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Sample records for prevent organ transplant

  1. Entry Inhibitors: A Perspective for Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Che C; Chung, Raymond T; Baumert, Thomas F

    2017-09-08

    Entry inhibitors are emerging as an attractive class of therapeutics for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Entry inhibitors target either virion-associated factors or cellular factors necessary for infection. By blocking entry into cells, entry inhibitors prevent both the establishment of persistent reservoirs and the emergence of resistant variants during viral replication. Furthermore, entry inhibitors protect naïve cells from virus-induced alterations. Combining entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) may therefore improve treatment outcomes, particularly in the context of organ transplantation. The role of DAAs in transplantation, while still under clinical investigation, carries the risk of recipient infection and HCV-induced disease, since DAAs act only after infection is established. Thus, entry inhibitors provide a perspective to improve patient outcomes during organ transplantation. Applying this approach for transplant of organs from HCV-positive donors to HCV-negative recipients may also contribute to alleviate the medical burden of organ shortage.

  2. Summary of the British Transplantation Society Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of CMV Disease After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter A; Emery, Vincent C; Newstead, Chas

    2011-12-15

    The third edition of the British Transplantation Society Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of CMV Disease after Solid Organ Transplantation was published in March 2011. This article summarizes the important changes and advances in management in this rapidly evolving field. The pros and cons of universal, or targeted anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis, and pre-emptive anti-CMV therapy are discussed, especially with respect to advances in CMV polymerase chain reaction monitoring. The evidence for oral anti-CMV prophylaxis using valganciclovir is presented, together with a summary of the treatment of CMV disease and emerging fields such as CMV vaccination, CMV genotyping, and drug resistance.

  3. Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for a deeper conversation on this topic led by Hastings Director of Research Josephine Johnston. Sorry, ... accept people without insurance. Transplant teams rarely consider anyone over 75 years of age. Some centers exclude ...

  4. Critical appraisal on the use of everolimus in renal transplantation as an immunosuppressant to prevent organ transplant rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Giron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fernando Giron, Yenny BaezKidney Transplant Service, Colombiana de Trasplantes, Bogota, ColombiaAbstract: Everolimus is a proliferation inhibitor designed to target chronic allograft nephropathy including prevention of acute rejection. Acute renal allograft rejection incidence varies with the therapy used for immunosuppression. Registry data show that 15% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Everolimus has been used as therapy with full- or reduced-dose cyclosporine A without evidence of increasing the acute rejection incidence. This review will summarize the available clinical trial data on the use of everolimus and its role in preventing acute rejection incidence in renal transplantation.Keywords: calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine, everolimus, biopsy-proven acute rejection, renal transplantation, acute rejection

  5. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in organ transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  6. Organ transplantation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Matri, Aziz; Ben Abdallah, Taieb

    2015-04-01

    Kidney transplants were first performed in Tunisia in 1986, and transplants soon extended to other organs including the heart, liver, and pancreas. Live-related donor and deceased-donor kidney transplants were both began in the summer of 1986. An organ procurement and transplant law was passed in March 1991, and the National Centre for Advancement of Organ Transplantation was created in 1995. The number of transplantation units has increased to 7 throughout the country, and the yearly transplant number has progressively increased to 139 in 2010, including 20% from deceased kidney donors. Despite these gains, the need continues to grow. Heart transplants began in January 1993, and Tunisia and Jordan are currently the only Arab countries where it is practiced. However, only 16 patients have received a heart transplant as of 2004, and the number of recipients has decreased in the past 10 years. Liver transplants are rare in other Arab countries, but began in Tunisia in January 1998. Over 10 years, 38 patients benefited from this procedure. After a few years of stagnation, the number of liver transplants is increasing. While all types of transplantation are needed, kidney transplantation is a priority in Tunisia. The target is to perform 400 transplants annually, which would require a long-term strategy to provide full financial coverage using the National Health Insurance Funds in both the public and private sectors.

  7. Organ Transplants in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.

  8. Thoracic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.

  9. Bioethics of Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well—to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation—rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate. PMID:24478386

  10. Prevention of organ rejection in renal and liver transplantation with extended release tacrolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reschen ME

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Reschen, Christopher A O’Callaghan Henry Wellcome Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Abstract: Tacrolimus is the key immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Despite the efficacy of tacrolimus and adjunctive immunosuppressants, a substantial number of patients experience episodes of acute rejection and late graft loss. Nonadherence is an etiological factor in both acute rejection and graft loss. In 2007, a prolonged release version of tacrolimus became available that allows once daily administration, thus halving the pill burden compared to the standard twice-daily tacrolimus. An increasing number of studies in de novo transplantation and in treatment conversion have evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of prolonged-release tacrolimus. We have reviewed the literature on the use of prolonged-release tacrolimus and hope that this will be of value in the design of protocols for transplant immunosuppression.Keywords: immunosuppression, kidney, hepatic, allograft, adherence

  11. Organ Harvesting and Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

  12. Solid organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in solid organ donation and transplantation. In addition to confirming the clinical diagnosis of brain death, imaging examinations are used to assess potential organ donors and recipients, evaluate donated organs, and monitor transplantation outcomes. This article introduces the history, biology, ethics, and institutions of organ donation and transplantation medicine. The article also discusses current and emerging imaging applications in the transplantation field and the controversial role of neuroimaging to confirm clinically diagnosed brain death.

  13. [Surgical techniques of organ transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froněk, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The list of surgical procedures of solid organ transplantations appears very interesting and colorful, even with overlap among techniques. Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure in a majority of cases, the liver can be transplanted as a full or partial graft. The liver graft can be split for two recipients; it can also be reduced for a small recipient if splitting is not indicated. Kidney transplantation is the most common solid organ transplant procedure, the majority of kidney grafts come from brain-dead donors whereas the number of live donor transplants is increasing, also thanks to paired donation and blood group incompatible transplantation methods. The small bowel and multivisceral transplantation are rare procedures; they serve selected patients with short bowel syndrome, some patients with retroperitoneal tumors or with extensive visceral thrombosis. Solid organ transplants are well established treatment methods with good and proven outcomes. A majority of patients can return to a normal life after their transplants.

  14. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  15. Challenges in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  16. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty. PMID:23908807

  17. Organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-03

    The British government has printed 10 million organ donor cards--as well as posters, car stickers, and leaflets--for distribution in a campaign to increase the number of organ transplants in the United Kingdom. Norman Fowler, Secretary of State for Social Services, suggested at a February 22, 1984, press conference that signing of donor cards might become a family occasion, so that all concerned would know of a person's wishes in the event of sudden death. He made it clear that the government has no plans to introduce a system of presumed consent for organ donation. Mr. Fowler also announced a commitment of additional government funds for renal services.

  18. Organ transplantation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr

    2010-09-01

    Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed.

  19. The Economics of Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    To determine the cost effectiveness of transplantation, we analyzed the financial economics of the organ and tissue transplant process. We compared the cost of this process with traditional modalities for treating endstage liver and kidney disease. Medical, surgical, legal, social, ethical, and religious issues are important in organ transplant procedures. Government, health insurance companies, and uninsured individuals are affected by the financial economics of organ transplantation. The distribution of financial burden differs among countries and is dependent on the unique circumstances of each country.

  20. Pediatric organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jennifer K; Myrick, Craig W; Meyers, Rebecka L; Bratton, Susan L; Nakagawa, Thomas A

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing unmet need for solid organ donation. Alternative donor sources, such as donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD), are needed. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of DCDD on trends in pediatric organ donation and transplantation. Data were obtained from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network for US organ recipients and donors from 2001 to 2010 stratified according to age, organ, and deceased donor type (DCDD or donation after neurologic determination of death). Additional data included transplant wait-list removals due to death. From 2001 to 2010, pediatric organ transplant recipients increased from 1170 to 1475. Organs from DCDD donors were transplanted into children infrequently but increased from 1 to 31. Pediatric donation after neurologic determination of death decreased by 13% whereas DCDD increased by 174% (50 to 137). Recipients of pediatric grafts decreased from 3042 to 2751. Adults receiving grafts from pediatric donors decreased from 2243 to 1780; children receiving pediatric grafts increased from 799 to 971. Transplant recipients receiving pediatric DCDD grafts were few but increased annually from 50 to 128 adults and 0 to 9 children. Pediatric candidates dying waiting for an organ decreased from 262 to 110. From 2001 to 2010, children received more solid organ transplants and fewer children died waiting. Organ recovery from pediatric and adult DCDD donors increased. The number of pediatric recipients of DCDD grafts remains small. Adults primarily receive the direct benefit from pediatric DCDD but other changes in organ allocation have directly benefited children.

  1. Getting More Organs for Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Judd B. Kessler; Alvin E. Roth

    2014-01-01

    Organs for transplantation are a scarce resource. Paying to increase the supply of organs is illegal in much of the world. We review efforts to increase transplantation by increasing the supply of available organs from living and deceased donors. Progress has been made in increasing the availability of living donor kidneys through kidney exchange. Recent legislation in Israel aims at encouraging deceased donation by awarding priority for receiving organs to registered donors. We also explore ...

  2. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Menu Search Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health ... Tests for Transplant Care After Kidney Transplant Common Organ Donation and Transplantation Terms The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the ...

  3. Ethical issues in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B; Bernat, James L

    2012-01-01

    We discuss ethical issues of organ transplantation including the stewardship tension between physicians' duty to do everything possible for their patients and their duty to serve society by encouraging organ donation. We emphasize consideration of the role of the principles of justice, utility and equity in the just distribution of transplantable organ as scarce resources. We then consider ethical issues of determining death of the organ donor including the remaining controversies in brain death determination and the new controversies raised by circulatory death determination. We need uniformity in standards of death determination, agreement on the duration of asystole before death is declared, and consensus on the allowable circulatory interventions on the newly declared organ donor that are intended to improve organ function. We discuss the importance of maintaining the dead donor rule, despite the argument of some scholars to abandon it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Law, religion and organ transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Slabbert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently any organ donation in South Africa, whether from a living or a dead donor, is donated altruistically, which means that it is the free choice of the donor or the family of the deceased to donate organs. There is no financial compensation for the donor. Nearly all religions support altruistic organ donations as it serves or promotes life. But, despite the positive attitude of the followers of different faiths towards organ transplantations, there is a worldwide shortage of transplantable organs,especially kidneys. Many patients die while waiting for a transplant organ from an altruistic donor. The question may therefore be asked whether the different religions should not also support the clamouring for the financial rewarding of an organ donor. In this article the emphasis is on the Christian and Muslim faiths to try and fathom their position in this regard. In conclusion, however,we argue that financial compensation to donors, as a general practice, should be allowed irrespective of religious arguments, as the decision to donate altruistically or to receive compensation is an expression of personal autonomy.

  5. Breast Reconstruction After Solid Organ Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Stephanie L; Giles, Brian; McLaughlin, Sarah A; Perdikis, Galen; Waldorf, James; Lemaine, Valerie; TerKonda, Sarvam

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplant patients frequently develop posttransplant malignancies including breast cancer. They may desire breast reconstruction after mastectomy, which could potentially be complicated by their transplant status, immunosuppressive regimen, and previous operations. We review our experience with patients who have undergone solid organ transplant and subsequent breast reconstruction after mastectomy After institutional review board approval, we queried our prospective breast reconstruction and solid organ transplant databases for corresponding patients. Inclusion criteria comprised breast reconstruction after solid organ transplant. A chart review was conducted of identified patients. Seventeen patients were identified: 1 pulmonary transplant, 4 cardiac transplants, 2 liver transplants, 1 pancreas transplant, 2 combined kidney/pancreas transplants, and 7 kidney transplants. Indications for mastectomy included posttransplant malignancy and prophylaxis. Median time from transplant to completion of reconstruction was 186 months (range, 11-336 months). Median age at transplant was 34.5 years (range, 21-65 years) with the median age of the patients at reconstructive surgery 51.5 years (range, 34-71 years). Median body mass index was 25.3 (range, 21.3-46.5). No significant complications were noted after reconstructive surgery. All patients were on full immunosuppression at time of reconstruction. Breast reconstruction is a viable option for transplant patients after mastectomy and should not be refused based on their transplant status. Close coordination with the transplant team and careful preoperative planning is essential for optimal outcomes.

  6. 42 CFR 441.35 - Organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organ transplants. 441.35 Section 441.35 Public... Provisions § 441.35 Organ transplants. (a) FFP is available in expenditures for services furnished in connection with organ transplant procedures only if the State plan includes written standards for the...

  7. Transplant Information Portal for Patient Management in Organ Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Godo, Ferenc; Nagy, Geza; Fehervari, Imre; Markovics, Gyula; Brugal, Gerard

    2001-01-01

    The RETRANSPLANT (HC 4028 & IN 4028) project sponsored by European Commission - Directorate General XIII, Telecommunications, Information Market and Exploitation of Research, Telematics Application for Health, aimed to develop a portal to bridge the various and geographically dispersed institutions playing a role in the complex process of organ collection from a donor and transplantation into one or several recipients. The generic model used was kidney transplantation and the information and communication technologies developed so far networked dialysis centers, organ transplant surgery clinics, tissue typing laboratories, organizations coordinating recipient to donor selection, and other health care facilities for organ transplant services in the Central and Eastern European Countries using XML technologies.

  8. Kidney transplantation after previous liver transplantation: analysis of the organ procurement transplant network database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonwa, Thomas A; McBride, Maureen A; Mai, Martin L; Wadei, Hani M

    2011-07-15

    Patients after liver transplant have a high incidence of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We investigated kidney transplantation after liver transplantation using the Organ Procurement Transplant Network database. The Organ Procurement Transplant Network database was queried for patients who received kidney transplantation after previous liver transplantation. These patients were compared with patients who received primary kidney transplantation alone during the same time period. Between 1997 and 2008, 157,086 primary kidney transplants were performed. Of these, 680 deceased donor kidney transplants and 410 living donor kidney transplants were performed in previous recipients of liver transplants. The number of kidney after liver transplants performed each year has increased from 37 per year to 124 per year in 2008. The time from liver transplant to kidney transplant increased from 8.2 to 9.0 years for living donor transplants and from 5.4 to 9.6 years for deceased donor. The 1, 3, and 5 year actuarial graft survival in both living donor kidney after liver transplant and deceased donor kidney after liver transplant are less than the kidney transplant alone patients. However, the death-censored graft survivals are equal. The patient survival is also less but is similar to what would be expected in liver transplant recipients who did not have ESRD. In 2008, kidney after liver transplantation represented 0.9% of the total kidney alone transplants performed in the United States. Kidney transplantation is an appropriate therapy for selected patients who develop ESRD after liver transplantation.

  9. [Transplant coordinator: organ donation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Guillem, Purificación; Camaño-Puig, Ramón; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Spain is a leader in organ donations although it seems that this number does not increase in the same proportion that the waiting list and it is necessary to decrease the refusal situations, which are ~16%. Analytic study. We review the reports prepared by the coordinators of transplants archived at the hospital La Fe during the period between May 1, 2004 and December 31, 2007, resulting in conceptualization and categorization. Sixty-nine topics were obtained from the point of view of the family and 11 from the point of view of the interviewer. After its conceptualization, codification and classification, we proceeded to create an appropriate text. Certain guidelines may be offered that allow us to standardize the action of transplant coordinators during the interview and to be more effective.

  10. Initial cytomegalovirus prophylaxis with ganciclovir : no guarantee for prevention of late serious manifestations of CMV after solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, M; de Maar, EF; Hofker, HS; van der Heide, JJH; Rosati, S; van Son, WJ

    2005-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with malaise, upper abdominal pain and fever seven months after renal transplantation. She was seronegative for cytomegalovirus (CMV) and had received a kidney from a seropositive donor. She had received CMV prophylaxis (oral ganciclovir) for three months after

  11. The role of mTOR inhibitors in the prevention of organ rejection in adult liver transplant patients: a focus on everolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanovas T

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Casanovas Liver Transplant Unit, Bellvitge University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Liver transplantation remains the therapy of choice for patients with end-stage liver disease and in selected cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. While short-term allograft survival has improved significantly in recent years, there has been little improvement in long-term survival after liver transplantation. A growing body of evidence on factors influencing the long-term outcomes and the safety profiles of existing immunosuppressive agents after liver transplant points to a need to continue searching for alternative strategies. The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs (cyclosporine and tacrolimus currently represent the backbone of most immunosuppressor regimens. They have had a revolutionary effect on the overall success of transplantation, as is reflected in greatly reduced rates of acute rejection. However, the CNIs have significant toxicities that produce renal dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and other unwanted effects, such as malignancies. The recognition of these risk factors has sparked interest in regimens that limit exposure to CNIs. Nowadays, the use of immunosuppressive drugs with different mechanisms of action, which allow for a reduction or avoidance of CNIs, is common. Everolimus, which belongs to the mammalian target-of-rapamycin inhibitor family and is best known for its use in kidney and heart transplantation, has recently been approved for liver transplantation. This overview discusses the emerging evidence on the role of everolimus in the prevention of rejection after liver transplantation, in de novo transplants, conversion regimens, or as a rescue therapy. In addition, some of the most relevant and current clinical problems related to everolimus in this field are discussed. Keywords: everolimus, mTOR inhibitors, tacrolimus, liver transplant, cyclosporine, renal impairment

  12. An abridged photographic history of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Ignazio R; Cirillo, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Organ transplantation is one of the most remarkable therapeutic advances in modern medicine; it started as an experiment and has become a life-saving practice. We briefly describe the major milestones of this multidisciplinary clinical science, the challenges that it still faces, and we consider the crucial contribution that its example could set for other medical fields. A review of the literature was conducted and a selection of images was made to complete a brief history of organ transplantation, with a particular focus on liver transplantation. The largest problem affecting organ transplantation today is the shortage of organs. Attention should be given to preserving the peculiar high ethical value that characterizes the very nature of organ transplantation. Methods successfully adopted by organ transplantation during the past 60 years can inspire promising fields, such as stem cell research, and provide useful tools to face the ethical challenges posed by scientific discoveries.

  13. The Ethics of Organ Tourism: Role Morality and Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marcus P

    2017-11-15

    Organ tourism occurs when individuals in countries with existing organ transplant procedures, such as the United States, are unable to procure an organ by using those transplant procedures in enough time to save their life. In this paper, I am concerned with the following question: When organ tourists return to the United States and need another transplant, do US transplant physicians have an obligation to place them on a transplant list? I argue that transplant physicians have a duty not to relist organ tourists. Specifically, I contend that we should locate physicians' duties in these cases within the new role of "transplant physician." This role results from transplant physicians' participation in a system that depends on organ donors' voluntary act of donation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  15. ABO-incompatibility in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, L

    2001-08-01

    The most important transplantation antigen system in solid organ transplantation is the ABO histo-blood group system. Crossing the ABO barrier in solid organ transplantation is usually not done except for emergency liver transplantations. Early experiences of crossing the ABO barrier in renal transplantation were very disappointing. In the 1970s, clinical trials were started transplanting kidneys of subgroup A2 into blood group O recipients. The tissues of the A2 subgroup expresses reduced amount of A antigens compared to subgroup A1 and the recipients had no special pretreatment and standard immunosuppression. A number of early graft losses were experienced but the trial also resulted in several long time surviving grafts. A few centres have adapted the concept of A2 to non A kidney transplantations with successful results, when the recipient anti-A titres are low or reduced prior to transplantation. In the early 1980s one group successfully transplanted A1 and B kidneys from living related donors across the ABO-barrier using an immunosuppressive protocol consisting of quadruple drugs and splenectomy and this protocol was adapted by a few other groups. In Japan, where cadaver donors are available in very limited number, the largest number of ABO-incompatible transplantations have been performed. Altogether more than 300 ABO-incompatible kidney transplantations have been performed in more than 40 centres since 1989. ABO-incompatible liver transplantations have been performed mainly in emergency cases and the results have generally been inferior to ABO-compatible grafts. In children below the age of three years, liver transplantations across the ABO-barrier have been quite successful especially with living related donors. Very few ABO-incompatible heart/heart-lung/lung-transplantations have been reported with a few successful cases, but the majority have been failures. Recently a series of ABO-incompatible heart transplants performed in small children have been

  16. Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amersi, Farin; Nelson, Sally K.; Shen, Xiu Da; Kato, Hirohisa; Melinek, Judy; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious potential threat to outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical arenas in which there is temporary interruption of blood flow. I/R is a frequent cause of primary failure in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the antioxidant bucillamine, a potent sulfhydryl donor, would protect against I/R injury in high-risk organ transplants. Because livers subjected to prolonged ischemia and very fatty livers are highly susceptible to severe I/R injury, we studied the effect of bucillamine in three animal models of liver transplantation: two ex vivo models of isolated perfused livers, either normal or fatty rat livers, and an in vivo model of syngenic orthotopic liver transplants in rats. In all models, livers were deprived of oxygen for 24 h before either ex vivo reperfusion or transplantation. In the ex vivo models, bucillamine treatment significantly improved portal vein blood flow and bile production, preserved normal liver architecture, and significantly reduced liver enzyme release and indices of oxidative stress. Moreover, bucillamine treatment significantly increased levels of reduced glutathione in the liver and lowered levels of oxidized glutathione in both liver and blood. In rats subjected to liver transplants, bucillamine significantly enhanced survival and protected against hepatic injury. Possible mechanisms of this protection include prevention of excessive accumulation of toxic oxygen species, interruption of redox signaling in hepatocytes, and inhibition of macrophage activation. This study demonstrates the potential utility of bucillamine or other cysteine-derived thiol donors for improving outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical settings involving I/R injury. PMID:12084933

  17. Biomarkers in solid organ transplantation: establishing personalized transplantation medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Technological advances in molecular and in silico research have enabled significant progress towards personalized transplantation medicine. It is now possible to conduct comprehensive biomarker development studies of transplant organ pathologies, correlating genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic information from donor and recipient with clinical and histological phenotypes. Translation of these advances to the clinical setting will allow assessment of an individual patient's risk of allograft damage or accommodation. Transplantation biomarkers are needed for active monitoring of immunosuppression, to reduce patient morbidity, and to improve long-term allograft function and life expectancy. Here, we highlight recent pre- and post-transplantation biomarkers of acute and chronic allograft damage or adaptation, focusing on peripheral blood-based methodologies for non-invasive application. We then critically discuss current findings with respect to their future application in routine clinical transplantation medicine. Complement-system-associated SNPs present potential biomarkers that may be used to indicate the baseline risk for allograft damage prior to transplantation. The detection of antibodies against novel, non-HLA, MICA antigens, and the expression of cytokine genes and proteins and cytotoxicity-related genes have been correlated with allograft damage and are potential post-transplantation biomarkers indicating allograft damage at the molecular level, although these do not have clinical relevance yet. Several multi-gene expression-based biomarker panels have been identified that accurately predicted graft accommodation in liver transplant recipients and may be developed into a predictive biomarker assay. PMID:21658299

  18. Neurological complications of solid organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pedroso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Solid organ transplantation is a significant development in the treatment of chronic kidney, liver, heart and lung diseases. This therapeutic approach has increased patient survival and improved quality of life. New surgical techniques and immunosuppressive drugs have been developed to achieve better outcomes. However, the variety of neurological complications following solid organ transplantation is broad and carries prognostic significance. Patients may have involvement of the central or peripheral nervous system due to multiple causes that can vary depending on time of onset after the surgical procedure, the transplanted organ, and the intensity and type of immunosuppressive therapy. Neurological manifestations following solid organ transplantation pose a diagnostic challenge to medical specialists despite extensive investigation. This review aimed to provide a practical approach to help neurologists and clinicians assess and manage solid organ transplant patients presenting with acute or chronic neurological manifestations.

