, American School Health Association.
David A. Wolfe
Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.
In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…
Spiel, Christiane; Strohmeier, Dagmar
As a result of a quick succession of several spectacular events in schools, and the ensuing public discussion on the high rates of bullying in Austria, a national strategy for violence prevention in schools and preschools has been developed. In formulating the strategy, a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local…
Vagi, Kevin J.; Stevens, Mark R.; Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Carter, Sherry P.; Carter, Stanley L.
Background: This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Methods: Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and…
Vagi, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark R; Simon, Thomas R; Basile, Kathleen C; Carter, Sherry P; Carter, Stanley L
This study used a new Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) assessment tool to test the associations between physical attributes of schools and violence-related behaviors and perceptions of students. Data were collected from 4717 students from 50 middle schools. Student perceptions of risk and safety, and violence were assessed. Evaluators used the CPTED School Assessment (CSA) to quantify how well the physical elements of each school correspond to ideal CPTED principles. Generalized linear mixed models were used to adjust for school- and student-level characteristics. Higher CSA scores were generally associated with higher perceptions of safety and lower levels of violence perpetration and perceived risk in unadjusted models. Higher CSA scores were also associated with lower odds of missing school because of safety concerns in most adjusted models, with significant adjusted odds ratios (AORs) ranging from 0.32 to 0.63. CSA scores for parking and bus loading areas also remained associated with higher perceived safety (AORs = 1.28 and 1.32, respectively) and lower perceived risk (AORs = 0.73 and 0.66, respectively) in adjusted models. The CSA is useful for assessing school environments that are associated with violence-related behaviors and perceptions. The CSA might help guide school environmental modifications to reduce violence. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Rodney, Laxley W; Johnson, Dana L; Srivastava, Rameshwar P
The Family and Community Violence Prevention (FCVP) Program was established in 1994 to address the escalation of youth violence among ethnic minorities. This federally funded program adapted the public health model and organized Family Life Centers throughout the country to serve youth who were considered to be at risk for violence and other abusive behaviors. The purpose of this three-year study, 1999-2002, was to determine the effectiveness of the FCVP Program's six-component curriculum in reducing violence among participants. Results from posttest scores of 2,315 youth showed girls 12 and over to be most at risk for deviant behaviors; the program was most effective with boys under age 12. Academic performance and bonding to school were protective factors whereas exposure to violence was a risk factor for all four ethnic groups studied--African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Native Hawaiians. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Cultural anthropologists, public health specialists, and school officials should know that prevention programs can be designed to reflect the unique, culturally appropriate norms of specific ethnic minority groups, even as these programs address shared risk factors. The authors discuss the promising strategy of enhancing academic performance and school bonding to serve as protective factors against school violence, but they also describe age, gender, and cultural differences that must be addressed in future research.
Mawson, Anthony R; Lapsley, Peter M; Hoffman, Allan M; Guignard, John C
Violence-related behavior in schools has declined in recent years, but the perception of risk remains high. Disturbingly high percentages of students and teachers report staying home out of fear, and many students bring weapons to school for protection. Current proposals for preventing school violence include punishing the violence-prone, expulsion for weapon carriers, and creating a culture of nonviolence through various behavioral methods like conflict resolution. None of these proposals address the issue of lethal violence and hence personal safety. The risk of lethal violence in schools (related mainly to firearms) could be substantially reduced by creating an effective barrier between firearms and people. This could be achieved by using entry-based weapons detection systems similar to those now used in airports and courts. Decreasing the risk and fear of violence by converting schools into weapons-free zones would also be expected to increase attendance and improve scholastic performance. Randomized, controlled studies should be undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of entry-based weapons detection systems for achieving these outcomes.
This study deals with the relationship between school violence prevention training and teachers' perceived self-efficacy in handling violent events. Three indicators were used to examine teachers' self-efficacy: personal teaching efficacy (PTE), teachers' efficacy in the school as an organisation (TESO), and teachers' outcome efficacy (TOE). Data…
Buser, Juleen K.; Saponara, Erin
Children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) often suffer a range of physical, behavioral, emotional, and familial consequences (Holt, Buckley, & Whelan, 2008). School counselors may be in a key position to implement prevention programs around this issue, identify children who have witnessed IPV, and to engage in intervention efforts.…
Tactics to deal with growing violence in schools have usually relied on removal of the offender by suspension or placement outside of the mainstream classroom. However, educators and psychologists are considering the prevention of violent behavior as both a more humane and cost-effective response to the problem. The relationship between school…
Miller, Thomas W; Kraus, Robert F; Veltkamp, Lane J
Prevention education is seen as a key component in addressing school violence. Three hundred and three fourth grade students in 9 elementary schools in a predominantly rural community were provided a specialized program of character education as a prevention tool to reduce the potential for deviant behavior. Students in 3 schools were in the no treatment control condition. Students in the remaining 6 schools received a school-based and curriculum driven character education program; two of the schools were in the curriculum only condition while in four of the schools students were randomly selected to receive a protocol-driven summer academic (6 weeks) and experiential education/program. The intervention results suggest that the students who received the academic/camp intervention had the greatest increases in social competence, the largest gains in reading achievement, and the largest increase in parental interaction. Recommendations for prevention education are discussed at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels.
Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert
Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Lam, Steven; Zwart, Christine; Chahal, Inem; Lane, David; Cummings, Harry
Violence against children is a global public health issue with serious social, economic, physical, and emotional impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based program aimed to prevent and respond to physical, sexual, and psychological violence against children in Sri Lanka from the perspective of parents. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used. A total of 835 parents of children who participated in the program were surveyed across seven districts in Sri Lanka. Dose-response analyses were conducted to assess for correlations between program exposure and perceived prevention of violence against children. Low to moderate correlations were found between exposure to the program and perceived child safety in schools, school policies, and in the community. The findings provide preliminary evidence of program effectiveness; however, more efforts are needed to validate and sustain outcomes. Implications for future violence prevention programming, along with the use of dose-response evaluations, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…
Full Text Available Emmet Fralick, 14, of Halifax, shot himself at home in April 2002. He left a suicide note saying he was tormented by bullies at school. In November 2000, Dawn-Marie Wesley, 14, of Mission, B.C., hanged herself. She left a note naming three girls at her school she said were “killing her” because of their bullying.
Walker, Sharon L; Smith, Donald J
Violence impacts the lives of children on a daily basis. In their communities, they witness drive-by shootings, drug deals, and violence in their schools while many endure abuse, neglect, and violent behavior in their homes. Because the traumatizing impact of such exposure disrupts a child's ability to concentrate and learn, the Dallas Independent School District (ISD) sought content expertise to develop a training vehicle for school district professionals. The program aimed to raise the awareness of educators to problems related to domestic violence and the myriad of circumstances at home and in the community that lead to exposure to violence. Approximately 15,000 faculty and staff of Dallas ISD were educated in the identification, intervention, and prevention of exposure to violence. Referrals and inquiries related to abuse have increased (approximately 70%) while the city of Dallas has witnessed a drop in the number of domestic violence and child abuse offenses.
Gusmões, Júlia D S P; Sañudo, Adriana; Valente, Juliana Y; Sanchez, Zila M
A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 6637 7th- and 8th-grade students in 72 public schools in 6 Brazilian cities to evaluate the effects of the European drug prevention program Unplugged, called #Tamojunto in Brazil. This article evaluates the effects of #Tamojunto on the prevention of bullying and physical violence. Baseline data were collected from both intervention and control groups prior to program implementation. Follow-up data collection was performed 9 and 21 months later. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes in the reporting of receiving or practicing bullying and physical violence over time. The program was found to reduce the likelihood of receiving bullying, particularly in the stratum of girls aged 13-15 years at the 9-month follow-up time point. The effect was not sustained at 21 months. There was no significant effect for practicing bullying and for receiving or practicing physical violence. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G
Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Khaled, Mohammad S. Bani
This study considers school violence. It was investigated in secondary schools in the governorate of Mafraq. The aim is to identify the forms and causes of the phenomenon; hence to come out with the preventive and remedial measures, accordingly. The study was conducted in one of the secondary schools selected randomly in the city of Mafraq in the…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…
he began to focus intently on his school work and became isolated from others. He was described as being “exceedingly conscientious and compulsive ...and Ammo in Champlain, Illinois.142 The psychiatrist observed “elements of social anxiety and obsessive/ compulsive disorder” and prescribed Prozac...1998, NICS is used by federally licensed gun dealers (Federal Firearms Licensees) to instantly determine whether a prospective buyer is eligible to
Theriot, Matthew T.
Although research has highlighted that dating violence is a serious and pervasive problem in many adolescent relationships, the prevalence and characteristics of such violence at schools is not fully understood. Yet, adolescents spend a great deal of time at school, and schools facilitate their relationships by providing numerous opportunities for…
This publication offers some insight into the problem of violence in Canadian schools and provides examples of ways to reduce it. The forms of violent activities examined include youth/youth-gang violence, violence against teachers, bullying, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Each chapter presents research findings and examples of programs…
Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary
Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero Toler...
Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen
Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…
Payne, Susan R T; Elliott, Delbert S
There is widespread agreement that many school shootings could be prevented if authorities were informed that a student was planning or preparing to carry out an attack. A universal problem is that young people are highly reluctant to report on their peers. This code of silence represents a major barrier to prevention efforts. In response to the Columbine shooting, the state of Colorado established the Safe2Tell® anonymous, 24/7 reporting system for receiving and forwarding threats of violence, bullying, and other concerns. This article describes how the program has grown to the point that it now receives more than 100 calls per month. A series of case examples illustrates its success in responding to threatening situations, including twenty-eight potential school attacks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Stein, Nan D
We examine whether the Shifting Boundaries (SB) intervention, a primary intervention to prevent youth dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), is differentially effective for girls compared with boys or for youth with a history of DV/H experiences. We randomly assigned SB to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes to receive a classroom, building, combined, or neither intervention. The SB classroom intervention included six sessions emphasizing the laws/consequences of DV/H, establishing boundaries and safe relationships. The SB schoolwide/building intervention included the use of school-based restraining orders, greater faculty/security presence in unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. At 6 months after intervention, the SB building-level intervention was associated with significant reductions in the frequency of sexual harassment (SH) perpetration and victimization; the prevalence and frequency of sexual dating violence victimization; and the frequency of total dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also had one anomalous finding that the interventions were associated with an increase in the prevalence of SH victimization. These results were consistent for girls and boys, and those with or without a history of DV/H, with the one exception for those exposed to the SB building condition who had earlier reported perpetrating SH had a significantly lower frequency of perpetrating SH at the follow-up than those without such a history. SB can provide effective universal prevention of middle school DV/H experiences, regardless of students' prior exposure histories, and for boys and girls. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.
This article discusses strategies for preventing aggression and violence in children and youth, including understanding and applying appropriate interventions for escalating levels of aggression and violence, classroom preventative and planning measures, and systemwide policies and procedures. A student crisis plan sheet is provided as a tool for…
Farrell, Albert D; Mehari, Krista; Mays, Sally; Sullivan, Terri N; Le, Anh-Thuy
School-based youth violence prevention programs, particularly those focused on middle school students, have generally had limited effects that are often not sustained over time. Although many interventions focus on teaching social-cognitive skills, few studies have explored the extent to which students master these skills, actually use them, and find them effective in dealing with problem situations. This study examined these issues based on interviews with 141 students attending one county and two urban middle schools in classrooms where the Second Step violence prevention program had been implemented. We coded interviews to assess participants' general reactions to the interventions, use of skills, and effectiveness of skills. We also asked participants to describe outcomes they experienced when they used specific skills taught in the intervention in response to problem situations. Participants had generally positive reactions to the intervention. Their suggestions for improving the intervention primarily concerned improving its relevance. Participants described changes they had made based on the intervention, particularly controlling anger and improving relations with others. Their responses indicated that they sometimes misunderstood or misused specific intervention skills, especially problem solving and empathy. Students' descriptions of the outcomes they experienced when using intervention skills were not uniformly positive. This was especially true for situations involving peers such as peer pressure and bullying. These results underscore the need for more intensive efforts to ensure that students master intervention skills and are able to use them correctly. In addition, interventions should address the broader social context (e.g., peers, school) to maximize the effectiveness of skills.
Stancato, Frank A.
This article provides a rationale to support the position that the violence at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, was driven by the attempt of Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold to choose violence, suicide, and death as an alternative to the pain caused by a negative self-concept and a lack of meaning in their attempt to resolve questions of…
Zivin, Gail; Hassan, Nimr R.; DePaula, Geraldine F.; Monti, Daniel A.; Harlan, Carmen; Hossain, Kashfia D.; Patterson, Ksai
Replicated and extended the design and outcome measures of several small studies. In these studies, juveniles at high risk for violence and delinquency showed decreased violence and positive changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts. (Author)
Orpinas, P; Kelder, S; Frankowski, R; Murray, N; Zhang, Q; McAlister, A
This study evaluated the effect of Students for Peace, a multi-component violence-prevention intervention, on reducing aggressive behaviors among students of eight middle schools randomly assigned into intervention or control conditions. The intervention, based on Social Cognitive Theory, included the formation of a School Health Promotion Council, training of peer mediators and peer helpers, training of teachers in conflict resolution, a violence-prevention curriculum, and newsletters for parents. All students were evaluated in the spring of 1994, 1995 and 1996 (approximately 9000 students per evaluation). Sixth graders in 1994 were followed through seventh grade in 1995 or eighth grade in 1996 or both (n = 2246). Cohort and cross-sectional evaluations indicated little to no intervention effect in reducing aggressive behaviors, fights at school, injuries due to fighting, missing classes because of feeling unsafe at school or being threatened to be hurt. For all variables, the strongest predictors of violence in eighth grade were violence in sixth grade and low academic performance. Although ideal and frequently recommended, the holistic approach to prevention in schools in which teachers, administrators and staff model peaceful conflict resolution is difficult to implement, and, in this case, proved ineffective. The Students for Peace experience suggests that interventions begin prior to middle school, explore social environmental intervention strategies, and involve parents and community members.
The role of schools in preventing violence among teenagers has been highlighted, as has the development of youth-led prevention initiatives. This article explores how young people's views on violence influence their perceptions of its preventability, drawing on focus group discussions with 14- to 16-year-olds from six schools across the north of England. Young people view violence as a highly individualized phenomenon, and gender norms play an important role in shaping young people's perceptions of the preventability of violence. The findings presented here suggest that school-based violence prevention must fundamentally address gender norms and expectations to challenge young people's acceptance and tolerance of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fingar, Kathryn R; Jolls, Tessa
Evaluate whether Beyond Blame, a violence prevention media literacy curriculum, is associated with improved knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to media use and aggression. Using a quasi-experimental design, from 2007 to 2008, teachers from schools across Southern California administered the curriculum with or without training or served as controls. Students were tested before and after the curriculum was implemented, and during the fall semester of the next academic year. Multivariate hierarchical regression was used to compare changes from baseline to follow-up between the intervention and control groups. Compared with controls, at the first post-test, students in the trained and untrained groups reported increased knowledge of five core concepts/key questions of media literacy, increased self-rated exposure to media violence, as well as stronger beliefs that media violence affects viewers and that people can protect themselves by watching less. Regarding behaviours, controls were more likely to report ≥8 h of media consumption at the second post-test than at baseline (OR=2.11; 95% CI 1.13 to 3.97), pushing or shoving another student (OR=2.16; 95% CI 1.16 to 4.02) and threatening to hit or hurt someone (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.13 to 4.78). In comparison, there was no increase in these behaviours in the trained and untrained groups. This study suggests media literacy can be feasibly integrated into schools as an approach to improving critical analysis of media, media consumption and aggression. Changing the way youth engage media may impact many aspects of health, and an important next step will be to apply this framework to other topics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert
In March and September 2009 the school shootings in Winnenden and Ansbach once again demonstrated the need for preventive approaches in order to prevent further offences in Germany. Due to the low frequency of such offences and the low specificity of relevant risk factors known so far, prediction and prevention seems difficult though. None the less, several preventive approaches are currently discussed. The present article highlights these approaches and their specific advantages and disadvantages. As school shootings are multicausally determined, approaches focussing only on single aspects (i.e. prohibiting violent computer games or further strengthening gun laws) do not meet requirements. Other measures such as installing technical safety devices or optimizing actions of police and school attendants are supposed to reduce harm in case of emergency. Instead, scientifically founded and promising preventive approaches focus on secondary prevention and for this purpose employ the threat assessment approach, which is widespread within the USA. In this framework, responsible occupational groups such as teachers, school psychologists and police officers are to be trained in identifying students' warning signs, judging danger of these students for self and others in a systematic process and initiating suitable interventions.
Nadel, H; Spellmann, M; Alvarez-Canino, T; Lausell-Bryant, L L; Landsberg, G
This article reports on the school-based intervention component of a multidisciplinary program intended to reduce and prevent youth violence in the East New York neighborhood of Brooklyn. This intervention is based on three theories. The first theory posits that modifying beliefs, attitudes, and norms will help youths develop behaviors that support nonviolence. The second theoretical construct asserts that enhancing relationships with peers and family will buffer youths from the effects of exposure to violence. Finally, the third theory suggests that changing aspects of the setting and climate that contribute to violent behavior will prevent violence. The school-based intervention, the Safe Harbor, is a victim-assistance and violence-prevention program. The Safe Harbor offers activities including a 20-lesson violence-prevention and victim-assistance curriculum, counseling, parent involvement, teacher training, and school-change campaigns. The evaluation design is a panel study, with cohorts surveyed longitudinally at nonequivalent intervals. One hundred and fifteen seventh- and eighth-grade students who receive the curriculum and other services are the experimental group; the other 879 students in the seventh and eighth grades serve as the comparison group. Baseline data were collected through a survey of the entire school before the program's implementation in January 1995. Subsequent data collection will include interviews and focus groups; future analysis will address how participation in other parts of the Safe Harbor program or other programs in the school affects outcomes. The participation rate for the baseline survey in the experimental group was 86%, in the comparison group 76%. Responses to the survey questions were virtually identical between the two groups. Preliminary analyses reflect a climate of pervasive violence in the school, family, and community. More than half of the sample reported witnessing a severe beating in the school or their community
The pervasive violence in schools is a manifestation of gender inequality. Discourses of school violence suggest that "others" are responsible and militarist solutions are necessary. These discourses prevent recognition that violence is a symptom of social inequality. (SK)
Farrell, Albert D; Mehari, Krista R; Kramer-Kuhn, Alison M; Mays, Sally A; Sullivan, Terri N
This study examined factors that influenced the use of skills taught in a school-based universal violence prevention program. Interviews were conducted with 91 students from two urban schools (83% were African American and 12% multiracial) and 50 students from a nearby county school (52% were White, 32% African American, and 12% multiracial). About half the sample (54%) was male. All had been in sixth grade classrooms where the Second Step (Committee for Children, 1997b) violence prevention curriculum had been implemented earlier in the school year or in the preceding school year. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts suggested that participants' use of intervention skills was influenced by their beliefs and values, perceived relevance and effectiveness of the skill, issues related to enacting the behavior, and contextual factors. These findings highlight the need for a more intensive and comprehensive effort to address barriers and supports that influence the relevance and impact of school-based violence prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A
Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment
Yablon, Yaacov B.
Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…
Johnson, Shelley A; Fisher, Kathleen
To discover what teachers perceive to be contributing factors to violence in schools. Open-ended questions were asked of a convenience sample of teachers ( = 396) during an in-service education program on school violence. The teachers were in a semi-rural school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. Answers were analyzed using content analysis; all responses were reviewed and important themes were extracted. Identified themes were then placed into suitable categories and studied to determine relationships. Of the surveys analyzed ( = 239), 13 themes were identified. The three categories which then identified probable causes of school violence were (1) lack of knowledge, (2) lack of support, and (3) inadequate safety measures. Nurses can use the results of this study in multiple ways. One is to help parents understand their role in preventing school violence. Because violence in the home and violence in the media seem to foster violent acting-out behavior, nurses can teach parents about these correlations and seek solutions such as the elimination of family violence, and monitoring television viewing and video games. Nursing assessments of school-aged children and their families can include these elements. School nurses in particular can use these study results as an opportunity to develop interventions for students, teachers, and families that stress knowledge building about impulse control, anger management, appropriate parenting, and early intervention for at-risk children.
Weingarten, Christine; Rabago, Jina; Reynolds, Jasmine; Gates, Kalani; Yanagida, Evie; Baker, Charlene
Rates of childhood sexual abuse are unacceptably high, with potentially long-lasting consequences for those who have been victimized. Currently, there are a number of sexual violence prevention programs that have been developed to lower rates of victimization, increase awareness, and connect victims with resources. Within this area of research, there has been less focus on effective methods of program dissemination. For example, school-based sexual violence prevention programs have had positive outcomes; however, little is known about how these programs are disseminated. The train-the-trainer model of dissemination utilizes master trainers to equip others to implement programs, thereby allowing more adults to teach and subsequently more children to receive the program. This study used survey data from teachers and other school personnel (n = 127) to analyze the utility of a train-the-trainer model of dissemination for a sexual violence prevention program in the state of Hawai'i. Through responses of people who were trained to implement the program (59.8% of whom did implement), aspects of the training, the program itself, and factors affecting whether a person implemented the program were explored. Results suggest that time spent in training, job position, and time in that position predicted whether a person trained to implement the sexual violence prevention program followed through with teaching the program to students. Additionally, 54.7% of people who did implement the program had at least one student disclose sexual violence to them, indicating the importance of sexual violence prevention programming and dissemination of these programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Bruce; Stein, Nan; Burden, Frances
In this experiment, 123 sixth and seventh grade classrooms from Cleveland area schools were randomly assigned to one of two five-session curricula addressing gender violence/ sexual harassment (GV/SH) or to a no-treatment control. Three-student surveys were administered. Students in the law and justice curricula, compared to the control group, had significantly improved outcomes in awareness of their abusive behaviors, attitudes toward GV/SH and personal space, and knowledge. Students in the interaction curricula experienced lower rates of victimization, increased awareness of abusive behaviors, and improved attitudes toward personal space. Neither curricula affected perpetration or victimization of sexual harassment. While the intervention appeared to reduce peer violence victimization and perpetration, a conflicting finding emerged-the intervention may have increased dating violence perpetration (or at least the reporting of it) but not dating violence victimization.
Kearney, Sarah; Leung, Loksee; Joyce, Andrew; Ollis, Debbie; Green, Celia
Issue addressed Our Watch led a complex 12-month evaluation of a whole school approach to Respectful Relationships Education (RRE) implemented in 19 schools. RRE is an emerging field aimed at preventing gender-based violence. This paper will illustrate how from an implementation science perspective, the evaluation was a critical element in the change process at both a school and policy level. Methods Using several conceptual approaches from systems science, the evaluation sought to examine how the multiple systems layers - student, teacher, school, community and government - interacted and influenced each other. A distinguishing feature of the evaluation included 'feedback loops'; that is, evaluation data was provided to participants as it became available. Evaluation tools included a combination of standardised surveys (with pre- and post-intervention data provided to schools via individualised reports), reflection tools, regular reflection interviews and summative focus groups. Results Data was shared during implementation with project staff, department staff and schools to support continuous improvement at these multiple systems levels. In complex settings, implementation can vary according to context; and the impact of evaluation processes, tools and findings differed across the schools. Interviews and focus groups conducted at the end of the project illustrated which of these methods were instrumental in motivating change and engaging stakeholders at both a school and departmental level and why. Conclusion The evaluation methods were a critical component of the pilot's approach, helping to shape implementation through data feedback loops and reflective practice for ongoing, responsive and continuous improvement. Future health promotion research on complex interventions needs to examine how the evaluation itself is influencing implementation. So what? The pilot has demonstrated that the evaluation, including feedback loops to inform project activity, were an
Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Suparp, Jarueyporn; Kittipichai, Wirin; Khajornchaikul, Piyathida
To enhance positive attitude and life skills on gender roles to prevent physical and sexual violence. A whole school-based participatory learning program using a quasi-experimental study with pre and post test design was conducted among 2 schools during June-September, 2005. The experimental group, were 134 students in a primary school and 179 students in a secondary school. While the control group, were 122 students in a primary school and 95 students in a secondary school. Means score of attitude toward gender roles before implementation in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (p 0.05). Means paired different score (after-before) between the two groups was significantly different (p = 0.002). A whole school-based program on gender roles and violence prevention is suitable for youths and should be merged as school curricula and expanded as a nationwide program at all level of education. Gender equity should be taught at an early childhood. Parental involvement in school-based activities should be negotiated.
Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary
stereotypes for the individual pupil. Moreover, further attention could have been given to surrounding powerful discourses and media representations that may be at odds with the messages of the programme. The present study illustrates that the growing field of public health can be supported through an “all......Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Church, Gregory L.
Teachers may not be trained on how to prevent or address school violence and/or may lack the skills necessary to provide adequate intervention strategies. The purpose of this study was to explore urban K-6 teachers' perceptions of school violence at one metropolitan school. The conceptual framework for this study was supported by Bronfenbrenner's…
Full Text Available The following article presents the theoretical background, design and evaluation results of the international practice research project Strong implementing strategies of violence prevention in schools by means of resilience promotion. After presenting the results from the quantitative and qualitative results briefly, success factors for the implementation of a prevention strategy are highlighted. Este artigo apresenta o quadro teórico, a conceção e a avaliação dos resultados do projeto internacional Strong de investigação prática no que à implementação de estratégias de prevenção da violência nas escolas diz respeito através da promoção da resiliência. Após a apresentação breve dos resultados quantitativos e qualitativos, serão realçados os fatores de sucesso de uma estratégia de prevenção. En este artículo se presenta el marco teórico, el diseño y la evaluación de los resultados del proyecto internacional de investigación práctica Strong de la implementación de estrategias para prevenir la violencia en las escuelas mediante la promoción de la resiliencia. Después de la breve presentación de los resultados cuantitativos y cualitativos se destacarán los factores de éxito de una estrategia de prevención. Cet article présente le cadre théorique, la conception et l'évaluation des résultats du projet international de recherche pratique Strong dans la mise en œuvre de stratégies visant à prévenir la violence dans les écoles préoccupations en favorisant la résilience. Après la brève présentation des résultats quantitatifs et qualitatifs seront mis en évidence les facteurs de réussite d'une stratégie de prévention
Emma Zapata Martelo
Full Text Available In order to prevent, attend to, mitigate, and punish school violence, diverse programs, actions, and laws have been created and implemented at the international, national, and state levels. Nevertheless, these have proven inefficient and ineffective since school violence is increasing and becoming worse in all school levels. Some factors that have made difficult the implementation of laws have been the deficiencies regarding how to attend to the cases instead of just punishing them: the lack of knowledge of the laws by the public officials and the general population; the functioning of the educational system, the little availability of monetary, organizational, and human resources; multiplicity and multidimensionality where school violence prevails, and which does not coincide with what is stated in the written law and everyday life.
In order to effectively address the complex issue of school safety, school and community partnerships are being formed with greater frequency and intensity. Collaboration between educational, law enforcement, and mental health personnel is now widely considered to be the most effective means for addressing issues of school safety (Dryfoos, 1998;…
Windham, R. Craig; Hooper, Lisa M.; Hudson, Patricia E.