  19. Kidney-Pancreas Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Menu Search Home Prevention Kidney Disease Patients Organ Donation & Transplantation Professionals Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health ... Tests for Transplant Care After Kidney Transplant Common Organ Donation and Transplantation Terms The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) is the ...

  20. Neurologic complications after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzolo, Marco; Marco, Senzolo; Ferronato, Cecilia; Cecilia, Ferronato; Burra, Patrizia; Patrizia, Burra

    2009-03-01

    Neurologic complications are common after solid organ transplantation and are associated with significant morbidity. Approximately one-third of transplant recipients experiences neurologic alterations with incidence ranging from 10% to 59%. The complications can be divided into such of those common to all types of transplant and others of those specific to transplanted organ. The most common complication seen with all types of transplanted organ is neurotoxicity attributable to immunosuppressive drugs, followed by seizures, opportunistic central nervous system (CNS) infections, cardiovascular events, encephalopathy and de novo CNS neoplasms. Amongst immunosuppressants, calcineurin inhibitors are the main drugs involved in neurotoxicity, leading to complications which ranges from mild symptoms, such as tremors and paresthesia to severe symptoms, such as disabling pain syndrome and leukoencephalopathy. Neurologic complications of liver transplantation are more common than that of other solid organ transplants (13-47%); encephalopathy is the most common CNS complication, followed by seizures; however, central pontine myelinolysis can appear in 1-8% of the patients leading to permanent disabilities or death. In kidney transplanted patients, stroke is the most common neurologic complication, whereas cerebral infarction and bleeding are more typical after heart transplantation. Metabolic, electrolyte and infectious anomalies represent common risk factors; however, identification of specific causes and early diagnosis are still difficult, because of patient's poor clinical status and concomitant systemic and metabolic disorders, which may obscure symptoms.

  1. Food allergies developing after solid organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, J M; Nicholas, S K; Davis, C M

    2015-12-01

    The development of food allergy is an increasingly recognized form of morbidity after solid organ transplant. It occurs more commonly in liver transplant recipients, although it has also been reported in heart, lung, kidney, and intestinal transplants. Pediatric transplant recipients are more likely to develop symptoms compared to adults, and reports of frequency vary widely from 5% to 38% in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the literature, although no single mechanism can yet account for all reported observations. As food allergy can have at worst potentially fatal consequences, and at best require lifestyle adjustment through food avoidance, it is important for recipients to be aware of the donor's food allergies and particularly in pediatrics, the possibility of completely de novo allergies. This review explores the recent reports surrounding food allergy after solid organ transplant, including epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, and implications for practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Overcoming the shortage of transplantable organs: ethical and psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quante, Michael; Wiedebusch, Silvia

    2007-03-02

    The main ethical problem of organ transplantation is the shortage of transplantable organs. The substitute strategies currently under discussion endanger frust in transplantion medicine and thereby increase the problem. Thus ethically preferable alternatives to overcome the shortage are suggested.

  3. Cancer Risk After Pediatric Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Smith, Jodi M; Shiels, Meredith S; Clarke, Christina A; Lynch, Charles F; Kahn, Amy R; Koch, Lori; Pawlish, Karen S; Engels, Eric A

    2017-05-01

    The effects of pediatric solid organ transplantation on cancer risk may differ from those observed in adult recipients. We described cancers in pediatric recipients and compared incidence to the general population. The US transplant registry was linked to 16 cancer registries to identify cancer diagnoses among recipients <18 years old at transplant. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated by dividing observed cancer counts among recipients by expected counts based on the general population rates. Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between recipient characteristics and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) risk. Among 17 958 pediatric recipients, 392 cancers were diagnosed, of which 279 (71%) were NHL. Compared with the general population, incidence was significantly increased for NHL (SIR = 212, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 188-238), Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR = 19, 95% CI = 13-26), leukemia (SIR = 4, 95% CI = 2-7), myeloma (SIR = 229, 95% CI = 47-671), and cancers of the liver, soft tissue, ovary, vulva, testis, bladder, kidney, and thyroid. NHL risk was highest during the first year after transplantation among recipients <5 years old at transplant (SIR = 313), among recipients seronegative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) at transplant (SIR = 446), and among intestine transplant recipients (SIR = 1280). In multivariable analyses, seronegative EBV status, the first year after transplantation, intestine transplantation, and induction immunosuppression were independently associated with higher NHL incidence. Pediatric recipients have a markedly increased risk for many cancers. NHL constitutes the majority of diagnosed cancers, with the highest risk occurring in the first year after transplantation. NHL risk was high in recipients susceptible to primary EBV infection after transplant and in intestine transplant recipients, perhaps due to EBV transmission in the donor organ. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Management of Pneumonia in Kidney Transplantation to Prevent Further Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Goto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP among kidney transplant recipients is emerging worldwide. It is important to control nosocomial PJP infection. A delay in diagnosis and treatment increases the number of reservoir patients and the number of cases of respiratory failure and death. Owing to the large number of kidney transplant recipients compared to other types of organ transplantation, there are greater opportunities for them to share the same time and space. Although the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX as first choice in PJP prophylaxis is valuable for PJP that develops from infections by trophic forms, it cannot prevent or clear colonization, in which cysts are dominant. Colonization of P. jirovecii is cleared by macrophages. While recent immunosuppressive therapies have decreased the rate of rejection, over-suppressed macrophages caused by the higher levels of immunosuppression may decrease the eradication rate of colonization. Once a PJP cluster enters these populations, which are gathered in one place and uniformly undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for kidney transplantation, an outbreak can occur easily. Quick actions for PJP patients, other recipients, and medical staff of transplant centers are required. In future, lifelong prophylaxis may be required even in kidney transplant recipients.

  5. The high cost of organ transplant commercialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Gabriel M

    2014-02-01

    The Declaration of Istanbul defines organ transplant commercialism as '…a policy or practice in which an organ is treated as a commodity, including by being bought or sold or used for material gain.' It is this treatment of the organ that inevitably leads to its financial value being placed before the welfare of either its donor or its recipient or others in need of organ transplantation. International experience over the past two decades has proven this point and outcomes of commercial donation for both organ donors and their recipients have been poor. Commercial organ donation also comes at the expense of, not in addition to, unpaid, 'altruistic' donation. Other consequences of commercial donation are discussed in addition to a review of measures taken by the international community to put an end to the exploitation of vulnerable organ donors and the provision of ethically acceptable options for those in need of organ transplantation.

  6. Advances in organ preservation for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ahmer M; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Pleass, Henry C

    2017-12-01

    Organ transplantation provides the best available therapy for a myriad of medical conditions, including end-stage renal disease, hepatic failure and type I diabetes mellitus. The current clinical reality is, however, that there is a significant shortage of organs available for transplantation with respect to the number of patients on organ waiting lists. As such, methods to increase organ supply have been instituted, including improved donor management, organ procurement and preservation strategies, living organ donation, transplantation education and the increased utilization of donation after circulatory death and expanded criteria donors. In particular, especially over the last decade, we have witnessed a significant change in the way donor organs are preserved, away from static cold storage methods to more dynamic techniques centred on machine perfusion (MP). This review highlights the current state and future of organ preservation for transplantation, focusing on both abdominal and thoracic organs. In particular, we focus on MP preservation of renal, hepatic, pancreatic, cardiac and lung allografts, also noting relevant advances in Australasia. MP of organs after procurement holds considerable promise, and has the potential to significantly improve graft viability and function post-transplantation, especially in donors in whom acceptance criteria have been expanded. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some cases, but not always. There is no advantage to listing at more than one transplant center ... Subscribe to enews Follow Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Instagram Google+ Contact 700 N. 4th Street Richmond, VA ...

  8. Ethical and legal issues in organ transplantation: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiharan, Karunakaran

    2011-07-01

    In 1994, the Government of India enacted the Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THOA) to prevent commercial dealings in human organs. However, a greater number of scandals involving medical practitioners and others in the kidney trade has surfaced periodically in every state in India. The present regulatory system has failed mainly due to the misuse of Section 9(3) of the THOA, which approves the consent given by a live unrelated donor for the removal of organs for the reason of affection or attachment towards the recipient or for any other special reason. Currently in India, approximately 3500-4000 kidney transplants and 150-200 liver transplants are performed annually. However, the availability of organs from brain-dead persons is very low. As a result, live related or unrelated donors form the main source of organ transplantation. Therefore, physicians and policy-makers should re-examine the value of introducing regulated incentive-based organ donation to increase the supply of organs for transplantation and to end unlawful financial transaction.

  9. Epidemiogic aspects of skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisgerhof, Hermina Christina

    2011-01-01

    The risk of (skin) cancer is highly increased in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immunesuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. This thesis dealt with the epidemiologic aspects and risk factors for cancer focused on cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

  10. The history of organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2014-03-01

    The first kidney transplant in Iran was performed in 1967, and this was the first organ transplant in countries that are current members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. In 1988, in response to the long waiting list at the Iranian Ministry of Health for kidney transplant, a state-regulated living-unrelated donor kidney transplant program was adopted. By 1999, the kidney transplant waiting list in Iran was eliminated. In 1989, a fatwa (religious approval) from the Supreme Religious Leader was obtained that recognized brain death and allowed deceased-donor organ transplant. Subsequently, transplant centers began performing deceased-donor kidney, liver, and heart transplants. In 2000, the Brain Death and Organ Transplantation Act was passed by the Iranian parliament, legalizing deceased-donor organ transplant. The transplant team at Shiraz began performing more deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants and became a successful deceased-donor organ transplant model in the country. By the end of 2012, there were 34166 kidney (including 4436 deceased-donor) and 2021 liver (including 1788 deceased-donor), 482 heart, 147 pancreas, 63 lung, and several intestine and multiorgan transplants performed in Iran. In 2011, there were 2771 solid-organ transplants performed in Iran (37 transplants per million population), and Iran ranked as number 33 among the 50 most active countries worldwide. In 2011 and 2012, Iran was ahead of all country members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation in performing deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants.

  11. Organ transplantation: A Sunni Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Albar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the standpoints of Muslim jurists within the Sunni tradition on organ transplantation. Muslim jurists allowed different forms of bone grafts (autograft, allograft and xenograft for widely broken bones. Ibn Sina in 1037 discussed this subject in Al-Kanoon 1000 years ago. In 1959, the Muftis of Egypt and Tunisia allowed, under specific conditions, corneal transplants from dead persons. Thereafter, many fatwas (jurisprudence on organ trans-plantation have been issued from different parts of the Muslim world. In Amman, Jordan, the International Islamic Jurist Council recognized brain-death as a recognized sign of death in Islam in October 1986. This paved the way for organ transplantation from brain-dead persons, which started immediately in Saudi Arabia. In 1990 and 2003, the International Islamic Fiqh Academy (IIFA and the Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA issued important fatwas on organ transplantation. By the end of 2008, more than 3600 organs were transplanted from brain-dead persons in Saudi Arabia.

  12. How is organ transplantation depicted in internal medicine and transplantation journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Céline; Duplantie, Andrée; Chabot, Yves; Doucet, Hubert; Fortin, Marie-Chantal

    2013-10-02

    In their book Spare Parts, published in 1992, Fox and Swazey criticized various aspects of organ transplantation, including the routinization of the procedure, ignorance regarding its inherent uncertainties, and the ethos of transplant professionals. Using this work as a frame of reference, we analyzed articles on organ transplantation published in internal medicine and transplantation journals between 1995 and 2008 to see whether Fox and Swazey's critiques of organ transplantation were still relevant. Using the PubMed database, we retrieved 1,120 articles from the top ten internal medicine journals and 4,644 articles from the two main transplantation journals (Transplantation and American Journal of Transplantation). Out of the internal medicine journal articles, we analyzed those in which organ transplantation was the main topic (349 articles). A total of 349 articles were randomly selected from the transplantation journals for content analysis. In our sample, organ transplantation was described in positive terms and was presented as a routine treatment. Few articles addressed ethical issues, patients' experiences and uncertainties related to organ transplantation. The internal medicine journals reported on more ethical issues than the transplantation journals. The most important ethical issues discussed were related to the justice principle: organ allocation, differential access to transplantation, and the organ shortage. Our study provides insight into representations of organ transplantation in the transplant and general medical communities, as reflected in medical journals. The various portrayals of organ transplantation in our sample of articles suggest that Fox and Swazey's critiques of the procedure are still relevant.

  13. Xenotransplantation and the future of human organ transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Owen; Cann, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    A shortage of organ donors has been an issue since the inception of human organ transplantation. Despite attempts to increase the number of donated organs, the demand for transplants now far exceeds the number of organs available for transplantation. This continuing deficit has questioned whether current sources of organs for human transplantation are currently still viable and importantly for the predicated future increases in demand. Improvements with transplantation over the past few decad...

  14. [Nosocomial infection in patients receiving a solid organ transplant or haematopoietic stem cell transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Camacho, Asunción; Ruiz Camps, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are the most common infections in solid organ transplant recipients. These infections occur mainly in the first month after transplantation and are hospital-acquired. Nosocomial infections cause significant morbidity and are the most common cause of mortality in this early period of transplantation. These infections are caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, mainly Gram-negative enterobacteria, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, enterococci, and staphylococci. The patients at risk of developing nosocomial bacterial infections are those previously colonized with MDR bacteria while on the transplant waiting list. Intravascular catheters, the urinary tract, the lungs, and surgical wounds are the most frequent sources of infection. Preventive measures are the same as those applied in non-immunocompromised, hospitalized patients except in patients at high risk for developing fungal infection. These patients need antifungal therapy during their hospitalization, and for preventing some bacterial infections in the early transplant period, patients need vaccinations on the waiting list according to the current recommendations. Although morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases have decreased during the last few years in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, they are still one of the most important complications in this population. Furthermore, as occurs in the general population, the incidence of nosocomial infections has increased during the different phases of transplantation. It is difficult to establish general preventive measures in these patients, as there are many risk factors conditioning these infections. Firstly, they undergo multiple antibiotic treatments and interventions; secondly, there is a wide variability in the degree of neutropenia and immunosuppression among patients, and finally they combine hospital and home stay during the transplant process. However, some simple measures could be

  15. A Comprehensive Review of Immunization Practices in Solid Organ Transplant and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pearlie P; Avery, Robin K

    2017-08-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases, especially influenza, varicella, herpes zoster, and invasive pneumococcal infections, continue to lead to significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. We highlight guideline recommendations for the use of key vaccines in SOT and HSCT recipients and to review the latest evidence and developments in the field. Physicians should vaccinate individuals with end-stage organ disease, as vaccine seroresponse rates are higher pretransplantation. Most live attenuated vaccines continue to be contraindicated post-transplantation, but there are emerging safety profile and efficacy data to support the use of specific live attenuated vaccines, such as measles, mumps, and rubella in pediatric liver or kidney transplant recipients who are on low-level maintenance immunosuppression and without recent history of allograft rejection. An inactivated subunit varicella zoster virus vaccine is currently awaiting US Food and Drug Administration approval. While we await the safety profile and efficacy data of this subunit vaccine in transplant recipients, it will likely benefit immunocompromised individuals, including transplant recipients, because the live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine is currently contraindicated in transplant recipients and transplantation candidates receiving immunosuppression. There is currently no evidence that vaccines lead to allograft rejection in SOT recipients. Household contacts of SOT and HSCT recipients should be vaccinated per the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule and recommendations. Immunizations remain underutilized in transplantation patients. Although efficacy of vaccines in SOT and HSCT may be suboptimal, partial protection is preferred over no protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...... innovator tacrolimus drug (Prograf) in both healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients. Clinical experience with this generic tacrolimus formulation has also been established in both de novo and conversion patients who have undergone kidney and liver transplantation, as well as in conversion of other...

  17. Design and Methods of the Korean Organ Transplantation Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Yang, MD, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. KOTRY, as a systematic Korean transplant cohort, is expected to provide important information on Asian organ transplantation. The processes used to establish KOTRY provide a good model for launching new nationwide transplant cohort studies.

  18. Could Sentinel Skin Transplants Have Some Utility in Solid Organ Transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J M; Catarino, P; Dunning, J; Giele, H; Vrakas, G; Parmar, J

    2016-10-01

    Accurate diagnosis of allograft rejection can be hazardous and challenging. A strategy that has emerged from experience with vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) is the use of sentinel skin transplants (SSTs)-portions of donor skin transplanted synchronously to an allograft. Work in nonhuman animal models and experience with VCAs suggest concordance between rejection occurring in the primary allograft and the SST, and that appearance of rejection in the SST may precede rejection in the primary allograft, permitting early therapeutic intervention that may improve outcomes with lower rates of chronic rejection. The encouraging findings reported in VCA transplantation raise the possibility that SST may also be useful in solid organ transplantation. Some evidence is provided by experience with abdominal wall transplantation in some intestinal and multivisceral transplant recipients. Results from those reports raise the possibility that rejection may manifest in the skin component before emergence in the intestinal allograft, providing a "lead time" during which treatment of rejection of the abdominal wall could prevent the emergence of intestinal rejection. It is plausible that these findings may be extrapolated to other solid organ allografts, especially those for which obtaining an accurate diagnosis of acute rejection can be hazardous and challenging, such as the lung or pancreas. However, more data are required to support widespread adoption of this technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver transplantation using organs from deceased organ donors: a single organ transplant center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Jiao, Xing-Yuan; Yang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Dong-Ping; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Wu, Lin-Wei; Hu, An-Bin; Tai, Qiang; Ma, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; He, Xiao-Shun

    2014-08-01

    In 2011, a pilot program for deceased organ donation was initiated in China. We describe the first successful series of liver transplants in the pilot program. From July 2011 to August 2012, our center performed 26 liver transplants from a pool of 29 deceased donors. All organ donation and allograft procurement were conducted according to the national protocol. The clinical data of donors and recipients were collected and summarized retrospectively. Among the 29 donors, 24 were China Category II donors (organ donation after cardiac death), and five were China Category III donors (organ donation after brain death followed by cardiac death). The recipients were mainly the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The one-year patient survival rate was 80.8% with a median follow-up of 422 (2-696) days. Among the five mortalities during the follow-up, three died of tumor recurrence. In terms of post-transplant complications, 9 recipients (34.6%) experienced early allograft dysfunction, 1 (3.8%) had non-anastomotic biliary stricture, and 1 (3.8%) was complicated with hepatic arterial thrombosis. None of these complications resulted in patient death. Notably, primary non-function was not observed in any of the grafts. With careful donor selection, liver transplant from deceased donors can be performed safely and plays a critical role in overcoming the extreme organ shortage in China.

  20. How is organ transplantation depicted in internal medicine and transplantation journals

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, C?line; Duplantie, Andr?e; Chabot, Yves; Doucet, Hubert; Fortin, Marie-Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Background In their book Spare Parts, published in 1992, Fox and Swazey criticized various aspects of organ transplantation, including the routinization of the procedure, ignorance regarding its inherent uncertainties, and the ethos of transplant professionals. Using this work as a frame of reference, we analyzed articles on organ transplantation published in internal medicine and transplantation journals between 1995 and 2008 to see whether Fox and Swazey?s critiques of organ transplantation...

  1. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  2. HLA Population Genetics in Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kransdorf, Evan P; Pando, Marcelo J; Gragert, Loren; Kaplan, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    HLAs are fundamental to the adaptive immune response and play critical roles in the cellular and humoral response in solid organ transplantation. The genes encoding HLA proteins are the most polymorphic within the human genome, with thousands of different allelic variants known within the population. Application of the principles of population genetics to the HLA genes has resulted in the development of a numeric metric, the calculated panel-reactive antibody (CPRA) that predicts the likelihood of a positive crossmatch as a function of a transplant candidate's unacceptable HLA antigens. The CPRA is an indispensible measure of access to transplantation for sensitized candidates and is used as the official measure of sensitization for allocation of points in the US Kidney Allocation System and Eurotransplant. Here, we review HLA population genetics and detail the mathematical basis of the CPRA. An understanding of these principles by transplant clinicians will lay the foundation for continued innovation in the care of sensitized patients.

  3. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    OpenAIRE

    STARZL, T.