The mass-casualty school shooting incidents in recent years have heightened concern about the safety of U.S. schools and prompted responses that, in many cases, have centered mainly on bolstering security on school campuses. Some researchers have concluded, however, that the most effective prevention efforts are those that are more comprehensive…
Taylor, Bruce G; Stein, Nan D; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Woods, Daniel
We randomly assigned the Shifting Boundaries interventions to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes (over 2,500 students) to receive a classroom, a building, a combined, or neither intervention. The classroom intervention included a six-session curriculum emphasizing the laws and consequences for perpetrators of dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), the social construction of gender roles, and healthy relationships. The building-based intervention included the use of building-based restraining orders, higher levels of faculty/security presence in safe/unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 6-months post-intervention. As hypothesized, behaviors improved as a result of the interventions. The building-only and the combined interventions were effective in reducing sexual violence victimization involving either peers or dating partners at 6-months post-intervention. This was mirrored by reductions in sexual violence perpetration by peers in the building-only intervention. While the preponderance of results indicates that the interventions were effective, an anomalous result (increase in sexual harassment victimization reports that was contradicted by lower frequency estimates) did emerge. However, after analysis these anomalous results were deemed to be most likely spurious. The success of the building-only intervention alone is important because it can be implemented with very few extra costs to schools.
Bullying in schools, aggression in the workplace, violence against women -- all are complex problems. On Nov. 12 and 13, Virginia Tech hosts a gathering to make recommendations about violence prevention.
Background We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the Good School Toolkit, developed by Raising Voices, in preventing violence against children attending school and in improving child mental health and educational outcomes. Methods/design We are conducting a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment in Luwero District, Uganda. We will also conduct a qualitative study, a process evaluation and an economic evaluation. A total of 42 schools, representative of Luwero District, Uganda, were allocated to receive the Toolkit plus implementation support, or were allocated to a wait-list control condition. Our main analysis will involve a cross-sectional comparison of the prevalence of past-week violence from school staff as reported by children in intervention and control primary schools at follow-up. At least 60 children per school and all school staff members will be interviewed at follow-up. Data collection involves a combination of mobile phone-based, interviewer-completed questionnaires and paper-and-pen educational tests. Survey instruments include the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools to assess experiences of violence; the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure symptoms of common childhood mental disorders; and word recognition, reading comprehension, spelling, arithmetic and sustained attention tests adapted from an intervention trial in Kenya. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to rigorously investigate the effects of any intervention to prevent violence from school staff to children in primary school in a low-income setting. We hope the results will be informative across the African region and in other settings. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01678846 PMID:23883138
Furlong, Michael J.; Morrison, Gale M.
Introduces miniseries on school violence and safety by discussing prevalence of school violence and school violence findings. Presents methodological caveats in interpreting school violence data and examines issues of crime victimization, fighting and assaults, weapons, and homicide. (NB)
Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Ciaravino, Samantha; Ripper, Lisa; Paglisotti, Taylor; Morrow, Sarah Elizabeth; Grafals, Melanie; Van Dusen, Courtney; Miller, Elizabeth
High rates of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and sexual violence (SV) reported among adolescents point to the need for prevention among middle school-age youth. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test an athletic coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program in 41 middle schools (38 clusters). Trained coaches talk to their male athletes about 1) what constitutes harmful vs. respectful relationship behaviors, 2) dispelling myths that glorify male sexual aggression and promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and 3) positive bystander intervention when aggressive male behaviors toward females are witnessed. A total of 973 male athletes (ages 11-14, grades 6-8) are participating. Athletes complete surveys at the beginning and end of sports season (Time 2), and one year later (Time 3). The primary outcome is an increase in positive bystander behaviors (i.e., intervening in peers' disrespectful or harmful behaviors); secondary outcomes are changes in recognition of what constitutes abusive behavior, intentions to intervene, and gender equitable attitudes (Time 2 and 3) as well as reduction in abuse perpetration (Time 3). Participating schools have a greater proportion of non-White students and students on free/reduced lunch compared to schools that declined participation. Participants' self-reported ethnicities are 54.5% White, 29.0% Black, 1.4% Hispanic and the remainder, multi-racial, other, or not reported. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program for middle school male athletes. Findings will add to the evidence base regarding developmentally appropriate violence prevention programs as well as the role of coaches in adolescent health promotion. Clinical Trials #: NCT02331238. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sargent, Kelli S; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee
Although bystander programs to prevent relationship and sexual violence have been evaluated with college students, few evaluations have been conducted with high school students. This study evaluated the effectiveness of TakeCARE, a brief video bystander program designed to promote helpful bystander behavior in situations involving relationship violence among high school students. Students (N = 1295; 52.5% female; 72.3% Hispanic) reported their bystander behavior at a baseline assessment. Classrooms (N = 66) were randomized to view TakeCARE or to a control condition, and high school counselors administered the video in the classrooms assigned to view TakeCARE. Students again reported their bystander behavior at a follow-up assessment approximately 3 months afterward. Results indicate that students who viewed TakeCARE reported more helpful bystander behavior at the follow-up assessment than students in the control condition. Results of exploratory analyses of the likelihood of encountering and intervening upon specific situations calling for bystander behavior are also reported. TakeCARE is efficacious when implemented in an urban high school by high school counselors.
Payne, Susan R. T.; Elliott, Delbert S.
There is widespread agreement that many school shootings could be prevented if authorities were informed that a student was planning or preparing to carry out an attack. A universal problem is that young people are highly reluctant to report on their peers. This code of silence represents a major barrier to prevention efforts. In response to the…
Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Olsen, Emily O’malley; Bacon, Sarah
BACKGROUND Teen dating violence (TDV) negatively impacts health, mental and physical well-being, and school performance. METHODS Data from a nationally representative sample of high school students participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) are used to demonstrate associations of physical and sexual TDV with school violence-related experiences and behaviors, including bullying victimization. Bivariate and adjusted sex-stratified regressions assessed relationships between TDV and school violence-related experiences and behaviors. RESULTS Compared to students not reporting TDV, those experiencing both physical and sexual TDV were more likely to report carrying a weapon at school, missing school because they felt unsafe, being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property, having a physical fight at school, and being bullied on school property. CONCLUSIONS School-based prevention efforts should target multiple forms of violence. PMID:27374352
Background: Violence is universal; it occurs in schools (both public and private). The study aim was to assess the rates of violence as well as existing violence prevention strategies in public and private schools in Osun state. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among 800 secondary school students (599 in ...
This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...
Delannoy, Y; Tournel, G; Tonnel, C; Turck, D; Hedouin, V; Gosset, D
In recent years, the National Education in France has developed tools to identify acts of violence in schools. This has allowed adjusting government policies for the care of victims. School violence can also be measured from the perspective of clinical forensic medicine, a special discipline for observing a society's violence. This study summarized and compared three similar single-center, prospective, and descriptive studies conducted in 1992, 2002, and 2012 in the Department of Forensic Medicine, University Hospital of Lille, via an evaluation form completed during consultations requested by victims in cases of school violence. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of victims, those of their perpetrators, the circumstances and reasons for school assaults, as well as their medical and administrative consequences. Each study had identified about 160 such attacks annually. The victims were younger, especially boys (the average age decreased from 14.8 to 13.6). The gender distribution showed an increase in female victims (the sex ratio decreased from 2.9/1 to 2.3/1). The location of attacks changed, with a marked increase of attacks on the way to school (from 10% to 27%). Recurrence of attacks also rose: victims with a previous history of attacks increased from 18.5% to 32.2% with a high proportion of violence resulting in a strong psychological impact, increasingly requiring psychological support (from 9 to 16%). The duration of school cases rose sharply, from 20 to 53% in 2012. The grade level of the perpetrator showed a significant increase in cases of violence at junior high school (from 40 to 67%), with a relative stability of violence in elementary and high schools. The parameters measured to characterize the aggressors remained stable: they were known to their victims in approximately 80% of cases and these attacks were for the most part related to previous disagreements. Since the 1990s, government policies for the prevention, measurement, and
Lee, David S.; Guy, Lydia; Perry, Brad; Sniffen, Chad Keoni; Mixson, Stacy Alamo
This article reviews approaches for developing comprehensive strategies that stop violence before initial perpetration occurs. Using feminist theory and public health perspectives as its foundation, the use of educational sessions, community mobilization, social norms, social marketing, and policy work are all explored. (Contains 1 table.)
Herrman, Judith W; Silverstein, Joni
This research examines girls' perceptions of violence and its prevention. A purposive sample of 32 young women ages 12-18 who were incarcerated, affiliated with the juvenile justice system, or self-identified as living in disadvantaged neighborhoods participated in 1 of 4 focus groups. Recursive, iterative analysis yielded seven themes, including: violence is learned, violence is contagious, violence is unstoppable, violence is necessary to manage stress and conflict, violence is belonging, violence is connected to other crime, and maybe it can be stopped. These themes provide important insights into young women's thoughts on violence and may inform policies and programs as prevention strategies. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo
School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relation...
Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat
A paradigm conceptualizing resilience as factors moderating between political violence exposure and psychological distress administered in a 7-year research project yielded a profile of factors promoting Israeli children's coping in conflict conditions. Three factors--social support mobilization, self-efficacy, and meaning attribution--were…
Juul, Kristen D.
The paper defines the concept of mobbing and notes alternate terms such as bullying, scapegoating, and group violence or aggression. Scandinavian research and literature on mobbing is analyzed, especially as it relates to the incidence of mobbing and characteristics of aggressor and victim. Intervention efforts are described, such as individual…
Lisa M. Chauveron
While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence...
María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo
Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.
Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka
Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…
Skovholt, Thomas; Cognetta, Phillip; Ye, Gretchen; King, Lolita
Reports on violence prevention in an inner-city middle school. Interviews of students, deemed by peers and teachers as good at managing conflict, revealed eight themes. For example, student experts inoculated themselves in attitude to avoid violence; de-escalated situations when provoked; and believed the cost of fighting exceeds the reward. (RJM)
Full Text Available Cet article présente le cadre théorique, la conception et l'évaluation des résultats du projet international de recherche pratique Strong dans la mise en œuvre de stratégies visant à prévenir la violence dans les écoles préoccupations en favorisant la résilience. Après la brève présentation des résultats quantitatifs et qualitatifs seront mis en évidence les facteurs de réussite d'une stratégie de prévention
Palinkas, Lawrence A; Prussing, Erica; Landsverk, John; Reznik, Vivian
In March, 2001, 2 separate incidents of school shootings occurred within the same school district in San Diego's East County. To examine community explanatory models of the causes of the school shootings and strategies for preventing such events. A qualitative study was undertaken in 4 East County communities over a 6-month period following the 2 events. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 85 community residents identified through maximum variation sampling. Interview transcripts were analyzed by coding consensus, co-occurrence and comparison, using NVivo text analysis software. Four sets of theories as to the cause of these events were identified, based on the following: 1) unique or idiosyncratic characteristics of the 2 shooters (newcomer to community who was a victim of bullying, victim of child abuse with a history of mental illness), 2) universal factors (culture of violence, violence in the media), 3) family-centered characteristics (single-parent households, dysfunctional relationships), and 4) community-specific characteristics (reputation for social intolerance, widespread access to guns). Beliefs in family-centered and community-centered theories of etiology were associated with optimism in preventing such events from occurring in the future through increased recognition and response to problem behaviors, while beliefs in idiosyncratic or universal determinants of youth violence were associated with pessimistic assessments of prevention. In this community, youth-violence-prevention programs that focus on taking responsibility for recognizing and responding to problem behaviors in at-risk youth are more likely to gain community support and participation than programs that focus on increased security, surveillance, or behavior change.
Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose
The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…
Tucker, J B; Barone, J E; Stewart, J; Hogan, R J; Sarnelle, J A; Blackwood, M M
To identify an effective medium for communicating with adolescents in a large-scale, cost-effective violence prevention program. A set of youth violence prevention programs was established at The Stamford Hospital, a level II trauma center. The traveling version of the program was presented to middle school students in four parts: 1) a rap music video created by our violence prevention staff, 2) a facilitated discussion about dealing with anger, 3) a video of a trauma resuscitation in our emergency department, and 4) a commercial video of a teenage boy paralyzed after a gunshot wound. A written questionnaire with a five-point rating scale (1 to 5) was used to survey the audience 1 month after the program. The survey assessed the respondents' recall of each part of the program and the perceptions of the value of each part in identifying the problem of violence and reducing violent behavior. Of 99 respondents, the highest ratings for retention, problem identification, and impact were given to the commercial video (combined average category ranking of 11.394) and the rap music video (11.182). The trauma resuscitation video and the discussion of anger were ranked as being less effective (10.253 and 9.383, respectively). The audience seemed to comprehend the main point of the program and ranked the program, as a whole, higher than any of the parts when measured by success at problem identification and impact. Effective communication with adolescents is possible through many avenues. Children of the video age respond well to visual material. A violence prevention program should incorporate effective multimedia presentations. A variety of methods in combination proves to be most effective.
Emmanuel García González
Full Text Available The purpose of this post is a first part contextualize some of the violence manifested within the Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, elementary school to reflect after about those hidden violence that some students prefer silence rather than report. In the second part, the approaches of peace impossible exposed in the classroom, in respect of hidden violence , its causes and consequences that prevent students reported because of fear of reprisals and therefore not pass it at all well in school . Given this reality of peace impossible in school, a peaceful alternative to help students to denounce violence and witness living within their schools is proposed.
Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Bacon, Sarah
Background: Teen dating violence (TDV) negatively impacts health, mental and physical well-being, and school performance. Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of high school students participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) are used to demonstrate associations…
Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin
Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…
Wikman, Sofia; Rickfors, Ulrika
Preventing violence against public servants From safety science, we have learned that in light of increasing demands and system complexity, we must adapt our approach to safety. We have to include new practices to look for what goes right, focus on frequent events, remain sensitive to the possibility of failure, to be thorough as well as efficient, and to view an investment in safety as an investment in productivity. But most people still think of safety as the absence of accidents and incide...
Mitchell, Martin L.; Brendtro, Larry K.
Periodic mass school shootings and the steady slaughter of youth on the streets of our cities are both products of cultures of violence. The authors highlight key factors that promote or prevent such acts, beginning with the little-known account of a young boy who perpetuated the most deadly school violence in history.
Chambers, Rebecca Anne; Zyromski, Brett; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Kimemia, Muthoni
Analyses of 103 St. Louis metro area school counselors' using the National School Violence Survey (Astor et al., 1997; Astor et al., 2000; Furlong et al., 1996) suggests school counselors' perceptions of school violence and their preparedness to respond to said violence vary by both community setting and years of experience. Discussion frames the…
Belknap, Ruth Ann; Haglund, Kristin; Felzer, Holly; Pruszynski, Jessica; Schneider, John
To test a theater intervention designed to raise awareness of the dynamics and consequences of teen dating violence (TDV) and to facilitate creation of nonviolent responses to TDV among Latino and Latina adolescents. The intervention was based on Theater of the Oppressed, which advocates the use of theater methods to explore social issues and to allow audiences to experiment with problem-solving, thereby promoting change. This study used a pretest-posttest, no control group, mixed-measures design to study 66 Mexican-American adolescents (mean age, 13.4 ± 5 years). Two plays containing subtle and overt signs of control and abuse were written and performed. Scripts were based on data from prior studies of TDV among Latino and Latina adolescents. At baseline, we measured sociodemographics, personal safety, and ethnic identity. Pre-post instruments measured acceptance of TDV, confidence to resolve conflicts nonviolently, and intentions to use nonviolent strategies to resolve conflict. We collected qualitative data via essay. At posttest, participants had less acceptance of TDV (t = -2.08; p < .05), increased confidence to resolve conflicts nonviolently (t = 3.82; p < .001), and higher intentions to use nonviolent strategies (t = 3.35; p = .001). We analyzed 20 essays. Qualitative results provided context for understanding participants' changes in attitude, confidence, and nonviolent behavioral intentions. This adaptation of Theater of the Oppressed was an effective way to interact with Latino adolescents. In a safe setting, participants vicariously experienced TDV, which facilitated self-reflection and cognitive rehearsal strategies to respond nonviolently to TDV. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy
Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…
Child maltreatment is a worldwide societal phenomenon of concern that has continuously subjected children to various health risks (Gershoff, 2010; Lansford et al., 2015; UNICEF, 2010). Research findings in high-income countries have reported a high prevalence of child maltreatment in families and schools, which were consistently associated with children’s mental health challenges (Lansford, Sexton, Davis-Kean, & Sameroff, 2012; Weaver, Borkowski, and Whitman, 2008). Moreover, findings from gl...
Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.
Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598
Interventions for Violence Prevention among Young Female Hawkers in Motor Parks in South-Western Nigeria: A Review of Effectiveness. ... Findings show that they had greater knowledge of the different types of violence (p < 0.05), were more aware of their vulnerability to violence (99.4% after compared to 82.7% before ...
King, Kate K
Violence in schools has become a significant public health risk and is not limited to violent acts committed in the school setting. Violence in homes, neighborhoods, and communities also affects the learning and behaviors of children while at school. School violence, such as shootings, weapons in schools, assaults, fights, bullying; other witnessed violence in non-school settings; and violence as a cultural norm of problem solving can all impact the ability of children to function in school. School nurses serve on the front-line of problem identification and intervene to diminish the effects of violence on both school children as individuals and on populations in schools and the community. This article describes ways in which school nurses deal with violence and concludes with discussion of potential responses to violence, including the school nurse response to violence and implications for other healthcare professionals.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008
In the United States, an estimated 55 million students are enrolled in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. Another 15 million students attend colleges and universities across the country. While U.S. schools remain relatively safe, any amount of violence is unacceptable. Parents, teachers, and administrators expect schools to be safe havens of…
... and teens have many sources of information about school shootings or other tragic events. They might see or hear news stories or graphic images on TV, radio, or online, over and over. ... of a news story about school violence can make some kids feel that might ...
Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane
When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal
Full Text Available School violence may be understood as the threat or use of physical force with the intention to cause physical injury, damage of property or intimidation of another person at school. School violence is also violence that happens outside school as a result of a social interaction among the students. With regards to their prevention, many theories and propositions have been introduced including that of Conflict Triangle theory by Johan Galtung. This paper is aimed at analyzing school violence in Madura by using this theory as a general framework of analysis. The paper will begin by providing a general overview of both the theory and the so-called carok tradition of Madura; a tradition of self-defense using traditional blade which often involves killing. Upon highlighting school violence in this island, the paper will then move on by suggesting that in order to delegitimize this violence, one must speak of preventive programs at practical level, and of deconstructing the cultural strength of carok tradition at the discursive one. We assume that once the carok tradition is being deconstructed, one would loose the cultural legitimacy of committing violence. In Madura violence is often legitimated by the culture and tradition of carok. To eradicate violence is therefore to get rid of carok tradition in the first place.
Melzer, Wolfgang; Schubarth, Wilfried
The article gives an overview of violence at school combined with the health of students. Based on the assumption that violence and health are two sides of the same coin, the article considers the question of the development of violence and bullying phenomena at German schools and its relation to student health. Long-term studies by the authors, such as the international Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, constitute the empirical basis. Prevalence and structures of student violence, as well as the relation between violence and health, are clarified and consequences for the prevention of violence and health are shown on the basis of our own empirical studies. Contrary to dramatic estimates in the media, a continuous reduction of bullying problems at German schools has been registered in recent years. In reference to the relation between violence and health, a significant correlation between dissocial behavior and health parameters was found. Victims and bully-victims show the most health problems and innocent bystanders the least health problems. In contrast to previous findings, bullies show a more positive prevailing mood. Due to the found associations between violence and health, it appears reasonable to combine violence prevention and health promotion measures to achieve sustainable prevention effects.
Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah
This study reports on an independent evaluation of Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships, a multicomponent initiative targeting 11- to 14-year-olds. "Start Strong" was designed to focus on the developmental needs of middle school students and to enhance skills and attitudes consistent with promotion of healthy relationships and reduction of teen dating violence (TDV). The quasi-experimental evaluation design included data collection from four Start Strong schools and four comparison schools. Student surveys were collected at four waves of data at the beginning and the end of grades 7 and 8. Multilevel models used repeated observations nested within students who were, in turn, nested within schools to determine whether participation in Start Strong enhanced healthy skills and relationships and decreased TDV-related attitudes and behaviors. Short-term effects from waves 1 to 2 were statistically significant for increased parent-child communication and boy/girlfriend relationship satisfaction and support and decreased gender stereotypes and attitudes supporting TDV. Findings for acceptance of TDV and gender stereotypes persisted longitudinally. Results are promising and illustrate that a multicomponent, community-based initiative reduced risk factors predictive of TDV. Start Strong is innovative in its focus on early adolescence, which is a critical period in the transition to dating. The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soriano, Marcel; And Others
Notes that incidence of violence reflects disproportionate representation of ethnic and racial minorities, especially African Americans and Latinos, as both victims and victimizers. Presents model for understanding cultures in context of American society to help school psychologists develop effective violence prevention strategies. (Author/NB)
Soon Ki Kim
Full Text Available School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.
Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su
School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.
This study surveyed New Mexico high school principals on their current state of preparedness for serious school violence. The researcher surveyed 119 public high schools, receiving a 65% return rate from a 25-question survey. Specifically, this study analyzed the relationships of three predictor variables: prevention, response, and building of…
Murray, N; Kelder, S; Parcel, G; Orpinas, P
This paper describes development of Padres Trabajando por la Paz, a violence prevention intervention for Hispanic parents to increase parental monitoring. The intervention was developed using an innovative new program planning process: intervention mapping. Theory and empirical evidence broadly defined performance objectives and determinants of parental monitoring. These objectives were further refined through group and individual interviews with the target parent group. Learning objectives for the intervention guided the content of the intervention that used modeling as the primary method and role model stories as a strategy delivered through newsletters. Stage-matching members of the target population for their readiness to implement the parental monitoring behaviors further refined the social cognitive message design strategies. Intervention mapping provides an explicit theory- and data-driven guide for intervention development that maximizes intervention impact for a specific target population.
Chapin, John; Coleman, Grace
This study is the first of its kind to study third-person perception within the context of school violence. Linkages to the health psychology literature (optimistic bias) provide the basis for further understanding of adolescents' perceptions of school violence and the influence of media violence in their lives. Results from a survey of 1,500…
Szombat, M; François, A
The schoolbullying is a neologism which designates " a long-term violence, physical or psychological, perpetrated by one or more attackers (bully) against a victim (bullied) in a relationship of domination "(C. Blaya). This term is primarily used to describe repeated harassment behavior in schools. This phenomenon concerns one child out of seven in schools. Difficult to detect, it can have more or less serious psychological impacts (medium or long-term effects), such as dropout or anxious school refusal, loss of self esteem, major depressive disorder, suicide, eating disorders and leakage to substance abuse or alcohol. Its therapeutic follow-up is multidisciplinary and difficult. The aim of this paper is to draw the attention of health professionals to these new phenomena of violence in order to detect them as early as possible and thus provide optimal care.
Argues that public perceptions of an epidemic of school violence are media-induced; asserts that violence in schools declined during the 1990s; supports assertion with evidence from the National School Safety Center; states the estimates of bullying in school are exaggerated. (PKP)
Kandakai, T L; Price, J H; Telljohann, S K; Wilson, C A
This study investigated mothers' perceptions of factors contributing to school violence. Of 345 mothers, 225 (65%) from urban public schools and 120 (35%) from suburban public schools, significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the enabling factors subscale for school location. Urban school mothers were significantly more likely than suburban mothers to attribute violence problems at their child's school to the lack of dress codes, violent messages in rap music, and poor parent/teacher communication. Significant differences in perceptions of school violence were found on the reinforcing factor subscale for school location, income, family structure, and race. Mothers of low- and middle-income, single parents, and African Americans were much more optimistic about the possibility that violence prevention programs for students, parents, and teachers would work well to stop or reduce school violence than were higher-income, married, and White mothers. These mothers also were more likely to believe it was acceptable for their child to fight at school than were their counterparts.
Lisa M. Chauveron
Full Text Available While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence and strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. The Leadership Program’s (TLP universal Violence Prevention Project (VPP meets this call with a conflict resolution model for students in urban schools. The curriculum is based on a conceptual framework derived from prevention science and positive youth development delivered through the vehicle of the arts. Utilizing an engaging hybrid prevention program, this high quality 12 session model melds fidelity and adaptation to yield effective evaluation outcomes.
White, Michaele P.
Discusses a comprehensive, youth-violence-prevention program in New York City called The Door--A Center of Alternatives. This holistic program addresses the root causes of youth violence such as alienation and lack of empowerment. The Door provides life-skills training and services related to the consequences of poverty, unemployment, low levels…
This project will identify and analyze economic opportunity policies and practices that aim to support women in Latin America by preventing violence, increasing access to justice, and empowering them economically. Women and inequality in Latin America Women's economic empowerment and the reduction of violence ...
Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung
Background: School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. Objective: This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: It is suggested that the school violence victimization experience and cyber bullying infliction experience has an influence in the school violence infliction. And the cyber bullying victimization experience and school violence victimization experience variables exert effects. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that school nurses who are connecting to the community-school-home should take an active part in the development of school violence mediation education program, considering the cultural characteristics of the country. PMID:29081871
Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung; Shin, Gisoo
School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. It is suggested that the school violence victimization experience and cyber bullying infliction experience has an influence in the school violence infliction. And the cyber bullying victimization experience and school violence victimization experience variables exert effects. The results of this study suggest that school nurses who are connecting to the community-school-home should take an active part in the development of school violence mediation education program, considering the cultural characteristics of the country.
Lussier, Robert N
Human resources managers have reported increased violence (1) stating it can happen anywhere (2). One million workers are assaulted each year (3), and in some years more than 1,000 workers have been killed (4). Almost 25% of workplace violence incidences occur in the health-care industry (5). Women commit nearly one fourth of all threats or attacks (6). Have you ever gotten angry at work? Have you ever had to deal with an angry patient or coworker? Has there been any violence where you work? The key to preventing workplace violence is to deal with anger and recognize and handle suspicious behavior before it turns violent.
White, M P
Violence by and against youth has reached horrifying proportions. Debate continues about the causes of youth violence and appropriate solutions. This paper discusses a comprehensive holistic approach to violence prevention, as exemplified by the program at The Door--A Center of Alternatives in New York City, an organization that services at-risk youth aged 12 to 21. With a multinodal approach, The Door deals with the identified root causes of violence, such as the alienation and lack of empowerment experienced by many of today's youth, and provides lifeskills training and concrete services related to the consequences of poverty, unemployment, low levels of achievement, and hopelessness.
Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.