    1991-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de tran...

  4. Solid organ transplants following hematopoietic stem cell transplant in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Nancy; Guzikowski, Virginia; Rand, Elizabeth R; Goldfarb, Samuel; Baluarte, Jorge; Meyers, Kevin; Olthoff, Kim M

    2010-12-01

    SOT may be indicated for a select group of pediatric patients who experience permanent organ failure following HSCT. However, there is limited information available about outcomes. We identified eight children at our center who received an SOT following an HSCT. Patients were six months to 18 yr at HSCT. Diseases for which children underwent HSCT included thalassemia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Shwachman-Diamond/bone marrow failure, sickle cell disease (SCD), erythropoietic porphyria (EP), ALL, chronic granulomatous disease, and neuroblastoma. Time from HSCT to SOT was 13 days to seven yr (median, 27 months. Lung SOT was performed for two patients with BO, kidney transplants for three patients, and liver transplants for three patients (VOD, chronic GVHD). Seven patients are alive with functioning allografts 6-180 months from SOT. Advances in organ procurement, operative technique, immunosuppressant therapy, and infection control may allow SOT for a select group of patients post-HSCT. However, scarcity of donor organs available in a timely fashion continues to be a limiting factor. Children who have undergone HSCT and develop single organ failure should be considered for an SOT if there is a high likelihood of cure of the primary disease. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Encephalitis caused by pathogens transmitted through organ transplants, United States, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Zaki, Sherif R; Sejvar, James J

    2014-09-01

    The cause of encephalitis among solid organ transplant recipients may be multifactorial; the disease can result from infectious or noninfectious etiologies. During 2002-2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated several encephalitis clusters among transplant recipients. Cases were caused by infections from transplant-transmitted pathogens: West Nile virus, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. In many of the clusters, identification of the cause was complicated by delayed diagnosis due to the rarity of the disease, geographic distance separating transplant recipients, and lack of prompt recognition and reporting systems. Establishment of surveillance systems to detect illness among organ recipients, including communication among transplant center physicians, organ procurement organizations, and public health authorities, may enable the rapid discovery and investigation of infectious encephalitis clusters. These transplant-transmitted pathogen clusters highlight the need for greater awareness among clinicians, pathologists, and public health workers, of emerging infectious agents causing encephalitis among organ recipients.

  6. Organ Transplants: What Every Kid Needs to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For more information about UNOS, living donation, and organ transplantation, please call 1-888-894-6361 or visit ... parents Since you have received this booklet, Organ Transplants: What Every Kid Needs to Know , chances are ...

  7. Cognitive Development and Learning in the Pediatric Organ Transplant Recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Steven A.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews studies evaluating neurocognitive changes following organ transplantation in pediatric end-stage renal and liver disease. Findings suggest possible neurocognitive benefits associated with organ transplantation. Recommendations are made for methodological improvements in future research. (DB)

  8. Nonresident aliens and access to organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, J M

    1989-06-01

    The present policies for allowing nonresident aliens access to organ transplantation are neither fair nor consistent. They apply only to some transplants, and they take no account of their discriminatory effect among foreigners. Much less do they deal with the meaning of fair access, given our complete ignorance of the number and character of those outside the United States in need of a transplant. Most strikingly, present policy prohibits discrimination based on where a patient lives in part by imposing it based on where the patient is to receive a transplant, here or abroad. The one-list policy is more a result of political compromise, institutional interest, and the misapplication of the principle of professional autonomy than of any consistent policy or logic. In this mishmash of justification, one argument does stand out--that sharing organs with nonresidents ought to be done on the grounds of charity. Yet even here, the present form of this position is inadequate, perhaps because it has not been systematically applied to organ distribution issues. An argument for charity contains two elements, the nature of the obligation and the subject on whom the obligation rests. In its ordinary form, the obligation of charity requires a transfer of resources from wealth to poverty. A more subtle and complex formulation is required to apply this obligation to the conditions of universal poverty pertaining in organ transplantation. It remains to be seen if this is possible. There is also the question of to whom the argument must be made. A minimal requirement of charity is that one shares one's own resources, not those of another. Inevitably, this brings us to the perennial question of organ distribution: Whose organs are these? We can easily say whose they are not; they do not belong to hospital administrators, academic researchers, transplant surgeons, or organ procurement agencies. Insofar as they are national resources, Congress may be able to stake a claim; but

  9. Bucillamine, a thiol antioxidant, prevents transplantation-associated reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Amersi, Farin; Nelson, Sally K.; Shen, Xiu Da; Kato, Hirohisa; Melinek, Judy; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W.; Horwitz, Lawrence D.; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious potential threat to outcomes in organ transplantation and other clinical arenas in which there is temporary interruption of blood flow. I/R is a frequent cause of primary failure in organ transplantation. We hypothesized that the antioxidant bucillamine, a potent sulfhydryl donor, would protect against I/R injury in high-risk organ transplants. Because livers subjected to prolonged ischemia and very fatty livers are highly susceptible to severe I...

  10. TRANSPLANTATION EN MASSE DES ORGANES ABDOMINAUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    STARZL, T.

    2010-01-01

    Les transplantations multi-organes, comprenant les blocs foie-duodénum-pancréas, foie-estomac-duodénum-pancréas, et foie-intestin sont réalisées avec un succés croissant Ces techniques et leurs combinaisons variées de transplantation monobloc ne sont pas de pratique courante. Les techniques de prélévement, de conservation et de soins post-opératoires sont décrites pour la transplantation multi-organes compléte ainsi que pour les variantes incomplétes. Le probléme particulier à ce type de transplantation est celui de la transplantation intestinale, c’est-à-dire la transplantation d’un organe à composante lymphoréticulaire complexe ce qui peut provoquer un syndrome greffon contre hôte. Par erreur de conception, et un peu par esprit de systéme, les efforts par le passé étaient dirigés sur la modification et la destruction des systémes lymphoréticulaires grâce au traitement préalable du donneur ou des organes transplantés, par médicaments, radiation ou autres moyens. Actuellement, I’idée directrice est de garder intacte les systémes lymphoréticulaires qui deviennent alors le site d’une circulation à double sens aprés transplantation. Avec la puissante immunodépression que fournit le FK 506, les cellules lymphoréticulaires du donneur peuvent circuler chez le receveur sans créer de syndrome du greffon contre hôte clinique et les cellules de la greffe s’assimilent à celles du receveur (chimérisme local) sans provoquer de rejet. Même si I’on évite le rejet ou le syndrome greffon contre hôte, il existe, à côté de ces entités, des relations métaboliques entre les organes greffés ainsi qu’entre les organes greffés et les viscéres du receveur laissés en place, qui peuvent influencer I’avenir soit des organes greffés, soit des organes laissés en place. Parmi les échanges métaboliques les mieux connus actuellement, il y a les facteurs splanchniques hépatotrophes endogénes, dont I’insuline est la mieux

  11. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  12. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the e...

  13. Psychosocial challenges before and after organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz KH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karl-Heinz Schulz,1,2 Sylvia Kroencke,1,2 1Department of Medical Psychology, 2University Transplant Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany Abstract: This review addresses psychosocial challenges before and after solid organ transplantation. Stressors, corresponding psychosocial changes of the recipient, and psychological interventions in the different phases of the transplant process are described. Furthermore, important aspects of the preoperative psychosocial evaluation are presented with a special focus on living donors and patients with alcoholic liver disease. For the postoperative period, adherence, quality of life, and return to work are highlighted. Finally, research and clinical implications are presented. Keywords: adherence, alcoholic liver disease, evaluation, living donation, quality of life, return to work

  14. Effects of brain death on donor organ viability in transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, Joost Alexander Boreas van der

    2005-01-01

    Organ transplantation has evolved from an experimental procedure in the 1950's and 60's to the therapy of choice for end-stage organ failure. The first solid organ to outgrow the experimental transplantation setting was the kidney. At that time the succesful transplant programs were those in which

  15. How is organ transplantation depicted in internal medicine and transplantation journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In their book Spare Parts, published in 1992, Fox and Swazey criticized various aspects of organ transplantation, including the routinization of the procedure, ignorance regarding its inherent uncertainties, and the ethos of transplant professionals. Using this work as a frame of reference, we analyzed articles on organ transplantation published in internal medicine and transplantation journals between 1995 and 2008 to see whether Fox and Swazey’s critiques of organ transplantation were still relevant. Methods Using the PubMed database, we retrieved 1,120 articles from the top ten internal medicine journals and 4,644 articles from the two main transplantation journals (Transplantation and American Journal of Transplantation). Out of the internal medicine journal articles, we analyzed those in which organ transplantation was the main topic (349 articles). A total of 349 articles were randomly selected from the transplantation journals for content analysis. Results In our sample, organ transplantation was described in positive terms and was presented as a routine treatment. Few articles addressed ethical issues, patients’ experiences and uncertainties related to organ transplantation. The internal medicine journals reported on more ethical issues than the transplantation journals. The most important ethical issues discussed were related to the justice principle: organ allocation, differential access to transplantation, and the organ shortage. Conclusion Our study provides insight into representations of organ transplantation in the transplant and general medical communities, as reflected in medical journals. The various portrayals of organ transplantation in our sample of articles suggest that Fox and Swazey’s critiques of the procedure are still relevant. PMID:24219177

  16. Clinical experience in organ transplant from the Shiraz Transplant Center: 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaee far, Alireza; Salehipour, Mahdi; Bahreini, Amin; Mehdi, Syed Heider; Salahi, Heshmatollah; Bahador, Ali; Malekhossein, Seyed Ali

    2012-08-01

    The Shiraz Organ Transplant Center, the largest transplant center in Iran, has expanded its program of organ transplant during recent years. This article seeks to summarize organ transplantation over the last 2 decades and evaluate its status as of 2011. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of all organ transplants performed in our center in 2011. We reviewed the patients' demographics, underlying disease, operation details as well as postoperative complications. During this period, 655 organ transplants including 345 liver, 297 kidney, 29 pancreas, and 11 intestine and multivisceral transplants were done. Among 345 liver transplants, 291 patients received a deceased-donor graft including 18 cases of split liver transplants while 54 patients received living-donor liver transplants. The 1-year graft and patient survival rates were 90.1% and 91%. In recent years, our program in organ transplants has expanded in number and variety of organs transplanted. This improvement is related to our multidisciplinary strategies to expand the donor pool and the experiences obtained during our transplant activities.

  17. Quantitative Survey of Laypersons' Attitudes Toward Organ Transplantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, T; Hsu, E; Aizawa, K; Nakada, H; Toya, W; Matsui, K

    In comparison with foreign countries, living-organ transplantations (LOT) have been performed more frequently than dead organ transplants, including brain-dead organ transplantation (BOT) in Japan. This situation has given rise to organ transplantation tourism. Therefore, we clarify laypersons' preferences regarding organ transplantation that are producing the current situation in Japan, to suggest a possible framework for further efforts. Voluntary completion of a quantitative and anonymous survey was promoted online (a sample size of 1030). The questionnaire had two types of variables concerning demographic characteristics and organ transplantation-related issues. LOT was favored over BOT. However, for willingness to donate to family members, the participants showed a significantly more positive attitude toward brain-dead organ donors (BODs) than living organ donors (LODs). In the evaluation of each transplantation technology, BOT and LOT were positioned in the middle, between transplantation that does not depend on others and the utilization of animal organs. Although LOT was favored over BOT, for participants hypothesized to be in a position to donate and receive organs, BODs received a conversely better reputation than LODs. Our survey and discussion suggest that the present conditions of organ transplantation in Japan might be because there is a lack of deliberation on transplantation tourism and LOT. Therefore, more surveys concerning LOT cases and the implications of avoidance of organs from brain-dead bodies, coupled with more discussions based on these surveys, are necessary to formulate a Japanese transplantation policy for the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual kidney transplantation with organs from extended criteria cadaveric donors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    D'Arcy, Frank T

    2009-10-01

    The critical shortage of kidneys available for transplantation has led to alternate strategies to expand the pool. Transplantation of the 2 kidneys into a single recipient using organs suboptimal for single kidney transplantation was suggested. We assessed results in 24 grafts allocated for dual kidney transplantation vs those in a control group of 44 designated for single kidney transplantation. Each group underwent pretransplant biopsy and recipients were age matched.

  19. Applications of regenerative medicine in organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide shortage of organs for clinical implantation establishes the need to bring forward and test new technologies that will help in solving the problem. The concepts of regenerative medicine hold the potential for augmenting organ function or repairing damaged organ or allowing regeneration of deteriorated organs and tissue. Researchers are exploring possible regenerative medicine applications in organ transplantation so that coming together of the two fields can benefit each other. The present review discusses the strategies that are being implemented to regenerate or bio-engineer human organs for clinical purposes. It also highlights the limitations of the regenerative medicine that needs to be addressed to explore full potential of the field. A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using keywords "regenerative medicine," "tissue-engineering," "bio-engineered organs," "decellularized scaffold" and "three-dimensional printing." This review screened about 170 articles to get the desired knowledge update.

  20. Applications of regenerative medicine in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aditya; Bansal, Ramta

    2015-01-01

    A worldwide shortage of organs for clinical implantation establishes the need to bring forward and test new technologies that will help in solving the problem. The concepts of regenerative medicine hold the potential for augmenting organ function or repairing damaged organ or allowing regeneration of deteriorated organs and tissue. Researchers are exploring possible regenerative medicine applications in organ transplantation so that coming together of the two fields can benefit each other. The present review discusses the strategies that are being implemented to regenerate or bio-engineer human organs for clinical purposes. It also highlights the limitations of the regenerative medicine that needs to be addressed to explore full potential of the field. A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using keywords "regenerative medicine," "tissue-engineering," "bio-engineered organs," "decellularized scaffold" and "three-dimensional printing." This review screened about 170 articles to get the desired knowledge update.

  1. Organ preservation and viability in kidney and liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, Marcus Hubertus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Organ preservation for transplantation. The easy way or best method? Kidney and liver transplantations are routinely performed nowadays to treat end stage organ diseases. However, the increasing gap between demand and supply, has necessitated the transplantation community to expand donor criteria

  2. PHENOMENON OF DEMIKHOV. "Transplantation of vital organs In experiment" (1960. Transplantation immunity, artifi cial circulation in organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Glyantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article (the fourth of five presents the analysis of the 4th and 5th chapters from V.P.Demikhov's monograph "Transplantation of vital organs in experiment" (MedGIz Publisher, Moscow, 1960, where he described his studies of transplantation immunity in originally created models and his use of artificial blood-circulation systems in experimental organ transplantation. It has been shown that V.P.Demikhov changed his views on the tissue biological incompatibility in homoplastic transplants and turned from the Michurin-Pavlov's concepts (1946–1953 to natural-scientific views (1959. Meanwhile, his multiple attempts to study both the morphological and humoral immunological response to transplanted organs did not give conclusive results because of lacking the experience of such studies even in the country's leading scientists and due the imperfection of their techniques. Realizing that the retrieval of a beating heart from a human would have created further problems for its subsequent transplantation, V.P. Demikhov attempted to reanimate human hearts in corpses by means of extracorporeal devices to provide artificial circulation. Methodologically, those devices were based on S.S.Bryukhonenko's research and his "auto-injector" pump modified by V.P.Demikhov. However, by 1960, those studies had not come beyond the experiments.

  3. Experience of a Canadian multi-organ transplant service.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, D; Stiller, C; Duff, J; McKenzie, N; Wall, W; Keown, P; Ghent, C; Kostuk, W; Kutt, J; Chin, J

    1986-01-01

    Organ transplantation has become the treatment of choice for selected patients with end-stage failure of the heart, liver or kidneys. The expanding role for organ transplantation, however, has led to a corresponding increase in the complexity of patient management. In response to these changes, University Hospital, London, Ont., has established an interdisciplinary multi-organ transplant service (MOTS). MOTS coordinates donor organ procurement and patient management. Donor organs have been re...

  4. Preemptive kidney transplantation: an ethical challenge for organ allocation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2017-01-01

    Preemptive transplants are advisable in advanced stages of kidney disease. The clinical advantages of preemptive transplantation over dialysis are evident. Nevertheless, preemptive transplantations raise ethical concerns, particularly regarding the allocation of medical resources. The present article proposes some criteria for organ allocation policies regarding preemptive transplantations: criteria regarding medical benefit and justice are absolutely essential when addressing the issue of organ allocation, but other ethical values should also be taken into account. The "principle of double effect" offers useful pointers.

  5. The Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Organ commercialism, which targets vulnerable populations (such as illiterate and impoverished persons, undocumented immigrants, prisoners, and political or economic refugees) in resource-poor countries, has been condemned by international bodies such as the World Health Organization for decades. Yet in recent years, as a consequence of the increasing ease of Internet communication and the willingness of patients in rich countries to travel and purchase organs, organ trafficking and transplant tourism have grown into global problems. For example, as of 2006, foreigners received two-thirds of the 2000 kidney transplants performed annually in Pakistan. The Istanbul Declaration proclaims that the poor who sell their organs are being exploited, whether by richer people within their own countries or by transplant tourists from abroad. Moreover, transplant tourists risk physical harm by unregulated and illegal transplantation. Participants in the Istanbul Summit concluded that transplant commercialism, which targets the vulnerable, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking should be prohibited. And they also urged their fellow transplant professionals, individually and through their organizations, to put an end to these unethical activities and foster safe, accountable practices that meet the needs of transplant recipients while protecting donors. Countries from which transplant tourists originate, as well as those to which they travel to obtain transplants, are just beginning to address their respective responsibilities to protect their people from exploitation and to develop national self-sufficiency in organ donation. The Declaration should reinforce the resolve of governments and international organizations to develop laws and guidelines to bring an end to wrongful practices. "The legacy of transplantation is threatened by organ trafficking and transplant tourism. The Declaration of Istanbul aims to combat these activities and to preserve the nobility of organ

  6. Kaposi's sarcoma in organ transplant recipients. The Collaborative Transplantation Research Group of Ile de France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farge, D

    1993-01-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a tumour of multicentric origin with increased frequency after organ transplantation. To date, only North American data from the Cincinnati Transplant Tumor Registry have given some information about this disease in organ transplant recipients, but its true prevalence still has to be determined. In order to analyze Kaposi's sarcoma after kidney, liver and heart transplantation, we performed a retrospective study using the oldest registry of organ transplant recipients in Europe. Among all 7923 organ transplant recipients recorded in the Groupe Collaboratif de Recherche en Transplantation de l'Ile de France (GCIF) registry from 1968 to 1990, we analyzed the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma in 6229 kidney, 727 liver and 967 heart transplant recipients. In the subgroup of kidney transplant recipients, we assessed the role of cyclosporine on disease evolution. Overall prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma after organ transplantation was 0.52%, but it was significantly higher among liver (1.24%) than among kidney (0.45%) and heart (0.41%) transplant recipients. Chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers were more frequent in liver than in kidney transplant recipients who developed Kaposi's sarcoma (66% vs 21%, p < 0.03). Following kidney transplantation, Kaposi's sarcoma was more severe in patients receiving cyclosporine (n = 16) when compared with those under conventional immunosuppression (n = 12). True prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma among European transplant recipients is high (0.52%) and appeared significantly higher in liver compared with other organ transplant recipients. Cyclosporine seems to increase severity of the disease among kidney transplant recipient.

  7. Organs transplantation - how to improve the process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Viriato; Oliveira, Gerardo; Viera-Marques, Pedro; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The transplant of cadaveric organs must be performed in a short period of time in order to achieve satisfactory results. In Hospital S. João (HSJ), a large Portuguese hospital, during 2008 and 2009, 65 and 61 respectively potential donors were identified, but 12 and 19 of them were not validated as such in time. The number of validated donors could increase if the information workflow between donor hospitals and coordinator offices became more efficient. The goal of this work is to design and implement a multi-agent software platform to assist the information workflow between donor hospitals and coordinator offices. Through several meetings with HSJ coordinator office it was characterized a set of basic data that would allow coordinator offices to early identify possible organs donors. This preliminary characterization provided the necessary grounds for the development of an agent based software application allowing the storage and management of potential donors' information and optimizing the information workflow. The information workflow and the current communication processes characterization allowed the development of a multi-agent web platform, providing a way to assist the information workflow, between coordinator hospitals and their attached hospitals network. The platform also improves direct communication between coordinator offices about most relevant facts. By using this tool or a similar one the information workflow between donor hospitals and coordinator offices can become more efficient, optimizing the pre-transplantation tasks and consequently the number of successful transplants in our country.

  8. Organ transplantation scandal influencing corneal donation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Röck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of countries, there is a shortage of donor corneas for corneal transplantations. This study investigated the impact of organ transplantation scandals on corneal donation rate at the University Hospital Tübingen. Each deceased patient was considered as a potential corneal donor. An ophthalmic resident handled with stable methods of procedures the corneal donor procurement from 2009 to 2015. The rates of corneal donation were examined and analyzed. Among the 5712 hospital deaths, consent for corneal donation was obtained in 711 cases. The mean annual corneal donation rate was 12.4%. Since 2009, the donation rate per year could be increased with exception of 2013 and 2015. In the end of 2012 and 2014 two huge organ donation scandals were known in Germany. In the following years 2013 and 2015 corneal donation rate decreased significantly (P=0.0181 and P=0.0006. We concluded that transplantation scandals have a significant impact on corneal donation rate. Improving professional's performance through full transparency and honesty is very important to earn trust of potential donors and their families.

  9. Organ transplantation scandal influencing corneal donation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Tobias; Bramkamp, Matthias; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the majority of countries, there is a shortage of donor corneas for corneal transplantations. This study investigated the impact of organ transplantation scandals on corneal donation rate at the University Hospital Tübingen. Each deceased patient was considered as a potential corneal donor. An ophthalmic resident handled with stable methods of procedures the corneal donor procurement from 2009 to 2015. The rates of corneal donation were examined and analyzed. Among the 5712 hospital deaths, consent for corneal donation was obtained in 711 cases. The mean annual corneal donation rate was 12.4%. Since 2009, the donation rate per year could be increased with exception of 2013 and 2015. In the end of 2012 and 2014 two huge organ donation scandals were known in Germany. In the following years 2013 and 2015 corneal donation rate decreased significantly ( P =0.0181 and P =0.0006). We concluded that transplantation scandals have a significant impact on corneal donation rate. Improving professional's performance through full transparency and honesty is very important to earn trust of potential donors and their families.

  10. Deceased organ donation and transplantation in India: Promises and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Aneesh; Mani, Anil

    2018-01-01

    Organ transplantation has improved the lives of hundreds of thousands of patients all the world. The total organ donation shortage of the country can be met with if even 5 to 10% of the victims involved in fatal accidents serve as organ donors. The challenges include an interplay of sociocultural factors, beliefs and superstitions, lack of communication and organizational support, and negative views by the media. Several initiatives to encourage deceased organ donation include the Indian Network for Organ Sharing, a subdivision of the National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization, the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THOA), as well as the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissue Rules. There are stringent criteria instituted for the retrieval, preservation and transportation of donor organs. This article reviews the ongoing efforts being implemented to encourage organ transplantation.

  11. [Liver transplantation: how to manage organ shortage?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvot, François-René; Boleslawski, Emmanuel

    2009-03-20

    Organ shortage remains a major problem in liver transplantation for which the number of patients on the waiting list is superior to the number of liver grafts harvested each year. In 2007, 1061 liver transplantations have covered 78.7% of the needs for 1348 new candidates. Improvement of the results (5 year-survival 74.9% and 63% at 10 years) do not influence the number of major indications (hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis C virus, alcohol), despite a slight decrease in the rate of activity of 1 to 2% per year. Introduction of the national score for each patient to be registered on the waiting list, the use of split grafts or grafts from marginal criteria donors may enlarge the donor pool. Liver grafts from cardiac deceased donors or from living donors are less frequent and are controversial from a technical and psychological point of view. The most efficient solution in order to overcome organ shortage is the increase in the pool of brain dead donors by accompanying people acceptance of organ donation and the use of parts of human body after death. Such education of the population could be made by the valorisation of organ donation, through public campaigns suggesting reflexion rather than coercition.

  12. Physical activity in recipients of solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focusses on the level of physical activity after solid organ transplantation and factors associated with this level. Functional recovery after transplantation is not as good as expected. However, higher levels of physical activity after transplantation are associated with better

  13. Prevention of Transnational Transplant-Related Crimes-What More Can be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dominique E; Van Assche, Kristof; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; López-Fraga, Marta; Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Lavee, Jacob; Tibell, Annika; Moazam, Farhat; Muller, Elmi; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Codreanu, Igor; Naicker, Saraladevi; Al Rukhaimi, Mona; McGuinness, Sheelagh; Bakr, Mohamed A; Moniruzzaman, Monir; Capron, Alexander M; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-08-01

    Many nations are able to prosecute transplant-related crimes committed in their territory, but transplant recipients, organ sellers and brokers, and transplant professionals may escape prosecution by engaging in these practices in foreign locations where they judge the risk of criminal investigation and prosecution to be remote. The Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group convened an international working group to evaluate the possible role of extraterritorial jurisdiction in strengthening the enforcement of existing laws governing transplant-related crimes across national boundaries. Potential practical and ethical concerns about the use of extraterritorial jurisdiction were examined, and possible responses were explored. Extraterritorial jurisdiction is a legitimate tool to combat transplant-related crimes. Further, development of a global registry of transnational transplant activities in conjunction with a standardized international referral system for legitimate travel for transplantation is proposed as a mechanism to support enforcement of national and international legal tools. States are encouraged to include provisions on extraterritorial jurisdiction in their laws on transplant-related crimes and to collaborate with professionals and international authorities in the development of a global registry of transnational transplant activities. These actions would assist in the identification and evaluation of illicit activities and provide information that would help in developing strategies to deter and prevent them.

  14. Generic tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taube, D; Jones, G; O'Beirne, J

    2014-01-01

    are similar in quality, safety, and efficacy to their approved innovator drugs. There are data available for three generic brands, tacrolimus (Intas), tacrolimus (PharOS), and tacrolimus (Sandoz). Bioequivalence has been demonstrated for generic tacrolimus (Sandoz) within a narrow therapeutic range to its......The availability of a wide range of immunosuppressive therapies has revolutionized the management of patients who have undergone solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, the cost of immunosuppressive drugs remains high. This situation has led to the development of generic equivalents, which...

  15. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  16. Recommendations for Solid Organ Transplantation for Transplant Candidates With a Pretransplant Diagnosis of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Melanoma: A Consensus Opinion From the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, F; Leitenberger, J; Zeitouni, N; Soon, S; Brewer, J; Arron, S; Bordeaux, J; Chung, C; Abdelmalek, M; Billingsley, E; Vidimos, A; Stasko, T

    2016-02-01

    Advancements in solid organ transplantation successfully extend the lives of thousands of patients annually. The tenet of organ stewardship aims to prevent the futile expenditure of scarce donor organs in patient populations with high mortality risk, to the detriment of potential recipients with greater predicted life expectancy. The development of skin cancer posttransplantation portends tremendous morbidity, adversely affecting quality of life for many transplant recipients. This special article, provided by of members of the International Transplant Skin Cancer Collaborative (ITSCC), will provide the transplant professional with a consensus opinion and recommendations as to an appropriate wait period pretransplantation for transplant candidates with a history of either cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, or Merkel cell carcinoma. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation.

  18. The solution to organ shortage in Turkey: trained transplant coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücetin, L; Keçecioğlu, N; Akaydin, M; Ersoy, F F

    2004-01-01

    The organ shortage is a social, psychological, ethical, moral, and probably legal and political problem of the 21st century. It must be solved as soon as possible to save lives; transplant coordinators are important cornerstones in this effort. The first transplant coordinator training course was organized in May, 2002, including 27 participants from different hospitals, but unfortunately only 13 were able to work as transplant coordinators in their hospitals after the course. After the course, the number of cadaveric donors in Turkey increased 12%, compared to 2001. Currently, only 14 hospitals have transplant coordinators and 12 of them are transplant centers. There is no transplant coordinator at 10 transplant centers. Only two nontransplant centers have a transplant coordinator. Eightyeight percent of donors are procured from hospitals with a transplant coordinator. According to data from the Transplantation Society meeting held in Rome, August 2000, there should be 1675 donors in Turkey, but we had only 100 for 2002 and 49 in 1999. Transplant coordinators are essential to organize donation, seeking to achieve the maximum for potential generating capacity (60 brain-dead pmp). So we need approximately 200 (3/pmp) trained transplant coordinators in Turkey but we presently have only 15% of this number.

  19. Organ transplantation and its physiological implications – A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organ transplantation is the mechanism of transferring an organ (heart, lung, etc.) from one body to another or from one donor site on the patient's own body for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or absent organ. The different types of transplantation considering the relationship between the donor and the ...

  20. The start of the transplant journey: Referral for pediatric solid organ transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellmer, Diana; Brosig, Cheryl; Wray, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the majority of the psychosocial transplant literature is on post-transplant outcomes but the transplant journey starts much earlier than this, at the point when transplantation is first considered and a referral for transplant evaluation is made. In this review we cover information regarding the meaning of the referral process for solid organ transplantation. We discuss various factors of the referral for transplantation including the impact of referral on the pediatric patient and the family, potential expectations and misconceptions held by pediatric patients and parents, the role of health literacy, decision making factors, and the informational needs of pediatric patients and parents. We elucidate steps that providers can take to enhance transplant referral and provide suggestions for much needed research within this area. PMID:24438194

  1. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Registry data analysis shows stabilization of indicators of donor and transplant activity in 2011 after continuous growth within five years, increase in a share of effective donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, development of thoracic organs transplantation and living related donor kidney transplantation. In the conditions of decentralization of organ donation and transplant programs it is necessary to develop coope- ration between transplant centers and to expand the practice of an interregional exchange of donor organs. The federal law «About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation», accepted in 2011, creates a legal basis for development and acceptance of the new legislation in the sphere of organ donation and transplantation

  2. Latest development of legal regulations of organ transplant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan

    2008-12-01

    Organ transplant practice has developed greatly in last two decades in China. In response to the practical need, the State Council released the Regulations on Human Organ Transplant 2007, replacing the previous Interim Provisions on Administration of Clinical Application of Human Organ Transplant Technology 2006. This article first examines the latest development of legal regulations of organ transplant by comparing the differences between the two pieces of legislation. It then analyzes the impact of the new rules set forth in the 2007 Regulations upon three problems existing in the current organ transplant practice, that is, organ procurement from executed prisoners, organ trade, and organ tourism. The article finally discusses the deficiencies of the 2007 Regulations, which are supposed to be remedied in the next legal reform.

  3. Solid organ transplantation in primary mitochondrial disease: Proceed with caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sumit; Karaa, Amel; Goldstein, Amy; Ng, Yi S; Gorman, Grainne; Feigenbaum, Annette; Christodoulou, John; Haas, Richard; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Cohen, Bruce K; Dimmock, David; Feyma, Tim; Koenig, Mary K; Mundy, Helen; Niyazov, David; Saneto, Russell P; Wainwright, Mark S; Wusthoff, Courtney; McFarland, Robert; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Solid organ transplants are rarely performed in both adult and pediatric patients with primary mitochondrial disease. Poor outcomes have been described in case reports and small case series. It is unclear whether the underlying genetic disease has a significant impact on post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Data were obtained for 35 patients from 17 Mitochondrial Disease Centers across North America, the United Kingdom and Australia. Patient outcomes were noted after liver, kidney or heart transplantation. Excluding patients with POLG-related disease, post-transplant survival approached or met outcomes seen in non-mitochondrial disease transplant patients. The majority of mitochondrial disease patients did not have worsening of their mitochondrial disease within 90-days post-transplant. Post-transplant complications, including organ rejection, were not a common occurrence and were generally treatable. Many patients did not have a mitochondrial disease considered or diagnosed prior to transplantation. In conclusion, patients with mitochondrial disease in this cohort generally tolerated solid-organ transplantation. Such patients may not need to be excluded from transplant solely for their mitochondrial diagnosis; additional caution may be needed for patients with POLG-related disease. Transplant teams should be aware of mitochondrial disease as an etiology for organ-failure and consider appropriate consultation in patients without a known cause of their symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Current status of organ transplant in Islamic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2015-04-01

    The Organization of Islamic Cooperation consists of 57 member states whose people are mainly followers of the Islamic religion. During the past several decades, organ transplants have been increasingly used for the treatment of end-stage organ failures worldwide. This study is to investigate the current status of organ transplant in Islamic countries. For data collection a literature, review was carried out. Information from international registries was used and key persons from some countries were contacted. In all 5 Islamic countries of North Africa, living-donor kidney transplant was performed. Tunisia was the only country with deceased-donor organ transplant in North Africa. In 22 Islamic countries of sub-Saharan Africa, living-donor kidney transplant was performed only in Sudan and Nigeria. Deceased-donor organ transplant was illegal and nonexistent in this region. In all 14 Islamic countries of the Middle East, living-donor kidney transplant was an established practice. Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia had the highest rates of organ transplant activity. In 2013, Turkey performed the highest rate of living-donor kidney and liver transplants, and Iran performed the highest rate of deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants. For 7 Islamic countries of Central Asia, organ transplant was nonexistent in Afghanistan and Turkmenistan; in the other 5 countries, a limited number of living-donor kidney or liver transplants were performed. In all 6 countries located in South and Southeast Asia, living-donor kidney transplant was performed. Only Malaysia had a limited-scale deceased-donor transplant program. Albania in the Balkans, and 2 countries (Suriname and Guyana) in South America, were also member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation; in these countries, only few living-donor kidney transplants were performed. The organ transplant rates, especially for deceased-donor transplant, in most Islamic countries were less than expected. Some of the causes of low

  5. Current Antioxidant Treatments in Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms affecting the outcome throughout the course of organ transplantation. It is widely believed that the redox balance is dysregulated during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R and causes subsequent oxidative injury, resulting from the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, in order to alleviate organ shortage, increasing number of grafts is retrieved from fatty, older, and even non-heart-beating donors that are particularly vulnerable to the accumulation of ROS. To improve the viability of grafts and reduce the risk of posttransplant dysfunction, a large number of studies have been done focusing on the antioxidant treatments for the purpose of maintaining the redox balance and thereby protecting the grafts. This review provides an overview of these emerging antioxidant treatments, targeting donor, graft preservation, and recipient as well.

  6. JURIDICAL ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATION RELATED TO THE CRIME OF TRADE IN HUMAN ORGANS FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE KIDNEY ORGAN TRANSPLANT (Comparative Studies Between Indonesia with Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Situmorang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with organ transplant’s evolve especially the kidneys it is necessary to rule out specific health legislation  in dealing with transplantation  of human body’s  organs  to prevent  human  trafficking  of human  organs.  The approaches used is the approach of legislation and comparisons to provide an overview of the regulation of transplantation of human body’s organs in Indonesia, and to know the comparison with other countries that have specific rules on transplants. The result is that the regulations in Indonesia does not have rules on organ transplants from living non-related organ donation and found no legal protection againts the donor. Keywords: Organ   transplant,   kidney   transplant,   human   trafficking,   health legislation.

  7. Changing Patterns of Foreigner Transplants in Korea and Overseas Organ Transplants Among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyung Joon; Kim, Hwi Won; Han, Miyeun; Jeon, Hee Jung; Kwon, Oh Jung; Ahn, Curie

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the numbers of foreign patients seeking organ transplantation (OT) in Korea and to examine the relationship between the trend of deceased donors in Korea and number of Korean patients seeking OT overseas since 2000. Data on foreigners who received a transplant in Korea were obtained from the Korean Network for Organ Sharing. Data on overseas transplants were obtained from 42 transplant centers surveyed through transplant coordinators. A total of 336 foreigners underwent OT (kidney transplantation [KT], 174; liver transplantation [LT], 162) in Korea between 2006 and 2016. The Mongolians were the most common foreigners who undergo KTs (32%), followed by the Chinese (18%), Americans (9%), and Emiratis (7%). Among foreigners undergoing LTs, the most common country of origin was Mongolia (39%), followed by United Arab Emirates (23%), China (13%), and the United States (6%). A total of 2206 Korean patients underwent overseas OT (KT, 977; LT, 1229) between 2000 and 2016. In 97% of overseas KT cases (n = 942) and 98% (n = 1205) of overseas LT cases, the transplantations were performed in China. The relationship between the number of deceased donors in Korea and the number of overseas transplants after 2006 indicates a highly negative correlation. (ρ = -0.988, P organ trafficking. National effort to achieve self-sufficiency by increasing activities for organ donations is one of the fundamental solutions to transplant tourism.

  8. Collaborative practice agreement in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Bharath R; Gillespie, Matthew W; Sparkes, Tracy M; Williams, Carla; Bartlett, Stephen T; Haririan, Abdolreza; Masters, Brian M

    2018-02-21

    Background Given the complexity of solid organ transplant recipients, a multidisciplinary approach is required. To promote medication safety and enable providers to focus on the medical and surgical needs of these patients, our department of pharmacy created a collaborative practice agreement between physicians and pharmacists. Through this agreement, credentialed pharmacists are empowered to provide inpatient services including initiation and adjustment of medications through independent review of laboratory results after multidisciplinary rounds. Objective To evaluate the effect of our collaborative practice agreement on clinical care and institutional finances. Setting An inpatient setting at a large academic medical center. Methods Three transplant pharmacists entered all clinical interventions made on abdominal transplant recipients between September and October 2013 into Quantifi ® , a software application that categorizes and assigns a cost savings value based on impact and type of intervention. Main outcome measure The main outcome measures in this study were number and categorization of interventions, as well as estimated cost savings to the institution. Results There were 1060 interventions recorded, an average of 20 interventions per pharmacist per day. The most common interventions were pharmacokinetic evaluations (36%) and dose adjustments (19%). Over the time period, these interventions translated into an estimated savings of $107,634.00, or an annual cost savings of $373,131.20 per pharmacist, or a cost-benefit ratio of 2.65 to the institution. Conclusions Based on our study, implementation of a collaborative practice agreement enables credentialed pharmacists to make clinically and financially meaningful interventions in a complex patient population.

  9. Antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies and solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, J; Callejas-Rubio, J L; Ríos-Fernández, R; Ortego-Centeno, N

    2015-11-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is considered a high risk factor for any kind of surgery. Considering that all solid organ transplants are critically dependent on the patency of vascular anastomosis, there is much concern about the consequences this pro-thrombotic condition may have on transplantation. Relatively little information is available in the literature assessing the real risk that antiphospholipid syndrome or the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies represent in solid organ transplantation. The aim of this article is to review the literature related to transplantation of solid organs in patients diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome or patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Initial report of the Korean Organ Transplant Registry: the first report of national kidney transplantation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, C; Koo, T Y; Jeong, J C; Kim, M; Yang, J; Lee, J; Min, S I; Lee, J E; Kim, M S; Kwon, O J; Kim, S J; Kim, Y H; Kim, Y H; Choi, B S; Choi, S J N; Lee, D-H; Chung, S Y; Cho, W H; Kim, Y S

    2014-01-01

    A national organ transplant registry is an indispensable organizational requirement for patient care, research, and planning. Even though the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) has established a database for a waiting list, organ allocation, and incidence of organ transplantation since 2000, an integrated registry including post-transplantation data is needed for better understanding of organ transplantation. Recently, the Korean Society for Transplantation (KST) and the Korean Center for Disease Control (KCDC) designed a web-based organ transplant registry, named the Korean Organ Transplant Registry (KOTRY). As an initial project of KOTRY, we retrospectively analyzed kidney transplantations (KTs) performed in 2009 and 2010. A total of 2292 KTs (91.9%) from 46 hospitals (80.7%) were collected and analyzed. Ninety-five elements related to KT were selected and analyzed. Proportions of male recipients and retransplantations were 58.4% and 7.1%, respectively. Even though glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (28.4%), the number of diabetic nephropathy cases was increasing. The living donor (LD) to deceased donor (DD) ratio was 1.69:1. Because of a serious organ shortage in Korea, DD kidneys with a low initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of transplants for O(+) recipients. The epidemiological profile of transplantation is different from country to country. The number of organ transplantations in East Asian countries is rapidly growing, however, there are few epidemiological data about this region in the literature. With the establishment of KOTRY, it was possible to present the first nationwide epidemiological data of Korean KTs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Breakthrough in the Transplantation of Thoracic Organs in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rényi-Vámos, F; Hartyánszky, I; Szabolcs, Z; Lang, G

    2017-09-01

    In 2016 the focus was, by all means, on the transplantation on thoracic organs. More than 50 heart transplantations were performed in this year. With this achievement, the Hungarian Heart Transplantation Program became one of the leading programs in the world. In the Thoracic Surgery Unit of the National Institute of Oncology and the Thoracic Surgery Department of Semmelweis University the first successful lung transplantation was carried out on December 12, 2015 when the Hungarian Lung Transplantation Program was launched. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Transplant Education on Nurses Attitudes Toward Organ Donation and Advocacy for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Haley; Alexander, Susan; Frith, Karen H; Ng, Yeow Chye

    2017-06-01

    Nurses are the largest group of health-care professionals, yet they are not uniformly educated regarding transplantation and organ donation. The future of transplantation hinges on education of this group. Before meaningful studies can be conducted, an instrument to measure attitudes and commitment to organ transplantation is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine content and construct validity as well as establish internal reliability of an investigator-developed online instrument to measure nurses' attitudes and commitment to organ transplantation by registered nurses. The online instrument was administered to registered nurses enrolled in transplantation electives at the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Vanderbilt University. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 components with eigenvalues over 1.0. The components were as follows: (1) desire to work in transplantation, (2) confidence in transplantation advocacy, (3) organ donation advocacy, and (4) procurement. Internal consistency of the revised instrument was established (α = .94). The Transplant-Registered Nurse (TXP-RN) instrument is a new instrument with excellent reliability and validity that can be used to measure attitudes and knowledge of American nurses about organ donation and transplantation. This important step is necessary before educational interventions can be accurately assessed.

  13. Gender issues in solid organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fangmin; Huang, Tao; Yuan, Shunzong; Zhou, Yeqing; Gong, Weihua

    2013-09-25

    Gender as a critical, intrinsic, non-immunologic factor plays a pivotal role in the field of transplantation. The gender of donors and recipients is involved in the entire process, including organ donation and transplant surgery. This review article aims to summarize the literature related to the role of gender in solid organ donation and transplantation and to unveil the underlying mechanism by which gender mismatch between donor and recipient impacts transplant rejection. A systematic search was conducted through PubMed by using the following key words: "gender", or "sex", and "transplant", "organ donation" for published articles. The prima facie evidence demonstrated that females are more likely to donate their organs and are less willing than males to accept transplant surgery; however, their donated liver organs will have a higher risk of graft failure compared with males. With respect to kidney, heart, and lung transplantations, the role of gender remains controversial. Results of animal studies support the negative impact of gender mismatch on allograft function. In conclusion, our present study advances the knowledge of gender issues in the field of solid organ donation and transplantation. In general, gender mismatch is not advantageous to transplant outcome, as evidenced by many aspects of biological investigations on immunogenicity of H-Y antigen to females. Therefore, gender issues should be highlighted and an a priori intervention is needed to improve graft survival in clinical practice.