Full Text Available School violence is a widely spread phenomenon. All researchers of school violence agree that this is a socio-cultural phenomenon which is affected by numerous factors, including the presence of political violence in a society. The paper discusses the influence of political violence, still present in different regions of the world nowadays, on exhibiting violent behaviour in school children. Browsing through relevant literature on the subject one comes to the conclusion that this is a problem that has not been sufficiently explored. The available empirical data can generally be classified into two groups: the findings that confirm the hypothesis that political violence influences an increase in school violence and the findings that not only call into question this hypothesis but point out quite the contrary - under certain conditions (e.g. if the school takes over a protective role, i.e. the role of the mediator of external influences, political violence can contribute to the decrease in school violence. The explanation of the inconsistencies in the obtained findings can be found in the complexity of the studied phenomena and the differences in their conceptualization (and hence both operationalization and measuring, then in the absence of research studies conducted properly in terms of methodology, and especially in limitations during the process of merging the findings obtained in individual studies. The issue of the extent to which school violence is conditioned by out-of-school influences, such as political violence, has indisputable social significance and deserves to be the subject of future research and an extensive scientific analysis.
... relatives, involvement in after-school activities) and characteristics (e.g., self-esteem, relationship... Prevention and Services/Grants to State Domestic Violence Coalitions AGENCY: Family and Youth Services Bureau... and coordinate with States, tribes, localities, cities, and the private sector to be involved in State...
Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M
Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.
Mangum, Dana W
One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Kenway, Jane; Fitzclarence, Lindsay
Suggests a connection between schooling and various forms of sexual and/or physical violence (male to male, male to female, and adult male to child) and identifies and critiques the major orientations of mainstream, sociocultural, and feminist anti-violence pedagogies. Identifies the contours of an alternative anti-violence pedagogy. (GR)
Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Degue, Sarah; Holland, Kristin M; Holt, Melissa K; Matjasko, Jennifer L
In the last 10 years, several reviews of research on violence among girls have been conducted. This research helps to determine the extent of girls' use of violence however, it has not been translated into effective prevention programs for girls. This article reviews the research on risk and protective factors associated with violence, with particular attention on factors unique to girls or shared between boys and girls. Individual risk factors for youth violence include hyperactivity/inattention/impulsivity, risk taking/sensation seeking, low academic achievement, exposure to stress and victimization, and early puberty. Parent-child relationships/parental monitoring and supervision, parent criminal and antisocial behavior, and family conflicts and instability have been found to be relationship-level risk factors. Peer risk factors include deviant peer affiliation and gang membership. Risk factors at the community level include economic deprivation; community disorganization; the availability of drugs, alcohol, and firearms; and neighborhood crime. This review also includes a description of program effects for girls within the Model and Promising Blueprints for Violence Prevention Initiative programs. Very few evaluations have examined program effectiveness in preventing violence among girls. More evaluation research is needed to determine if evidence-based programs have positive impact on reducing violence and related risk factors among girls.
Yavuzer, Yasemin; Gundogdu, Rezzan; Dikici, Ayhan
The aim of this study is to determine the types and frequencies of violence encountered by teachers in primary and high schools in Nide province in Turkey, and, in addition, to determine the perceptions of teachers regarding the reasons for and methods of prevention of violent actions at schools. One hundred forty-two teachers were chosen for this…
Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami; Estrada, Jose Nunez
Theories often assume that schools in communities with high violence also have high rates of school violence, yet there are schools with very low violence in high violence communities. Organizational variables within these schools may buffer community influences. Nine "atypical" schools are selected from a national database in Israel.…
Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung; Shin, Gisoo
Background: School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. Objective: This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, on...
Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.
A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…
Kohler, Elizabeth A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Edmonson, Stacey L.
Although many studies have been conducted regarding (a) school violence in middle schools and (b) the size of schools, to date, no researcher appears to have examined the role that the size of the middle school plays in determining incidents of violence specifically fighting, assaults, and aggravated assaults. Thus, the purpose of this study was…
Medina Santiago, Nilda G; Rivera, Tania Cruz; Rodríguez, Maryanes Trenche; Báez Ávila, Loggina S
School violence has been recognized worldwide as a public health problem that negatively impacts the educational process. However, in Puerto Rico official statistics and the media generally focus on isolated incidents of extreme violence in which weapons are used or property is destroyed. Little data is available about the most common forms of violence that often occur in schools on a daily basis. The Instrumento de Observación de Violencia Escolar (INOVE) , developed with the input of school communities participating in Project VIAS (Violence and Asthma Health Disparity Network) of Universidad del Este (UNE), was used in this study to gather information about the characteristics of violence in two Puerto Rican schools. Among the study findings we highlight gender differences in observed violence and aggressive games and interactions between students. The data collected have served as a basis for decision-making regarding violence prevention in participating schools and have implications for the development of prevention strategies and programs.
Spivak, H; Hausman, A J; Prothrow-Stith, D
The Violence Prevention Project is a community-based outreach and education project directed toward reducing the negative social and medical outcomes of violence among adolescents. Community agency personnel are trained to work with youth on issues of anger and conflict resolution. A mass media campaign advertises the issue to the broader population. Interventions, such as the Violence Prevention Project, can use the public health strategies to increase awareness of the problem and associated risk factors, provide alternative conflict resolution techniques, and generate a new community ethos around violence. This approach holds great promise in an area in which after-the-fact legislative and punitive interventions have not worked.
Galand, Benoît; Lecocq, Catherine; Philippot, Pierre
Most studies of school violence have focused on students. Consequently, precursors and consequences of violence experienced by teachers are less well documented. Previous research indicates that (a) verbal victimization, student misbehaviour and perceived violence at school impair teacher emotional well-being, (b) support from principal and colleagues reduces these difficulties and fosters well-being, (c) well-being impacts on professional involvement. However, it is still not clear how those variables relate to each other. To test and compare - through structural equation modelling - two models of the relationships between perceived school support, exposure to school violence, subjective well-being and professional disengagement. To test - through multigroup analysis - the buffering effect of school support between school violence and well-being. Participants in this study were 487 French-speaking teachers (57% female) randomly selected from 24 secondary schools in Belgium. Participants completed a questionnaire on school leadership, relationships with colleagues, verbal victimization, students' misbehaviour, perceived violence, depression, somatization, anxiety and professional disengagement. The results support a model in which perceived school support has a direct effect on exposure to school violence, subjective well-being and professional disengagement, while the effect of school violence on disengagement is totally mediated by well-being. No evidence of a moderating effect of school support was found. The results of this study suggest that the negative emotional impact of some forms of school violence could be an important factor in a teacher's intention to leave, and that school support could be even more important for both teacher emotional well-being and professional disengagement.
Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.
Increasing violence and threats of violence in American schools have prompted many school districts to take aggressive action in providing greater security and more positive learning environments. This book presents an alternative approach--that of training students in conflict resolution and peer mediation. The book offers specific, practical…
Increased juvenile violence in schools has led to suggested solutions that are politically expedient but fail to address what makes violence so appealing. Instead of school uniforms, conflict resolution programs, or media rating systems, a grass roots approach of alternative programs, parental involvement, and youth support systems could repair…
Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian
Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.
Corene de Wet
Full Text Available This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC, South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape Flats in particular, and that the interaction of forms of inequality and oppression such as racism, class privilege and gender oppression are structural root causes for school violence in this area of the WC. The study highlights the negative consequences of school violence on teaching and learning and on the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang-riddled parts of the WC, the detrimental effects thereof on the regions cannot be denied. The study therefore recommends a holistic approach to addressing the structural root causes of school violence where it takes place in the WC.
Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E
This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Devries, Karen; Kuper, Hannah; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Banks, Lena Morgon; Kelly, Susan; Naker, Dipak
We tested whether the Good School Toolkit reduces physical violence from peers and school staff toward students with and without disabilities in Ugandan primary schools. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, with data collected via cross-sectional surveys in 2012 and 2014. Forty-two primary schools in Luwero District, Uganda, were randomly assigned to receive the Good School Toolkit for 18 months, or to a waitlisted control group. The primary outcome was past week physical violence from school staff, measured by primary 5, 6, and 7 students' (aged 11-14 years) self-reports using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional. Disability was assessed through the six Short Set Washington Group questions on functioning. Analyses were by intention to treat. At endline, 53% of control group students with no functional difficulties reported violence from peers or school staff, versus 84% of students with a disability. Prevalence of past week physical violence from school staff was lower in intervention schools than in the control schools after the intervention, in students with no functional difficulties (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = .41, 95% confidence interval [CI .26-.65]), students with some functional difficulties (aOR = .36, 95% CI .21-.63), and students with disabilities (aOR = .29, 95% CI .14-.59). The intervention also reduced violence from peers in young adolescents, with no evidence of a difference in effect by disability status. The Good School Toolkit is an effective intervention to reduce violence perpetrated by peers and school staff against young adolescents with disabilities in Ugandan primary schools. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca
Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.
Flynn, Kalen; McDonald, Catherine C; D'Alonzo, Bernadette A; Tam, Vicky; Wiebe, Douglas J
School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school violence is not solely an urban problem. Schools in all county types and across grade levels deal with violence to varying degrees, and the majority of schools across county types experience low levels of violence. Types of violence experienced by PA schools loaded onto three factors, suggesting that targeted interventions may be better suited to addressing school violence.
Omisore, A G; Omisore, B; Adelekan, B; Afolabi, O T; Olajide, F O; Arije, O O; Agunbiade, O I
Violence is universal; it occurs in schools (both public and private). The study aim was to assess the rates of violence as well as existing violence prevention strategies in public and private schools in Osun state. A cross sectional study was conducted among 800 secondary school students (599 in public and 201 in private schools) selected by multistage sampling technique using quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. The mean age for all the respondents was 14.26 years +/- 2.001 Males make up about 51% of the respondents in both public and private schools. Respondents from public schools assaulted other students and staff with a weapon more than their colleagues in private schools (24.7% and 9.7% against 12.9% and 6.5% respectively). The commonest violence 'prevention' strategy in both schools was punishment for violent acts (>90%). Respondents in public schools perpetrated and experienced virtually all forms of school-related violence more than those in private, schools. There were mild differences in existing violence prevention strategies in both schools. School connectedness seems to be a major factor in the differential rates of violence between both groups of schools.
Wells, Sarah Steelman
An R.A.D. Basic Physical Defense program for women employees, launched by a health system's corporate security department, has proven to be a popular low cost method of workplace violence prevention, according to the author, one of the program's instructors. The initial investment in equipment and certification is negligible compared to the benefits and potential benefits it brings, she reports.
Fontana, Leonard; Beckerman, Adela
This article describes a project that incorporated interactive technology to teach violence prevention knowledge and skills to second grade students. The educational video games presented lessons consisting of animated characters in a story, accompanied by a number of exercises. The research issue was whether students would develop an appreciation…
This article focuses on the intersection between early childhood development services and primary violence prevention interventions. It encourages a developmental approach to violence prevention by promoting healthy physical and social development and preventing direct and indirect exposure to violence during early ...
In recent times, researchers and laymen have observed high incidence of violence in higher institutions of learning worldwide, particularly in Nigeria. This study therefore examined the influence of psychosocial factors on school violence behaviour among students in tertiary institutions in Ibadan. Two hundred volunteered ...
Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin
The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments.
Ledesma Narváez, Marianella
In this article, the author describes the importance of protection orders issued in domestic violence processes, in relation to Law 30364. In addition, she points out its difference with interim orders, that protection orders offer preventive protection to the victims of domestic violence. She concludes that protection orders must been interpreted according to certain principles and its validity must continue through a non-contentious process. En este artículo, la autora describe la impor...
Speaker, Kathryne M.; Peterson, George J.
Presents statistics on and causes of increases in juvenile violence and suicide in the United States. Offers a prevention model that addresses behavior and social change through family inclusion, school staff training in values education, development of students'"success identity," conflict mediation, and media/visual literacy. (SK)
Ramirez, Marizen; Wu, Yuan; Kataoka, Sheryl; Wong, Marleen; Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Stein, Bradley
To determine how multidimensional measures of violence correlate with school absenteeism and suspensions among middle school youth. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 with 28 882 sixth graders from an urban school district. Data were collected on role (witness, victim, perpetrator) and mode (verbal, physical, weapons) of past-year violence exposures, and absences and suspensions over 1 academic year. Associations between violence and absenteeism and suspension were estimated using generalized linear models. ORs for suspension increased from witnessing to victimization to perpetration and then victimization-perpetration. Among those exposed to weapons, victims (OR(boys) = 1.45; OR(girls) = 1.38) had similar or slightly higher ORs for absenteeism than perpetrators (OR(boys) = 1.39; OR(girls) = 1.17). Boy victims and witnesses of physical violence had similar absenteeism patterns as those unexposed to physical violence. Of all exposed girls, victim-perpetrators had the highest ORs for absenteeism (OR = 1.76). Exposure to violence correlated with absenteeism and suspension. The strength of these relationships depended on mode and role in exposure. Our cross-sectional data limits our ability to establish causality. Findings have implications for prevention. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Brown, Ryan P; Osterman, Lindsey L; Barnes, Collin D
We investigated the hypothesis that a sociocultural variable known as the culture of honor would be uniquely predictive of school-violence indicators. Controlling for demographic characteristics associated in previous studies with violent crime among adults, we found that high-school students in culture-of-honor states were significantly more likely than high-school students in non-culture-of-honor states to report having brought a weapon to school in the past month. Using data aggregated over a 20-year period, we also found that culture-of-honor states had more than twice as many school shootings per capita as non-culture-of-honor states. The data revealed important differences between school violence and general patterns of homicide and are consistent with the view that many acts of school violence reflect retaliatory aggression springing from intensely experienced social-identity threats.
Nor, Laksmi; And Others
Details how one urban middle school took an active stand against violence by establishing programs in student leadership, conflict resolution, peer mediation, and violence prevention. Highlights benefits, student participation and training, and several innovative alternatives to suspension and traditional school discipline measures of the program,…
The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people.
Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann
Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…
The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, funded jointly by the German Development Bank and the City of Cape Town in South Africa, is a prime example of an evidence-based intervention for violence prevention that was designed to address all urban violence determining factors. The VPUU ...
Urban Upgrading for Violence Prevention in South Africa: Does it Work? The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, funded jointly by the German Development Bank and the City of Cape Town in South Africa, is a prime ... Extrants. Articles. Using psychology to reduce violence in South Africa ...
Rebeca Nunes Guedes De Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension.
Guterman, Neil B.
Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…
Full Text Available School violence and bullying are two public health concerns with consequences for youth in and out of school, for families, students, and community members. In this article, a social-ecological framework is briefly described as a way to understand bullying and school violence; then the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES longitudinal and cross-sectional data sets are described in detail. Data that assess bullying and/or school violence are described, and recommendations for additional items are proposed. In general, a longitudinal, multisite, multi-informant study is needed to address definitional and etiological issues related to school violence and bullying so that prevention efforts can be developed, implemented, and evaluated that incorporate multiple levels of the ecology, including peers, schools, communities, and neighborhoods.
Barrett, Kimberly; Lynch, Michael; Stretesky, Paul
School crime and violence continue to be important topics of criminological inquiry. Forms of violence that have received much attention from criminologists include school gun violence, assaults, and bullying. What appears missing from criminological studies are analyses of different forms of violent victimization imposed on school children related to environmental injustice, pollution, and exposure to toxins. In this article, we argue for the interpretation of these harms as violent victimiz...
Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.
"Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…
Jones, Sandra N; Waite, Roberta; Clements, Paul Thomas
School violence has evolved into an identifiably pervasive public health problem. Adverse consequences of school violence vary from bullying to death. In 2007, 457,700 youth (ages 12-18) were victims of serious crimes with 34% occurring on school grounds or on the way to school. A concept analysis of school violence can expand and enhance awareness of the pervasive phenomenon of school violence. Rodgers and Knafl (1993) evolutionary concept analysis method was used to provide a guiding framework for examination of school violence. Related manuscripts from the extant interdisciplinary school violence literature were obtained from relevant health science databases, the Education Resources Information Center, and various governmental and specialty websites within the contemporary time frame of 2000-2010. Analysis revealed the enormous scope and complexity of the problem of school violence including bullying, physical fighting, weapon carrying, alcohol/substance use and street gang presence on school property, school-associated violent death, safe schools legislation, and violence prevention strategies. Forensic nurses across practice settings are uniquely positioned to intervene to improve health of these youth through identification, assessment, treatment, and referral. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.
Ianni, Francis A. J.
One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter, based on the findings of an indepth study of the social organization of the American high school, provides a new, school-specific way of examining the problem of school crime and violence. The study, which made use of field methodology, addressed two basic…
Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Daly, Brian P; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Brooks-Holliday, Stephanie; Kloss, Jacqueline D
School violence is associated with significant acute and long-term negative health outcomes. Previous investigations have largely neglected the role of pertinent health behaviors in school violence, including sleep. Insufficient sleep is associated with adverse physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences among adolescents, many of which are concurrently implicated in youth violence. This study examined the relationship between insufficient sleep and school violence behaviors in a nationally representative sample of high school students. We used data from the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Logistic regression analyses evaluated the association between insufficient sleep and school violence behaviors, controlling for demographic factors. In addition to examining main effects, interaction terms were entered into the models to examine whether potential associations varied by sex or race/ethnicity. Students with insufficient sleep had higher odds of engaging in the majority of school violence-related behaviors examined compared to students with sufficient sleep. Males with insufficient sleep were at increased risk of weapon carrying at school, a finding not observed for females with insufficient sleep. White students with insufficient sleep had higher odds of missing school because of safety concerns, a pattern that did not emerge among Black and Hispanic/Latino students. Results highlight the potential value of incorporating sleep education interventions into school-based violence prevention programs and underline the need for further examination of the relationship between sleep and school violence among adolescents. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Reidy, Dennis E; Holland, Kristin M; Cortina, Kai; Ball, Barbara; Rosenbluth, Barri
In the present study, we assess the effects of the Expect Respect Support Groups (ERSG) on frequency of teen dating violence (TDV) and general youth violence. ERSG is a school-based violence prevention program for youth who have been exposed to violence in their home, school, or community. Boys and girls (N=1,678, M age =14.3, S.D.=1.7, Range=11-17) from 36 schools in Texas participated in this accelerated longitudinal (7-year trajectory) study beginning in 2011. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted using three waves of data from three cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents. Among boys, the number of ERSG sessions attended related to incremental declines in psychological TDV perpetration and victimization, physical TDV victimization, sexual TDV perpetration and victimization, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression. Girls attending ERSG demonstrated reductions in reactive and proactive aggression. The present findings suggest ERSG may be an effective cross-cutting strategy to reduce TDV and other forms of violence among high-risk boys and possibly girls. This information provides valuable understanding of TDV and youth violence in high-risk populations and may be useful in tailoring future prevention efforts to different groups of teens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guterman, Neil B
Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves.
Full Text Available Latin America is one of the world’s most digitally connected regions, and also its most violent. Some governments and civil societies are evolving innovative and dynamic approaches to address the challenges of violence by taking advantage of expanding connectivity. New information and communication technologies (ICTs are being mobilized to strengthen the voice and capabilities of citizens and institutions to promote safety and security. Public and private actors are designing and applying innovative digital platforms and analytical tools to map insecurity online and off. This article reviews the emerging character and shape of 'digitally enhanced violence prevention' in Latin America, drawing primarily on the cases of Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. It presents insights on the wider outcomes and drawbacks of these activities, and sets out some lessons learned and recommendations for future action.
Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein
Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV.
David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.
All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…
families , but also to advance the clinical science in this field of study and better understand how we might prevent violence among our service members...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM
Full Text Available Martial arts have become one of the most popular physical activities amongst children and youth worldwide; however, there are concerns among Western parents and school administrators that including these activities in school programs may lead to incidents of violence. Others, however, maintain that this is a concern caused by the false image of martial arts (as propagated in entertainment and pop culture, and stemming from an ignorance of the true values promoted by legitimate Asian martial arts practitioners. This paper explores the philosophical and theoretical concepts upon which Asian martial arts disciplines are founded, and provides ample research to reveal that martial arts as practiced in Eastern tradition de-emphasize violence, competition, and combat. Further, this paper illustrates that practicing martial arts in line with Eastern precepts of martial virtue, promotes a healthy active lifestyle, and can in fact discourage, rather than encourage, incidents of violence at schools.
Devries, Karen M; Child, Jennifer C; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Parkes, Jenny; Naker, Dipak
Violence against children from school staff is anecdotally common in low- and middle-income countries, but data on prevalence and associations with mental health and educational outcomes are lacking. We report data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in June and July 2012 in Luwero District, Uganda. Forty-two primary schools representing 80% of students in the district were randomly selected; 100% agreed to participate. The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; and reading, spelling, and math tests were administered. We present descriptive statistics and logistic regression models, accounting for the complex sampling scheme used in the survey. We surveyed 3706 students and 577 school staff members; 93.3% (SE 1.0%) of boys and 94.2% (SE 1.6%) of girls attending primary school reported lifetime experience of physical violence from a school staff member, and >50% reported experience in the past week. Past-week physical violence was associated with increased odds of poor mental health and, for girls, double the odds of poor educational performance (adjusted odds ratio = 1.78, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.66). For boys, significant interactions were present. Despite a ban on corporal punishment in Ugandan schools since 1997, the use of violence against students is widespread and associated with poor mental health and educational performance. School violence may be an important but overlooked contributor to disease burden and poor educational performance in low- and middle-income settings.
Nov 5, 2015 ... Using psychology to reduce violence in South Africa. How can a public health approach to reducing violence in South Africa be improved? View moreUsing psychology to reduce violence in South Africa ...
McCaleb, Karen Nykorchuk; Andersen, Amy; Hueston, Harry
All educators need to be aware of issues regarding school violence. Recent years have shown that violence can happen in a variety of school settings. This study conducted a one-group, pretest-posttest, pre-experimental design to explore pre-service teachers' perceptions regarding school violence. First, pre-service educators were asked to complete…
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.
Renata Carneiro Ferreira
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the perception of violence from the reports of teachers of elementary and high school in a public state school in Fortaleza, Ceará. Method: A qualitative descriptive study conducted with 26 teachers, in the period from January to May 2006. To collect the data we adopted the following procedures: the discussion on school violence during the meetings of the teacher training week; the reading of the school regulations and the distribution of an instrument with the guiding question about the concept of violence as from the school reality, among the participants of the study. Afterwards, the thematic analysis of the reports was carried out. Results: Through the reports of teachers emerged the following categories: physical aggression, verbal aggression and fights as the most cited; to hide personal belongings, cursing, shoving and disrespect for the teacher and pranks were also mentioned. Conclusion: From the reports it appears that violence is perceived in physical, dimension moral and symbolic, and these “typologies” corroborate the descriptions found in literature as bullying or incivility, which dominate the school context.
Merrill, Katherine G; Knight, Louise; Glynn, Judith R; Allen, Elizabeth; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M
Objective To conduct a multilevel analysis of risk factors for physical violence perpetration by school staff against Ugandan students. Design Multilevel logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 499 staff and 828 caregivers of students at 38 primary schools, collected in 2012 and 2014 during the Good Schools Study. Setting Luwero District, Uganda. Main outcome measure Past-week use of physical violence by school staff against students was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect ‘Child Abuse Screening Tool- Child International’ and the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Results Of 499 staff, 215 (43%) reported perpetration of physical violence against students in the past week. Individual risk factors associated with physical violence perpetration included being a teacher versus another type of staff member (pviolence against non-students (pviolence (IPV) (pviolence perpetration compared with male staff who had not been a victim of IPV. No evidence was observed for school- or community-level risk factors. Conclusions Physical violence perpetration from school staff is widespread, and interventions are needed to address this issue. Staff who have been victims of violence and who use violence against people other than students may benefit from additional interventions. Researchers should further investigate how school and community contexts influence staff’s physical violence usage, given a lack of associations observed in this study. PMID:28821514
Augustyniak, Kristine M.
Professionals entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address school safety. Though notable contributions have been made to insure peaceful school communities through a wide range of primary and secondary prevention programs, research suggests that these programs are often an insufficient response to students who are at increased risk…
Patten, Peggy; Robertson, Anne S.
Perhaps 8 million children spend the after-school hours at home alone. In the absence of adult supervision, many of these youth are likely to engage in delinquent or other high-risk activities. This Spanish-language digest reveals research that suggests after-school programs can help to prevent youths from engaging in these activities in two ways:…
Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.
Stone, Susan; Astor, Ron; Benbenishty, Rami
Consistency in staff awareness and response is a key programmatic centerpiece in most school violence prevention and intervention programs. Staff consensus on the definition of violence, the behaviors that constitute violence, the extent of the problem, and how to deal with violent situations are often the cornerstone of evidence-based programs.…
Durant, R H; Barkin, S; Krowchuk, D P
To evaluate a Social Cognitive Theory-based violence prevention curriculum among sixth-grade students. The evaluation was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design. Students were pretested 2 weeks before the intervention started and were posttested 2 weeks after it ended. The study was conducted in four middle schools serving children and adolescents living in or around public housing in a southeastern city. The participants included all sixth-grade students who were predominantly African-American (88.7%), 41% lived in public housing, and 80% lived in homes with an employed head of household. The intervention schools had 292 students, and the control schools 412 students. The Peaceful Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Curriculum is a 13-module skills-building curriculum based on Social Cognitive Theory. It taught identification of situations that could result in violence; avoidance, confrontation, problem-solving, and communication skills; conflict resolution skills; the conflict cycle; the dynamics of a fight; and how to express anger without fighting. The primary outcome variable was a five-item scale assessing the frequency of fighting and weapon carrying behaviors (alpha =.72) and a scale measuring intentions to use violence in 11 hypothetical situations (alpha = .81). Levels of exposure to violence and victimization (alpha = .82) and depression (alpha = .86) were also assessed. The data were analyzed with general linear modeling with repeated measures. At pretest, the intervention and control groups did not differ in gender, age, depression, exposure to violence, or any other demographic variable. A group x time interaction effect (p = .029) was found in the use of violence scale. From pretest to posttest there was a decrease in the use of violence by students in the intervention group and an increase in the use of violence in the control group. Most of the changes were accounted for by changes in the frequencies of
Mikton, Christopher R.; Butchart, Alexander; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Krug, Etienne G.
Introduction Interpersonal violence affects millions of people worldwide, often has lifelong consequences, and is gaining recognition as an important global public health problem. There has been no assessment of measures countries are taking to address it. This report aims to assess such measures and provide a baseline against which to track future progress. Methods In each country, with help from a government-appointed National Data Coordinator, representatives from six to ten sectors completed a questionnaire before convening in a consensus meeting to decide on final country data; 133 of 194 (69%) WHO Member States participated. The questionnaire covered data, plans, prevention measures, and victim services. Data were collected between November 2012 and June 2014, and analyzed between June and October 2014. Global and country-level homicides for 2000–2012 were also calculated for all 194 Members. Results Worldwide, 475,000 people were homicide victims in 2012 and homicide rates declined by 16% from 2000 to 2012. Data on fatal and, in particular, non-fatal forms of violence are lacking in many countries. Each of the 18 types of surveyed prevention programs was reported to be implemented in a third of the 133 participating countries; each law was reported to exist in 80% of countries, but fully enforced in just 57%; and each victim service was reported to be in place in just more than half of the countries. Conclusions Although many countries have begun to tackle violence, serious gaps remain, and public health researchers have a critical role to play in addressing them. PMID:26689979
Bondü, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G; Scheithauer, Herbert
School homicides have been become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful research on risk and protective factors that can inform evidence-based preventive models is summarized. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
... largely unnoticed by journalists. I argue that the main frames provided to readers in South African newspapers fail largely to elicit social responsibility, while at the same time promoting civic indifference. Keywords: emotional violence; media framing; physical violence; school violence; sexual violence; social responsibility ...
Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath
In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.
Silvia Christina Madrid Finck
Full Text Available This article reports on the partnership between the Group of Studies and Research in School Physical Education and Teacher Training (Gepefe/UEPG/CNPq affiliated with the Graduate Program in Education (UEPG/PR, and the Nucleus of Studies and Teacher Training in Peace and Coexistence Education (NEP/UEPG. This partnership has contributed to the creation of the research line ‘Physical Education, Sport and Education for Peace: conceptual, methodological and teacher training dimensions’ in Gepefe. The goal of this article is to present more specific ideas for a convergence between the educational perspectives in sport and school physical education, mediated by the issue of teacher training. When considering aspects present in the discussion on the education for peace (coexistence, conflict, violence and peace, we find specifics to consider actions in teacher training. This process emerges as Brazil is experiencing a special moment in sports, with international events planned for the coming years, thereby expanding the need for thematic reflections regarding violence and coexistence in sports. This leads to reflections on the fundamental role of sports education in forming values of coexistence and debating teacher training in physical education for that reality.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore the effects of attitudes towards violence on different forms of violence behaviour among secondary school students. The moderator roles of gender and aggressiveness in relationships between attitude and violence were also tested. The Bullying Attitudinal Scale, the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, and the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH were administered on the sample of 643 second- to fourth-grade secondary school students from urban area (61.7% boysgrade. The results have shown that among boys more positive attitudes towards violence had significant effect on direct violence forms - physical and verbal, but that it depended on aggressiveness whether violence would be manifested as physical. Namely, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence, who, at the same time, scored higher on aggressiveness, were more prone to physical violence. Unlike them, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence but with lower aggressiveness were less prone to physical aggression. In the case of verbal violence, it has been shown that boys with more positive attitudes towards violence were more prone to verbal violence, regardless of aggressiveness. Aggressiveness had a unique contribution to the prediction of verbal violence and only a significant effect in the prediction of relational violence. The importance of changing the attitudes towards violence in the context of violence prevention is discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006 i br. ON179037: Nasilje u savremenom društvu: dispozicioni i kontekstualni činioci
Sood, Aradhana Bela; Berkowitz, Steven J
The causes of youth violence are multifactorial and include biological, individual, familial, social, and economic factors. The influence of parents, family members, and important adults can shape the beliefs of the child toward violence in a significant manner. However, the influence of school and the neighborhood also have an important role in attitudes and behaviors of children toward violence. The complexity of factors related to violence requires a comprehensive public health approach. This article focuses on evidence-based models of intervention to reduce violence while emphasizing collective impact as a guiding principle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Curriculum Review, 2008
Newspaper headlines these past couple of months have sent many people reeling, as school violence dominates both K-12 and higher education settings once again. Within the first 15 days of February alone, a total of six shooting incidents took place, resulting in numerous deaths and many injuries. Coupled with the anniversaries of both the Virginia…
This article aims to reveal experiences of absentee students related to classroom violence. This article will focus on the characteristics of the use of social power by a teacher having crucial influence on students' negative emotions, the loss of learning motivation and the choice of being absent from school. This article will employ primary…
Understanding gender violence in South African education requires a systematic and consolidated evidence base, tailored theoretical ... commitment to children's well-being and to gender equality. HOW TO NAME THE PROBLEM OF ..... Books and babies: Pregnancy and young parents in school. Cape Town: HSRC Press.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between the adolescents orientation towards violence in schools and variables of the familiar context - parents (un)employment, divorce, socio-cultural status, aprent authority, brothers friendship and familiar self-concept, as well as the variations of that relation according to the variable "perceived parental support".
Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E
From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.
Marković Živorad M.
Full Text Available This is the micro research which studied the connection between gender and violence between older primary school students with the goal of discovering exposure of gender members to violence in school context and the ways of reaction to the violence. The researchers from different scientific disciplines have been permanently involved in studying the problem of violence for more than a decade with the goal to lessen the high percentage of violence in schools. In this sense, this research, with its range and character, represents the contribution in discovering characteristics of violence in schools in one specific local area, which could fill in the wholeness of this phenomenon. The research involved students of the final grade of primary school on the territory of the municipality of Svilajnac (which is in central part of Serbia and it was performed in December 2015. 236 students were surveyed. The survey consisted of the following questions a which questioned the social matrix of families in which the students live b which questioned presence and frequency of different types of violence between students in primary schools c which questioned the attitudes of students of both genders about the violence, exposure to violence in school and the ways of reacting to violence. In the frame of quantitative analysis of the data the following was applied: percentual research of frequencies and Pierson's hi-square test (x2 for testing of hyphothesis about the significance of differences. The main results of the research showed: a There is no statistically significant difference in exposure to violence in school between male and female students of primary school age; both genders are exposed to verbal and physical violence and male students (45.7% are more exposed to physical, and female students (38.3% are more exposed to verbal violence. bThere is no statistically significant difference in the readiness of students considering their gender to help another
The International Society for Violence and Injury Prevention (ISVIP) hosted the International Conference on “Children and Injuries” in Cape Town, South Africa from 31 August to 3 September 2008. ISVIP's mission is to establish global commitment to violence and injury prevention through advocacy and public policy action, ...
Preventing Gender-based Violence in Senegal. Laws to protect women in Senegal against violence seem to have little effect in punishing the perpetrators, let alone in preventing the crimes. Senegal's constitution guarantees equality between women and men. The country has signed on to international agreements that ...
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in…
Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel
their father fighting and experiencing any kind of corporal punishment were associated with peer violence perpetration only. Discussion Peer violence in Afghanistan is linked to food insecurity, exposure of children to witnessing family violence, and children’s experience of physical violence at home and corporal punishment at school. School-based settings provide an important platform for interventions to reduce and prevent peer violence; however, such interventions may benefit from broader violence-prevention initiatives conducted at the community level. PMID:29438396
and experiencing any kind of corporal punishment were associated with peer violence perpetration only.Peer violence in Afghanistan is linked to food insecurity, exposure of children to witnessing family violence, and children's experience of physical violence at home and corporal punishment at school. School-based settings provide an important platform for interventions to reduce and prevent peer violence; however, such interventions may benefit from broader violence-prevention initiatives conducted at the community level.
Corboz, Julienne; Hemat, Osman; Siddiq, Wahid; Jewkes, Rachel
experiencing any kind of corporal punishment were associated with peer violence perpetration only. Peer violence in Afghanistan is linked to food insecurity, exposure of children to witnessing family violence, and children's experience of physical violence at home and corporal punishment at school. School-based settings provide an important platform for interventions to reduce and prevent peer violence; however, such interventions may benefit from broader violence-prevention initiatives conducted at the community level.
Murakami, Saori; Rappaport, Nancy; Penn, Joseph V
Despite the relative rarity of school shootings, targeted violence, and school-associated violent deaths, any youth who presents with words, gestures, or actions of a threatening or violent nature in a school setting should be assessed and referred for further evaluation by a mental health professional and, if clinically indicated, a forensic evaluator.The request for a juvenile risk assessment for future dangerousness requires careful delineation of role and agency; confidentiality issues; a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of the youth; and a detailed assessment of the youth's perceived threat or problematic behavior. Various protective and risk factors and consideration of other individual, family, school/peer, and situational factors should also be explored.There is still much information that is unknown when considering school violence or targeted school violence. There is clearly a need for additional research on the identification of at-risk youths, the contributions and significance of various protective and risk factors, the impact of peer relationships, and perceived rejection, socioeconomic status, subtypes of aggression, and developmental stages. Examples of future research direction might include difference by gender, presence of affective or psychotic disorders, substance abuse, emerging characterologic disturbances, and physiologic markers, such as cortisol or serotonin. Additional research regarding best practices and the development of clinical guidelines or practice parameters is also needed.
This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.
Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark B.; Alford, Aaron A.
Reviews data from four surveys using national samples that include questions about violence that were administered to school-aged youth. Assesses risk factors for weapon-carrying and the level of the school violence program. Results show that students' involvement with violence in the community, both as perpetrator and victim, is the most…
Weinhold, Barry K.
Discusses reasons for school violence, examining critical aspects of the culture of school violence (a dominator value system that supports violence, overemphasis on negativity, and pervasiveness of bullying). The paper describes differences between bullying and normal peer conflict and notes short- and long-term effects of bullying.…
MacDonald, Irene M.; da Costa, Jose L.
Although school violence has been a concern in the United States for over two decades, the topic has only recently generated serious study in Canada. Central to the development of effective violence-mitigation policies is an understanding of how and why student victims, perpetrators, and observers respond to the school-based violence they…
Jaycox, Lisa H; Stein, Bradley D; Wong, Marleen
Schools are well positioned to facilitate recovery for students exposed to community or school violence or other traumatic life events affecting populations of youth. This article describes how schools can circumvent several key barriers to mental health service provision, outcomes that school interventions target, and the role of the family in school-based services. It includes a description of the history of schools in facilitating recovery for students exposed to traumatic events, particularly related to crisis intervention, and the current status of early intervention and strategies for long-term recovery in the school setting. Challenges and future directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
都, 基鳳; 全, 宰一; 野島, 一彦; Do, Giebong; Jun, Jaeil; Nojima, Kazuhiko
The purpose of this study is to prepare effective measures to successfully cope with school violence by examining student experiences of school violence and its causes. The participants were middle school students in Korea. An investigation was made into how male and female students are different from each other in patterns of violence experienced or committed and the causes of that violence. The results are as follows: 1) Students who were victims of school violence suffered more than those ...
Mulvey, E P; Cauffman, E
The recent media hype over school shootings has led to demands for methods of identifying school shooters before they act. Despite the fact that schools remain one of the safest places for youths to be, schools are beginning to adopt identification systems to determine which students could be future killers. The methods used to accomplish this not only are unproven but are inherently limited in usefulness and often do more harm than good for both the children and the school setting. The authors' goals in the present article are to place school shootings in perspective relative to other risks of violence that children face and to provide a reasonable and scientifically defensible approach to improving the safety of schools.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the reduction of school violence from the management point of view. It reflects on the utterances by teachers, principals, learners and members of school governing bodies (SGBs) to establish the influence that school management practices can have on the prevalence of school violence.…
Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah
Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447
Dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse) and sexual violence are prevalent from the middle school years throughout adolescence, peak in young adulthood, and are associated with multiple poor physical and mental health consequences. By offering universal education and brief anticipatory guidance with all adolescent patients about healthy and unhealthy relationships and sexual consent, health care providers can help promote healthy adolescent sexual relationships, ensure youth know about available resources and supports for relationship abuse and sexual violence (including how to help a friend), and facilitate connections to victim service advocates, both for prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greene, Michael B.
This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.
Fredland, Nina M
Although school violence directly affects the overall health and well-being of children and adolescents, clear priorities have not been identified for dealing with the problem. Horrific events such as the 1999 Columbine High School shooting in Littleton, Colo, and recent shootings at Virginia Tech have focused the nation on high-profile, media-worthy school violence to the detriment of addressing everyday forms of violence in schools. Policies that have been developed to reduce school violence have mixed reviews. To raise the consciousness of healthcare professionals, educators, legislators, and the general public, the most salient issues are discussed.
Gabriel, R M; Hopson, T; Haskins, M; Powell, K E
Self Enhancement, Inc., is a grassroots, community-service organization working in the most disadvantaged high-risk community in Portland, Oregon. Its violence-prevention program targets middle-school and high-school students by providing classroom and community activities to these young people. These activities are designed to enhance protective factors and build resilience in youths to enable them to attain healthy and productive lives and to resist the threats of gangs, violence, and drugs. RMC Research Corporation works in partnership with Self Enhancement, Inc., to conduct research and evaluation on the effectiveness of its programs. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program works primarily at the individual student and interpersonal relationship levels. Resilience Theory and its culturally specific Relationship Model drive the formulation of specific strategies and activities. Program staff mentor each student through his or her preadolescent and adolescent years, promoting positive, prosocial norms and expectations for behavior through their peer group activities. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program consists of three major components: classroom, exposure, and proactive education. Classroom education focuses on anger management, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Exposure education consists of quarterly field trips to agencies and organizations in the Portland area that deal with the causes and consequences of violence in the community. Proactive education includes newsletters, student-run assemblies and conferences, and radio/ television public service announcements that communicate antiviolence messages. The evaluation plan is a longitudinal matched comparison group designed to assess the outcomes of the violence-prevention program. Key outcomes are protective factors, health-risk behaviors, and academic measures. Standardized assessment instruments (the Individual Protective Factors Index and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were administered to all
Full Text Available Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M= 15 years; range= 13-16 years; 60 males, 61 females within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home. Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence.
Sajadi, Homeira; Rahimy, Hossein; Rafiey, Hassan; Vameghi, Meroe
Domestic violence appears to be a major social problem. Researches in the last 10 years have uncovered multiple effects of witnessing domestic violence on children, ranging in severity from little or no effect to sever psychological harm. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of exposure to domestic violence among high school students in Tehran. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on high school students of Tehran in the school year 2011-2012. The "Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence Scale" was administered to a total cohort of 1,212 students (615 males and 597 females) selected by the stratified sampling method. Approximately one-half of the participants (44.3%) had been exposed to their fathers's violence against their mothers at least sometimes in their lives, the most common form of which was preventing the mother from doing something (28.5%) and the least common, hurting the mother with sharp or deadly tools (9.6%). A substantial proportion of the students (90.6%) had been exposed to violence in the community or at school, the most common kind would be being heard from someone calling another person names or making fun of them (81.7%) and the least common, being injured a child in the community or at school (31.8%). Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among children in Tehran. It encompasses a wide range and children were exposed to violence in different ways and forms.
During the past decade, labor unions have contributed to efforts to increase awareness of the importance of workplace violence as an occupational hazard. Research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the U.S. Department of Justice have bolstered these efforts. This research revealed that workplace violence is the second leading cause of traumatic-injury death on the job for men, the leading cause of traumatic-injury death on the job for women, and accounts for some 2 million nonfatal injuries each year in the United States. Ten years ago, the debate focused on whether workplace violence is an occupational hazard or strictly a police and criminal justice issue. Labor unions have joined with occupational safety and health professionals in recognizing that workplace violence is a serious occupational hazard that is often predictable and preventable. They have advocated that employers establish multidimensional violence-prevention programs. Although the nature of workplace violence varies from industry to industry, implementation of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Violence Prevention Guidelines for Health Care and Social Service Workers and for Late-Night Retail Establishments is a high priority to unions in the affected industries. Labor wants employers to invest in protecting workers from violence through voluntary programs and state legislation, and it supports the promulgation of a mandatory federal OSHA standard. To that end, intervention research can play a key role in demonstrating effective, technically and economically feasible prevention strategies
Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.
Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…
School violence continues to be highly prevalent in many low-income communities in South Africa. This study made use of an interpretive research paradigm to explore educators' subjective views of school violence in Alexandra. Participants were 12 educators at selected government schools with at least 5 years teaching ...
Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna
Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…
Melzer, W; Oertel, L; Ottova, V
The purpose of this study was to undertake an assessment and differentiated examination of the development of bullying and violence in schools between 2002 and 2010 in Germany.We examined the national German data of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in 2002, 2006 and 2010. A paper-pencil questionnaire was distributed to a representative sample (N=17 929) of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children. The evaluation of the data was done by descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses, controlled by age, gender, family affluence, school type and survey year.A clear positive trend could be identified: from 2002 to 2010 the number of bullies and bully victims decreased whereas the group of the uninvolved pupils increased. There was a delay in this trend for children with low family affluence.The obvious success in the prevention of violence is shown by the decreasing rate of bullies. The paper discusses whether future prevention should focus more on victims and children with educationally deprived background. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cristiane Penning Pauli de Menezes
Full Text Available Resumo A interdisciplinaridade entre Direito e Educação permeia o presente artigo ao ligar o tema do bullying com o conceito da Justiça Restaurativa, analisada como um instrumento que pode auxiliar na prevenção dos conflitos que envolvam o bullying no interior das escolas. Assim, o presente artigo tem por objetivo entrelaçar a Justiça Restaurativa aos conflitos de bullying, que atualmente ganham novas roupagens, tendo em vista que as agressões quando não são tratadas com seriedade no ambiente escolar acabam por trazer nas relações interpessoais dos estudantes. Por mais que os debates sobre o tema tenham avançado, novas investigações sobre o tema são imprescindíveis para buscar alternativas de resolução e prevenção destes conflitos, no sentido de preparar os profissionais da comunidade escolar para que possam lidar com esta realidade presente no âmbito escolar. Palavras-chave: bullying, justiça restaurativa, conflitos escolares. SCHOOL BULLYING: A RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AS FACE OF FORM AND PREVENT VIOLENCE Abstract The interdisciplinary Law and Education permeates this item to connect the bullying theme, with the concept of Restorative Justice, as analyzed as a tool that can prevent conflicts involving bullying within schools. Thus, this research paper aims to weave Restorative Justice to bullying conflicts, which currently gets new look, considering that the attacks when they are not treated seriously in the school environment just bring reflexes are striking in interpersonal relationships among students. As much as the debates on the subject have advanced, new research on the subject are essential to seek alternative means of resolution and prevention of conflicts, to prepare professionals in the school community. Key-words: bullying, restorative justice, school conflicts.
Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan
children's experiences of three different types of violence and their academic achievement. The study points to the need for validated violence prevention programs to be introduced in Jamaican primary schools. Such programs need to train teachers in appropriate classroom management and discipline strategies and to promote children's social and emotional competence and prevent aggression.
Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.
Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.
Eke, Chidi Idi; Singh, Shakila
School-based violence is serious, and on the rise in South African schools. The violence affects learners, teachers, communities and the management of schools. Towards finding possible ways to manage school violence, this article presents social networking as a strategic tool in the management of school-based violence in high schools, based on the…
Piedrahita S, Laura E
To describe the opinion of schoolage children, from a public school, regarding the violence they perceive in the media. Descriptive-exploratory research with a sample, selected according to the child's age in a public school. Quantitative data were collected. There were found common issues related to the child's opinion about the violence present in the media such as frequent exposure to the media violence and lack of parental supervision. Social context and constant exposure to the media violence affect the children's opinion about the violence phenomenon and their predisposition to it.
National and Provincial Departments of Education in South Africa, which attempt to address violence in ... Barth (2002) defines school culture as a complex pattern of norms, attitudes, beliefs, behaviour, values .... The section on school violence in this questionnaire measured the extent of incidents of school violence.
Behre, William J.; Astor, Ron Avi; Meyer, Heather Ann
Compares middle-school and elementary school teachers' reasoning about their professional roles when violence occurs in school subcontexts such as hallways, cafeterias, and playgrounds. Uses concepts from urban planning, architecture, criminology, and cognitive developmental domain theory to explore teachers' moral attitudes toward school…
African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety ... theoretical and research investigations of the benchmark injury prevention and containment interventions
Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah
The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (preduce violence at the community level and meet Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Swartz, Marvin S; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W
Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal. Relevant publications were identified for review in PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, personal communications, and relevant Internet searches of advocacy and policy-related publications. Most research on OPC has focussed on outcomes such as community functioning and hospital recidivism and not on interpersonal violence. As a result, research on violence towards others has been limited but suggests that low-level acts of interpersonal violence such as minor, noninjurious altercations without weapon use and arrests can be reduced by OPC, but there is no evidence that OPC can reduce major acts of violence resulting in injury or weapon use. The impact of OPC on major violence, including mass shootings, is difficult to assess because of their low base rates. Effective implementation of OPC, when combined with intensive community services and applied for an adequate duration to take effect, can improve treatment adherence and related outcomes, but its promise as an effective means to reduce serious acts of violence is unknown.
Full Text Available "nObjective: Family violence, specifically domestic violence, has been identified by the medical community as a serious, no remitting epidemic with adverse health consequences. World Health Organization(WHO has stated that violence against women is a priority issue in the fields of health and human rights. A quasi experimental study were conducted in different faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences to determine the effect of teaching on prevention of domestic violence against female employees. "nMethods: Forty four women working in various faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004 were selected. A designed questionnaire was given to the participants to identify kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence. Then an educational booklet was given to subjects. This booklet contained information about kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence and how to manage them. To compare the impact of teaching, the same questionnaires were distributed among the subjects after six months. The questionnaire was specifically tested for content validity. "nResults:The results indicated that the incidence rate of domestic violence pre test and post test education was 5.17%. "nConclusion: Our study showed that education had no effect on domestic violence. Solving problems relating to domestic violence due to cardinal roots in short time seems to be impossible and impracticable.
Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Fan, Xitao
This study investigated the relations between student perceptions of support and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence in a sample of 7318 ninth-grade students from 291 high schools who participated in the Virginia High School Safety Study. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that students who perceived their teachers and other school staff to be supportive were more likely to endorse positive attitudes toward seeking help for bullying and threats of violence. In schools with more perceived support, there was less of a discrepancy in help-seeking attitudes between girls and boys. Findings suggest that efforts by school staff to provide a supportive climate are a potentially valuable strategy for engaging students in the prevention of bullying and threats of violence. Copyright © 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi
Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.
Cremin, Hilary; Guilherme, Alexandre
Research into violence in schools has been growing steadily at an international level, and has shown high degrees of violence at various different levels. Given the seriousness of the problem, finding ways of responding to this issue in schools becomes an imperative for educationists. In this article, we engage with this problem by defending the…
Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.
Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…
This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…
In a comprehensive survey of the literature title "Coping With Violence in the School System," Benbenisti, Astor, and Marachi (2003) map out the programs being deployed throughout the school system today. Those programs listed are "peace builders," "second step," "Richmond's youth against violence,"…
Girls' vulnerability to sexual violence and harassment is a recurrent theme in much of the literature on schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. Within this research, girls are often framed as passive victims of violence. By drawing on a case study, this paper focuses on 12 to 13-year-old South African school girls as they mediate and participate in…
Dunne, Mairead; Humphreys, Sara; Leach, Fiona
This paper explores gender violence in schools in what is commonly known as the "developing world" through a review of recent research written in English. Violence in the school setting has only recently emerged as a widespread and serious phenomenon in these countries, with the consequence that our knowledge and understanding of it is embryonic;…
Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy
This study assessed the perceptions and practices of a national sample of secondary school principals regarding reducing firearm violence in high schools. Data were collected via three-wave postal mailings. A 59-item valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 800 secondary school principals. Of the 349 principals (46 %) that responded, 17 % reported a firearm incident at their school in the past 5 years. Principals perceived inadequate parental monitoring (70 %), inadequate mental health services (64 %), peer harassment/bullying (59 %), and easy access to firearms (50 %) as the main causes of firearm violence in schools. The three barriers to implementing firearm violence prevention practices were: lack of expertise as to which practices to implement (33 %), lack of time (30 %), and lack of research as to which practices are most effective (30 %). Less than half of schools trained school personnel regarding firearm violence issues. The findings indicate that firearm incidents at schools may be more common than previously thought. A significant portion of principals are at a loss as to what to implement because of a lack of empirical evidence on what is effective. More research is needed to find the most effective school interventions for reducing firearm violence.
Devries, Karen M; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Zuurmond, Maria; Parkes, Jenny; Child, Jennifer C; Walakira, Eddy J; Naker, Dipak
150 million children live with disabilities globally, and a recent systematic review found 3 to 4 times the levels of violence versus non-disabled children in high income countries. However, almost nothing is known about violence against disabled children in lower income countries. We aim to explore the prevalence, patterns and risk factors for physical, sexual and emotional violence among disabled children attending primary school in Luwero District, Uganda. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the baseline survey of the Good Schools Study. 3706 children and young adolescents aged 11-14 were randomly sampled from 42 primary schools. Descriptive statistics were computed and logistic regression models fitted. 8.8% of boys and 7.6% of girls reported a disability. Levels of violence against both disabled and non-disabled children were extremely high. Disabled girls report slightly more physical (99.1% vs 94.6%, p = 0.010) and considerably more sexual violence (23.6% vs 12.3%, p = 0.002) than non-disabled girls; for disabled and non-disabled boys, levels are not statistically different. The school environment is one of the main venues at which violence is occurring, but patterns differ by sex. Risk factors for violence are similar between disabled and non-disabled students. In Uganda, disabled girls are at particular risk of violence, notably sexual violence. Schools may be a promising venue for intervention delivery. Further research on the epidemiology and prevention of violence against disabled and non-disabled children in low income countries is urgently needed.
school-related events (sport, cultural and social), as well as while commuting to and from school. School ... degrees, frequently occur in our schools, while psychological violence in schools is also widespread (De ..... victim and the victim herself, other parents, other learners, anSAPS official, a hospital spokesperson, as well ...
Webster, Daniel W
Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.
Full Text Available En el Programa de Psicología Clínica para Adolescentes se han implementado dispositivos de prevención de patologías específicas que se presentan en adolescentes con alto riesgo psicosocial. El objetivo de estos dispositivos es optimizar la posibilidad de creación y mantenimiento de redes comunitarias que asistan a la población adolescente de riesgo y su familia y prevengan conductas de desajuste familiar, social y educacional (conductas transgresoras violentas, suicidas y autodestructivas. En este trabajo se presenta la experiencia de prevención realizada por la Unidad de Prevención y Asistencia en Violencia Familiar, Escolar y Urbana en escuelas públicas del Distrito de Avellaneda. Los datos obtenidos a través del Cuestionario Exposición a la Violencia Comunitaria demuestran el alto riesgo de muerte y/o autodestrucción al que se encuentran expuestos estos adolescentes y corroboran la alta vulnerabilidad psicosocial y comunitaria que predomina en esta población y su contexto.In the Clinical Psychology Program for Adolescents, prevention devices of specific pathologies that are present in adolescents with high psychosocial risk have been implemented. The aim of these devices is to optimise the possibility of creating and maintaining community groups that can assist the teenage population at risk and their family and that can prevent behaviours of family, social and educational disruption (violent, suicidal and self-destructive transgressive behaviours. In this study, the prevention experience in Family, School and Urban Violence in state schools in the district of Avellaneda, which was carried out by the Prevention and Assistance Unit, is presented. The data obtained by means of the Exposure to Community Violence Questionnaire show the high risk of death and/or self-destruction these adolescents are exposed to and corroborate the high psychosocial and community vulnerability that prevails in this population and its environment.
Herrero Romero, Rocio; Hall, James; Cluver, Lucie
Many adolescents in South Africa are exposed to multiple types of violence, socio-economic disadvantage, and low-quality education: all risk factors for educational outcomes including school delay (grade enrolment below that which is age-appropriate). Supportive teacher-student relationships are known to be associated with improved academic outcomes in high-income contexts. To investigate whether the academic and emotional support provided by teachers can protect against school delay for adolescents exposed to multiple types of violence and socio-economic disadvantage in South Africa. High-risk sample of 503 adolescents aged 10-18 exposed to multiple types of violence and socio-economic disadvantage at home, in school, and in their communities. Multilevel aggregated structural equation modelling was applied to pre/post-RCT data. This investigated whether associations between adolescent exposure to violence and school delay could be lessened by having teachers who were academically and/or emotionally supportive. More frequent exposure to 'poly-violence' and receiving more emotional support from teachers were independently associated with greater school delay. On the contrary, higher academic support from teachers was associated with lower school delay. Neither academic nor emotional teacher support was found to moderate the relationship between more frequent exposure to 'poly-violence' and an increased risk of adolescent school delay. Adolescents' academic support from teachers is low in poorly resourced school contexts in South Africa. School-based secondary prevention programmes assisting teachers with more training and academic support in deprived contexts have potential to reduce the impact of violence and socio-economic disadvantage on adolescents' school delay. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...
Ryan-Arrendondo, Kim; Renouf, Kristin; Egyed, Carla; Doxey, Meredith; Dobbins, Maria; Sanchez, Serafin; Rakowitz, Bert
Discusses the Dallas Public Schools' procedures for assessing the potential for violence among children who express intent to harm others. The Dallas Violence Risk Assessment (DVRA) was developed to evaluate students who have made threats of violence, and to assist school staff in determining appropriate intervention strategies. Describes the…
Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan; Wrabel, Stephani L.
The present study explores the causal link between school climate, school violence, and a school's general academic performance over time using a school-level, cross-lagged panel autoregressive modeling design. We hypothesized that reductions in school violence and climate improvement would lead to schools' overall improved academic performance.…
Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi
This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild intellectual disability at two special schools in South Africa. This was followed by individual interviews with the school nurse and social worker, and an analysis of schools' books of incidents. Factors contributing to sexual violence at schools for learners with mild intellectual disability included: (i) peer pressure, (ii) concealment of reported incidents of sexual violence, (iii) unsupervised areas linked to schools and (iv) arranged relationships. The following suggestions are put forth: (i) awareness programmes, (ii) sensitization of teachers about the consequences and prevention of sexual violence, (iii) boundaries within which the arranged relationship occurs, (iv) intensification of sexuality education and (v) supervision around the school premises. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y
Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.
Most participants are women. When their economic power increases, their partners may feel threatened or undermined. Bruce argues that providing gender training to participants who are at risk of domestic violence and increasing the number of men benefiting from the program are ways to mitigate this risk. Read David ...
Ricketts, Melissa L.
Since the 1990s, schools have focused their attention on policies designed to improve school safety. Most researches on school violence policies have concentrated on the needs of students and administrators. This study investigated the impact of school violence policies on K-12 teachers' fear. Using self-report data from 447 K-12 teachers from a…
Kub, Joan; Feldman, Marissa A.
Bullying among children and adolescents is recognized as a significant global public health problem, as it has serious health consequences. Schools are important sites in which to address violence prevention, specifically bullying prevention, and to promote positive youth development. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion outlines five action…
Laura Jordan Jaffee
Full Text Available Calls for stricter gun control and mental health screening often come on the heels of school shootings, which have raised national concerns about school safety. The implication is that people with psychiatric disabilities are dangerous or threatening, and that preventing them from owning guns will make schools safer. This paper challenges this assumption by considering dominant discourses about school safety and mental health alongside the increasing militarization of U.S. schools. Advocating reducing violence by identifying individuals with psychiatric disabilities—or those labelled with mental illnesses presumed to render them dangerous—erases the profound state violence schools engender in the service of empire while perpetuating ableist assumptions about people with psychiatric disabilities. In the age of empire and endless imperialist war, we need to challenge prevailing conceptions of both school safety and mental health.
Full Text Available Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will undergo some form of interpersonal violence from an ex-partner or ex-spouse. Besides the devastating toll that domestic violence has on victims and their families, the ongoing cost to Albertans is significant. In the past five years alone it is estimated that over $600 million will have been spent on the provision of a few basic health and non health supports and that the majority of this cost ($521 million is coming out of the pockets of Albertans in the form of tax dollars directed at the provision of services. Fortunately, investment in quality prevention and intervention initiatives can be very cost effective, returning as much as $20 for every dollar invested. Recent research on preventative programming in the context of domestic violence shows promising results in reducing incidents of self-reported domestic violence. The economic analysis of this preventative programming suggests that the benefits of providing the various types of programming outweighed the costs by as much as 6:1. The potential cost savings for the Alberta context are significant; the implementation of these preventative programs has been estimated to be approximately $9.6 million while generating net cost-benefits of over $54 million. Domestic violence is a persistent blight, and continues to have a significant impact on individuals and families in Alberta, but potent tools exist to fight it. This brief paper offers a cogent summary of its costs, and the benefits that could be
Lowry, Richard; Cohen, Lisa R.; Modzeleski, William; Kann, Laura; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
Investigated whether school violence among high school students related to substance use and availability of illegal drugs at school, examining the associations of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana and availability of illegal drugs with five school violence indicators. Data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that school violence…
Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…
MA Bekele, A.B.
The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the determinants of sexual violence among Eastern Ethiopia secondary school students. To this end, we studied risk and protective factors for both sexual violence perpetration and victimization, and the moderating role of protective factors on the
Yablon, Yaacov B.
The relation between students' social goals and their willingness to seek help for school violence was examined. Four hundred and sixty-two students from sixth, eighth, and tenth grades responded to vignettes used to assess willingness to seek help from teachers and friends for dealing with relational and physical violence. Intimacy goals enhanced…
Earnest, Alicia A; Brady, Sonya S
The present study examines whether being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, and feeling unsafe at school are associated with physical dating violence victimization. It also examines whether extracurricular activity involvement and perceived care by parents, teachers, and friends attenuate those relationships, consistent with a stress-buffering model. Participants were 75,590 ninth-and twelfth-grade students (51% female, 77% White, 24% receiving free/reduced price lunch) who completed the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey. Overall, 8.5% of students reported being victims of dating violence. Significant differences were found by gender, grade, ethnicity, and free/reduced price lunch status. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, feeling unsafe at school, and low perceived care by parents were strongly associated with dating violence victimization. Associations of moderate strength were found for low perceived care by teachers and friends. Little to no extracurricular activity involvement was weakly associated with dating violence victimization. Attenuating effects of perceived care and extracurricular activity involvement on associations between risk factors (victimization by a family adult, witnessing intra-familial violence, feeling unsafe at school) and dating violence victimization were smaller in magnitude than main effects. Findings are thus more consistent with an additive model of risk and protective factors in relation to dating violence victimization than a stress-buffering model. Health promotion efforts should attempt to minimize family violence exposure, create safer school environments, and encourage parental involvement and support. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fang, Lin; Schiff, Miriam; Benbenishty, Rami
Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors to cope with the negative psychological impacts resulting from exposure to political violence. Guided by the Deterioration Deterrence Model and General Strain Theory, the present study assessed the mediating role of school support and posttraumatic stress (PTS) on two adolescent risk behaviors (i.e., school violence and drug use) among Arab and Jewish Israeli adolescents. We analyzed data from a nationally representative survey that consisted of 4,733 Israeli high school students (54.5% females; 63.2% Jewish) following the Second Lebanon War. Structural equation modeling using weighted data bootstrapped with 2,000 iterations evaluated the mediated effects of school support and PTS. The results showed that both school support and PTS mediated the pathways from political violence exposure to school violence and drug use. However, although school support and PTS fully mediated the relationship between political violence exposure and these risk behaviors for Jewish students, school support and PTS only partially mediated the relationships for Arab students. While school support can help decrease the detrimental effect of exposure to terrorism and war, Israeli adolescents exposed to more political violence may perceive receiving less school support than those experiencing less exposure. Findings of this study provide evidence for the theorized mediated pathways between political violence exposure and adolescent risk behaviors by PTS and school support. The study serves as a basis for future research that can unpack the relationship between exposure to political violence and adolescent risk-taking behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Parker, Robert Nash
This article reviews a number of theoretical and substantive arguments and models concerning the link between alcohol and violent crime which have appeared in the research literature in the past decade. These arguments and models form a firm foundation for the expectation that alcohol plays a causal role in violent crime, and that interventions designed to reduce or eliminate this link between alcohol and violence have the potential to become effective violence prevention policies. Four studies on the relationship between alcohol and violence are summarized, including one in which a natural alcohol policy experiment is evaluated. Taken together, these studies provide substantial empirical evidence that alcohol policy can be an effective crime prevention tool.
The author argues for school-based violence prevention programming that addresses the unique predicament faced by male youth when they are asked to adopt attitudes and behaviours that may contradict traditional socialized notions of masculinity. Studies based on the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) and the Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale…
Vriens, Lannard J. A.
Dutch schools experience three types of violence: interpupil violence, aggression between teachers and pupils, and violence resulting from outside criminal influences. When confronting school violence, educators must confront three pedagogical paradoxes. The school can only partly compensate for bad societal influences, since other institutions…
Rosa María Varela Garay
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyze the differences between adolescents scoring high and low on school violence in the following areas: individual (self-esteem, loneliness, satisfaction with life, and empathy; family (family climate, communication with father and mother; academic (classroom climate, attitudes toward authority, and sociometric status; and community (community involvement, community participation, social support from formal systems, and social support from informal systems. Differences in these relationships between boys and girls scoring high on school violence were also examined. Participants in the study were 1723 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years old, in four secondary schools. Multivariate and univariate analysis of variance were performed. Results showed that adolescents with high levels of school violence scored higher on loneliness, depressive symptomatology, offensive and avoidance communication with father and mother, family conflict, and attitude towards transgression, as compared to adolescents with low levels of school violence. Furthermore, girls scoring high on school violence reported higher scores on academic self-esteem, empathy, and sociometric status, and lower scores on open communication with father and community participation, as compared to boys scoring high in school violence. Finally, these results and their practical implications are discussed.
May 30, 2016 ... the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang- ... bullying, shootings, stabbings, gangsterism, drug trafficking, theft of property and vandalism, racially motivated violence and ...... Pupils feeling heavy weight of gangs, violence and ...
Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the experience of networks for the protection of people exposed to situations of violence or prevention networks. It is based on the concept created by Castells, who defines the information age. This study is part of the investigation "Successful experiences in the prevention of violence", carried out by the Latin-American Center for Studies on Violence Jorge Careli/ENSP-IFF/Fiocruz, in cooperation with the Secretariat for Health Survey of the Ministry of Health. The article analyzes the possibilities and limitations in the construction of networks for the prevention of violence, seeking to understand the sense of actions and movements carried out in networks. The method we used is a case study of two network initiatives in the Southern region of the country. In terms of results, in face of the difficulties of working in networks, we found it to be necessary: to break with sectorial and vertical actions; to promote constant communication and interchange of information; to permanently train the professionals and persons involved in the network, incorporating them into the protective and preventive actions; and to promote the participation of wide social sectors. In conclusion, one can affirm that the construction of a protection network involves complex steps, looking to the same problem with new eyes and a new vision for planting solutions.
IDRC's efforts in negotiation and coalition building contributed to a high-level dialogue that engaged high-level officials and reaffirmed their commitment to preventing violence particularly among youth in Central America. At a meeting held at the Earth University in Costa Rica´s Limon Province in early February, Luis Fallas, ...
Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri
Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.
Michau, Lori; Horn, Jessica; Bank, Amy; Dutt, Mallika; Zimmerman, Cathy
This Series paper describes programming to prevent violence against women and girls, and emphasises the importance of systematic, sustained programming across the social ecology (ie, the delicate equilibrium of interacting social, institutional, cultural, and political contexts of people's lives) to transform gender-power inequalities. Effective prevention policy and programming is founded on five core principles: first, analysis and actions to prevent violence across the social ecology (individual, interpersonal, community, and societal); second, intervention designs based on an intersectional gender-power analysis; third, theory-informed models developed on the basis of evidence; fourth, sustained investment in multisector interventions; and finally, aspirational programming that promotes personal and collective thought, and enables activism on women's and girls' rights to violence-free lives. Prevention programming of the future will depend on all of us having a vision of, and a commitment to, gender equality to make violence-free lives for women and girls a reality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Banyard, Victoria L.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Moynihan, Mary M.
Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly…
Effective parenting programmes are central to successful violence prevention efforts. Although parenting programmes are available in South Africa, few are evidence-based. This lack of evaluation makes it impossible to know whether programmes are helpful or harmful and whether they use resources efficiently. This article ...
Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer
The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…
Cierniak, Katie; Heiman, Julia R.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
For roughly three decades, policymakers have sought to reduce sexual violence by reliance on a criminal justice approach in which sexually violent acts are dealt with after they occur. Recognizing that prevention efforts could be more valuable, as they work to stop the problem before it begins, researchers have begun to implement a primary…
Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom
Background: School violence can impact the social, psychological, and physical well-being of both students and teachers and disrupt the learning process. This review focuses on a new area of research, the mechanisms by which the school environment determines the likelihood of school violence. Methods: A search for peer-reviewed articles was made…
Akiba, Motoko; Han, Seunghee
Whilst school violence is a major public concern and a focus of educational reforms both in the USA and South Korea, few studies have comparatively examined the rates of school violence and school factors associated with them. Analysing nationally-representative data from eighth graders, their mathematics teachers and principals in 150 South…
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…
Webster, Daniel W; Cerdá, Magdalena; Wintemute, Garen J; Cook, Philip J
Gunfire from assaults, suicides, and unintentional shootings exacts an enormous burden on public health globally. The epidemiologic reviews in this special issue enhance our understanding of various forms of gun violence, inform interventions, and help chart directions for future research. The available science, however, is limited to answer many important questions necessary for mounting successful efforts to reduce gun violence. Certain data are lacking, and there are numerous analytical challenges to deriving unbiased estimates of policy impacts. Significant investments in research over the long term are warranted to answer questions central to successful prevention of gun violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tait, Leigh Anne Deana
School violence in Canada and the United States is a topic of public and media concern following several recent shocking incidents of student killings by their classmates in Canada and the United States. This thesis reviews and critically evaluates Canadian and American studies of school violence. Published reports and studies are used as the source of data. The main focus for evaluating the studies is an in-depth analysis of the conceptual frameworks and elements of the research. This includ...
...) and characteristics (e.g., self-esteem, relationship skills) can moderate the impacts of past and... Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive Services/Grants to States AGENCY... Act (FVPSA) to States (including Territories and Insular Areas). The purpose of these grants is to: (1...
Crews, Kylee; Crews, Jack; Turner, Freda
Problems associated with school violence include higher than average teacher turnover, increased student dropout rates, students changing schools, and principals/teachers retiring early. There are 19 strategies offered that might reduce school violence.
or social process”. The government views violence as a serious threat to effective teaching and learning. The above studies showed that school violence negatively ..... Effect of violence. School A School B School C School D Total. %. Loss of concentration. Poor academic performance. Bunked classes. Chaos and lost time.
Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M
Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.
Gür, Kamer; Albayrak, Sevil
Although violence is a serious issue that children face all over the world, there is little known about the extent of the violence children with disabilities experience. This study was conducted to identify the frequency of exposure to violence that students with visual impairment experience in any environment, directly or as a witness, and the factors associated with this exposure. The study was conducted as descriptive research at a Secondary School for the Visually Impaired in 2011-2012 with 84 individuals. A questionnaire on demographics, a Violence Exposure Scale, and face-to-face interviews were used as data collection tools. It was found that the large majority of the children with visual impairment in the study had encountered violence on one occasion or more, recently or in the past. The number of students recently exposed to violence was higher than the number of children encountering violence in the past. The mean scores of the students who had recently experienced violence were higher than the scores for exposure to violence in the past. A large majority of the students with visual impairment in the study, all of the boarding students, and most of the day students had been exposed to violence once or more both recently and in the past. It was found that being male, having a congenital visual impairment, and living as a boarding student were risk factors in terms of violence. It may be recommended that school nurses more closely monitor this group of students for signs of violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lesneskie, Eric; Block, Steven
This study utilizes the School Survey on Crime and Safety to identify variables that predict lower levels of violence from four domains: school security, school climate, parental involvement, and community involvement. Negative binomial regression was performed and the findings indicate that statistically significant results come from all four…
violence have a profound effect on the educational process. Schools with high rates of crime and ... investigation into a group of Lesotho secondary school learners' perceptions, experiences, and observations of ... viour, including theft, assault, and even murder which may occur in class- rooms, the hallway, the school yard ...
Ez-Elarab, Hanan S; Sabbour, Sahar M; Gadallah, Mohsen A; Asaad, Tarek A
's report. Abnormal and borderline scores of SDQ are high among studied students, Follow up and supervision is needed to prevent violence among them. An effective role model to direct student's behavior should receive more concern at the school and home level.
Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Paddock, Susan; Chiesa, James
School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for…
Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi
Using a nationally representative sample of 3,058 junior high school students in Taiwan, this study examines a model of how personal traits, family factors, and school dynamics influence school violence committed by students against students and teachers. This model proposed that school violence is directly influenced by personal traits,…
Full Text Available Students play an important role in creating a school climate that does not support bullying, given the fact that students are more often than teachers present when it happens and aware of the frequency of bullying. It has been shown that inclusion of students in the programs of bullying prevention contributes to the positive results of their application. It is very important that students become aware of their role in situations of bullying and that they develop appropriate social skills that will enable them to react appropriately. The paper aims to highlight the importance of engaging students in the framework of intervention and prevention programs implemented in the school context. We emphasize the ways in which students can be involved in the prevention of violence and present some of the violence prevention programs in which students played a key role.
Full Text Available Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs, particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens and when it is integrated into existing civil society initiatives.1 However, new technologies are not a panacea for preventing and reducing violence and conflict. In fact, failure to consider the possible knock-on effects of applying a specific technology can lead to fatal outcomes in violent settings. In addition, employing new technologies for conflict prevention can produce very different results depending on the context in which they are applied and whether or not those using the technology take that context into account. This is particularly true in light of the dramatic changes underway in the landscapes of violence and conflict on a global level. As such, instead of focusing on supply-driven technical fixes, those undertaking prevention initiatives should let the context inform what kind of technology is needed and what kind of approach will work best.
Monika Priyadarshani Wijeratne
Full Text Available Violence among adolescents in schools is a relatively new research area in South Asian countries. Limited knowledge about factors associated with peer violence hinders the design of prevention programs. This study was carried out to assess correlates of peer violence among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in Gampaha district schools in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify “violent” and “non-violent” adolescents. Study and control populations were identified based on their participatory roles in violence, and an unmatched case–control (1 case: 1 control analysis was carried out to assess correlates of peer violence. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model was used, and correlates were determined for both physical and relational (verbal and non-verbal violence. Correlates of both physical and relational peer violence were male sex, being 13 years of age, mental health difficulties, dating relationships, school absenteeism, witnessing physical fights among neighbors, and crime-dense residence. Factors associated with peer violence operate at several levels: individual, family/peer relationships, community, and societal. Most of these factors are modifiable and can be targeted by prevention programs.
... org/ 2016/ 05/ sexual- assault- prevention- on- u- s- college- campuses- a- national- scan/ n Not Alone www. notalone. gov n CDC’s Report to the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual ... ...
Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R
Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.
Algozzine, Bob; McGee, Jennifer R.
The purpose of this study was to document and compare rates of reported and perceived crime and violence within schools. With highly publicized acts of school violence prevalent in the minds of the American public, there is a perception that schools are unsafe. Reports of school crime and violence from teachers, administrators, and students differ…
Their research looked at the root causes and impacts of violence against women and also assessed the effectiveness of existing strategies to prevent and combat gender-based violence. Their work has identified key strategies to strengthen civil society and public organizations engaged in preventing violence against ...
... National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month reflects our Nation's... one in four teens report being the victim of verbal, physical, emotional, or sexual violence. Abusive...
Römkens, R.; Lünnemann, K.
The call for preventive interventions to curb domestic violence is becoming stronger. The barring order has been launched as an innovative approach to preventing domestic violence. It allows the police to temporarily bar the perpetrator of domestic violence from entering his or her home, as a way to
Schwartz, I L
Sexual assault of women in the United States may have a prevalence rate of 25% or more. Moreover, the majority of survivors of sexual assault know their assailants. Consequences of assault may be severe and long-term, including fear and anxiety, depression, suicide attempts, difficulties with daily functioning and interpersonal relationships, sexual dysfunction, and a whole range of somatic complaints. Recent evidence implicates societal factors, such as acceptance of rape myths, rigid sex role stereotyping beliefs, and acceptance of violence as a legitimate means for obtaining compliance in interpersonal relationships, in the etiology of sexual violence against women. I present a model for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of rape. Primary prevention represents a program of anticipatory guidance in a developmental framework. Secondary prevention entails identification of and early intervention in dysfunctional families. Tertiary prevention consists of the appropriate treatment of the survivor of sexual assault to prevent or minimize subsequent physical and psychological problems. This preventive framework may be incorporated into the practice of clinical preventive medicine and primary care.
Erwin, Elizabeth Hite; Meyer, Aleta; McClain, Natalie
Auditing is an effective tool for articulating the trustworthiness and credibility of qualitative research. However, little information exists on how to conduct an audit. In this article, the authors illustrate their use of an audit team to explore the methods and preliminary findings of a study aimed at identifying the relevant and challenging problems experienced by urban teenagers. This study was the first in a series of studies to improve the ecological validity of violence prevention programs for high-risk urban teenagers, titled Identifying Essential Skills for Violence Prevention. The five phases of this audit were engaging the auditor, becoming familiar with the study, discussing methods and determining strengths and limitations, articulating audit findings, and planning subsequent research. Positioning the audit before producing final results allows researchers to address many study limitations, uncover potential sources of bias in the thematic structure, and systematically plan subsequent steps in an emerging design.
Edelman, Andrew J.
The martial art of Aikido was used as an intervention with 15 middle and high school students with severe emotional disturbances in an alternative educational setting. Students with an extensive history of violently disruptive and assaultive behaviors were trained for 12 weeks in this nonviolent Japanese martial art in order to achieve the…
Bliss, Melanie J; Emshoff, James; Buck, Chad A; Cook, Sarah L
This study explores perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence in a sample of 202 parents interviewed in the wake of nationally publicized school shootings. We also investigate the effects the school shootings had on children, parents' perceptions regarding firearms, and changes in parenting behavior. Parents exhibited strong support for almost all proposed causes and solutions, and we address their desire for immediate and often invasive interventions to prevent future violence. We contrast parents' perceptions with their own parenting behaviors and with literature on effective interventions. Results are discussed within the context of policy implications.Editors' Strategic Implications: Parents' perceptions and behaviors are frequently influenced by history effects. The national attention received by school shootings provided an opportunity for exploration of those perceptions and self-reported behaviors. The authors provide evidence from timely surveys that parents struggle with identifying causal factors that may contribute to school violence and consequently support a myriad of strategies for intervention including very invasive environmental preventive strategies. The findings suggest that social scientists should play a proactive role in translating research-supported preventive strategies to effective replications in the community and make research available in formats that are available and comprehensible by the lay public.
Objectives: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between bullying and victimization in school and exposure to interparental violence in a nonclinical sample of Italian youngsters. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1059 Italian elementary and middle school
Objectives: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between bullying and victimization in school and exposure to interparental violence in a nonclinical sample of Italian youngsters. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1059 Italian elementary and middle school
Warnick, Bryan R.; Kim, Sang Hyun; Robinson, Shannon
In the United States, targeted school shootings have become a distinct genre of violence. In this essay, Bryan Warnick, Sang Hyun Kim, and Shannon Robinson examine the social meanings that exist in American society that might contribute to this phenomenon, focusing on the question: "Why are schools conceptualized as appropriate places to…
Winslade, John; Williams, Michael
In today's culture where bullying and violence are on the rise, we know that children who are afraid or anxious are in no state of mind to learn. If you are serious about creating a safe school climate conducive to learning, this book will show you how. Written by counseling experts, "Safe and Peaceful Schools" provides a variety of research-based…
Abstract. This study aimed at investigating the nature of sexual violence among schoolgirls in Rwanda and its impact on their school performance. In addition to the structured questionnaire administered to 182 respondents sampled from four. 12 YBE schools in Muhanga District and the interviews, the study used ...
Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa
Some antibullying interventions have shown positive outcomes with regard to reducing violence. The aim of the study was to experimentally assess the effects on school violence and aggressiveness of a program to prevent and reduce cyberbullying. The sample was comprised of a randomly selected sample of 176 adolescents (93 experimental, 83 control), aged 13-15 years. The study used a repeated measures pre-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered: the "Cuestionario de Violencia Escolar-Revisado" (CUVE-R [School Violence Questionnaire - Revised]; Álvarez-García et al., 2011) and the "Cuestionario de agresividad premeditada e impulsiva" (CAPI-A [Premeditated and Impulsive Aggressiveness Questionnaire]; Andreu, 2010). The intervention consisted of 19 one-hour sessions carried out during the school term. The program contains 25 activities with the following objectives: (1) to identify and conceptualize bullying/cyberbullying; (2) to analyze the consequences of bullying/cyberbullying, promoting participants' capacity to report such actions when they are discovered; (3) to develop coping strategies to prevent and reduce bullying/cyberbullying; and (4) to achieve other transversal goals, such as developing positive variables (empathy, active listening, social skills, constructive conflict resolution, etc.). The pre-posttest ANCOVAs confirmed that the program stimulated a decrease in: (1) diverse types of school violence-teachers' violence toward students (ridiculing or publicly humiliating students in front of the class, etc.); students' physical violence (fights, blows, shoves… aimed at the victim, or at his or her property, etc.); students' verbal violence (using offensive language, cruel, embarrassing, or insulting words… toward classmates and teachers); social exclusion (rejection or exclusion of a person or group, etc.), and violence through Information and Communication Technologies (ICT
Knight, Louise; Nakuti, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Gannett, Katherine R; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen M
The nature and structure of the school environment has the potential to shape children's health and well being. Few studies have explored the importance of school-level factors in explaining a child's likelihood of experiencing violence from school staff, particularly in low-resource settings such as Uganda. To quantify to what extent a student's risk of violence is determined by school-level factors we fitted multilevel logistic regression models to investigate associations and present between-school variance partition coefficients. School structural factors, academic and supportive environment are explored. 53% of students reported physical violence from staff. Only 6% of variation in students' experience of violence was due to differences between schools and half the variation was explained by the school-level factors modelled. Schools with a higher proportion of girls are associated with increased odds of physical violence from staff. Students in schools with a high level of student perceptions of school connectedness have a 36% reduced odds of experiencing physical violence from staff, but no other school-level factor was significantly associated. Our findings suggest that physical violence by school staff is widespread across different types of schools in this setting, but interventions that improve students' school connectedness should be considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert
This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.
This article is a response to Carolina Castano's article "Extending the purposes of science education." Drawing on personal memories of life in Bogotá, I raise questions about the nature of violence in Colombia broadly, and ask how the intervention Castano proposes changes the ecology of violence in that country. It also ponders the relationship between schools, science, and violence. In conclusion it urges that science educators follow Castano's recommendation to make science education responsive to local community needs rather than standardized visions of education.