  14. Outcomes of Pediatric Kidney Transplantation in Recipients of a Previous Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, G; Zhang, B; Liu, C; Goebel, J; Zhang, Y; Nehus, E

    2017-07-01

    Children who receive a non-renal solid organ transplant may develop secondary renal failure requiring kidney transplantation. We investigated outcomes of 165 pediatric kidney transplant recipients who previously received a heart, lung, or liver transplant using data from 1988 to 2012 reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing. Patient and allograft survival were compared with 330 matched primary kidney transplant (PKT) recipients. Kidney transplantation after solid organ transplant (KASOT) recipients experienced similar allograft survival: 5- and 10-year graft survival was 78% and 60% in KASOT recipients, compared to 80% and 61% in PKT recipients (p = 0.69). However, KASOT recipients demonstrated worse 10-year patient survival (75% KASOT vs. 97% PKT, p transplants performed from 2006 to 2012 were separately investigated. Since 2006, KASOT and PKT recipients had similar 5-year graft survival (82% KASOT vs. 83% PKT, p = 0.48), although 5-year patient survival of KASOT recipients remained inferior (90% KASOT vs. 98% PKT, p Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Tacrolimus in preventing transplant rejection in Chinese patients – optimizing use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li CJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chuan-Jiang Li,1,* Liang Li2,* 1Department of Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, 2Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *The authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tacrolimus is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces, and belongs to the family of calcineurin inhibitors. It is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing solid-organ transplant rejection. Compared to cyclosporine, tacrolimus has greater immunosuppressive potency and a lower incidence of side effects. It has been accepted as first-line treatment after liver and kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus has specific features in Chinese transplant patients; its in vivo pharmacokinetics, treatment regimen, dose and administration, and adverse-effect profile are influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics and the spectrum of primary diseases in the Chinese population. We reviewed the clinical experience of tacrolimus use in Chinese liver- and kidney-transplant patients, including the pharmacology of tacrolimus, the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine, effects of different factors on tacrolimus metabolism on Chinese patients, personalized medicine, clinical safety profile, and patient satisfaction and adherence. This article provides guidance for the rational and efficient use of tacrolimus in Chinese organ-transplant patients. Keywords: tacrolimus, liver transplantation, kidney transplant, Chinese, personalized medicine

  16. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

  17. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F. R.; Lear, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group

  18. Defining death: organ transplants, tradition and technology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, E A

    1988-01-01

    This article explores Japanese attitudes about brain death and organ transplantation. First, ancient burial customs and death-related rituals associated with Shinto and Buddhism are examined. Next, contemporary attitudes towards the dead are discussed in the context of current controversies surrounding brain death and organ transplantation. Finally, an attempt is made to link the traditional Japanese views of death with modern medical dilemmas.

  19. [PECULIARITIES OF CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH TRANSPLANTED SOLID ORGAN IN FAMILY MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, I Katić

    2016-12-01

    Transplantation is sometimes the only therapeutic option to treat acute or chronic organ failure. In the care of transplant patients, there are numerous complications that are caused by powerful immunosuppressive drugs, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. These diseases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients after transplantation, which will become an important part for supporting the transplant patient care. In the first year after transplantation, patients have regular contact with transplant center, and family doctor acts as a contact connecting patients with specialized centers, while also detecting and managing health problems and issues that are not related only to transplantation. After that, the role of family physicians is becoming ever more important and active in the prevention of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients by appropriate and timely intervention in detection of side effects of immunosuppressive therapy and threatening metabolic disorders. The aim of this article is to show the role of family physician in tracking the welfare of organ transplant patient.

  20. 42 CFR 413.203 - Transplant center costs for organs sent to foreign countries or transplanted in patients other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transplant center costs for organs sent to foreign...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.203 Transplant center costs for organs sent to foreign countries... for all organs is reduced by the costs associated with procuring organs sent to foreign transplant...

  1. Valganciclovir for the prophylaxis and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Wade Ticehurst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Erin Wade Ticehurst1, Jennifer Trofe-Clark1,2, Emily Blumberg3, Roy D Bloom21Department of Pharmacy Services, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; 2Renal Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; 3Infectious Diseases Division, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV can be a problematic virus for solid organ transplant recipients affecting both morbidity and mortality. Valganciclovir (VGC is a commonly utilized antiviral agent for the prevention of this virus post-transplantation and recently it has been evaluated for the treatment of CMV. It is a pro-drug of ganciclovir (GCV and has increased bioavailability compared to GCV. It is unclear whether VGC is superior to intravenous or oral GCV in terms of efficacy and safety in the prevention of CMV particularly in the liver transplant population as there have been studies reporting inferiority while other studies have not. Despite this, VGC has been reported to be the most commonly utilized agent for CMV prophylaxis in the liver transplant population in the United States and Canada. This article reviews CMV and VGC in the context of solid organ transplant, describes and assesses selected studies that have been conducted using this agent in this patient population, and summarizes VGC’s advantages and disadvantages. Additional studies are needed to further define VGC’s role in the treatment of CMV in the solid organ transplantation population as there are an insufficient number of studies pertaining to CMV treatment and no studies have been performed to assess its role in the treatment of life-threatening CMV disease. VGC is non-inferior to GCV for CMV prevention in the solid organ transplant population with the exception of liver transplant recipients.Keywords: transplant, antiviral therapy, valganciclovir

  2. Pregnancy in Women With Solid-Organ Transplants: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Jennifer K; Rampersad, Roxane M

    2015-06-01

    Advances in solid-organ transplantation have allowed many women to reach reproductive potential, and pregnancy is no longer a rarity for these women. To identify (1) potential complications to allograft function posed by pregnancy, (2) expected perinatal outcomes in women with solid-organ transplants, (3) risks of potential immunosuppressant regimens, (4) safety of lactation, and (5) contraceptive options for women with solid-organ transplants. Single-center, registry data, and previous systematic reviews were evaluated in women with solid-organ transplants to identify the objectives of this review. In addition, recommendations from public health organizations were examined in regard to safety of medications and contraceptive methods. Women with solid-organ transplants are at risk for premature birth, low birth weight, cesarean delivery, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Most immunosuppressant regimens are safe; however, mycophenolate mofetil should be avoided. Lactation with tacrolimus, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone appears safe. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods are safe and effective for transplant recipients. Many successful pregnancies have been achieved in women following transplantation; however, optimal perinatal outcomes require stable allograft function. As more women are becoming pregnant after organ transplantation, a review of obstetric recommendations and perinatal outcome is warranted.

  3. Rationale and effect of reduction of immunosuppressive load in organ transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van de Wetering (Jacqueline)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGiving a patient immunosuppressive medication is creating an environment in which a transplanted organ will be accepted and rejection will be prevented. Unfortunately, the use of immunosuppression is complicated by serious side effects. After dealing with acute rejection in solid organ

  4. Organ Transplantation in Iran; Current State and Challenges with a View on Ethical Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehrzad; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Salehi, Bahare

    2018-03-05

    Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have a decisive role in the culture of organ donation, which is the only way to guarantee that the healthy organs of a brain-dead person can continue to work and save the lives of people in need of organ transplantation. The brain death phenomenon and its possible application in organ transplantation, while offering new hope for the salvation of a number of patients, has led to many ethical, cultural, and legal issues. Ethical issues in organ transplantation are very complicated due to many social factors such as religion, culture, and traditions of the affected communities. The ethical and legal points of removing organs from the body of a living or cadaveric source, the definition of brain death, the moral and legal conditions of the donor and the recipient, and the financial relationship between them and many others, are all critical issues in organ transplantation. While there may be no available explicit solution to these issues, they should be rigorously considered by the experts. Efforts to systematically eliminate barriers and solve problems in organ transplantation, can not only reduce the costs of maintaining brain-dead patients and encourage patients that need organ transplantation but can also prevent immoral and illegal activities. In this paper, we have reviewed the most important and current challenges in organ transplantation with a view to the ethical considerations, and we have suggested some strategies to extend it in Iran.

  5. Organ Transplantation in Iran; Current State and Challenges with a View on Ethical Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Kiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have a decisive role in the culture of organ donation, which is the only way to guarantee that the healthy organs of a brain-dead person can continue to work and save the lives of people in need of organ transplantation. The brain death phenomenon and its possible application in organ transplantation, while offering new hope for the salvation of a number of patients, has led to many ethical, cultural, and legal issues. Ethical issues in organ transplantation are very complicated due to many social factors such as religion, culture, and traditions of the affected communities. The ethical and legal points of removing organs from the body of a living or cadaveric source, the definition of brain death, the moral and legal conditions of the donor and the recipient, and the financial relationship between them and many others, are all critical issues in organ transplantation. While there may be no available explicit solution to these issues, they should be rigorously considered by the experts. Efforts to systematically eliminate barriers and solve problems in organ transplantation, can not only reduce the costs of maintaining brain-dead patients and encourage patients that need organ transplantation but can also prevent immoral and illegal activities. In this paper, we have reviewed the most important and current challenges in organ transplantation with a view to the ethical considerations, and we have suggested some strategies to extend it in Iran.

  6. Organ Transplantation in Iran; Current State and Challenges with a View on Ethical Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehrzad; Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a new issue in medical science. It is an important achievement and a sign of the progression and ability of medical centers around the world. Governments, populations, the medical community and people involved in culture, art, and media all have a decisive role in the culture of organ donation, which is the only way to guarantee that the healthy organs of a brain-dead person can continue to work and save the lives of people in need of organ transplantation. The brain death phenomenon and its possible application in organ transplantation, while offering new hope for the salvation of a number of patients, has led to many ethical, cultural, and legal issues. Ethical issues in organ transplantation are very complicated due to many social factors such as religion, culture, and traditions of the affected communities. The ethical and legal points of removing organs from the body of a living or cadaveric source, the definition of brain death, the moral and legal conditions of the donor and the recipient, and the financial relationship between them and many others, are all critical issues in organ transplantation. While there may be no available explicit solution to these issues, they should be rigorously considered by the experts. Efforts to systematically eliminate barriers and solve problems in organ transplantation, can not only reduce the costs of maintaining brain-dead patients and encourage patients that need organ transplantation but can also prevent immoral and illegal activities. In this paper, we have reviewed the most important and current challenges in organ transplantation with a view to the ethical considerations, and we have suggested some strategies to extend it in Iran. PMID:29510570

  7. Outcomes of Organ Transplantation from Donors with a Cancer History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanzhou; Tang, Yunhua; Zhu, Zebin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhiheng; Wang, Linhe; Sun, Chengjun; Zhang, Yixi; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Maogen; Wu, Linwei; Wang, Dongping

    2018-01-01

    Background The inherent challenges of selecting an acceptable donor for the increasing number and acuity of recipients has forced programs to take increased risks, including accepting donors with a cancer history (DWCH). Outcomes of organ transplantation using organs from DWCH must be clarified. We assessed transplant outcomes of recipients of organs from DWCH. Material/Methods Retrospective analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2014 identified 8385 cases of transplants from DWCH. A Cox-proportional hazard regression model and log-rank test were used to compare patient survival and hazard levels of various cancer types. Results DWCH was an independent risk factor of 5-year patient survival (HR=1.089, 95% CI: 1.009–1.176, P=0.03) and graft survival (HR=1.129, 95% CI: 1.056–1.208, Ptransplantation (patient survival: HR=1.112, 95% CI: 1.057–1.170, Ptransplantation. Donors with genitourinary and gastrointestinal cancers were associated with inferior outcomes in kidney transplantation. Transplantation from donors with central nervous system cancer resulted in poorer survival in liver transplant recipients. Recipients of organs from donors with hematologic malignancy and otorhinolaryngologic cancer had poorer survival following heart transplantation. Conclusions Under the current donor selection criteria, recipients of organs from DWCH had inferior outcomes in liver and heart transplantation, whereas organs from DWCH were safely applied in kidney and lung transplantation. Specific cancer types should be cautiously evaluated before performing certain types of organ transplantation. PMID:29455213

  8. Challenges of Organ Shortage for Transplantation: Solutions and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Saidi, R. F.; Hejazii Kenari, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is the greatest challenge facing the field of organ transplantation today. A variety of approaches have been implemented to expand the organ donor pool including live donation, a national effort to expand deceased donor donation, split organ donation, paired donor exchange, national sharing models and greater utilization of expanded criteria donors. Increased public awareness, improved efficiency of the donation process, greater expectations for transplantation, expansion of th...

  9. The kindness of strangers: organ transplantation in a capitalist age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, T A

    2001-09-01

    The topic of organ transplantation is examined from the perspective of three authors: Robert Bellah, Jeremy Rifkin, and Margaret Jane Radin. Introduced by reflections on the development of the justification of organ transplantation within the Roman Catholic community and the various themes raised by the historical study in Richard Titmuss's The Gift Relationship, the paper examines how and in what ways the possible commodification of organs will affect our society and the impacts this may have on the supply of organs.

  10. Opportunities and challenges of expanded criteria organs in liver and kidney transplantation as a response to organ shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    In 1989, there were 19,000 patients on the UNOS (United Network of Organ Sharing) wait list for organs compared to 110,000 today. Without an equivalent increase in donors, the patients awaiting these organs for transplant face increasing severity of illness and risk of dying without receiving a transplant. This disparity in supply and demand has led to acceptance of organs with lower than expected success rates compared to previous standard donors variously defined as extended criteria donors in order to increase transplantation. The reluctance to wider use of these types of organs is based on the less than expected transplant center graft and patient survival results associated with their use, as well as the increased resources required to care for the patients who receive these organs. The benefits need to be compared to the survival of not receiving a transplant and remaining on the waiting list rather than on outcomes of receiving a standard donor. A lack of a systematic risk outcomes adjustment is one of the most important factors preventing more extensive utilization as transplant centers are held to patient and graft survival statistics as a performance measure by multiple regulatory organizations and insurers. Newer classification systems of such donors may allow a more systematic approach to analyzing the specific risks to individualized patients. Due to changes in donor policies across the country, there has been an increase in Extended Criteria Donors (ECD) organs procured by organ procurement organizations (OPO) but their uneven acceptance by the transplant centers has contributed to an increase in discards and organs not being used. This is one of the reasons that wider sharing of organs is currently receiving much attention. Transplanting ECD organs presents unique challenges and innovative approaches to achieve satisfactory results. Improved logistics and information technology combined strategies for improving donor quality with may prevent discards

  11. PHENOMENON OF DEMIKHOV. "Transplantation of vital organs In experiment" (1960. Homoplastic organ transplantation: Transplantation of an additional heart, heart-and-lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Glyantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article (the second of five reviews the beginning of the Third Chapter from the monograph by V.P.Demikhov "Transplantation of vital organs in the experiment" (M.: Medgiz Publisher, 1960, the chapter covering the issue of homoplastic organ transplantation. The article discusses the results of V.P. Demikhov's work to create the following models: an additional isolated heart, an additional heart with a lung lobe, and a heart in combination with both lungs. Basing on the generally accepted "critical" timing of grafted transplant rejection onset (7th, 14th, or 21th days, Demikhov regarded the graft survival for longer as the fact of the successful engraftment, and every prolongation of the recipient's life with the donor organ as the win over the nature convinced him of the right path chosen. V.P. Demikhov performed the transplantation of the "heart-lungs" complex to simplify the separate anatomical transplantation of these organs and believed that the improvement of surgical methodology and techniques would enable him to achieve their complete engraftment, aiming at further translation the most successful experimental results from the laboratory into the clinical practice.

  12. Lung Cancer Prognosis in Elderly Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Keith; Veluswamy, Rajwanth; Krauskopf, Katherine; Mehrotra, Anita; Mhango, Grace; Sigel, Carlie; Wisnivesky, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Treatment-related immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients has been linked to increased incidence and risk of progression for several malignancies. Using a population-based cancer cohort, we evaluated whether organ transplantation was associated with worse prognosis in elderly patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry linked to Medicare claims, we identified 597 patients aged 65 years or older with NSCLC who had received organ transplants (kidney, liver, heart, or lung) before cancer diagnosis. These cases were compared to 114,410 untransplanted NSCLC patients. We compared overall survival (OS) by transplant status using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. To account for an increased risk of non-lung cancer death (competing risks) in transplant recipients, we used conditional probability function (CPF) analyses. Multiple CPF regression was used to evaluate lung cancer prognosis in organ transplant recipients while adjusting for confounders. Transplant recipients presented with earlier stage lung cancer (P = 0.002) and were more likely to have squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.02). Cox regression analyses showed that having received a non-lung organ transplant was associated with poorer OS (P transplantation was associated with no difference in prognosis. After accounting for competing risks of death using CPF regression, no differences in cancer-specific survival were noted between non-lung transplant recipients and nontransplant patients. Non-lung solid organ transplant recipients who developed NSCLC had worse OS than nontransplant recipients due to competing risks of death. Lung cancer-specific survival analyses suggest that NSCLC tumor behavior may be similar in these 2 groups.

  13. Organ transplantation from deceased donors with cancer: is it safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalesnik MA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Nalesnik1, Michael G Ison21Division of Transplantation and Hepatic Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburg, PA, USA; 2Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The availability of donor organs continues to be insufficient to meet the needs of patients actively waiting for transplant. Consequently, there is continuing pressure to increase the donor organ pool while simultaneously assuring safety for the recipient population. The complication of donor malignancy transmission has been documented almost from the beginning of transplantation, and continues to be a concern today. The anecdotal nature of case reports and compiled series ensures that clinical decisions related to organ use from donors with malignancy will of necessity continue to be made on the basis of low-level evidence. Despite this limitation, the literature indicates that not all donor neoplasms have the same risk for transmission to the recipient, and it is necessary to consider the specific malignancy affecting the donor, as well as the condition of the recipient, before a decision is made to transplant or discard a given organ. Published cases suggest that certain forms of neoplasia, such as melanoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, small cell carcinoma, or metastatic carcinomas serve as strong contraindications to organ donation. In contrast, considerable experience exists to suggest that certain tumors of the central nervous system, small subclinical prostate carcinomas, or small renal cell carcinomas resected prior to transplant, among other tumors, should not in themselves disqualify an individual from donating organs in the appropriate circumstance. This review presents the case for considering organ transplantation in the setting of certain donor malignancies and discusses factors to be weighed in such decisions. Additionally

  14. Presentation and early detection of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.; van Son, Willem J.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious and still frequently observed complication of solid organ transplantation. Despite the recent introduction of anti B-cell monoclonal antibody therapy (rituximab) for treatment of PTLD, mortality rates remain high. Because PTLD often

  15. Cell Therapy in Organ Transplantation: Our Experience on the Clinical Translation of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Safinia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ dysfunction. Despite improvements in short-term outcome, long-term outcome is suboptimal due to the increased morbidity and mortality associated with the toxicity of immunosuppressive regimens and chronic rejection (1–5. As such, the attention of the transplant community has focused on the development of novel therapeutic strategies to achieve allograft tolerance, a state whereby the immune system of the recipient can be re-educated to accept the allograft, averting the need for long-term immunosuppression. Indeed, reports of “operational” tolerance, whereby the recipient is off all immunosuppressive drugs and maintaining good graft function, is well documented in the literature for both liver and kidney transplantations (6–8. However, this phenomenon is rare and in the setting of liver transplantation has been shown to occur late after transplantation, with the majority of patients maintained on life-long immunosupression to prevent allograft rejection (9. As such, significant research has focused on immune regulation in the context of organ transplantation with regulatory T cells (Tregs identified as cells holding considerable promise in this endeavor. This review will provide a brief introduction to human Tregs, their phenotypic and functional characterization and focuses on our experience to date at the clinical translation of Treg immunotherapy in the setting of solid organ transplantation.

  16. [The transplant coordinator nurse, the harvesting of organs and tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Development of the transplantation of organs and tissues are not linked solely to the feats of surgery and biology. Without quality of the organization for the donation and the organ removal, nothing would be possible. Figurehead of this organization: the coordinator nurse for donation and the organ procurement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Organ transplantation: Legal, ethical and Islamic perspective in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar A Bakari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ

  18. Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-07-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in

  19. Ethical concerns in early 21st century organ transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Waness, Abdelkarim

    2011-01-01

    Medical ethics is an indispensible and challenging aspect of clinical practice. This is particularly prominent in the field of organ transplantation. In this paper, initially, a clinical case with brain death that ended up as an organ donor will be presented. Following the presentation, important moral challenges which initially formed medical ethics and some highlights of it in organ transplantation will be discussed in detail. The impact of complex modern influential factors that might inte...

  20. 78 FR 40033 - Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... to the organ's utility for reconstruction, repair, or replacement--examples of minimal manipulation include cutting, grinding, and shaping of a VCA); (6) for homologous use (i.e., the replacement or... identify best practices for optimal VCA transplant outcomes. 7. Risks of VCA Transplantation to Recipients...

  1. Risk for transmission of Naegleria fowleri from solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S L; Metzger, R; Chen, J G; Laham, F R; Martin, M; Kipper, S W; Smith, L E; Lyon, G M; Haffner, J; Ross, J E; Rye, A K; Johnson, W; Bodager, D; Friedman, M; Walsh, D J; Collins, C; Inman, B; Davis, B J; Robinson, T; Paddock, C; Zaki, S R; Kuehnert, M; DaSilva, A; Qvarnstrom, Y; Sriram, R; Visvesvara, G S

    2014-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by the free-living ameba (FLA) Naegleria fowleri is a rare but rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting predominantly young, previously healthy persons. No effective chemotherapeutic prophylaxis or treatment has been identified. Recently, three transplant-associated clusters of encephalitis caused by another FLA, Balamuthia mandrillaris, have occurred, prompting questions regarding the suitability of extra-CNS solid organ transplantation from donors with PAM. During 1995-2012, 21 transplant recipients of solid organs donated by five patients with fatal cases of PAM were reported in the United States. None of the recipients developed PAM, and several recipients tested negative for N. fowleri by serology. However, historical PAM case reports and animal experiments with N. fowleri, combined with new postmortem findings from four patients with PAM, suggest that extra-CNS dissemination of N. fowleri can occur and might pose a risk for disease transmission via transplantation. The risks of transplantation with an organ possibly harboring N. fowleri should be carefully weighed for each individual recipient against the potentially greater risk of delaying transplantation while waiting for another suitable organ. In this article, we present a case series and review existing data to inform such risk assessments. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Interprofessional communication in organ transplantation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion. Transplantation in Gauteng is characterised by aspects of good teamwork, and the importance of effective communication is acknowledged. Transplantation also faces some challenges in terms of interprofessional communication. Recommendations for mitigating some of the gaps include integrating a health ...

  3. Pharmacologic strategies in the prevention and treatment of corneal transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2008-06-01

    Corneal transplantation remains one of the most successful organ transplantation procedures in humans. The unique structure of the cornea, with its absence of blood vessels and corneal lymphatic, allows the survival of corneal allograft. Recent advances in sutures, storage media, microsurgical instrumentation, and new pharmacological strategies have greatly improved the success of corneal transplantation and the prevention of corneal allograft rejection. Our strategies in the management and prevention of corneal graft rejection can modify and improve the survival of corneal allografts. Preoperative evaluation, understanding the risk factors, and management of ocular surface disorders may greatly improve the survival of the corneal transplant. Early recognition of corneal allograft rejection and aggressive treatment may improve the survival of the corneal graft. Furthermore, patients who undergo corneal transplantation should be maintained under close ophthalmic surveillance and patients should be informed to report immediately whenever symptoms of corneal graft rejection occur. The mainstay of therapy is topical corticosteroids. In severe cases, periocular, intravenous, and oral corticosteroids therapy can be rendered. New therapeutic modalities such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, daclizumab, mycophenolate mofetil, leflunomide, rapamycin, and others may prove to be of help in the prevention and treatment of corneal graft rejection. Early recognition of corneal graft rejection and prompt treatment are mandatory for the successful survival of the corneal allograft.

  4. A commercial transplant network's perspective of value in solid organ transplantation: Strategizing for value in transplant care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Frank D; Wu, Charlotte; Bannister, Wade M; Bonagura, Anthony F; Laihinen, Bart; Axelrod, David A; Schnitzler, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Solid organ transplantation has been an area of great interest to commercial payers ever since it moved into mainstream medical care beginning in the 1980s. Over the years a system of evaluating transplant program performance based on volume and one year graft and patient survival has developed. While this system has served its purpose, there is an increasing realization from payers that a need exists for a more sophisticated way to evaluate quality and cost-effectiveness of these complex procedures. We report on the perspective of a large transplant network and its efforts to better understand the drivers of value over the entire continuum of care from referral through one year post-transplant. We evaluated members of a large commercial health plan who were referred for solid organ transplantation between January 1, 2010 and April 30, 2014. A total of 18,453 cases were evaluated for both clinical and economic outcomes. We report on two areas that can impact value over the entire continuum of care. Large variation in clinical practice and cost was noted. The observed variation was independent of inclusion in the transplant network's preferred network. The average pre-transplant and post-transplant costs for kidney, liver and heart transplantation cases at center level showed a variation of between 18 and 250% of the network's average. Clinical outcomes of median days on the waitlist, waitlist mortality and readmission within thirty days after transplant also showed wide variation. There was similar wide variation in cardiac evaluation of transplant candidates despite the existence of published recommendations. We demonstrated that pre-emptive renal transplantation is a high value strategy for this membership independent of donor source. In the studied population the data show wide variation in both clinical and economic parameters related to the transplant process in programs with statistically similar one year patient and graft survival. These results require

  5. 78 FR 49276 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... sciences, economics and statistics, as well as representatives of transplant candidates, transplant...; behavioral sciences; economics and econometrics; organ procurement organizations; transplant candidates... detailed information concerning financial interests, consultancies, research grants, and/or contracts that...

  6. 75 FR 57807 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... sciences, economics and statistics, as well as representatives of transplant candidates, transplant... bioethics; behavioral sciences; economics and econometrics; organ procurement organizations; transplant... information concerning financial interests, consultancies, research grants, and/or contracts that might be...

  7. Pasteurella multocida infection in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Eric S; Ahmed, Haitham M; Durand, Christine M

    2015-02-01

    We present a case of fulminant Pasteurella multocida sepsis in a 66-year-old man who had undergone a renal transplant. Our patient lived with two dogs and a cat with which he was very close. We propose that his bacteraemia might have resulted from direct inoculation of P multocida via his cat licking the venous stasis ulcers on his legs. The patient's clinical course was complicated by cardiopulmonary failure and he ultimately succumbed to his infection. P multocida is a rare cause of infections in immunocompromised hosts, epidemiologically linked to exposure to cats, dogs, and other animals. This case of P multocida shows the importance of considering this organism in immunocompromised hosts presenting with severe infections, especially if their history shows exposure to domesticated or wild animals known to be potential carriers of this disease. In this Grand Round, we review the clinical features, epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of P multocida infections with a focus on these features in patients who are immunosuppressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Organ Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Chockalingam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancers represent a major cause of morbidity after organ transplantation. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC are the most common cutaneous malignancies seen in this population, with a 65–100 fold greater incidence in organ transplant recipients compared to the general population. In recent years, human papillomaviruses (HPV of the beta genus have been implicated in the pathogenesis of post-transplant SCCs. The underlying mechanism of carcinogenesis has been attributed to the E6 and E7 proteins of HPV. Specific immunosuppressive medications, such as the calcineurin inhibitors and azathioprine, are associated with a higher incidence of post-transplant SCCs compared to other immunosuppressive agents. Compared to other immunosuppressives, mTOR inhibitors and mycophenolate mofetil have been associated with a decreased risk of developing post-transplant non-melanoma skin cancers. As a result, they may represent ideal immunosuppressive medications in organ transplant recipients. Treatment options for post-transplant SCCs include surgical excision, Mohs micrographic surgery, systemic retinoid therapy, adjunct topical therapy, electrodessication and curettage, and radiation therapy. This review will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, and management options of post-transplant SCCs. In addition, the underlying mechanisms of beta-HPV mediated carcinogenesis will be discussed.

  9. Revisiting multi-organ transplantation in the setting of scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, P P; Veatch, R M; Abt, P L; Amaral, S

    2014-01-01

    In the setting of organ scarcity, the ethics of multi-organ transplantation (MOT) deserve new examination. MOT offers substantial benefits to certain recipients, including avoiding serial surgeries. However, MOT candidates in the United States commonly receive priority for their nonprimary organ over many individuals who need that organ, which may undermine equity. The absence of standard criteria for MOT eligibility also enables large and unfair regional variation in MOT, such as simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, MOT may also undermine utility (optimal patient and graft survival) in circumstances where providing multiple organs to one person fails to achieve the greater collective benefit attained by providing transplants to multiple people. Policy reforms should include the adoption of minimal clinical criteria for MOT candidacy with the attendant goal of decreasing regional variation in MOT. In the future, these minimal criteria can be revised to accommodate new research about which patients derive the most benefit from MOT. Incentives to perform MOT should also be reduced, such as by including MOT outcomes in center-specific reports. These reforms run the risk that the transplant community could be perceived as abandoning MOT candidates, but offer an opportunity to align transplant practice and ethical principles. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Primary prevention of skin dysplasia in renal transplant recipients with photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, K; Omland, S H; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are at high risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); prevention includes early treatment of premalignant actinic keratosis (AK). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive field therapy that reduces new AKs in patients with existing AK...... and delays SCC development in mice. We investigated the effect of repeated PDT over 5 years for primary prophylaxis of skin dysplasia. These data represent an interim analysis of an on-going randomized controlled trial. During 2008-2011, 25 renal transplant recipients with clinically normal skin were...

  11. Organ shortage: the greatest challenge facing transplant medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, David; Kodish, Eric; Tzakis, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The success of organ transplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ disease has yielded a series of ethical quandaries originating from the issue of organ shortage. Scarcity of organs for transplantation necessitates formulation of just and fair allocation policies as well as ethically viable solutions to bridging the vast gap between organ supply and demand. The concept of "triage" provides a useful paradigm in which to contextualize the organ shortage issue. This entails subjugating the welfare of the individual patient for the benefit of the wider community as an ethically justified response to the challenge of scarcity.

  12. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Manbok, E-mail: manbok66@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Rahman, Masmudur M. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Cogle, Christopher R. [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); McFadden, Grant [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignancies in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. - Highlights: • Myxoma virus effectively infects and purges EBV lymphoma cells in vivo. • Oncolytic myxoma virus effectively eradicates oncogenic EBV tumorigenesis. • Ex vivo pre-treatment of myxoma virus can be effective as a preventive treatment modality for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.

  13. Role of complement in graft rejection after organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Ineke G. A.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; Hack, C. Erik

    2002-01-01

    Activation of the complement system may significantly contribute to the inflammatory reaction after solid organ transplantation. In allotransplantation, the complement system may be activated by ischemia/reperfusion and, possibly, by antibodies directed against the graft. In xenotransplantation from

  14. Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Deepa; Nanda, Neha

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated infection that causes significant morbidity and an economic impact in the United States. In this review, we provide an overview of Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients with an emphasis on recent literature. C. difficile in solid organ transplant population has unique risk factors. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown favorable results in treatment of recurrent C. difficile in this population. Preliminary data from animal studies suggests excellent efficacy with immunization against C. difficile toxins. Over the last decade, number of individuals receiving solid organ transplants has increased exponentially making peri-transplant complications a common occurrence.C. difficile is a frequent cause of morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients. Early and accurate diagnosis of C. difficile requires a stepwise approach. Differentiating between asymptomatic carriage and infection is a diagnostic challenge. Microbial diversity is inversely proportional to risk of C. difficile infection. Antimicrobial stewardship programs help to retain microbial diversity in individuals susceptible to CDI. Recurrent or relapsing C. difficile infection require fecal microbiota transplantation for definitive cure.

  15. [The Declaration of Istanbul on organ trafficking and transplant tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A Summit Meeting that convened over 150 representatives of scientific and medical bodies from around the world was held in Istanbul from April 30 to May 2, 2008 to address the urgent and growing problem of organ sales, transplant tourism and trafficking in organ donors in the context of the global shortage of organs. Preparatory work for the meeting was undertaken by a Steering Committee convened by The Transplantation Society and the International Society of Nephrology in Dubai in December 2007. Participants at the Istanbul Summit were selected by the Steering Committee according to the following criteria: The country liaisons with The Transplantation Society representing virtually all countries with transplantation programs; representatives from international societies and the Vatican; key stakeholders in nephrology and transplantation; public policy experts in organ transplantation; and ethicists, anthropologists, sociologists, and legal academic well-recognized for their work on transplantation policy and practice. This Declaration represents the consensus of the Summit participants and is an authorized Spanish translation that will help disseminate this information among Mexican health professionals and interested readers.

  16. Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Halperin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction.

  17. Organ transplantation in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretz, S.H.; Gottlieb, M.S.; Strober, S.; Pennock, J.; Bieber, C.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Reitz, B.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Although we were able to establish bone marrow chimerism in mongrel dogs using TLI at a cumulative dose of 1800 rad, it was more difficult to establish prolonged organ allograft survival in this system. We review here our experience with allogeneic heart transplantation in dogs using TLI combined with limited courses of pharmacologic immunosuppression, an approach that appears to hold considerable promise for clinical organ transplantation

  18. Immunizations in solid organ and hematopoeitic stem cell transplant patients: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Kumar, Deepali

    2015-01-01

    The Solid Organ Transplantation (SOT) and Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) population is continuously increasing as a result of broader indications for transplant and improved survival. Infectious diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases, are a significant threat for this population, primarily after but also prior to transplantation. As a consequence, clinicians must ensure that patients are optimally immunized before transplantation, to provide the best protection during the early post-transplantation period, when immunosuppression is the strongest and vaccine responses are poor. After 3–6 months, inactivated vaccines immunization can be resumed. By contrast, live-attenuated vaccines are lifelong contraindicated in SOT patients, but can be considered in HSCT patients at least 2 years after transplantation, if there is no immunosuppression or graft-versus-host-disease. However, because of the advantages of live-attenuated over inactivated vaccines - and also sometimes the absence of an inactivated alternative - an increasing number of prospective studies on live vaccine immunization after transplantation are performed and give new insights about safety and immunogenicity in this population. PMID:26291740

  19. Attitude and Impact Factors Toward Organ Transplantation and Donation Among Transplantation Nurses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J-F; Wang, C-Y; He, G-P; Ming, Y-Z; Wan, Q-Q; Liu, J; Gong, L-N; Liu, L-F

    Health workers' awareness and knowledge of transplantation medicine can improve people's sensitivity and reduce their degree of opposition to donations. The medical literature contains numerous examples of attitudes toward organ transplantation and donation aimed at university students or medical staff members, but rarely for transplantation nurses. The purposes of the study were to investigate the attitudes toward organ transplantation and donation among transplantation nurses and to explore the impact factors. The study was conducted in 37 transplantation surgery wards in 22 hospitals using cross-sectional approach. SPSS (International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA) 7.0 software was used to analysis descriptive and inferential statistics for data. Five hundred thirty-six effective questionnaires were received and the effective rate was 89.33%. Nurses' mean age was 28.40 years with a mean service length of 6.54 years. Among these nurses, 66.6% and 78.0% were willing to accept organ transplantation surgery for themselves and their relatives, respectively. Of these nurses, 33.4% would donate their organs after death; whereas 39.9% were uncertain. Only 38.2% were willing to register in the national organ donation system. Of these nurses, 28.2% were willing to sign the organ donation consent forms when their relatives became potential organ donors, and 45.7% were uncertain. Eight independent variables that affected nurses' attitudes toward donating their organs from most to least significant were: ratio of nurse to bed, title, employment form, age, length of service, position, monthly income, and the highest educational degree earned. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant correlation among nurses' attitudes toward organ transplantation, organ donation, and online registration. The attitude toward donation and transplantation in the hospitals was not too optimistic, and an improvement in the training regarding transplantation and

  20. Human herpes virus 6 infection in pediatric organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Elisa; Lehtinen, Silja; Jahnukainen, Timo; Karlsson, Teemu; Loginov, Raisa; Mannonen, Laura; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Jalanko, Hannu

    2017-06-01

    Transplant patients need lifelong immunosuppressive medication, but this reduces their defense mechanisms, making them prone to viral infections and reactivations. We aimed to clarify the prevalence and clinical manifestations of the human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) infection in children after pediatric solid organ transplants. Clinical findings and viral loads were compared between primary HHV-6 infections and reactivations. The study comprised 47 kidney, 25 liver, and 12 heart transplant patients who underwent surgery from 2009 to 2014. HHV-6 antibodies were analyzed before surgery, and HHV-6 DNAemia tests were regularly carried out after the transplant using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. We found the primary HHV-6 infection in 19 of 22 (86%) seronegative patients, and it was more common in patients under 3 years of age (79%) than over 3 (38%, P=.0002). Post-transplant HHV-6 DNAemia affected 48 of 84 (57%) patients and was significantly higher in primary infections than reactivations (P=.001), and 17 of 48 (35%) patients had symptoms when it was detected at a median of 2 weeks post-transplant. The HHV-6 infection was common after solid organ transplants, especially under 3 years of age, and it typically started 2 weeks after surgery. Testing for HHV-6 DNAemia is recommended shortly after transplantation, especially in patients with fever, diarrhea, rash, seizures, or abnormal liver enzyme tests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jillian S Y; Low, Zhi Mei; Abbott, Iain; Shochet, Lani; Kanellis, John; Kitching, Arthur Richard; Korman, Tony M

    2017-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is typically associated with post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after solid organ and stem cell transplantation. However, it is rarely associated with neurological complications. We report a case of severe encephalitis complicating primary EBV infection six months post renal transplantation, and review the literature on EBV encephalitis in solid organ transplantation in adults. A 55-year-old male presented 6 months post cadaveric renal transplant with headache, fever and confusion. Neuroimaging was unremarkable, but an electroencephalogram was consistent with diffuse encephalopathy. EBV DNA was detected in both cerebrospinal fluid (13,177 copies/ml), and plasma (14,166 copies/ml). Management included reduction of immunosuppression, intravenous ganciclovir and intravenous immunoglobulin, and resulted in a reduction in EBV viral load in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient made a full recovery with no long-term neurological deficits and preservation of the graft. This case highlights the importance of knowing donor and recipient EBV serostatus at time of transplant, and closely monitoring EBV DNA when there is a mismatch. Ganciclovir or valganciclovir prophylaxis has also been shown to reduce the incidence of primary EBV infection in renal transplantation in these recipients. Treatment options for EBV infection post-transplant include reduction of immunosuppression, antiviral therapy, IVIg, and monoclonal antibody therapy directed toward infected B lymphocytes.

  2. The organ transplantation act and recent trends in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Ho No

    2013-03-01

    The Organ Transplantation Act, including transplantation of organs from brain-dead donors, entered into force in Korea on February 9, 2000. This article introduces the Organ Transplantation Act, focusing on scope of the Act, determination of brain death, removal of organs from brain-dead or deceased donors, removal from living donors, organ allocation, and prohibition of trade in human organs. Especially, some primary ethical dilemmas surrounding organ allocation arise from the shortage of available organs. The primary ethical problems surrounding organ allocation are as follows. A key purpose of the organ donation incentive system is to increase the number of organ transplants from brain-dead donors. In particular, the priority for kidney patient was allowed in consideration of doctor's strong desire to increase the brain-dead donors. Also, the organ allocation criteria based on the organ donation incentive system appear unfair, especially for the kidney patient, because the criteria do not fit the principles of distributive justice. In the future, the organ donation incentive system itself may need to be reexamined.

  3. Skin carcinomas in organ-transplant recipients : from early oncogenic events to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Ymke Grete Leontien de

    2008-01-01

    Skin carcinomas develop at a high rate in organ-transplant recipients who are kept on immune suppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. The present study dealt with a broad range of aspects of this elevated carcinoma risk, starting from the earliest oncogenic events to the ultimate therapy.

  4. Solid organ transplantation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective, multicenter study of the EBMT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenecke, C; Hertenstein, B; Schetelig, J

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the outcome of solid organ transplantation (SOT) in patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a questionnaire survey was carried out within 107 European Group of Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers. This study covered HSCT between 1984...... and 2007 in Europe. Forty-five SOT in 40 patients were reported. Fifteen liver, 15 renal, 13 lung, 1 heart and 1 skin transplantations were performed in 28 centers. Overall survival (OS) of patients after SOT was 78% at 5 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 64% to 92%). OS at 5 years was 100% for renal......, 71% (95% CI, 46% to 96%) for liver and 63% (95% CI, 23% to 100%) for lung transplant recipients. The 2-year-incidence of SOT failure was 20% (95% CI, 4% to 36%) in patients with graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and 7% (95% CI, 0% to 21%) in patients without GvHD before SOT. The relapse incidence...

  5. Psychological rejection of the transplanted organ and graft dysfunction in kidney transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Látos M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melinda Látos,1 György Lázár,1 Zoltán Horváth,1 Victoria Wittmann,1 Edit Szederkényi,1 Zoltán Hódi,1 Pál Szenohradszky,1 Márta Csabai2 1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 2Psychology Institute, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Interdisciplinary studies suggest that the mental representations of the transplanted organ may have a significant effect on the healing process. The objective of this study was to examine the representations of the transplanted organ and their relationship with emotional and mood factors, illness perceptions, and the functioning of the transplanted organ. One hundred and sixty-four kidney transplant patients were assessed using the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, the Beck’s Depression Scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and the Transplanted Organ Questionnaire. Medical parameters were collected from the routine clinical blood tests (serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels and biopsy results. Our most outstanding results suggest that kidney-transplanted patients’ illness representations are associated with health outcomes. The Transplanted Organ Questionnaire “psychological rejection” subscale was connected with higher serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels. Logistic regression analysis showed that psychological rejection subscale, Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, and Posttraumatic Growth Questionnaire total scores were associated with graft rejection. These results may serve as a basis for the development of complex treatment interventions, which could help patients to cope with the bio-psycho-social challenges of integrating the new organ as part of their body and self. Keywords: anxiety, depression, illness representations, posttraumatic growth, psychological rejection, renal transplantation

  6. [Allocation problems in organ transplantation: practical medical experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckert, Christoph; Quante, Markus; Jonas, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation is one the most successful medical innovations of the 20th century. Due to an increasing number of patients on the waiting lists for transplantation in the context of persisting organ shortage the aim of optimal allocation policy is the best possible balance between medical urgency and postoperative outcome. Because of scientific evolution and increasing waiting list mortality the allocation system for liver transplantation was altered in December 2006. As intended, the preferential treatment of sicker patients resulted in a reduced waiting list mortality. On the other hand, an unintentional decrease in postoperative survival was observed. This obvious imbalance between medical urgency and postoperative outcome has led to the current allocation problem. Several scientific approaches for optimising allocation policy will be presented and discussed in this paper. Finally, continuous review and adaptation will be a persisting challenge for people working in the field of solid organ transplantation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Deceased organ donation for transplantation: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives every year but the shortage of donors is a major limiting factor to increase transplantation rates. To allow more patients to be transplanted before they die on the wait-list an increase in the number of donors is necessary. Patients with devastating irreversible brain injury, if medically suitable, are potential deceased donors and strategies are needed to successfully convert them into actual donors. Multiple steps in the process of deceased organ donation can be targeted to increase the number of organs suitable for transplant. In this review, after describing this process, we discuss current challenges and potential strategies to expand the pool of deceased donors. PMID:27683626

  8. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2014-01-01

    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. PMID:24517434

  9. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  10. Quality of life in organ transplant recipients participating in an online transplant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Paul; Sulham, Katherine A; Gnanasakthy, Ari

    2014-01-01

    The PatientsLikeMe Organ Transplants online community allows patients to share detailed health information for research. The objectives of our study were to describe and contrast data collected through an online community with the broader organ transplant population. Quantitative data were examined with respect to basic demographic characteristics and quantitative data including treatment, symptoms, side effects, and the PatientsLikeMe Quality of Life (PLMQOL) scale. Qualitative data including forum discussion posts and treatment evaluations were examined to support future development of standardized questions that could be added to the platform. Online data were compared with US national registry data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Within 30 days of account creation, 1,924 single-organ transplant patients provided spontaneous, patient-reported data in the form of 915 reported symptoms, 938 treatment episodes, and 1,215 PLMQOL assessments. Relative to patients in the UNOS registry, online participants were more likely to be female, younger, and white. Lung transplant patients had worse quality-of-life scores than other organs. Average organ transplant quality-of-life scores were most similar to those of HIV patients, faring better than patients with epilepsy, fibromyalgia, mood disorders, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, or ALS. Site users generated 2,169 posts to 346 unique topic threads in the transplants forum. Organ transplant patients are willing to report detailed health data through online communities across key domains-symptoms, treatment effects, and generic quality of life-that constitute the essential core of patient-reported outcomes. Patient-reported outcomes captured online have the potential to accelerate learning about patient experiences but suffer methodological challenges that must be overcome to maximize their utility.