Gordon, Allegra R; Conron, Kerith J; Calzo, Jerel P; White, Matthew T; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn
Young people may experience school-based violence and bullying victimization related to their gender expression, independent of sexual orientation identity. However, the associations between gender expression and bullying and violence have not been examined in racially and ethnically diverse population-based samples of high school students. This study includes 5469 students (13-18 years) from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted in 4 urban school districts. Respondents were 51% Hispanic/Latino, 21% black/African American, 14% white. Generalized additive models were used to examine the functional form of relationships between self-reported gender expression (range: 1 = Most gender conforming, 7 = Most gender nonconforming) and 5 indicators of violence and bullying victimization. We estimated predicted probabilities across gender expression by sex, adjusting for sexual orientation identity and potential confounders. Statistically significant quadratic associations indicated that girls and boys at the most gender conforming and nonconforming ends of the scale had elevated probabilities of fighting and fighting-related injury, compared to those in the middle of the scale (p gender expression and bullying victimization; every unit increase in gender nonconformity was associated with 15% greater odds of experiencing bullying (p based victimization is associated with conformity and nonconformity to gender norms. School violence prevention programs should include gender diversity education. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao; Holland, Kristin
Two salient problems in adolescent development are dating violence and suicidal ideation. Theory and empirical research have supported their association in primarily cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal association between physical dating violence and suicidal ideation (thoughts or plans) in a cohort of students evaluated annually from Grades 9 to 12. The sample consisted of 556 random-selected students (50.2 % males; 47.5 % White, 37.8 % Black, 11.2 % Latino) who reported dating at least once during the four assessments. Self-reported frequency of suicidal ideation, dating, and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization were assessed each spring from ninth to twelfth grade. We used generalized estimating equations modeling to predict the effects of sex, race, school grade, and physical dating perpetration and victimization on suicidal ideation. Cumulatively, one-fourth of the sample reported suicidal ideation at least once by the end of Grade 12, and approximately half reported physical dating violence. Female gender (OR = 1.7, p = 0.02), physical dating perpetration (OR = 1.54, p = 0.048), physical dating victimization (OR = 2.03, p school (OR = 1.83, p = 0.004) were significant predictors of suicidal ideation. Race was not a significant predictor among adolescents in this sample. This longitudinal study highlights the detrimental emotional effect of physical dating violence perpetration and victimization among high school students. It is important that suicide prevention programs incorporate physical dating violence education and prevention strategies starting early in high school.
Barrow, Rosemary; VanZommeren, Wayne; Young, Clark; Holtman, Paula
Research investigating perceptions of guns, gangs, drugs, and violence in rural schools surveyed 266 principals and counselors in rural elementary, middle, and high schools in northern Missouri. Smaller schools and elementary schools had fewer problems than larger and middle/high schools. Community collaboration is essential to solving…
Holmes, Scott; Flood, Michael
This report examines the role of workplaces, and men in workplaces in particular, in preventing men's violence against women. The report begins by noting that men's violence against women is a widespread social problem which requires urgent action. It highlights the need for preventative measures oriented to changing the social and structural conditions at the root of this violence, including through settings such as workplaces. Men's violence against women is a workplace issue. As well as be...
Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami
Empirical evidence examining how risk and protective behaviors may possibly mediate the association between gang membership and school violence is limited. This study utilizes a statewide representative sample of 152 023 Latino, Black and White seventh graders from California to examine a theoretical model of how school risk (e.g. truancy, school substance use and risky peer approval) and protective (e.g. connectedness, support and safety) behaviors and attitudes mediate the effects of gang membership on school violence behaviors. The dataset was collected in the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 academic school years using the ongoing large-scale California Healthy Kids Survey conducted by WestEd for the State of California. Approximately 9.5% of the sample considered themselves to be a member of a gang. The findings indicate that school risk behaviors and attitudes mediate the association between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Although the direct negative association between gang membership and school violence perpetration is weak, the positive indirect effect mediated by school risks behaviors and attitudes is strong. This indicates that when gang members engage in school risk behaviors, they are much more likely to be school violence perpetrators. Implications for further research, theory and practice for both gang and school violence researchers are discussed.
School neighborhood violence continues to be a major public health problem among urban students. A large body of research addresses violence at school; however, fewer studies have explored concentrations of violence in areas proximal to schools. This study aimed to quantify the concentration of shootings near schools to elucidate the place-based dynamics that may be focal points for violence prevention. Geocoded databases of shooting and school locations were used to examine locational patterns of firearm shootings and elementary, middle, and high schools in Boston, Massachusetts. Analyses utilized spatial statistics for point pattern data including distance matrix and K function methodology to quantify the degree of spatial dependence of shootings around schools. Results suggested that between 2012 and 2015, there were 678 shooting incidents in Boston; the average density was 5.1 per square kilometer. The nearest neighbor index (NNI = 0.335 km, p shooting incidents indicative of a spatially non-random process. The mean and median distance from any school to the nearest shooting location was 0.35 and 0.33 km, respectively. A majority (56%, 74/133) of schools in Boston had at least one shooting incident within 400 m, a distance that would take about 5 min to walk if traveling by foot. The bivariate K function indicated that a significantly greater number of shootings were clustered within short distances from schools than would be expected under a null hypothesis of no spatial dependence. Implications for students attending schools in racially homogenous neighborhoods across all income levels are discussed.
Daane, Diane M
Although the juvenile violent crime rate has decreased steadily during the past 5 years, the problem of violence and violence-related behaviors in the lives of our children and adolescents remains. The incidence of violent victimization against children and violence and violence-related behavior by today's youth is related to a variety of factors. Exposure to violence in the home, school, community, or video games and other entertainment significantly influences aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents. Other childhood violence predictors include alcohol and drug use, gender, and low self-esteem. The childhood violence risk indicators have implications for child and adolescent violence prevention and intervention programs. Nurses who recognize dangerous and potentially dangerous behavior in children and adolescents are better able to provide violence prevention and intervention services and referrals to children at risk or in danger. Because orthopaedic nurses often see adolescents who have already sustained injury from violence, identification of those at risk is particularly important.
...., supportive relatives, involvement in after-school activities) and characteristics (e.g., self-esteem... family violence. The particular legal relationship of the United States to Indian Tribes creates a... organizations in support of 227 Tribes; 52 States and Territories; and 55 non-profit State Domestic Violence...
The Link between Poverty, the Proliferation of Violence and the Development of Traumatic Stress among Urban Youth in the United States to School Violence: A Trauma Informed, Social Justice Approach to School Violence
Rawles, Portia D.
This paper presents two premises regarding school violence in urban America. First, that traumatic stress among urban youth in the United States is a key factor in the development and exacerbation of school violence in urban areas. Secondly, an efficacious approach to the resolution of school violence cannot be achieved without addressing this…
Claire V. Crooks
Full Text Available Teen violence in dating and peer relationships has huge costs to society in numerous areas including health care, social services, the workforce and the justice system. Physical, psychological, and sexual abuse have long-lasting ramifications for the perpetrators as well as the victims, and for the families involved on both sides of that equation. An effective violence prevention program that is part of a school’s curriculum is beneficial not only for teaching teenagers what is appropriate behaviour in a relationship, but also for helping them break the cycle of violence which may have begun at home with their own maltreatment as children. The Fourth R program is an efficacious violence prevention program that was developed in Ontario and has been implemented in schools throughout Canada and the U.S. Covering relationship dynamics common to dating violence as well as substance abuse, peer violence and unsafe sex, the program can be adapted to different cultures and to same-sex relationships. The program, which gets its name from the traditional 3Rs — reading, ’riting and ’rithmetic — offers schools the opportunity to provide effective programming for teens to reduce the likelihood of them using relationship for violence as they move into adulthood. The federal government has estimated that the societal costs of relationship violence amount to more than $7 billion. These costs can continue to be incurred through the legal and health-care systems as the ripple effects of violence play out over the years, even after a relationship has ended. Other types of violence are also costly to society and not just in terms of dollars, but in young lives diverted into criminal activity. Up to 15 per cent of youth who become involved with the justice system grow into serious adult offenders who develop lengthy criminal careers. Yet, research shows that if prevention programs such as the Fourth R can deter just one 14-year-old high-risk juvenile from
JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR
Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.
Stalmach, Magdalena; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna
Analyses concerning peer violence among girls and boys aged 13-17 years, in the context of socio- -economic characteristics of the family: family structure, parental employment status and perceived family wealth. Preliminary data from the recent HBSC studies conducted in 12 voivodeships in Poland in 2013 was used. The analyzes concerned 2300 students aged 13-17 years (45% boys) and focused on the following types of violence: being a perpetrator and a victim of bullying, participation in fights and cyberbullying. Chi-square test analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Significantly more boys than girls experienced bullying (28% vs. 22%) and was perpetrators of violence in the school (39% vs. 25%). The youth from single-parent families significantly more often than students from two-parent families, participated in fights and was the perpetrators of violence in the school. Being a perpetrator and a victim of violence concerned mostly students from poor families and boys, whose father was unemployed. The following risk factors was identified- among boys: low economic status of the family (victims of bullying) and single-parent family (victims of cyberbullying), father's unemployment (the perpetrator of bullying) and age 13-14 years (victims and perpetrators of bullying, participation in fights) and among girls: low economic status of the family (cyberbullying), mother's unemployment and age 13-14 years (victims of violence). The family socio-economic factors, gender and age determine the type and the prevalence of peer violence. Low economic status of the family and single-parent family increases the risk of experiencing violence. For the prevention of bullying the educational role of the father and his commitment to family budget are important.
O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
The growing concern about bullying and school violence has focused national attention on various aspects of school climate and school connectedness. The current study examined dimensions of staff connectedness (i.e., personal, student, staff, and administration) in relation to staff members' comfort intervening in bullying situations (e.g.,…
Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Howard, Louise M; Medley, Nancy
Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major public health concern. This preventable risk factor threatens both the mother and baby. Routine perinatal care visits offer opportunities for healthcare professionals to screen and refer abused women for effective interventions. It is, however, not clear which interventions best serve mothers during pregnancy and postpartum to ensure their safety. To examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014), scanned bibliographies of published studies and corresponded with investigators. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-randomised controlled trials (e.g. where there was alternate allocation) investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included 10 trials with a total of 3417 women randomised. Seven of these trials, recruiting 2629 women, contributed data to the review. However, results for all outcomes were based on single studies. There was limited evidence for the primary outcomes of reduction of episodes of violence (physical, sexual, and/or psychological) and prevention of violence during and up to one year after pregnancy (as defined by the authors of trials). In one study, women who received the intervention reported fewer episodes of partner violence during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.88, 306 women, moderate quality). Groups did not differ for Conflict Tactics Score - the mean partner abuse scores in the first three months postpartum (mean difference (MD) 4.20 higher, 95% CI -10.74 to 19.14, one study, 46 women, very low quality). The Current
Agnich, Laura E.; Miyazaki, Yasuo
The detrimental effects of school violence on students' physical and emotional health are well studied, and research has shown that school violence affects students in every nation across the globe. However, few cross-national studies have compared direct, physical forms of school violence to indirect, emotional forms such as teasing. Using…
Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura
We examine the impact of school violence on immigrant populations internationally. To do so we apply three-level models to 2007 TIMSS data to investigate the extent to which immigrant students are affected by school violence, and whether school- and educational-system levels of immigration and violence are related to achievement. We find that,…
The legacy of South Africa's destructive history is still evident in the different worlds in which South Africans live. Quality education is compromised by violence occurring in schools and role-players must face school violence and take steps to deal with it. This can only be done if school violence is deeply understood within the various school…
Edwards, Katie M; Rodenhizer, Kara Anne; Eckstein, Robert P
We examined school personnel's engagement in bystander action in situations of teen dating violence (DV), sexual violence (SV), and sexual harassment (SH). We conducted focus groups with 22 school personnel from three high schools in New Hampshire. School personnel identified their own barriers to intervening in situations of teen DV, SV, and SH (e.g., not having the time or ability to intervene). School personnel also discussed the ways in which they intervened before (e.g., talking with teens about healthy relationships), during (e.g., breaking up fights between dating partners) and after (e.g., comforting victims) instances of teen DV, SV, and SH. These data can be used to support the development of bystander training for school personnel as one component of comprehensive DV, SV, and SH prevention for teens. In addition, these data provide information that can be used to develop measures that assess school personnel bystander action barriers and behaviors in instances of teen DV, SV, and SH.
Full Text Available Some antibullying interventions have shown positive outcomes with regard to reducing violence. The aim of the study was to experimentally assess the effects on school violence and aggressiveness of a program to prevent and reduce cyberbullying. The sample was comprised of a randomly selected sample of 176 adolescents (93 experimental, 83 control, aged 13-15 years. The study used a repeated measures pre-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program, two assessment instruments were administered: the Cuestionario de Violencia Escolar-Revisado (CUVE-R [School Violence Questionnaire - Revised]; Álvarez-García et al., 2011 and the Cuestionario de agresividad premeditada e impulsiva (CAPI-A [Premeditated and Impulsive Aggressiveness Questionnaire]; Andreu, 2010. The intervention consisted of 19 one-hour sessions carried out during the school term. The program contains 25 activities with the following objectives: (1 to identify and conceptualize bullying/cyberbullying; (2 to analyze the consequences of bullying/cyberbullying, promoting participants’ capacity to report such actions when they are discovered; (3 to develop coping strategies to prevent and reduce bullying/cyberbullying; and (4 to achieve other transversal goals, such as developing positive variables (empathy, active listening, social skills, constructive conflict resolution, etc.. The pre-posttest ANCOVAs confirmed that the program stimulated a decrease in: (1 diverse types of school violence—teachers' violence towards students (ridiculing or publicly humiliating students in front of the class, etc.; students' physical violence (fights, blows, shoves... aimed at the victim, or at his or her property, etc.; students' verbal violence (using offensive language, cruel, embarrassing, or insulting words… towards classmates and teachers; social exclusion (rejection or exclusion of a person or group, etc., and violence through Information and Communication Technologies
Chang, David C; Cornwell, Edward E; Sutton, Erica R H; Yonas, Michael A; Allen, Fred
In a previous report, enhanced resource commitment at a Level I trauma center was associated with improved outcomes for most major categories of injured patients, except those with gunshot wounds, which disproportionately affected the young (ages 15 to 24 years). We hypothesized that a primary violence-prevention initiative geared toward changing attitudes about interpersonal conflict among at-risk youths can be effective. Between May 2002 and November 2003, 97 youths (mean age 12.6 years) were recruited from one of two Police Athletic League centers in the catchment area of our Level I trauma center. Participant attitudes about interpersonal conflicts were surveyed with six previously validated scales before and after a hospital tour with a video and slide presentation graphically depicting the results of gun violence. Mean differences in scores between pre- and postintervention surveys were assessed. Of the 97 participants, 48 (49.4%) completed the intervention program with both the pre- and postintervention tests, with a mean of 25.8 days between tests. There was a statistically significant reduction in the Beliefs Supporting Aggression scale (mean -0.38 U; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.54; p < 0.01), and a trend toward reduced Likelihood of Violence (mean -0.17 U; 95% CI, 0.01 to -0.34; p = 0.06). A multidisciplinary violence-prevention outreach program can produce short-term improvement in beliefs supporting aggression among at-risk youth. Longterm impact of this attitude change needs to be examined in future studies.
Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to show the capacity of the program content of physical education in the implementation of the third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan for the Prevention of Violence in Educational Institutions. Ministry of Education brought this plan in January 2009. The third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan: Provide preventive and protective role of school sport and sporting activities of students. This paper examines the extent to which this goal is achieved, trough regular classes, after-school and extracurricular activities of physical education; indicates the capacity of the teaching field in the creation and development of a safe and supportive environment in the institution; sees level of participation by experts, council and teams in the design and implementation of sports activities in school and the extent to which these activities are implemented in the institution documents, plans and programs of experts, and larger teams; it is the sustainability of these activities achieved in school practices and also to strengthen the competence of teachers in supporting the development of students personality, communication and collaboration. In order to complete document association of council, experts and teams in the institution, there has been an insight into the school curriculum, the development plan, annual plan of the institution, protection program community of students, the curriculum of a school parliament, council of parents, higher vocational and physical education teachers and report on the implementation of the protection program. In order to document by empirical data the capacity of the teaching areas in the function of preventing violence, a sample of 46 primary schools in Sumadija area, evaluation of the implementation of sports and sports activities students in programming classes of physical education, was executed. By these results, it can be concluded that in teaching methods
This article reports on research undertaken about the influence of school culture and school climate on violence at schools in the Eastern Cape. An adapted California School Climate and Survey – Short Form (CSCSS-SF), which was used as the data-collection instrument, was completed by 900 Grade 10 to 12 learners.
Regan, Mary Elana
Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…
Noting that many communities have overlooked a promising approach to reducing violence in the United States, this report examines early risk factors for violence and discusses the potential of prevention and intervention programs for children ages birth to 5 years. The report defines violence and discusses the importance of early experiences in…
This book explores the relationship between violence and masculinity within schools. It suggests that violence has been "masculinized" in such a way that boys often perpetrate violence as a means of demonstrating their perception of what counts as a valued form of masculinity. Chapter 1 looks at some of the ways in which violence has…
Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie
The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…
Full Text Available The school must foment education based on Peace and for Peace, forming an independent citizen with civic values, who can assume the commitment, the responsibility and the right that one has to live in a society without hatreds, divisions nor violence. The main object of this article is to try to discern in aspects like Violence, Conflict Provention, and Alternative Methods of High School Conflict Resolution all of them based on theorical contributions of: Lederach (1998, Cascon (2002, Arellano (2004, Barbeito and Caireta (2004 among others, looking to contribute in Teacher’s development in the Conflict Provention’s area which will let teachers to explain how violence can transform educative facts, and starting off it take a decision and at the same time participate in all the changes and transformations required.
AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf
Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388
Roberts, Laura; Yeomans, Peter; Ferro-Almeida, Susan
We believe the problems of school violence are linked to competition and bullying in school culture. We also believe that by fostering more cooperation and more compassion in school culture, we can reduce school violence. One of the ways to develop school culture is to implement conflict resolution training. In the current study, we introduced…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…
Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez; Marileydis Pino Rosa
Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important ...
Pulido, R.; Martin Seoane, G.; Diaz Aguado, M. J.
This study examines the relation between the social adjustment in the classroom and the role of aggressor or victim, in school violence situations. Participants were 1,635 students (aged 14-18 years old), from a representative sample, with different levels (compulsory secondary education, specific/initial training courses and vocational programs).…
School violence is a subject of great public and media interest that has stimulated a comprehensive body of research. Academic consideration of the subject began in the USA and Scandinavia in the mid-1960s and early 1970s but little evidence could be found of publications on the subject in the small landlocked. Kingdom ...
de Wet, Corene
This study explores the "Cape Times"'s portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the…
Bondu, Rebecca; Cornell, Dewey G.; Scheithauer, Herbert
School homicides have become a worldwide phenomenon. In the decade following the Columbine shooting there have been at least forty similar events in other countries. This article addresses the international scope of this problem and some of the complex conceptual issues that make student homicidal violence difficult to define and study. Meaningful…
Watson, Sandy White
In this paper the author explores the relationship between masculinity and violence. She begins by pointing out that although all of the recent school shootings in the US have been perpetrated by boys, very few are associating the acts with the gender of the offenders. Perhaps this connection is not made because society is so conditioned to the…
Kreager, Derek A.
This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…
This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of ...
José Leon Crochík
Full Text Available Abstract Hierarchies established in schools can lead to violence among students, particularly bullying, and this relationship is investigated in this study. A School Hierarchies Scale and a Peer Perception of Aggression Scale were applied to 274 9th grade students, both sexes, aged 14.08 years (SD = 0.81 old on average, attending four public schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The students more frequently perceived to be popular, were among the best in physical education and/or among the worst in academic subjects were also more frequently perceived to be bullies, while those more frequently perceived to be unpopular and having the worst performance in physical education were also more frequently perceived to be victims. Therefore, teachers should reflect upon the issue and fight school violence that may arise from these hierarchies.
Markham, Christine M.; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Tortolero, Susan R.
Objectives. We examined whether It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. Methods. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Results. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior. PMID:24922162
Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Tortolero, Susan R
We examined whether It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior.
Dornelas, Rodrigo; Santos, Thaynara Alves Dos; Oliveira, Daniela Sena de; Irineu, Roxane de Alencar; Brito, Aline; Silva, Kelly
To correlate self-reporting of voice disorders with habits that impact voice production and situations of violence experienced by teachers. The study involved 41 elementary-school teachers of rural and urban areas. Two instruments were used for data collection: The Vocal Production Condition - Teacher (CPV-P) questionnaire and the Screening Index for Voice Disorders - ITDV. The chi-square test was used to verify association among variables with a significance level of 5%. The sample consisted of 8 men and 33 women aged 25-66 years with a median of 39 years. Regarding vocal habits, 33 people (80.5%) mentioned the screaming as usual practice, 40 people (97.5%) declared they talk a lot. As for voice care, 31 people (73.1%) reported drinking water while using their voice. As for the ITDV total score, 30 teachers (73.1%) were above the score threshold set for predisposition to vocal disorders. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between female participants and complaint of graffiti writings as a type of violence. No significant correlation between the ITDV results with gender and the ITDV with forms of violence evaluated in the study was indicated. Self-reporting of voice disorders showed no significant relationship with acts of violence. However, analysis of the context of violence in schools and vocal problems are issues worthy of attention, particularly the observed naturalization of gender inssues, which is seldom problematized.
Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete
This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to assess whether school-level influence is different for the adolescents exposed to violence and sexual abuse versus the adolescents not exposed to these forms of abuse. This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of 7,343 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 16 from 56 schools in Oslo, Norway. We investigated associations between violence, sexual abuse, bullying, classmate relationships, teacher support and academic achievement. Linear regression was used to investigate associations on the individual level. Multilevel analyses were conducted to test for school level differences while controlling for both individual and contextual factors. On the individual level, all combinations of violence and sexual abuse categories were significantly associated with lower grades. This was also true for bullying, while teacher support resulted in better grades. At the school level, the analysis showed that students in schools with higher levels of bullying performed worse academically. Each unit of increment in bullying in school corresponded to an average 0.98 point decrease in grades (pschool environment and adolescent exposure to violence, indicating that the school environment affects all students. Factors on both levels can contribute to reduced grades. This stresses the need to investigate individual and contextual factors simultaneously when examining academic achievement. Our results indicated that students attending schools with higher levels of bullying may show poorer school performance. This was true for all students regardless of previous exposure to violence and sexual abuse. This emphasizes the need for preventive efforts that focus
Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel
Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings is a ubiquitous concern. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a live threat violence simulation exercise, designed to reduce the risk of future outpatient clinic violence and minimize the effects of future incidents on staff. The psychiatric outpatient clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital developed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-hour live violence threat simulation exercise as a companion to a 7-hour violence prevention program. The simulation includes an orientation, two threat simulation scenarios, three debriefings, satisfaction surveys, problem identification, action plans, and annual safety and process improvements. The authors have conducted live violence simulation exercises from 2011-2016, and have collected survey data about our annual simulation exercise from 2014-2016. Each year ≥ 52% of participants responded, and each year ≥ 90% of respondents rated the simulation as "very helpful/helpful", ≥ 86% believed themselves to be "much better/better" prepared to deal with violent episodes, and simulation side effects such as worries about past trauma; anxiety; sleep problems; increase in workplace concerns. From 2011-2016, the clinic experienced 4 major violent episodes and 36 episodes of potential violence with no staff injuries and minimal psychological sequelae to one staff member. Violence prevention efforts and the development of close police/staff relationships may have contributed to these fortunate outcomes. Satisfaction surveys suggest that the simulations are very helpful/helpful, with participants feeling much better/ better prepared to manage violence. The exercises led the authors to initiate staff safety related behavioral changes as well as physical space and safety processes improvements. The violence prevention program and simulation exercises have promoted excellent relationships with police and a consistent safety record over six years. This
Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Fanti, Kostas A; Henrich, Christopher C
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study utilized an ecological approach to investigate the joint contribution of parents and schools on changes in violent behavior over time among a sample of 6,397 students (54% female) from 125 schools. This study examined the main and interactive effects of parent and school connectedness as buffers of violent behavior within a hierarchical linear model, focusing on both students and schools as the unit of analysis. Results show that students who feel more connected to their schools demonstrate reductions in violent behavior over time. On the school level, our findings suggest that school climate serves as a protective factor for student violent behavior. Finally, parent and school connectedness appear to work together to buffer adolescents from the effects of violence exposure on subsequent violent behavior.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family violence...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family violence...
Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Mirembe, Angel; Nakuti, Janet; Jones, Rebecca; Sturgess, Joanna; Allen, Elizabeth; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Parkes, Jenny; Walakira, Eddy; Elbourne, Diana; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak
Violence against children from school staff is widespread in various settings, but few interventions address this. We tested whether the Good School Toolkit-a complex behavioural intervention designed by Ugandan not-for-profit organisation Raising Voices-could reduce physical violence from school staff to Ugandan primary school children. We randomly selected 42 primary schools (clusters) from 151 schools in Luwero District, Uganda, with more than 40 primary 5 students and no existing governance interventions. All schools agreed to be enrolled. All students in primary 5, 6, and 7 (approximate ages 11-14 years) and all staff members who spoke either English or Luganda and could provide informed consent were eligible for participation in cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys in June-July 2012 and 2014, respectively. We randomly assigned 21 schools to receive the Good School Toolkit and 21 to a waitlisted control group in September, 2012. The intervention was implemented from September, 2012, to April, 2014. Owing to the nature of the intervention, it was not possible to mask assignment. The primary outcome, assessed in 2014, was past week physical violence from school staff, measured by students' self-reports using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional. Analyses were by intention to treat, and are adjusted for clustering within schools and for baseline school-level means of continuous outcomes. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01678846. No schools left the study. At 18-month follow-up, 3820 (92·4%) of 4138 randomly sampled students participated in a cross-sectional survey. Prevalence of past week physical violence was lower in the intervention schools (595/1921, 31·0%) than in the control schools (924/1899, 48·7%; odds ratio 0·40, 95% CI 0·26-0·64, pSchool Toolkit is an effective intervention to reduce violence against children from school staff in Ugandan
Ncontsa, Vusumzi Nelson; Shumba, Almon
We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. A sequential mixed method approach was used in this study; both questionnaires and interviews were used. The design…
Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Burke, Jessica Griffin; Gielen, Andrea Carlson
This article provides information about aspects of the school environment students perceive to influence the occurrence of school violence. Concept mapping, a mixed-methods methodology, was used with two groups of urban, primarily African American high school students (N = 27) to create conceptual frameworks of their understanding of the school…
Elkins, Rebecca L.; King, Keith; Nabors, Laura; Vidourek, Rebecca
School violence, school violent victimization, and suicidal ideation among adolescents are serious public health concerns. This pilot study investigated the influence of steroid use on problem behaviors. Secondary data analyses of the 2014 PRIDE Questionnaire were performed based on information collected from 38,414 high school adolescents.…
Davids, Nuraan; Waghid, Yusef
Schools in post-apartheid South Africa appear to be under siege by violence. In turn, school leaders find themselves in the unenviable position of not only having to deal with inadequate educator professionalism and learner underachievement--particularly in previously disadvantaged schools--but are under pressure to find ways to counteract the…
This study aims at both investigating bullying episodes occurring at school across different grades (from 6 to 8) and evaluating whether educational achievement in math can be predicted on the ground of students' perception of school violence. The sample was composed of 11,064 students coming from middle schools of Southern Italy. Standardized…
Gonzalez-Guarda, R M; Cummings, A M; Becerra, M; Fernandez, M C; Mesa, I
Research suggest that Hispanics in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by the consequences of intimate partner violence. Nevertheless, few intimate partner violence prevention interventions have been developed to address the unique needs and preferences of this population. The Partnership for Domestic Violence Prevention is a community-based participatory research project that assessed the needs and preferences for prevention programs for Hispanics in Miami-Dade County. Nine focus groups with domestic violence service providers, victims and general community members were conducted (N = 76). Four major themes emerged from the focus groups. These included immigrants and teens as the highest priority groups to target in prevention efforts, culture as a double-edged sword, the system that helps and hurts the victim, and the need for wide-scale prevention programs that would reach Hispanics systematically. The results from this study have important implications for the development of intimate violence prevention interventions targeting Hispanics in the U.S.
Kátia Ovídia José de Souza
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze perceptions about the interaction between health and environment, from the reports and conversations with teenagers and teachers from two public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on violence and health promotion. Methods: Descriptive and qualitative study, conducted from February to June 2009, involving 153 students of two public schools in Rio de Janeiro and 17 teachers. Data collection among students was carried out by means of participant observation with notes in a field diary, a semi-structured questionnaire and focus groups. Among teachers, participant observation with notes in a field diary and study groupwere adopted. A thematic analysis was performed, seeking to establish units of meaning. Results: The reports of the students presented discussions on three forms of violence: urban, school and sexual violence within the family. About urban violence, the students highlighted the issue of lack of public safety, especially in their entertainment area. School violence has been characterized as: a violence in school (physical and psychological violenceamong students, bullying and against school property; b violence of the school (through derogatory comments of teachers on students; c violence against the school (devaluation of the teacher and the outcomes of school violence on teacher’s health. Students alsocommented on sexual violence within the family, the teenager as a victim or the perpetrator towards a family member. Conclusions: Violence coping strategies should be established as a health promotion measure for students, teachers and families.
Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita
Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…
Iverson, Susan V.
Among the numerous approaches that are employed to prevent sexual violence, the performance of scenarios has become one of the "promising practices" in U.S. postsecondary education. This article describes findings from a pilot study to analyze scripts used for theatre-based sexual violence prevention programs. Employing the method of…
Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Rodríguez-Ortega, Graciela; Chávez-Ayala, Rubén; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo
Factors correlated with adolescent dating violence have yet to be documented in most developing countries; this study assesses the prevalence and correlates of victimization with and perpetration of dating violence among Mexican youth. This was the baseline measurement (1998-1999) of a cohort of 7960 public school students (11-24 years) developed to explore various health behaviors in Mexican youth. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed with adolescent dating violence as the dependent variable. Prevalence of dating violence victimization was 9.37% (female) and 8.57% (male) for psychological violence; 9.88% (female) and 22.71% (male) for physical violence, and 8.63% (female) and 15.15% (male) for both psychological and physical violence. Prevalence of perpetration was 4.21% (female) and 4.33% (male) for psychological violence; 20.99% (female) and 19.54% (male) for physical violence; and 7.48% (female) and 5.51% (male) for both types of violence. Factors associated with dating violence victimization for both genders included: two or more lifetime sexual partners and intra-familial violence. Higher age, alcohol use and illegal drug use were significantly associated with victimization only among girls. The following were significantly associated with perpetration of dating violence in both genders: gang membership, illegal drug use, two or more lifetime sexual partners and intra-familial violence. Higher age and alcohol use were significantly associated with perpetration only among girls. High or middle socio-economic status was associated with perpetration only in boys. Future research on adolescent dating violence in Mexico should further explore severity and frequency of violent behaviors, include a focus on severe dating violence and take into account the context and meaning of dating violence. A longitudinal design that allows determination of causality will also be needed in order to develop prevention strategies.
Barnes, Kalie; Brynard, Susette; de Wet, Corene
This article reports on research undertaken about the influence of school culture and school climate on violence at schools in the Eastern Cape. An adapted California School Climate and Survey-Short Form (CSCSS-SF), which was used as the data-collection instrument, was completed by 900 Grade 10 to 12 learners. With the assistance of Pearson's…
Jensen, Marilyn A.
Defines "addiction" and discusses models of addiction. Discusses implications for school prevention programs. Discusses role of school counselor in implementation of a comprehensive addiction prevention program, including assessment, curricular components, intervention programs, and staff development. Presents questions and criteria to…
Lipscomb, Jane A; London, M; Chen, Y M; Flannery, K; Watt, M; Geiger-Brown, J; Johnson, J V; McPhaul, K
To examine the association between violence prevention safety climate measures and self reported violence toward staff in state-run residential addiction treatment centers. In mid-2006, 409 staff from an Eastern United States state agency that oversees a system of thirteen residential addiction treatment centers (ATCs) completed a self-administered survey as part of a comprehensive risk assessment. The survey was undertaken to identify and measure facility-level risk factors for violence, including staff perceptions of the quality of existing US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program elements, and ultimately to guide violence prevention programming. Key informant interviews and staff focus groups provided researchers with qualitative data with which to understand safety climate and violence prevention efforts within these work settings. The frequency with which staff reported experiencing violent behavior ranged from 37% for "clients raised their voices in a threatening way to you" to 1% for "clients pushed, hit, kicked, or struck you". Findings from the staff survey included the following significant predictors of violence: "client actively resisting program" (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.35, 4.05), "working with clients for whom the history of violence is unknown" (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.18, 3.09) and "management commitment to violence prevention" reported as "never/hardly ever" and "seldom or sometimes" (OR=4.30 and OR=2.31 respectively), while controlling for other covariates. We utilized a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to begin to describe the risk and potential for violence prevention in this setting. The prevalence of staff physical violence within the agency's treatment facilities was lower than would be predicted. Possible explanations include the voluntary nature of treatment programs; strong policies and consequences for resident behavior and ongoing quality improvement efforts. Quantitative data identified low
Full Text Available School violence is multifactorial. Social and cultural, family, personal, and institutional aspects, among others, influence educational institutions, in all academic levels. Because this type of violence is increasingly common and has serious consequences, there is a need to prevent and deal with the different types of violence practiced in schools, such as bullying, mobbing, gender violence, and others. Gender violence in institutions is not produced in this scope, in the strict sense, but rather has its origin in social and cultural aspects, rooted in the patriarchal and androcentric culture. Much has been written on the different forms in which violence affects mostly women in the educational system. This essay, without being thorough, attempts to answer three basic questions on gender violence in educational institutions: Why is there gender violence in educational institutions? How is gender violence manifested in schools? And finally, what actions have been taken to mitigate aggressions against women?
Phasha, Tlakale Nareadi; Nyokangi, Doris
Following qualitative research methodology, this article presents school-based sexual violence experiences of female learners with mild intellectual disability. A total of 16 learners aged 16 to 24 years participated in the study. The findings revealed that learners with intellectual disability are not immune to school-based sexual violence. Modes of behavior that occurred frequently included touching, threats, and intimidation. School practices that reinforced school-based sexual violence are identified. The findings contradict common misconceptions that people with intellectual disability do not understand what is happening to them. The study recommends that school policies for sexual violence be intensified and learners receive developmentally appropriate sex education.
Szpringer, Monika; Błaszczyk, Barbara
Results of research on the functioning of addictions prevention at schools, as well as in welfare-educational institutions have been presented in the study. The survey covered 861 teachers and form tutors from institutions situated all over Poland. The results of studied documents have been also used in the analyses. During last years, systematic growth of social pathology among groups of children and school children has been observed. Pathologies of family life are considered to be the main reason. 79.2% of those participating in the survey bear it out. Negative influence of violence in programmes presented in mass media appears to be another reason (23.7%). As many as 68.1% of being surveyed point to other causes: among them demoralizing influence of a place of residence, acquaintances, lack of possibilities to spend leisure time. A huge role in averting the social pathology growth is attributed to prevention, also to prevention carried out at schools. 35.7% of those under the survey think that prevention is carried out at Polish schools. However, its efficiency is low because it is done on irregular basis, mainly during so called weekly class meetings. In practice, programme contents included in different subjects are used to the limited extent during prevention actions. Thus, there appears an urgent need to promote prevention programmes designed by central, provincial and council institutions, as well as schools.
Graffunder, Corinne M; Noonan, Rita K; Cox, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn
Over the past two decades, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been a key contributor to the growing public health effort to prevent violence. Although CDC and its partners are proud of their many successes, much work remains to be done. Violence continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide for people aged 15-44. Moreover, although many forms of violence garner national concern and resources, much more violence occurs in private domains and receives less attention. These hidden health hazards silently drain our nation's human, economic, and health resources. In this paper, we highlight the current efforts of the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP), housed within CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), to use a public health approach to the prevention of one key hidden health hazard: violence against women (VAW). Building from a recently developed strategic plan and a research agenda, we explain how four core public health principles--emphasizing primary prevention, advancing the science of prevention, translating science into effective programs, and building on the efforts of others--drive current programmatic activities in VAW prevention. Several current programs and projects are described. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future prevention work by deepening our vision of leadership, expanding our partnerships, pursuing comprehensive approaches, and using evidence-based strategies.
Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela
According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.
... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian...
... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...
... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements for...
... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection...
Gerlinger, Julie; Wo, James C.
A common response to school violence features the use of security measures to deter serious and violent incidents. However, a second approach, based on school climate theory, suggests that schools exhibiting authoritative school discipline (i.e., high structure and support) might more effectively reduce school disorder. We tested these approaches…
Norman D. Pautasso
This article is intended to collect some results of the several studies that have been made concerning Bullying and Harassment among boys and girls who attend basic education institutions in the central part of Santa Cruz province, in Argentina. It encloses theoretical framework about the problem of bullying and violence among children at school. It presents information about the region, some common aggressive behaviors as well as different ways and places in which those violent habits might ...
Full Text Available Jamila K Stockman1, Natasha Ludwig-Barron1, Monica A Hoffman2, Monica D Ulibarri3, Typhanye V Penniman Dyer41Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine; 2Department of Communication and Science Studies; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA; 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USAAbstract: The intersecting epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and partner violence disproportionately affect women who use drugs. Despite accumulating evidence throughout the world linking these epidemics, HIV prevention efforts focused on these synergistic issues as well as underlying determinants that contribute to the HIV risk environment (eg, housing instability, incarceration, policing practices, survival sex are lacking. This article highlights selected behavior change theories and biomedical approaches that have been used or could be applied in HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence and in existing HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women that have been gender-focused while integrating histories of partner violence and/or relationship power dynamics. To date, there is a paucity of HIV prevention interventions designed for drug-using women (both in and outside of drug treatment programs with histories of partner violence. Of the few that exist, they have been theory-driven, culture-specific, and address certain aspects of gender-based inequalities (eg, gender-specific norms, relationship power and control, partner violence through assessment of personal risk and safety planning. However, no single intervention has addressed all of these issues. Moreover, HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence are not widespread and do not address multiple components of the risk environment. Efficacious interventions should target individuals
Aras, Şahbal; Özan, Sema; Timbil, Sevgi; Şemin, Semih; Kasapçi, Oya
While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from parents could predict the
ARAS, Şahbal; ÖZAN, Sema; TIMBIL, Sevgi; ŞEMİN, Semih; KASAPÇI, Oya
Introduction While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
Objectives: This paper examines how peer social support mediates the association between school victimization and student psychological health among junior-high students in an Asian context (Taiwan), and further examines how gender and ethnicity differ in the interrelationships of school violence, peer social support and psychological health.…
Harber, Clive; Sakade, Noriko
This article reviews literature on the roles of schooling in both reproducing and actively perpetrating violence, and sets out an historical explanation of why schools are socially constructed in such a way as to make these roles possible. It then discusses notions of peace education in relation to one particular project in England before using…
How school violence is perceived by the members of school is of importance because their conceptions might affect their understanding of the reasons and consequently, finding the solutions. The objective of this study is to analyze how students, teachers, and mothers perceive an event of school violence. The study was conducted in high schools…
Le Roux, C. S.; Mokhele, P. R.
Crime, abuse and violence against school children are grave problems in South African schools and are undisputedly on the increase. This article highlights aspects of hostile and violent behaviour in South Africa that contribute to the persistence of school violence. The problem is complex and there are no simple solutions. The article puts…
Maeroff, Gene I.
This brief examines the effects of media coverage of school violence on school violence. The news media take notice precisely because shootings in a school are unusual. The media did not take much notice of shootings in the 1980s and 1990s in inner city communities because these infractions were not judged to be anomalies; they did not measure up…
Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura; Hammock, Amy Cristina
Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence. Toward these aims, this study explored factors associated with fathers' self-reported approval of family violence. Understanding the prevalence of risk and protective factors in this population and factors associated with fathers' potential for family violence is important in developing programs to address responsible fatherhood and healthy relationships. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Mayeza, Emmanuel; Bhana, Deevia
This paper explores how teachers in a poor township primary school in South Africa construct meaning regarding gender violence among children, and how they talk about addressing that violence. The paper argues that major influences on the endemic violence include complex societal structures that are inscribed with cultures of violent…
Schnurr, Melissa P.; Lohman, Brenda J.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to identify how school factors were related to perpetration of dating violence among adolescents; and (2) to assess how these factors may reduce or exacerbate the relationship between parental domestic violence and adolescents' perpetration of dating violence, while accounting for individual and family…
Rothman, Emily F.; Xuan, Ziming
Dating violence is a serious form of violence that places students at risk for injury, death, and negative mental health sequelae. The current analysis presents data on the prevalence of dating violence over a 12-year period among a nationally representative sample of high school-attending youth in the United States, stratified by race and gender.…
More than three million children witness domestic violence each year. School counselors need to understand the dynamics of domestic violence, learn the most effective assessments of violence in the lives of their students, and be familiar with the interventions that can be implemented. External stresses on the family do not appear to influence the…
Rosemary V. Barnett
Full Text Available The research presented in this article examines the effects of implementing a prevention program for bullying and aggressive behaviors to sixth graders in 14 Florida middle schools. The evaluation was conducted as a control/experimental design. The primary goals of this manuscript are to determine: (a the change from baseline student habits of thought related to violence prevention, (b student habits of thought related to attitudes and physical behaviors related to violence, and (c teacher perceptions of student attitudes and behaviors related to violence. Equally important, this study adds to our understanding of bullying prevention programs by examining the impact of an Aggressors,’ Victims’ and Bystanders’ program in terms of three dimensions: (1 teacher perceptions of student thoughts and behaviors related to their ability to solve conflict, (2 middle school student habits of thought about violence prevention, and (3 middle school student attitudes about behaviors associated with the prevention of violence, including aggressor behaviors and actions and bystander behaviors and actions.
Levesque, Deborah A; Johnson, Janet L; Welch, Carol A; Prochaska, Janice M; Paiva, Andrea L
Teen dating violence is a serious public health problem. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of Teen Choices , a 3-session online program that delivers assessments and individualized guidance matched to dating history, dating violence experiences, and stage of readiness for using healthy relationship skills. For high risk victims of dating violence, the program addresses readiness to keep oneself safe in relationships. Twenty high schools were randomly assigned to the Teen Choices condition ( n =2,000) or a Comparison condition ( n =1,901). Emotional and physical dating violence victimization and perpetration were assessed at 6 and 12 months in the subset of participants (total n =2,605) who reported a past-year history of dating violence at baseline, and/or who dated during the study. The Teen Choices program was associated with significantly reduced odds of all four types of dating violence (adjusted ORs ranging from .45 to .63 at 12 months follow-up). For three of the four violence outcomes, participants with a past-year history of that type of violence benefited significantly more from the intervention than students without a past-year history. The Teen Choices program provides an effective and practicable strategy for intervention for teen dating violence prevention.
The purpose of this study was to determine the violence tendencies of young people studying in high school in terms of their participation in sports, status of exposure to violence and socio-demographic variables. It was also aimed to evaluate whether the identified violence tendency differed significantly by gender, grade, school success,…
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.
Wubs, Annegreet G; Aarø, Leif E; Flisher, Alan J; Bastien, Sheri; Onya, Hans E; Kaaya, Sylvia; Mathews, Catherine
Widespread adolescent dating violence (DV) in Sub-Saharan Africa calls for immediate action, particularly since it is linked to the spread of HIV/AIDS. This article presents prevalence and demographic correlates of DV among school students in Cape Town and Mankweng (South Africa) and Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Data were derived from the baseline data collection of a multi-site randomized controlled trial of an HIV prevention intervention among young adolescents. The results were confined to students who reported previously or currently being in a relationship (n = 6,979). Multiple logistic regression analysis with demographic predictors was employed, controlled for cluster effect. Within our sample 10.2%-37.8% had been victims, 3.1%-21.8% had been perpetrators, and 8.6%-42.8% had been both (percentages dependent on site and gender). Before controlling for other factors, religion was a protective factor against violence in Cape Town. After controlling for other factors, a higher age and lower socioeconomic status were associated with belonging to any of the three groups of violence. Being male in all sites was associated with perpetration; being female with victimization (except in Cape Town where the converse finding was obtained). Higher parental education in Cape Town was protective against all types of violence. Ethnicity and living with biological parents were not associated with violence. DV is prevalent and widespread in the study sites. Violence control policies and interventions should target young adolescents. Since there was not one clearly defined subgroup identified as being at high risk, such programmes should not be limited to high risk groups only.
Ozel, Ali; Bayindir, Nida; Inan, Hatice Zeynep; Ungan, Suat
Violence in schools in Turkey shows an enormous increase in recent years. As it is becoming a serious problem in secondary schools, many violence cases are lasting in courts. In the current study, the aim is to examine and understand how secondary school students perceive violence and crime in schools. The study also aims to see if there is any…
Blando, James; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hartley, Daniel; Casteel, Carri
Effective workplace violence (WPV) prevention programs are essential, yet challenging to implement in healthcare. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers to implementation of effective violence prevention programs. After reviewing the related literature, the authors describe their research methods and analysis and report the following seven themes as major barriers to effective implementation of workplace violence programs: a lack of action despite reporting; varying perceptions of violence; bullying; profit-driven management models; lack of management accountability; a focus on customer service; and weak social service and law enforcement approaches to mentally ill patients. The authors discuss their findings in light of previous studies and experiences and offer suggestions for decreasing WPV in healthcare settings. They conclude that although many of these challenges to effective implementation of workplace violence programs are both within the program itself and relate to broader industry and societal issues, creative innovations can address these issues and improve WPV prevention programs.
Van Liere, Annette; Ritzen, Henk; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia
Van Liere, A., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2011, August). Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente. Paper presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.
Full Text Available In this study, primary school students' perceptions of violence were investigated by means of pictures drawn by them. The participants included 80 students between the ages of 9 and 11 who attended three primary schools (3rd, 4th, and 5th grades in the city of Konya during the 2011-2012 academic year. According to the findings of the study, the students mostly drew pictures of general violence which occurred in a family environment in the form of physical violence. In addition, students drew “father” as a figure practicing violence most, and “male child” and “mother” as figures exposed to violence most.
This article analyzes the school as a social and pedagogical space for learning about democracy and preventing deviant behavior and non-conforming attitudes, that is, preventing violence. It thus analyzes the rediscovery of the school from the Dewy proposal, which maintained that learning should occur through experiences, in which students would place themselves in real situations to try to resolve them collectively. It then presents the relationship between social integration and disintegrat...
Lee, Sara H; Stark, Amrita K; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Lazebnik, Rina
This study examined awareness among adolescents of a local rape crisis center as well as their knowledge about sexual violence. The Cleveland Rape Crisis Center (CRCC) conducts sexual violence prevention programs for high school students. A written, anonymous survey was distributed to students prior to the start of the program. Students were asked if they had heard of the CRCC; knowledge about sexual violence was assessed with a series of 7 statements (rape myths) that participants identified as true or false. Surveys were reviewed retrospectively. Analyses were carried out for individual questions and frequencies compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 1633 surveys were collected; 1118 (68.5%) participants were female and 514 (31.5%) were male; ages ranged from 12 to 19 years. Respondents described themselves as being of European descent (45.9%), African descent (26.2%), or mixed race (17.7%). Just over half (863, 52.9%) of survey respondents had heard of the CRCC. Over half (950, 58.2%) of participants answered 5 or more questions correctly (range of correct answers 0 to 7). In general, more participants who were aware of the CRCC were able to identify statements about rape correctly (P rape. Females were consistently more likely to get an answer correct, as were participants of European descent. Awareness of the CRCC was associated with increased knowledge about sexual violence. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pont, Jörg; Stöver, Heino; Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans
The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies violence prevention as a public health priority. In custodial settings, where violence is problematic, administrators and custodial officials are usually tasked with the duty of addressing this complicated issue-leaving health care professionals largely out of a discussion and problem-solving process that should ideally be multidisciplinary in approach. Health care professionals who care for prisoners are in a unique position to help identify and prevent violence, given their knowledge about health and violence, and because of the impartial position they must sustain in the prison environment in upholding professional ethics. Thus, health care professionals working in prisons should be charged with leading violence prevention efforts in custodial settings. In addition to screening for violence and detecting violent events upon prison admission, health care professionals in prison must work towards uniform in-house procedures for longitudinal and systemized medical recording/documentation of violence. These efforts will benefit the future planning, implementation, and evaluation of focused strategies for violence prevention in prisoner populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Aug 3, 2016 ... Research shows that ex-offenders enrolled in South Africa's Community Work Programme (CWP) contribute to violence prevention because job opportunities and reintegration have minimized their chances of relapsing into a life of crime. The investigation by the Centre for the Study of Violence and ...
Nov 26, 2015 ... IDRC-supported researchers are learning how a public-sector employment program in South Africa is helping to prevent crime and violence in urban areas by fostering social inclusion. The investigation by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) focuses on the Community Work ...
... terrorism. 501.3 Section 501.3 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION SCOPE OF RULES § 501.3 Prevention of acts of violence and terrorism. (a) Upon... violence or terrorism. The authority of the Director under this paragraph may not be delegated below the...
... Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a... public health perspective is imperative. Significant strides can be made by assessing the causes of gun...
Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.
Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…
... National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of...--spanning impaired development to physical harm--pose a threat to the health and well-being of teens across... victims of dating violence and empowering teens with the tools to cultivate healthy, respectful...
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.
The DELTA PREP Project aims to reduce risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). It engaged leadership and staff from 19 statewide domestic violence coalitions in building capacity to prevent IPV before it occurs (rather than solely responding to IPV). This article describes the process and outcomes associated with action planning to create…
The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project seeks to reduce violence against women by inspiring male athletes and other models of traditional masculinity to challenge norms that equate strength in men with dominance over women and to use their influence for positive behavior change. (SK)
The 20th century was a century of genocide and other great violence between groups within societies. Already at the beginning of the 21st century, there have been mass killings, civil wars, violent conflict, and terrorism. This article summarizes influences that tend to lead to intense group violence. It then considers prevention, stressing early…
Wodarski, John S
"Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple
Rosane Gumiero Dias da Silva
Full Text Available Currently there are many complaints from school, especially with regard to school violence. It is apparent that the Brazilian educational system has experienced difficulty in preventing such complaints and their symptoms, such as indiscipline, aggression, stealing, looting of the institution, the difficulty of learning – in short, school failure. Some studies – like Tessaro (2001; Patto (1987; Boarini (1998 a, among others – show that it is still common to focus on the student explanations for these behaviors. The school still tends to assign responsibility for the violent act exclusively to the student and his family. Our interest in this study is to discuss some contributions of the educational approach Institutional Pedagogy, which questions the individual practices in relation to violence in schools through its psychosocial approach and presents an alternative collective effort involving teachers, students, parents and community.
Schlegelmilch, Jeff; Petkova, Elisaveta; Martinez, Stephanie; Redlener, Irwin
To enhance the preparedness of US schools to acts of terrorism and mass violence, the landscape of threats against schools must first be understood. This includes exploring the global trends of acts of terrorism against schools, as well as looking specifically at the history of terrorism and acts of mass violence against schools domestically. This paper conducts a review of two databases in order to look at the trends in acts of terrorism and mass violence carried out against schools, and provides recommendations for domestic school preparedness based on this information.
Melo, Monica Cristina Batista de; Barros, Erika Neves de; Almeida, Andréa Maria Lages Gomes de
Adolescence is a period in human development characterized by profound biological, psychological and social modifications affecting both adolescents and their entire social and family environment. This stage, which has good character forming opportunities, is also permeated by various risks, including violence. Nowadays, violence is the main cause of death among adolescents and is considered a public health concern. This research sought to investigate manifestations of violence in adolescents from public schools of the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes. This is a qualitative study, in which the data obtained from a questionnaire was analyzed using the content analysis technique. The results show that the main manifestations of violence involve harm to others. Drug usage was revealed as the main motive behind physical violence. The deployment of more policemen was the strategy most cited and strengthening the family unit was the most commented preventative measure. In conclusion, the importance of further discussion about disguised manifestations of violence is clear as this would contribute to reflections on new prevention proposals and greater visibility of the phenomenon.
Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M
Violence is a leading cause of death and disability for U.S. youth. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) is committed to developing communities' capacity to engage in evidence-based youth violence (YV) prevention. We discuss the characteristics of communities that exert influence on the development and epidemiology of YV, and discuss opportunities for how community-research partnerships can enhance efforts to prevent violence in communities. The needs for YV prevention are unique; the nature and phenomenology of violence are community specific. Communities also vary widely in infrastructure and systems to support coordinated, evidence-based YV prevention strategies. These conditions highlight the need for community-research partnerships to enhance community capacity, employ local resources, and engage community members in the research process. DVP is committed to working towards creating communities in which youth are safe from violence. Approaches to YV prevention that emphasize community-research partnerships to build capacity and implement evidence-based prevention strategies can provide a supportive context for achieving that goal.
Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important the intervention of criminology.
Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite
This study investigated the presence of injuries in the maxillofacial complex in children and adolescents victims of physical violence in school environment. Forty-two proofs involved children and adolescents victims of physical violence in school in the years of 2003 and 2006 were analyzed. The data had been registered in specific form collecting the following variables: gender, age, perpetrator agent, localization of the injuries in the distinct regions of the body, type and number of injuries, existence of injuries in oral cavity and tissue involvement. It was observed that 61.9% of the victims were male (61.9%), age-group 13 to 17 years the most reached. In most of the cases (92.9%), the perpetrators were friends from school while teachers represented 7.1% of the cases. Injuries around the head and face were present in 69.1% of the sample, with 23.8% of the victims presenting injuries in the buccal cavity, all of the injuries were situated in soft tissues, mainly in the lips. It was evidenced to be high the existence of injuries in the buccal cavity of the victims of aggression in the school environment, confirming the importance of dentistry in the diagnosis of injuries around the head and face of the victims of physical abuse.