  11. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. Slegtenhorst (Bendix); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank); A. Elkhal (Abdala); H. Rodriguez (Hector); X. Yang (Xiaoyong); K. Edtinger (Karoline); R. Quante (Rainer); A.S. Chong (Anita); S.G. Tullius (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDonor organ scarcity remains a significant clinical challenge in transplantation. Older organs, increasingly utilized to meet the growing demand for donor organs, have been linked to inferior transplant outcomes. Susceptibility to organ injury, reduced repair capacity, and increased

  12. Organ Transplantation for Individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Kim J; Fins, Joseph J

    2016-04-01

    In 1996, Sandra Jensen became the first person with Down syndrome to receive a heart-lung transplant. Although it took place almost 20 years ago, her experience continues to shed light on contemporary challenges that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders face in securing access to transplantation. While overt discrimination has decreased, barriers persist in physician referrals, center-specific decisionmaking regarding wait-listing, and the provision of accommodations for optimizing the assessment and medical management of these individuals. These issues arise from the persistent biases and assumptions of individuals as well as those of a healthcare system that is inadequately positioned to optimally serve the medical needs of the growing number of individuals with functional impairments. More data and greater transparency are needed to understand the nature and extent of ongoing access problems; however, long-term solutions will require changes at the healthcare professional, regional transplant center, and national levels.

  13. Management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult solid organ transplant recipients - BCSH and BTS Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Anne; Bowles, Kristin; Bradley, J Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Featherstone, Carrie; Gupte, Girish; Marcus, Robert; Parameshwar, Jayan; Ramsay, Alan; Newstead, Charles

    2010-06-01

    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Transplantation Society (BTS) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. This review details the therapeutic options recommended including reduction in immunosuppression (RIS), transplant organ resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Effective therapy should be instituted before progressive disease results in declining performance status and multi-organ dysfunction. The goal of treatment should be a durable complete remission with retention of transplanted organ function with minimal toxicity.

  14. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Shroff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on

  15. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-07-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  16. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  17. Trypanozoma cruzi Infection in Patients Undergoing Solid Organ Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Mañez, Noelia; Alderete, Manuel; Benso, Jose; Valledor, Alejandra; Smud, Astrid; Schijman, Alejandro; Besuschio, Susana; Barcan, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background It is estimated that 1.5 million people are infected with T. cruzi in Argentina (4%). Chagas reactivation rate (R) in patients with solid organ transplantation (SOT) is around 33%, being higher in cardiac transplantation (Tx). Objective To describe the clinical characteristics, evolution, mortality, to evaluate reactivation risk factors and to analyze the usefulness of molecular tests in patients undergoing at SOT with Chagas’ disease risk (ChR) (R or Donor-derived transmi...

  18. Hepatitis C virus and nonliver solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marco; Mutimer, David; Neuberger, James

    2013-03-27

    : Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in solid organ allograft recipients and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after transplantation, so effective management will improve outcomes. In this review, we discuss the extent of the problem associated with HCV infection in donors and kidney, heart, and lung transplant candidates and recipients and recommend follow-up and treatment.Patients with end-stage kidney disease without cirrhosis and selected patients with early-stage cirrhosis can be considered for kidney transplant alone. In HCV-infected kidney allograft recipients, the progression of fibrosis should be evaluated serially by Fibroscan or serologic measures of fibrosis. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV-positive donors should be restricted to HCV-positive recipients as it is associated with a reduced time waiting for a graft and does not affect posttransplant outcomes. Hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy should be considered for all HCV-RNA-positive kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of the baseline liver histopathology. Protease inhibitors have yet to be fully evaluated in patients with renal dysfunction and in the transplant population. As these agents may cause anemia in patients with normal renal function, tolerability may be a problem in patients with end-stage kidney disease.The impact of HCV infection on survival in heart and lung transplantation is unclear. Because of the shortage of organs, few HCV-infected patients are accepted for transplantation.Universal use of nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for the screening of potential organ donors should be reserved to high-risk donors. Assays that quantify HCV core antigen may become more cost-effective than NAT for the screening of potential organ donors.

  19. A rationale for age-adapted immunosuppression in organ transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzien, Felix; ElKhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Biefer, Hector Rodriguez Cetina; Hirofumi, Uehara; Gabardi, Steven; Tullius, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes are associated with a steady increase of older patients with end-stage organ failure in need for transplantation. As a result, the majority of transplant recipients are currently older >50 years and organs from elderly donors are more frequently utilized. Nevertheless, the benefit of transplantation in older patients is well recognized whereas the most frequent causes of death among older recipients are potentially linked to side effects of their immunosuppressants. Immunosenescence is a physiological part of aging linked to higher rates of diabetes, bacterial infections and malignancies representing the major causes of death in older patients. These age-related changes impact older transplant candidates and may have significant implications for an age-adapted immunosuppression. For instance, immunosenescence is linked to lower rates of acute rejections in older recipients while the engraftment of older organs has been associated with higher rejection rates. Moreover, new-onset diabetes mellitus following transplantation is more frequent in the elderly, potentially related to corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. This review presents current knowledge for an age-adapted immunosuppression based on both, experimental and clinical studies in and beyond transplantation. Recommendations of maintenance and induction therapy may help to improve graft function and to design future clinical trials in the elderly. PMID:26244716

  20. Tissue-Resident Lymphocytes in Solid Organ Transplantation: Innocent Passengers or the Key to Organ Transplant Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Amy C; Kallies, Axel; Lucas, Michaela

    2018-03-01

    Short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation have improved dramatically over the past several decades; however, long-term survival has remained static over the same period, and chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The importance of donor, or "passenger," lymphocytes to the induction of tolerance to allografts was recognized in the 1990s, but their precise contribution to graft acceptance or rejection has not been elucidated. Recently, specialized populations of tissue-resident lymphocytes in nonlymphoid organs have been described. These lymphocytes include tissue-resident memory T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, invariant natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells. These cells reside in commonly transplanted solid organs, including the liver, kidneys, heart, and lung; however, their contribution to graft acceptance or rejection has not been examined in detail. Similarly, it is unclear whether tissue-resident cells derived from the pool of recipient-derived lymphocytes play a specific role in transplantation biology. This review summarizes the evidence for the roles of tissue-resident lymphocytes in transplant immunology, focussing on their features, functions, and relevance for solid organ transplantation, with specific reference to liver, kidney, heart, and lung transplantation.

  1. 42 CFR 121.13 - Definition of Human Organ Under section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... National Organ Transplant Act, as amended. 121.13 Section 121.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... NETWORK § 121.13 Definition of Human Organ Under section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended. “Human organ,” as covered by section 301 of the National Organ Transplant Act, as amended, means...

  2. Diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in solid organ transplant recipients - BCSH and BTS Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Anne; Bowles, Kristin; Bradley, J Andrew; Emery, Vincent; Featherstone, Carrie; Gupte, Girish; Marcus, Robert; Parameshwar, Jayan; Ramsay, Alan; Newstead, Charles

    2010-06-01

    A joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Transplantation Society (BTS) has reviewed the available literature and made recommendations for the diagnosis and management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in adult recipients of solid organ transplants. This review details the risk factors predisposing to development, initial features and diagnosis. It is important that the risk of developing PTLD is considered when using post transplant immunosuppression and that the appropriate investigations are carried out when there are suspicions of the diagnosis. These must include tissue for histology and computed tomography scan to assess the extent of disease. These recommendations have been made primarily for adult patients, there have been some comments made with regard to paediatric practice.

  3. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Skin Cancer in Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Giorgia L; Blanc, Paul D; Boscardin, John; Lloyd, Amanda Abramson; Ahmed, Rehana L; Anthony, Tiffany; Bibee, Kristin; Breithaupt, Andrew; Cannon, Jennifer; Chen, Amy; Cheng, Joyce Y; Chiesa-Fuxench, Zelma; Colegio, Oscar R; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Del Guzzo, Christina A; Disse, Max; Dowd, Margaret; Eilers, Robert; Ortiz, Arisa Elena; Morris, Caroline; Golden, Spring K; Graves, Michael S; Griffin, John R; Hopkins, R Samuel; Huang, Conway C; Bae, Gordon Hyeonjin; Jambusaria, Anokhi; Jennings, Thomas A; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Karia, Pritesh S; Khetarpal, Shilpi; Kim, Changhyun; Klintmalm, Goran; Konicke, Kathryn; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Lam, Charlene; Lee, Peter; Leitenberger, Justin J; Loh, Tiffany; Lowenstein, Stefan; Madankumar, Reshmi; Moreau, Jacqueline F; Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Ochoa, Shari; Olasz, Edit B; Otchere, Elaine; Otley, Clark; Oulton, Jeremy; Patel, Parth H; Patel, Vishal Anil; Prabhu, Arpan V; Pugliano-Mauro, Melissa; Schmults, Chrysalyne D; Schram, Sarah; Shih, Allen F; Shin, Thuzar; Soon, Seaver; Soriano, Teresa; Srivastava, Divya; Stein, Jennifer A; Sternhell-Blackwell, Kara; Taylor, Stan; Vidimos, Allison; Wu, Peggy; Zajdel, Nicholas; Zelac, Daniel; Arron, Sarah T

    2017-03-01

    .77; 95% CI, 2.20-3.48), and being transplanted in 2008 vs 2003 (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.22-1.94). Posttransplant skin cancer is common, with elevated risk imparted by increased age, white race, male sex, and thoracic organ transplantation. A temporal cohort effect was present. Understanding the risk factors and trends in posttransplant skin cancer is fundamental to targeted screening and prevention in this population.

  4. Initial Report of the Korean Organ Transplant Registry (KOTRY): Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Young; Jeon, Eun Seok; Kang, Seok Min; Kim, Jae Joong

    2017-11-01

    The Korean Organ Transplant Registry (KOTRY), which was the first national transplant registry in Korea, was founded by the Korean Society for Transplantation and the Korean Center for Disease Control in 2014. Here, we present the initial report of the Korean Heart Transplant Registry. A total of 183 heart transplantation (HTPL) patients performed at 4 nationally representative hospitals were collected from April 2014 to December 2015. We analyzed donor and recipient characteristics, treatment patterns, and immediate post-transplantation outcomes. One hundred and eighty-three patients were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 50.5±13.5 years. The mean age of the male recipients was 4 years greater than that of the female recipients (51.7±13.3 years vs. 47.9±13.7 years, pheart recipients (37.6±10.1 years). Dilated cardiomyopathy was the predominant cause (69%) of heart failure in recipients, followed by ischemic heart diseases (14%) and valvular heart disease (4%). Rejection episodes were most frequent in the 1-6-month period after transplantation (48%), and rarely required intensive treatment. Infection episodes were most frequent transplantation (66%) and bacterial and viral infections were equally reported. The 1-year survival rate was 91.6% and most mortality cases occurred during the perioperative period within 1 month after transplantation. With the establishment of the KOTRY in 2014, it is now possible to present nationwide epidemiological data for HTPL in Korea for the first time. The KOTRY is the first national HTPL registry in Korea, and will continue until 2023. Copyright © 2017. The Korean Society of Cardiology

  5. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-11

    Aug 11, 2012 ... Whereas, the matter of inadequacy of suitable organs for a teeming population of potential recipients is .... in the organ - specific selection criteria.[7,8] Therefore, the chronological age of the donor ... The nature of the primary renal disease does not generally affect the decision to proceed to transplantation.

  6. Medicine and the Law: Human tissue and organ transplant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, new provisions in the latter Act provide strict controls for the transplantation of organs into non-South African citizens or non-permanent residents, and outlaw the charging of fees for human organs. The provisions also expand the list of persons who can give consent to donations from deceased persons to include ...

  7. Pre-transplant thymic function is associated with the risk of cytomegalovirus disease after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Ahufinger, I; Ferrando-Martínez, S; Montejo, M; Muñoz-Villanueva, M C; Cantisán, S; Rivero, A; Solana, R; Leal, M; Torre-Cisneros, J

    2015-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is an important complication in solid organ transplant recipients. Thymic function in adults is associated with specific T-cell immunity. Pre-transplant thymic function was analysed in 75 solid organ transplant patients by the use of nested PCR. The primary outcome was the incidence of CMV disease 12 months after transplantation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we studied whether pre-transplant thymic function is an independent risk factor for CMV disease after transplantation. Thymic function was related to the risk of CMV disease in CMV-seropositive recipients. In these recipients, pre-transplant thymic function of transplantation. Patients with pre-transplant thymic function values of transplant thymic function cut-offs were 0.24 (95% CI 0.10-0.45) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.82-1.00), respectively. Pre-transplant thymic function in CMV-seropositive candidates could be useful in determining the risk of post-transplant CMV disease in solid organ transplant patients, selecting a group of low-risk candidates. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organ transplant tissue rejection: detection and staging by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, Calum E.; Whitehead, Peter D.; McManus, Bruce; Zeng, Haishan; Wilson-McManus, Janet; MacKinnon, Nick; Morgan, David C.; Dong, Chunming; Gerla, Paul; Kenyon, Jennifer

    1998-07-01

    Patients receiving heart or other organ transplants usually require some level of anti-rejection drug therapy, most commonly cyclosporine. The rejection status of the organ must be monitored to determine the optimal anti-rejection drug therapy. The current method for monitoring post-transplant rejection status of heart transplant patients consists of taking biopsies from the right ventricle. In this work we have developed a system employing optical and signal-processing techniques that will allow a cardiologist to measure spectral changes associated with tissue rejection using an optical catheter probe. The system employs time gated illumination and detection systems to deal with the dynamic signal acquisition problems associated with in vivo measurements of a beating heart. Spectral data processing software evaluates and processes the data to produce a simple numerical score. Results of measurements made on 100 excised transplanted isograft and allograft rat hearts have demonstrated the ability of the system to detect the presence of rejection and to accurately correlate the spectroscopic results with the ISHLT (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation) stage of rejection determined by histopathology. In vivo measurements using a pig transplant model are now in process.

  9. Incidence of melanoma in organ transplant recipients in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Mimi; Sander, Megan; Ravani, Pietro; Mydlarski, P Régine

    2016-10-01

    Many studies have documented the increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancers in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). However, the incidence of melanoma is less well defined. To date, there have been no studies on the incidence of melanoma in Canadian OTRs. Herein, we determine the incidence and clinical features of melanoma in a cohort of OTRs in Southern Alberta, Canada. We used the Southern Alberta Transplant database to identify kidney and liver transplant recipients between the years 2000 and 2012. This population was cross-referenced with the Alberta Cancer Registry for a diagnosis of melanoma. The clinical features of all cases were obtained, and the standardized incidence rate was calculated. We identified 993 OTR patients, representing 5955 person-years. Only one patient developed a melanoma post-transplant, and this was a nodular melanoma. The age-standardized incidence rate was 11 per 100 000 (0.6 per 5955), compared to 13.4 per 100 000 in the general Alberta population (incidence rate ratio of 1.29, with 95% confidence interval of 0.17 to 9.82). This is the first Canadian study to investigate the association between organ transplantation and melanoma. Our study did not identify an increased risk of developing a de novo melanoma post-transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Development of the Croatian model of organ donation and transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živčić-Ćosić, Stela; Bušić, Mirela; Župan, Željko; Pelčić, Gordana; Anušić Juričić, Martina; Jurčić, Željka; Ivanovski, Mladen; Rački, Sanjin

    2013-01-01

    During the past ten years, the efforts to improve and organize the national transplantation system in Croatia have resulted in a steadily growing donor rate, which reached its highest level in 2011, with 33.6 utilized donors per million population (p.m.p.). Nowadays, Croatia is one of the leading countries in the world according to deceased donation and transplantation rates. Between 2008 and 2011, the waiting list for kidney transplantation decreased by 37.2% (from 430 to 270 persons waiting for a transplant) and the median waiting time decreased from 46 to 24 months. The Croatian model has been internationally recognized as successful and there are plans for its implementation in other countries. We analyzed the key factors that contributed to the development of this successful model for organ donation and transplantation. These are primarily the appointment of hospital and national transplant coordinators, implementation of a new financial model with donor hospital reimbursement, public awareness campaign, international cooperation, adoption of new legislation, and implementation of a donor quality assurance program. The selection of key factors is based on the authors' opinions; we are open for further discussion and propose systematic research into the issue. PMID:23444248

  11. Ethical criteria for procuring and distributing organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, J F

    1989-01-01

    This article provides an ethical analysis and assessment of various actual and proposed policies of organ procurement and distribution in light of moral principles already embedded in U.S. institutions, laws, policies, and practices. Evaluating different methods of acquisition of human body parts--donation (express and presumed), sales, abandonment, and expropriation--the author argues for laws and policies, including required request, to maintain and facilitate express donation of organs by individuals and their families. Such laws and policies need adequate time for a determination of their effectiveness before society moves to other major alternatives, such as a market. In organ allocation and distribution, which have close moral connections with organ procurement, the author defends the judgment of the federal Task Force on Organ Transplantation that the community should have dispositional authority over donated organs, that professionals should be viewed as trustees and stewards of donated organs, and that the public should be heavily involved in the formation of policies of allocation and distribution. Concentrating on policies being developed in the United Network for Organ Sharing, the author examines the point system for cadaveric kidneys, the access of foreign nationals to organs donated in the U.S., and the multiple listings of patients seeking transplants. He concludes by identifying two major problems of equitable access to donated organs that will have to be addressed by social institutions other than UNOS: access to the waiting list for donated organs and the role of ability to pay in extrarenal transplants.

  12. Influenza vaccination during the first 6 months after solid organ transplantation is efficacious and safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, P; Bulnes-Ramos, A; Torre-Cisneros, J; Gavaldá, J; Aydillo, T A; Moreno, A; Montejo, M; Fariñas, M C; Carratalá, J; Muñoz, P; Blanes, M; Fortún, J; Suárez-Benjumea, A; López-Medrano, F; Barranco, J L; Peghin, M; Roca, C; Lara, R; Cordero, E

    2015-11-01

    Preventing influenza infection early after transplantation is essential, given the disease's high mortality. A multicentre prospective cohort study in adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) receiving the influenza vaccine during four consecutive influenza seasons (2009-2013) was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccination in SOTR before and 6 months after transplantation. A total of 798 SOTR, 130 of them vaccinated within 6 months of transplantation and 668 of them vaccinated more than 6 months since transplantation. Seroprotection was similar in both groups: 73.1% vs. 76.5% for A/(H1N1)pdm (p 0.49), 67.5% vs. 74.1% for A/H3N2 (p 0.17) and 84.2% vs. 85.2% for influenza B (p 0.80), respectively. Geometric mean titres after vaccination did not differ among groups: 117.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 81.52, 168.83) vs. 87.43 (95% CI 72.87, 104.91) for A/(H1N1)pdm, 120.45 (95% CI 82.17, 176.57) vs. 97.86 (95% CI 81.34, 117.44) for A/H3N2 and 143.32 (95% CI 103.46, 198.53) vs. 145.54 (95% CI 122.35, 174.24) for influenza B, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, time since transplantation was not associated with response to vaccination. No cases of rejection or severe adverse events were detected in patients vaccinated within the first 6 months after transplantation. In conclusion, influenza vaccination within the first 6 months after transplantation is as safe and immunogenic as vaccination thereafter. Thus, administration of the influenza vaccine can be recommended as soon as 1 month after transplantation. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [The financial status and organization of the organ transplant system in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikari, Juntaro; Konaka, Setsuko

    2010-12-01

    The Japan Organ Transplant Network is the only organization in Japan that maintains a waiting list for organ transplants and also functions as a procurement agency recovering organs. The yearly budget of fiscal year 2009 is 692 million Japanese yen, 74% from government funding, and the rest from transplant center membership fees, potential recipient registration fees, transplant recipient coordination fees, and contributions. The registration fee is 30,000 yen for the first year, and 5,000 yen for every following year. The patient is also charged a coordination fee of 100,000 yen when receiving a transplant. As it becomes difficult to rely on government funding, we must discuss about the balance of funding from government and the expenses of the beneficiaries.

  14. Harvesting the living?: separating "brain death" and organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Courtney S

    2004-09-01

    The chronic shortage of transplantable organs has reached critical proportions. In the wake of this crisis, some bioethicists have argued that there is sufficient public support to expand organ recovery through use of neocortical criteria of death or even pre-mortem organ retrieval. I present a typology of ways in which data gathered from the public can be misread or selectively used by bioethicists in service of an ideological or policy agenda, resulting in bad policy and bad ethics. Such risks should lead us to look at alternatives for increasing organ supplies short of expanding or abandoning the dead donor rule. The chronic problem of organ scarcity should prompt bioethicists to engage in constructive dialogue about the relation of the social sciences and bioethics, to examine the social malleability of the definition of death, and to revisit the question of the priority of organ transplants in the overall package of healthcare benefits provided to most, but not all, citizens.