Ksenija Domiter Protner
Full Text Available The article presents the research the intention of which is to determine the sensitivity of Slovene schools for the recognition of domestic violence exposure of adolescents and to investigate the practice and difficulties of Slovene secondary schools in detecting domestic violence and the resulting actions thereof. The results show that there are big differences between Slovene secondary schools in detecting domestic violence exposure of adolescents. The fear expressed by the teachers and school counsellors concerning their responsibility for intervening in a family is also important because it seems a significant part of the decision-making about reporting domestic violence. The majority of school counsellors interviewed feel helpless after making a report; this could also be related to respondents’ prevailing dissatisfaction with the actions of other institutions. In the procedure of reporting domestic violence a quarter of teachers and school counsellors do not always have the support of the management.
van Niekerk, Ashley; Tonsing, Susanne; Seedat, Mohamed; Jacobs, Roxanne; Ratele, Kopano; McClure, Roderick
Background South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence. PMID:26228996
Ashley van Niekerk
Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented. Objective: This study examines selected South African national legislative instruments in terms of their framing and definition of violence and its typology, vulnerable populations, and prevention. Design: This study comprises a directed content analysis of selected legislative documents from South African ministries mandated to prevent violence and its consequences or tasked with the prevention of key contributors to violence. Documents were selected using an electronic keyword search method and analyzed independently by two researchers. Results: The legislative documents recognized the high levels of violence, confirmed the prioritization of selected vulnerable groups, especially women, children, disabled persons, and rural populations, and above all drew on criminological perspectives to emphasize tertiary prevention interventions. There is a policy focus on the protection and support of victims and the prosecution of perpetrators, but near absent recognition of men as victims. Conclusions: There is a need to broaden the policy framework from primarily criminological and prosecutorial perspectives to include public health contributions. It is likewise important to enlarge the conceptions of vulnerability to include men alongside other vulnerable groups. These measures are important for shaping and resourcing prevention decisions and strengthening primary prevention approaches to violence.
Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E
Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th-7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. © The Author(s) 2014.
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Ports, Katie A; Hipp, Tracy
Unaccompanied children (UC) migrating to the USA from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras are an underserved population at high risk for health, academic, and social problems. These children experience trauma, violence, and other risk factors that are shared among several types of interpersonal violence. The trauma and violence experienced by many unaccompanied children, and the subsequent implications for their healthy development into adulthood, indicate the critical need for a public health approach to prevention and intervention. This paper provides an overview of the violence experienced by unaccompanied children along their migration journey, the implications of violence and trauma for the health and well-being of the children across their lifespan, prevention and intervention approaches for UC resettled in the USA, and suggestions for adapted interventions to best address the unique needs of this vulnerable population.
Shetgiri, Rashmi; Kataoka, Sheryl; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn
Few studies have rigorously evaluated school-based interventions to reduce violence and substance use in high school students, especially Latinos. This study assessed the effects of a school-based program on reducing violence and substance use among primarily Latino high school students. Ninth-grade students at risk for violence and substance use were randomized to intervention or control groups. The intervention was based on an existing program developed for white and African American youth. Data on smoking, alcohol and drug use, fighting, and grades were collected at baseline and 4 and 8 months post enrollment. There were 55 students in the control and 53 in the intervention group; 74% of controls and 78% of intervention students were Latino. There were no significant changes in fighting, smoking, or alcohol or drug use, from baseline to 8-month follow-up, between the intervention and control group. Pre and post grade point average (GPA) decreased from 2.3 at baseline to 1.8 at follow-up (pschool-based program showed no reduction in violence or substance use. The findings suggest that a program targeting non-Latino youth may not be optimal for reducing violence and substance use in Latinos; greater attention to cultural appropriateness and racial/ethnic differences may be needed. There was a decrease in intervention-group GPA but no significant change compared with controls. Further studies of the impact of school-based substance use and violence prevention programs on academics, and the effectiveness of afterschool or community-based programs compared to school-based programs are needed.
Rocío Rosas-Vargas; Marilú León-Andrade; Alejandro Ortega-Hernández
This article focuses on some of the main results of the project Gender, Violence and Marginalization in elementary schools and high schools in southern Guanajuato. What was found is that a high number of female students presented some types of violence by either her classmates or teachers. Gossip and insults by other women were the main types of violence detected among female students analyzed; and also insults and gossip by men stood out. Both, male and female teachers, use viole...
Full Text Available There has been an increase in violence against physicians and healthcare staff in the health-care environment in recent years. The risk of violence remains stronger in people working in health institutions than the ones working in other businesses. Results of previous studies in this issue consistently confirmed the fact that violence in health care business is quite higher in frequency than the violence reported in other business environments. However it has also been reported that only attacks resulting in serious injuries have been considered as incidents of violence and other violence attempts are inclined not to be reported to legal authorities resulting in a much lower official rates. Not only patients but also the relatives of patients have been reported to expose violence against healthcare workers. Verbal violence were found to be more common than physical violence. Violence incidents happen most commonly in the emergency room settings, and psychiatric clinic settings. Health care staff exposed to violence usually suffer from anxiety and restlessness as psychological after-effects. Health care workers are not sufficiently trained about how to cope with acute and chronic effects of violent behavior. This issue should be handled within the framework of medical faculty and related schools’ curriculum. All health care staff including physicians should get sufficient education to take immediate actions on such incidents. Unfortunately in Turkey, there is no specific legal regulation related to violence towards health employees. The verbal attacks, injuries, assault and murder of health workers are subject to general legal provisions. Both rapid changes in health care services, facilities and shortcomings in legal regulations cause gaps in violence prevention and employing safety issues in hospitals and related health care facilities. Training employees and hospital managers, and considering the creation and application of present and
DeSisto, Marie C; Smith, Suzanne
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse) is a crucial member of the team participating in the prevention of bullying in schools. School nurses are the experts in pediatric health in schools and, therefore, can have an impact on the health and safety of all students, including students who bully, students who are bullied, or students who both bully and are bullied by others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011a, 2011b). The school nurse role includes the prevention of bullying and the identification of students who are bullied, bully others, or both. The school nurse has a significant leadership role in the implementation of bullying prevention policies and strategies.
Chen, Ji-Kang; Wei, Hsi-Sheng
The majority of research on the outcome of school violence has been conducted in Western countries. Empirical studies on how school violence impacts student psychological well-being in a Chinese cultural context are relatively limited. The aim of this study was to address this gap by exploring how student maltreatment by teachers, student…
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary preventio...
G T Okulate
Full Text Available Objectives. The study involved Nigerian soldiers engaged in peacekeeping missions in Liberia and Yugoslavia. Using case illustrations, the study sought to describe patterns of homicidal violence among soldiers from the same country or soldiers from allied forces, and to suggest possible reasons for the attacks. Design and setting. Nigeria was actively involved in peacekeeping missions in Liberia between 1990 and 1996. During this period, intentional homicidal attacks occurred among the Nigerian military personnel. Post- homicidal interviews conducted among the perpetrators were combined with evidence obtained at military courts to produce the case studies. Subjects. Six Nigerian military personnel who attacked other Nigerians or soldiers from allied forces, with homicidal intent. Results. Possible predisposing and precipitating factors for these attacks were highlighted. The possibility of recognising these factors before embarking on overseas missions was discussed, so that preventive measures could be instituted as far as possible. Finally, medico-legal implications of homicide in the military were discussed. Conclusions. A certain degree of pre-combat selection is essential to exclude soldiers with definite severe psychopathology. A clearly defined length of duty in the mission areas and adequate communication with home could reduce maladjustment. Health personnel deployed to mission areas should be very conversant with mental health issues so that early recognition of psychological maladjustment is possible.
Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Brooks-Holliday, Stephanie; Kloss, Jacqueline D.
Background: School violence is associated with significant acute and long-term negative health outcomes. Previous investigations have largely neglected the role of pertinent health behaviors in school violence, including sleep. Insufficient sleep is associated with adverse physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences among adolescents, many…
Hall, Kevin D.
There has been an increase in violence in many public schools over the last few decades. While school leaders have attempted to address this problem of violence, no recorded documentation of significant change exists. Teachers are the ones who usually see violent behaviors by students before, during, and after an incident, but many studies do not…
Maring, Elisabeth F.; Koblinsky, Sally A.
Background: Exposure to community violence compromises teacher effectiveness, student learning, and socioemotional well-being. This study examined the challenges, strategies, and support needs of teachers in urban schools affected by high levels of community violence. Methods: Twenty teachers from 3 urban middle schools with predominantly…
Norman D. Pautasso
Full Text Available This article is intended to collect some results of the several studies that have been made concerning Bullying and Harassment among boys and girls who attend basic education institutions in the central part of Santa Cruz province, in Argentina. It encloses theoretical framework about the problem of bullying and violence among children at school. It presents information about the region, some common aggressive behaviors as well as different ways and places in which those violent habits might be produced, according to children. Describes school populations suffering from such practices and analyzes some differences from school years, gender and zonal characteristics. It also shows samples of Victimization Rate and General Aggression Rate got in the area. Open to further discussion, this work provides certain description about some bullying phenomenon in the area, such as the case of the “Round-up Effect”, produced by the lack of anonymity in barely populated places. This article presents new emerging issues in the research field, like the appearance of new ways of violence, related to digital communication technologies such as instant messaging, e-mail, chat, blog, photoblog and social networks. To conclude, it offers some ideas about the construction of Early Warning Devices and Early Intervention Devices.
Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Clarke, Kelly; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Walakira, Eddy; Namy, Sophie; Naker, Dipak; Devries, Karen
Violence against children by peers is a global public health problem. We aimed to assess factors associated with peer violence victimization among primary school children in Uganda. We conducted multilevel multivariable logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional data from 3706 primary students in 42 Ugandan primary schools. Among primary school students, 29% and 34% had ever experienced physical and emotional violence perpetrated by their peers, respectively. Factors strongly associated with both physical and emotional violence were similar and overlapping, and included exposure to interparental violence, having an attitude supportive of violence against children from school staff, not living with biological parents, working for payment, and higher SDQ score. However, we found that younger age, sharing sleeping area with an adult and achieving a higher educational performance score, were specifically associated with physical violence. On the other hand, being female, walking to school, reporting disability and eating one meal on the previous day, were particularly associated with emotional violence. Interventions to reduce peer violence should focus on family contexts, school environments and those with poor socio-economic status may need extra support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J
Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.
Barzman, Drew H; Ni, Yizhao; Griffey, Marcus; Patel, Bianca; Warren, Ashaki; Latessa, Edward; Sorter, Michael
School violence has increased over the past decade and innovative, sensitive, and standardized approaches to assess school violence risk are needed. In our current feasibility study, we initialized a standardized, sensitive, and rapid school violence risk approach with manual annotation. Manual annotation is the process of analyzing a student's transcribed interview to extract relevant information (e.g., key words) to school violence risk levels that are associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology (social media and video games), and other activities. In this feasibility study, we first implemented school violence risk assessments to evaluate risk levels by interviewing the student and parent separately at the school or the hospital to complete our novel school safety scales. We completed 25 risk assessments, resulting in 25 transcribed interviews of 12-18 year olds from 15 schools in Ohio and Kentucky. We then analyzed structured professional judgments, language, and patterns associated with school violence risk levels by using manual annotation and statistical methodology. To analyze the student interviews, we initiated the development of an annotation guideline to extract key information that is associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology and other activities. Statistical analysis was applied to associate the significant categories with students' risk levels to identify key factors which will help with developing action steps to reduce risk. In a future study, we plan to recruit more subjects in order to fully develop the manual annotation which will result in a more standardized and sensitive approach to school violence assessments.
Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah
Patterns of physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration, victimization, and related behaviors were examined with data from the evaluation of the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships initiative, a dating violence primary prevention program targeting middle school students. Latent class and latent transition models were used to estimate distinct patterns of TDV and related behaviors of bullying and sexual harassment in seventh grade students at baseline and to estimate transition probabilities from one pattern of behavior to another at the 1-year follow-up. Intervention effects were estimated by conditioning transitions on exposure to Start Strong. Latent class analyses suggested four classes best captured patterns of these interrelated behaviors. Classes were characterized by elevated perpetration and victimization on most behaviors (the multiproblem class), bullying perpetration/victimization and sexual harassment victimization (the bully-harassment victimization class), bullying perpetration/victimization and psychological TDV victimization (bully-psychological victimization), and experience of bully victimization (bully victimization). Latent transition models indicated greater stability of class membership in the comparison group. Intervention students were less likely to transition to the most problematic pattern and more likely to transition to the least problem class. Although Start Strong has not been found to significantly change TDV, alternative evaluation models may find important differences. Latent transition analysis models suggest positive intervention impact, especially for the transitions at the most and the least positive end of the spectrum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kjaerulf, Finn; Barahona, Rodrigo
This article explores the violence reduction potential in the intersection between health, criminal justice, and development. It emphasizes public health, rule of law, and equality-driven socioeconomic development as principal concerns in preventing violence. In parts of Latin America, violence has become a serious public health and security problem. Prior studies have explored the risk factors associated with violence as well as experiences in its prevention. These studies and existing approaches to violence prevention provide evidence on where to direct attention and build prevention efforts. This article argues for integrated community-driven and national interventions to create cooperative national- local linkages and embed international human rights law at the national and local levels. Nations struggling with violence should be encouraged to apply an integrated framework to prevent violence and reinforce human security.
Cebeci, Fatma; Sucu, Gülten; Karazeybek, Ebru
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This research was conducted to determine the opinions of the emergency department's personnel about the causes and prevention of violence directed at them by patients and their relatives. METHODS: This research was conducted between 3 February and 15 June, 2006, in Antalya, a province in southern Turkey, with a total of 216 emergency department personnel who work in the emergency departments of three hospitals. A questionnaire developed by researchers was used to collect data for the purpose of determining what kind of violence is directed at emergency personnel by patients and their relatives and the personnel's socio-demographic characteristics and opinions. Pearson's chi and Fisher's exact test were used in the analysis of the data. RESULTS: Almost all (94.4%) of the participating emergency personnel had been exposed to verbal violence and 59.7% to physical violence. Only 24.5% of those exposed to violence reported the violence. The majority of the personnel (72.5%) thought that individuals' personality tendencies are the primary cause of violence. Their primary recommendation for preventing violence was to increase security measures. Statistically significant differences were found between emergency personnel's place of work and physical violence, between gender and physical violence, and between level of education and reporting violence. CONCLUSION: On the basis of the research results, it is recommended that emergency personnel be trained on the subject of violence, a documentation system be developed for recording and reporting violence, and corrections be made to prevent violence based on the personnel's opinions.
Edmondson, Lynne; Hoover, John
In this article, a process evaluation of a school-based, violence intervention program is presented. The program was modeled after bullying prevention programs described by Daniel Olweus (1993) whose components were implemented to achieve student safety goals. The process evaluation instrument used in this study was developed by a rural Midwestern…
American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2013
The epicenter for bullying is schools, colleges, and universities, where vast numbers of children, youth, and young adults spend much of their time. Bullying--a form of harassment and violence--needs to be understood from a developmental, social, and educational perspective. The educational settings in which it occurs, and where prevention and…
Ribakova, Laysan A.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Merker, Natalia
The purpose of the study was the theoretical justification and experimental verification of content, complex forms and methods to ensure effective prevention and psycho-pedagogical correction of bullying in school. 53 teenage students from Kazan took part in the experiment. A complex of diagnostic techniques for the detection of violence and…
Full Text Available Study aiming to identify the profile of the victims reported in the core of violence prevention and health promotion, in a city in the extreme south of Santa Catarina. Research of quali-quantitative methodological approach, descriptive-exploratory documentary and field. The survey was conducted from the analysis of notifications from SINAN-information system of reportable diseases-from 2010 to October 2012 and realization of interview with the nurse program participant. In the data analysis phase, the information were quantified through Microsoft Office Excel and presented by means of quantitative analysis. Organized analysis and interpretation of qualitative data from the categorization of data. In relation to the types of violence, 40.92 was characterised with physical violence; 16.47 auto injury caused; 13.07 neglect and abandonment; 10.29 disability or mental disorder; 6.71; moral psychological violence; 6.07 violence with a firearm; 3.24 sexual violence; 1.81 violence related to work; 1.02 torture; 0.26 legal intervention; 0.07 sexual O perfil das vítimas da violência exploitation; 0.07 trafficking human beings. The violence is considered a public health problem of multiple dimensions requiring increasingly in-depth studies and public policies involving beyond theme of violence, security, education and culture for peace.
Full Text Available Study aiming to identify the profile of the victims reported in the core of violence prevention and health promotion, in a city in the extreme south of Santa Catarina. Research of quali-quantitative methodological approach, descriptive-exploratory documentary and field. The survey was conducted from the analysis of notifications from SINAN-information system of reportable diseases-from 2010 to October 2012 and realization of interview with the nurse program participant. In the data analysis phase, the information were quantified through Microsoft Office Excel and presented by means of quantitative analysis. Organized analysis and interpretation of qualitative data from the categorization of data. In relation to the types of violence, 40.92 was characterised with physical violence; 16.47 auto injury caused; 13.07 neglect and abandonment; 10.29 disability or mental disorder; 6.71; moral psychological violence; 6.07 violence with a firearm; 3.24 sexual violence; 1.81 violence related to work; 1.02 torture; 0.26 legal intervention; 0.07 sexual exploitation; 0.07 trafficking human beings. The violence is considered a public health problem of multiple dimensions requiring increasingly in-depth studies and public policies involving beyond theme of violence, security, education and culture for peace.
Johnson, Wesley Scott
This study incorporated a multiple-methods design utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative portion investigated several annual reports distributed by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) to explore the impact of school uniform policies on incidents of crime and violence and occurrences of…
Youth violence continues to be a serious threat to the health of children and adolescents in the United States. It is crucial that pediatricians clearly define their role and develop the appropriate skills to address this threat effectively. From a clinical perspective, pediatricians should become familiar with Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure, the American Academy of Pediatrics' primary care violence prevention protocol. Using this material, practices can incorporate preventive education, screening for risk, and linkages to community-based counseling and treatment resources. As advocates, pediatricians may bring newly developed information regarding key risk factors such as exposure to firearms, teen dating violence, and bullying to the attention of local and national policy makers. This policy statement refines the developing role of pediatricians in youth violence prevention and emphasizes the importance of this issue in the strategic agenda of the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The 20th century was a century of genocide and other great violence between groups within societies. Already at the beginning of the 21st century, there have been mass killings, civil wars, violent conflict, and terrorism. This article summarizes influences that tend to lead to intense group violence. It then considers prevention, stressing early prevention--and reconciliation as an aspect of prevention--and focusing on central principles and practices. The principles include developing positive orientations to previously devalued groups; healing from past victimization and promoting altruism born of suffering; moderating respect for authority; creating constructive ideologies; promoting understanding of the origins of violence, its impact, and avenues to prevention; promoting truth, justice, and a shared history; and raising inclusively caring, morally courageous children. Practices related to all of these are also discussed. The article stresses the role of progressive change, that is, of psychological, behavioral, and social evolution, in both extreme violence and positive relations between groups; the role of passive bystanders in the unfolding of violence; and the role of active bystandership in the prevention of violence, in the promotion of reconciliation, and in the development of harmonious societies. It emphasizes psychological processes but notes the importance of creating societal institutions. The author cites findings from both laboratory research and case studies, reviews interventions and their evaluation in Rwanda, and points to the need for further research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Estrada, Joey Nuñez; Gilreath, Tamika D; Sanchez, Cathia Y; Astor, Ron Avi
Recent studies have found that military-connected students confront many challenges-such as secondary traumatization-that may stem from a parent's deployment and frequent relocations. It is possible that multiple moves and deployments of family service members are associated with military-connected students' gang membership and involvement with school violence behaviors. In this study, a total of 13,484 students completed the core and military modules of the California Healthy Kids Survey. Logistic regressions examined the odds of a student being a member of a gang given their grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school violence behaviors, military-connectedness, changes in schools, and familial deployments. Results indicated that of the nearly 8% of students sampled who reported being in a gang, those with a parent or sibling currently serving in the military reported a higher prevalence rate of gang membership than students with no military connection. Students who reported being in fights or carrying weapons to school were at least twice more likely to be a gang member than students who reported not having been in fights or carrying weapons. Changing schools 4 or more times in a 5-year period and experiencing at least 1 familial deployment were also associated with an increased likelihood of gang membership. The findings of this study offer incentive to further explicate the gang and school violence experiences of military-connected students. This study supports schools in understanding the characteristics of the military-connected students and families they serve so they can implement appropriate interventions to curb gang and school violence behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cuellar, Matthew J.
Recent incidents of school-based violence have resulted in the widespread implementation of school safety strategies across the United States. While research on these strategies has grown over the past decade, there is little understanding about their collective influence on indicators of school violence. Using data from the 2007-2008 School…
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Okamoto, Janet; Taylor, Bruce G; Stein, Nan
To pilot a study of social networks informing contextual analyses of sexual harassment and peer violence (SH/PV). Seventh and 8th grade students (N = 113) in an urban middle school were surveyed via a Web-based instrument. Boys and girls reported SH/PV victimization and perpetration at comparable rates. The proportion of nominated friends who reported SH/ PV outcomes was greater in boys' than in girls' social networks. Structural descriptors of social networks were not significant predictors of SH/PV outcomes. Collection of sensitive relationship data via a school-based Web survey is feasible. Full-scale studies and greater flexibility regarding the number of friendship nominations are recommended for subsequent investigations of potential sex differences.
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Jeen Suk; Oh, Sehun
Drawing on the cognitive information-processing model of aggression and the general aggression model, we explored why adolescents become addicted to online games and how their immersion in online games affects school violence perpetration (SVP). For this purpose, we conducted statistical analyses on 1,775 elementary and middle school students who resided in northern districts of Seoul, South Korea. The results validated the proposed structural equation model and confirmed the statistical significance of the structural paths from the variables; that is, the paths from child abuse and self-esteem to SVP were significant. The levels of self-esteem and child abuse victimization affected SVP, and this effect was mediated by online game addiction (OGA). Furthermore, a multigroup path analysis showed significant gender differences in the path coefficients of the proposed model, indicating that gender exerted differential effects on adolescents' OGA and SVP. Based on these results, prevention and intervention methods to curb violence in schools have been proposed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Solomon, Suniti; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Solomon, Sunil S; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Vasudevan, C K; Anand, Santhanam; Ganesh, Aylur K; Celentano, David D
This article examined the prevalence of physical and sexual violence among 1,974 married women from 40 low-income communities in Chennai, India. The authors found a 99% and 75% lifetime prevalence of physical abuse and forced sex, respectively, whereas 65% of women experienced more than five episodes of physical abuse in the 3 months preceding the survey. Factors associated with violence after multivariate adjustment included elementary/middle school education and variables suggesting economic insecurity. These domestic violence rates exceed those in prior Indian reports, suggesting women in slums may be at increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Kann, Laura; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; Kinchen, Steve; McManus, Tim
School-based victimization has short- and long-term implications for the health and academic lives of sexual minority students. This analysis assessed the prevalence and relative risk of school violence and bullying among sexual minority and heterosexual high school students. Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 10 states and 10 large urban school districts that assessed sexual identity and had weighted data in the 2009 and/or 2011 cycle were combined to create two large population-based data sets, one containing state data and one containing district data. Prevalence of physical fighting, being threatened or injured with a weapon, weapon carrying, and being bullied on school property and not going to school because of safety concerns was calculated. Associations between these behaviors and sexual identity were identified. In the state data, sexual minority male students were at greater risk for being threatened or injured with a weapon, not going to school because of safety concerns and being bullied than heterosexual male students. Sexual minority female students were at greater risk than heterosexual female students for all five behaviors. In the district data, with one exception, sexual minority male and female students were at greater risk for all five behaviors than heterosexual students. Sexual minority students still routinely experience more school victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. The implementation of comprehensive, evidence-based programs and policies has the ability to reduce school violence and bullying, especially among sexual minority students. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Granero, Ricardo; Poni, Esteban S; Escobar-Poni, Bertha C; Escobar, Judith
Violence by young people is one of the most visible forms of violence and contributes greatly to the global burden of premature death, injury and disability. The Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), State of Lara, Venezuela (GSHS-Lara) is a school-based surveillance system. It comprises a repeated, cross-sectional, self-administered survey drawn from a representative sample of 7th to 9th grade students, performed in the school years 2003-2004 (GSHS-Lara 2004) and 2007-2008 (GSHS-Lara 2008). It explores, among other things, a general violence indicator such as school absenteeism due to feeling unsafe at school or on the way to or from school for any reason; and more specific indicators of violence such as robbery, bullying, physical fights and use of weapons, as well as exposure to lectures on how to prevent violence. Results are given in terms of prevalence percentage. Absenteeism doubled between the two study periods (10.8% to 20.8%). The number of students that were a victim of robbery remained high and without change both outside (14.2% and 14.8%) and inside school (21.7% and 22.0%). The number of victims of bullying was high and increasing (33.4% and 43.6%). Bullying associated with being physically attacked decreased (18.5% to 14.3%). Physical attacks without active participation and not associated with bullying were frequent (21.5%). Physical fighting with active participation prevalence remained high and without change (27.5% and 28.2%). Carrying a weapon almost doubled (4.3% to 7.1%). Less than 65% reported classes for violence prevention. The GSHS-Lara shows that violence is an important public health problem that needs to be addressed by the community and its authorities.
Yount, Kathryn M; Krause, Kathleen H; Miedema, Stephanie S
This systematic review of reviews synthesizes evidence on the impact of interventions to prevent violence against adolescent girls and young women 10-24 years (VAWG) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Theories of women's empowerment and the social ecology of multifaceted violence frame the review. Child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC), child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and sexual violence were focal outcomes. Our review followed the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) for the systematic review of reviews, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for a systematic review of recent intervention studies. Of 35 reviews identified between June 7 and July 20, 2016, 18 were non-duplicate systematic reviews of medium-to-high quality. Half of these 18 reviews focused on interventions to prevent IPV. Only four focused on adolescents, of which three focused on child marriage and one compared findings across early and late adolescence. None focused on interventions to prevent child abuse or sexual violence in adolescent/young women. From these 18 reviews and the supplemental systematic review of intervention studies, data were extracted on 34 experimental or quasi-experimental intervention studies describing 28 interventions. Almost all intervention studies measured impacts on one form of VAWG. Most studies assessed impacts on child marriage (n = 13), then IPV (n = 8), sexual violence (n = 4), child abuse (n = 3), and FGMC (n = 3). Interventions included 1-6 components, involving skills to enhance voice/agency (n = 17), social networks (n = 14), human resources like schooling (n = 10), economic incentives (n = 9), community engagement (n = 11) and community infrastructure development (n = 6). Bundled individual-level interventions and multilevel interventions had more favorable impacts on VAWG. Interventions involving community engagement, skill-building to