  15. What is organ donation and transplantation? Educating through the doubt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzia, A F Z; Hoppen, C M S; Isquierdo, L D A; Bourlegat, M L; Picasso, M C; Kissmann, N; Gallo, R B; Júnior, S P H; Guimarães, V B; Garcia, C D; Castro, E D C; Garcia, V D

    2015-05-01

    Organ transplantation in Brazil is increasing, but one of its current obstacles is the negative response of the population to organ donation. Therefore, to make the process viable, it is essential that people are educated in organ donation and transplantation. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the main doubts on this subject and to clarify these issues by educating the respondents on the basis of their questions. Handout questionnaires about organ donation and transplantation were distributed in public schools. The public targets were parents, teachers, and students. The interviewers were trained medical students. In this pilot study with 293 subjects, 97% of respondents had already heard about organ donation; 81% said they would donate their organs, whereas 76% said they would donate the organs of family members and 78% said they believe in the existence of organ trafficking in Brazil. The high percentage of respondents believing in the existence of an organ trade highlights the urgency in clarifying this topic. To do so, the population must be educated about the ethics of the process of donation, emphasizing the fact that there is no organ trade in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimized donor management and organ preservation before kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Heiko M; Yard, Benito A; Krämer, Bernhard K; Benck, Urs; Schnülle, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is a major medical improvement for patients with end-stage renal disease, but organ shortage limits its widespread use. As a consequence, the proportion of grafts procured from extended criteria donors (ECD) has increased considerably, but this comes along with increased rates of delayed graft function (DGF) and a higher incidence of immune-mediated rejection that limits organ and patient survival. Furthermore, most grafts are derived from brain dead organ donors, but the unphysiological state of brain death is associated with significant metabolic, hemodynamic, and pro-inflammatory changes, which further compromise patient and graft survival. Thus, donor interventions to preserve graft quality are fundamental to improve long-term transplantation outcome, but interventions must not harm other potentially transplantable grafts. Several donor pretreatment strategies have provided encouraging results in animal models, but evidence from human studies is sparse, as most clinical evidence is derived from single-center or nonrandomized trials. Furthermore, ethical matters have to be considered especially concerning consent from donors, donor families, and transplant recipients to research in the field of donor treatment. This review provides an overview of clinically proven and promising preclinical strategies of donor treatment to optimize long-term results after kidney transplantation. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Mixed chimerism to induce tolerance for solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, S.M.; Nalesnik, M.; Hronakes, M.L.; Oh, E.; Ildstad, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Chimerism, or the coexistence of tissue elements from more than one genetically different strain or species in an organism, is the only experimental state that results in the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance. Transplantation of a mixture of T-cell-depleted syngeneic (host-type) plus T-cell-depleted allogeneic (donor) bone marrow into a normal adult recipient mouse (A + B----A) results in mixed allogeneic chimerism. Recipient mice exhibit donor-specific transplantation tolerance, yet have full immunocompetence to recognize and respond to third-party transplantation antigens. After complete hematolymphopoietic repopulation at 28 days, animals accept a donor-specific skin graft but reject major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus-disparate third-party grafts. We now report that permanent graft acceptance can also be achieved when the graft is placed at the time of bone marrow transplantation. Histologically, grafts were viable and had only minimal inflammatory changes. This model may have potential future clinical application for the induction of donor-specific transplantation tolerance

  18. Challenges of organ shortage for transplantation: solutions and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, R F; Hejazii Kenari, S K

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is the greatest challenge facing the field of organ transplantation today. A variety of approaches have been implemented to expand the organ donor pool including live donation, a national effort to expand deceased donor donation, split organ donation, paired donor exchange, national sharing models and greater utilization of expanded criteria donors. Increased public awareness, improved efficiency of the donation process, greater expectations for transplantation, expansion of the living donor pool and the development of standardized donor management protocols have led to unprecedented rates of organ procurement and transplantation. Although live donors and donation after brain death account for the majority of organ donors, in the recent years there has been a growing interest in donors who have severe and irreversible brain injuries but do not meet the criteria for brain death. If the physician and family agree that the patient has no chance of recovery to a meaningful life, life support can be discontinued and the patient can be allowed to progress to circulatory arrest and then still donate organs (donation after circulatory death). Increasing utilization of marginal organs has been advocated to address the organ shortage.

  19. Is ABPM clinically useful after pediatric solid organ transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Marianne

    2004-10-01

    When ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is performed in populations with a high risk for secondary hypertension, such as solid organ transplant recipients, hypertension or abnormalities in circadian blood pressure variability are often discovered even in patients with normal office blood pressure (BP). To discuss whether ABPM should be routinely assessed in pediatric solid organ recipients, the available information on pathological findings, association of ABPM abnormalities with outcome parameters, and treatment options is reviewed. ABPM is a useful tool to optimize therapy in the large proportion of transplant recipients with confirmed hypertension. Whether the use of ABPM on a routine basis should be recommended for pediatric transplantation patients without office hypertension remains to be determined. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Munksgaard

  20. BK nephropathy in the native kidneys of patients with organ transplants: Clinical spectrum of BK infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Darlene; Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Barry, Marc; Harford, Antonia M; Servilla, Karen S; Kim, Young Ho; Sun, Yijuan; Ganta, Kavitha; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathy secondary to BK virus, a member of the Papoviridae family of viruses, has been recognized for some time as an important cause of allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. In recent times, BK nephropathy (BKN) of the native kidneys has being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic kidney disease in patients with solid organ transplants, bone marrow transplants and in patients with other clinical entities associated with immunosuppression. In such patients renal dysfunction is often attributed to other factors including nephrotoxicity of medications used to prevent rejection of the transplanted organs. Renal biopsy is required for the diagnosis of BKN. Quantitation of the BK viral load in blood and urine are surrogate diagnostic methods. The treatment of BKN is based on reduction of the immunosuppressive medications. Several compounds have shown antiviral activity, but have not consistently shown to have beneficial effects in BKN. In addition to BKN, BK viral infection can cause severe urinary bladder cystitis, ureteritis and urinary tract obstruction as well as manifestations in other organ systems including the central nervous system, the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system and the hematopoietic system. BK viral infection has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. The spectrum of clinical manifestations from BK infection and infection from other members of the Papoviridae family is widening. Prevention and treatment of BK infection and infections from other Papovaviruses are subjects of intense research. PMID:27683628

  1. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  2. Transplantation of solid organ recipients shedding Epstein-Barr virus DNA pre-transplant: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Priya S; Schmeling, David O; Filtz, Emma A; Grimm, Jennifer M; Matas, Arthur J; Balfour, Henry H

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) poses a significant threat to patient and graft survival post-transplant. We hypothesized that recipients who shed EBV at transplant had less immunologic control of the virus and hence were more likely to have active EBV infection and disease post-transplant. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a 5-year prospective study in primary solid organ transplant recipients. We measured EBV DNA in oral washes and blood samples by quantitative PCR before transplant and periodically thereafter for up to 4 years. Pre-transplant samples were available from 98 subjects. EBV DNA was detected pre-transplant in 32 of 95 (34%) and 5 of 93 subjects (5%) in oral wash and blood, respectively. Recipients with and without detectable pre-transplant EBV DNA were not significantly different demographically and had no significant difference in patient and graft survival (P = .6 for both comparisons) or post-transplant EBV viremia-free survival (P = .8). There were no cases of EBV-related disease or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in any of the patients with detectable EBV DNA pre-transplant. In conclusion, detectable EBV DNA pre-transplant was not associated with differences in patient/graft survival, post-transplant EBV viremia, or EBV-related diseases including PTLD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and Types of Genital Lesions in Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhan, Kumar S; Larijani, Mary; Abbott, James; Doyle, Alden M; Linfante, Anthony W; Chung, Christina Lee

    2018-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common skin cancer diagnosed in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs) and confers significant mortality. The development of SCC in the genital region is elevated in nonwhite OTRs. Viral induction, specifically human papillomavirus (HPV), is hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of these lesions. To assess the prevalence and types of genital lesions observed in OTRs. This retrospective review included 496 OTRs who underwent full skin examination from November 1, 2011, to April 28, 2017, at an academic referral center. The review was divided into 2 distinct periods before a change in clinical management that took effect on February 1, 2016 (era 1) and after that change (era 2). Patient awareness of genital lesions was assessed. All lesions clinically suggestive of malignant tumors were biopsied and underwent HPV polymerase chain reaction typing. Number and types of genital lesions, proportion of malignant tumors positive for HPV, and patients cognizant of genital lesions. Of the total 496 OTRs, 376 OTRs were evaluated during era 1 (mean [SD] age, 60 years; age range, 32-94 years; 45 [65.2%] male; 164 [43.6%] white) and 120 OTRs were evaluated during era 2 of the study (mean age, 56 years; age range, 22-79 years; 76 [63.3%] male; 30 [25.0%] white). Overall, 111 of the 120 OTRs (92.5%) denied the presence of genital lesions during the history-taking portion of the medical examination. Genital lesions were found in 53 OTRs (44.2%), cutaneous malignant tumors (basal cell carcinoma and SCC in situ) in 6 (5.0%), genital SCC in situ in 3 (4.2%), and condyloma in 29 (24.2%). Eight of the 12 SCC in situ lesions (66.7%) were positive for high-risk HPV. Seven tested positive for HPV-16 and HPV-18, and 1 tested positive for high-risk HPV DNA but could not be further specified. Genital lesions in OTRs are common, but awareness is low. All OTRs should undergo thorough inspection of genital skin as a part of routine

  4. Targeting the monocyte-macrophage lineage in solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.P.P. van den Bosch (Thierry); Kannegieter, N.M. (Nynke M.); D.A. Hesselink (Dennis); C.C. Baan (Carla); A.T. Rowshani (Ajda)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThere is an unmet clinical need for immunotherapeutic strategies that specifically target the active immune cells participating in the process of rejection after solid organ transplantation. The monocyte-macrophage cell lineage is increasingly recognized as a major player in acute and

  5. A solution to organ shortage: vascular reconstructions for pancreas transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałazka, Z; Grochowiecki, T; Nazarewski, S; Rowiński, O; Chudziński, W; Pietrasik, K; Jakimowicz, T; Solonynko, B; Nawrot, I; Kański, A; Szmidt, J

    2006-01-01

    Multiorgan harvesting (MOH) accounts for approximately 40% of all organ procurements in Poland. Simultaneous procurement of the pancreas and liver necessitates division of the vessels supplying both organs. Therefore, reconstruction of the pancreas vasculature is mandatory for proper function of the transplanted organ. The aim of this study was to present various methods of vascular reconstruction to prepare the pancreas for transplantation. Between January 1999 and April 2005, among 42 whole pancreas transplantations, 35 came from MOH necessitating arterial reconstruction. In 32 cases, the splenic artery (SA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were sewn into a single trunk using the common iliac arterial bifurcation. Occasionally, the iliac Y-graft was unsuitable for vascular reconstruction due to atherosclerosis or iatrogenic injury. Therefore, the SA was anastomosed to the side of the SMA in two cases. In one case we utilized the brachiocephalic trunk bifurcation. Portal vein elongation employed an external iliac vein procured from the donor in all 35 cases. Good perfusion was achieved in all transplanted pancreata. During the early follow-up period, two venous and one arterial thromboses were noted. No negative effects of pancreatic vessel reconstruction were observed in postoperative graft function. Reconstruction of the pancreas vasculature did not affect the long-term function of the allograft while significantly increasing the available donor organ pool.

  6. awareness and attitudes towards face and organ transplant in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 2Department of Medicine, ... Attitudes. INTRODUCTION. Transplantation of human organs and tissues has many advantages; it saves many lives and restores essential functions for ..... students' awareness and opinions.

  7. Awareness and attitudes towards face and organ transplant in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and attitudes towards face and organ transplant among the people of Kumasi, Ghana. Design: An observational study was employed, where participants were randomly selected for the study. Participants: The respondents were commuters waiting to board ...

  8. The making of a pan-European organ transplant registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jacqueline M.; Niesing, Jan; Breidenbach, Thomas; Collett, Dave

    A European patient registry to track the outcomes of organ transplant recipients does not exist. As knowledge gleaned from large registries has already led to the creation of standards of care that gained widespread support from patients and healthcare providers, the European Union initiated a

  9. Indirect recognition of HLA epitopes in solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geneugelijk, C.C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Alloreactivity due to HLA mismatches between donor and recipient remains the major limiting factor in successful graft outcome after solid organ transplantation. However, the immunogenicity of individual HLA mismatches is highly variable. Therefore, epitope-based HLA matching may be a sophisticated

  10. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the ...

  11. Voriconazole-Induced Periostitis & Enthesopathy in Solid Organ Transplant Patients: Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Sircar, Monica; Kotton, Camille; Wojciechowski, David; Safa, Kassem; Gilligan, Hannah; Heher, Eliot; Williams, Winfred; Thadhani, Ravi; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Voriconazole is frequently used to treat fungal infections in solid organ transplant patients. Recently, there have been reports suggesting that prolonged voriconazole therapy may lead to periostitis. Aim Here we present two cases of voriconazole-induced periostitis in solid organ transplant patients. Case Presentation Voriconazole was given to two transplant patients-one with a liver transplant and the second with a heart transplant, to treat their fungal infections. Both develope...

  12. Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanyie, F A; Gray, E B; Delli Carpini, K W; Yanofsky, A; McAuliffe, I; Rana, M; Chin-Hong, P V; Barone, C N; Davis, J L; Montgomery, S P; Huprikar, S

    2015-05-01

    Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is typically asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, despite chronic infection. In contrast, immunocompromised hosts such as solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for hyperinfection syndrome and/or disseminated disease, frequently resulting in fatal outcomes. Infection in these recipients may result from reactivation of latent infection or infection through transmission from an infected donor. We describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's experience with seven clusters of donor-derived infection from 2009 to 2013. Six of the seven (86%) donors were born in Latin America; donor screening was not performed prior to organ transplantation in any of these investigations. Eleven of the 20 (55%) organ recipients were symptomatic, two of whom died from complications of strongyloidiasis. We also describe the New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) experience with targeted donor screening from 2010 to 2013. Of the 233 consented potential donors tested, 10 tested positive for Strongyloides antibody; and 18 organs were transplanted. The majority (86%) of the donors were born in Central or South America. Fourteen recipients received prophylaxis after transplantation; no recipients developed strongyloidiasis. The NYODN experience provides evidence that when targeted donor screening is performed prior to transplantation, donor-derived infection can be averted in recipients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Relevance of Regulatory T cell Promotion of Donor-specific Tolerance in Solid Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder eSagoo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical strategies to control the alloimmune response after transplantation do not fully prevent induction of the immunological processes which lead to acute and chronic immune-mediated graft rejection, and as such the survival of a solid organ allograft is limited. Experimental research on naturally occurring CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs has indicated their potential to establish stable long-term graft acceptance, with the promise of providing a more effective therapy for transplant recipients. Current approaches for clinical use are based on the infusion of freshly isolated or ex vivo polyclonally expanded Tregs into graft recipients with an aim to redress the in vivo balance of T effector cells to Tregs. However mounting evidence suggests that regulation of donor-specific immunity may be central to achieving immunological tolerance. Therefore the next stages in optimising translation of Tregs to organ transplantation will be through the refinement and development of donor alloantigen-specific Treg therapy. The altering kinetics and intensity of alloantigen presentation pathways and alloimmune priming following transplantation may indeed influence the specificity of the Treg required and the timing or frequency at which it needs to be administered. Here we review and discuss the relevance of antigen-specific regulation of alloreactivity by Tregs in experimental and clinical studies of tolerance and explore the concept of delivering an optimal Treg for the induction and maintenance phases of achieving transplantation tolerance.

  14. Change of sleep quality from pre- to 3 years post-solid organ transplantation: The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Hanna; Denhaerynck, Kris; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Binet, Isabelle; Hadaya, Karine; De Geest, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep quality (SQ) is common after solid organ transplantation; however, very little is known about its natural history. We assessed the changes in SQ from pre- to 3 years post-transplant in adult heart, kidney, liver and lung recipients included in the prospective nation-wide Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. We explored associations with selected variables in patients suffering persistent poor SQ compared to those with good or variable SQ. Adult single organ transplant recipients enrolled in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study with pre-transplant and at least 3 post-transplant SQ assessment data were included. SQ was self-reported pre-transplant (at listing), then at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant. A single SQ item was used to identify poor (0-5) and good sleepers (6-10). Between organ groups, SQ was compared via logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. Within the group reporting persistently poor SQ, we used logistic regression or Kaplan-Meier analysis as appropriate to check for differences in global quality of life and survival. In a sample of 1173 transplant patients (age: 52.1±13.2 years; 65% males; 66% kidney, 17% liver, 10% lung, 7% heart) transplanted between 2008 and 2012, pre- transplant poor SQ was highest in liver (50%) and heart (49%) recipients. Overall, poor SQ decreased significantly from pre-transplant (38%) to 24 months post-transplant (26%) and remained stable at 3 years (29%). Patients reporting persistently poor SQ had significantly more depressive symptomatology and lower global quality of life. Because self-reported poor SQ is related to poorer global quality of life, these results emphasize the need for further studies to find suitable treatment options for poor SQ in transplant recipients.

  15. Proposal for a future delivery market for transplant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, R; Vining, A R

    1986-01-01

    Improvements in surgical procedures and immunosuppressive practices have greatly increased the range and success rate of organ transplants. Unfortunately, supply does not meet demand, and demand is increasing. This paper documents the current level of unsatisfied demand for several transplantable organs, and argues that the extant system of altruistic organ donation is unlikely ever to provide adequate supply because of lack of incentives to donate and the ambiguity surrounding property rights over transplantable organs. A greater reliance on markets would help attenuate these problems. However, unorganized private spot markets for human organs are likely to be both inefficient and inequitable, and are perceived as morally offensive. A feasible alternative is an organized, publicly operated future delivery market, wherein an individual can contract, for valuable consideration, with a government agency for delivery of a specific organ upon death. The implementation of such a market would encounter difficult (but not intractable) problems such as price determination, the selection of a medium of exchange, and contractual issues, particularly the role of minors in such a system. Finally, it is argued that such a market is superior to the much-discussed compulsory expropriation alternative.

  16. Primary Care of the Solid Organ Transplant Recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher J; Pagalilauan, Genevieve

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is one of the major advances in medicine. Care of the SOT recipient is complex and continued partnership with the transplant specialist is essential to manage and treat complications and maintain health. The increased longevity of SOT recipients will lead to their being an evolving part of primary care practice, with ever more opportunities for care, education, and research of this rewarding patient population. This review discusses the overall primary care management of adult SOT recipients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The global diffusion of organ transplantation: trends, drivers and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L; Hirth, Richard; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L; Noel, Luc; Chapman, Jeremy; Matesanz, Rafael; Carmona, Mar; Alvarez, Marina; Núñez, Jose R; Leichtman, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Rising incomes, the spread of personal insurance, lifestyle factors adding to the burden of illness, ageing populations, globalization and skills transfer within the medical community have increased worldwide demand for organ transplantation. The Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation, which was built in response to World Health Assembly resolution WHA57.18, has conducted ongoing documentation of global transplantation activities since 2007. In this paper, we use the Global Observatory's data to describe the current distribution of - and trends in - transplantation activities and to evaluate the role of health systems factors and macroeconomics in the diffusion of transplantation technology. We then consider the implications of our results for health policies relating to organ donation and transplantation. Of the World Health Organization's Member States, most now engage in organ transplantation and more than a third performed deceased donor transplantation in 2011. In general, the Member States that engage in organ transplantation have greater access to physician services and greater total health spending per capita than the Member States where organ transplantation is not performed. The provision of deceased donor transplantation was closely associated with high levels of gross national income per capita. There are several ways in which governments can support the ethical development of organ donation and transplantation programmes. Specifically, they can ensure that appropriate legislation, regulation and oversight are in place, and monitor donation and transplantation activities, practices and outcomes. Moreover, they can allocate resources towards the training of specialist physicians, surgeons and transplant coordinators, and implement a professional donor-procurement network.

  18. Clinical pharmacogenetics of immunosuppressive drugs in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Thomas; Haushofer, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    Organ transplantation has become an important additional option for patients with organ failure. Immunosuppressive drugs showing a very narrow therapeutic window have to be administered. Different transporters and metabolic pathways are responsible for absorption and metabolism of these drugs; for instance, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pump regulates the absorption of a drug, and its metabolism is catalyzed by cytochrome P450s (CYPs). As the phenotypes of P-gp or the CYPs are predetermined by their genotypes, genetic testing prior to drug therapy may help to predict the drug doses required. This review describes polymorphisms of the genes coding for P-gp and CYPs, and focuses on the compounds cyclosporin and tacrolimus. It is hoped that this information might help to judge the value of pharmacogenetic testing prior to immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation.

  19. The European protocol on organ transplant: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2009-09-01

    What is interesting in the philosophy of the European Protocol is the search of a balanced position which acknowledges the medical progress brought by organ transplants and considers the necessity to ensure that human dignity and individual freedom are respected. However, the principles adopted for such regulations at the European level leave on some major issues a great margin of appreciation to the domestic legislation. This is particularly true in areas such as defining death or consenting to organ transplants including the situation of minors and the role of the family. A last point should also be stressed regarding the European protocol: its lack of efficiency concerning a neglected but important issue: organ trafficking.

  20. Difficult Situation of Pancreas Transplantation in the Setting of Scarce Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K-M; Cheng, C-H; Wu, T-H; Lee, C-F; Wu, T-J; Chou, H-S; Lee, W-C

    2017-12-01

    Currently, pancreas transplantation has been a promising strategy to restore long-term normoglycemia as well as to improve life quality for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the discrepancy between the number of organs needed and the number donated for transplantation is always enormous. Under a setting of scarce organ donations, we examined our limited experience of pancreas transplantation. A retrospective review of pancreas transplantations was performed with the use of data from the Taiwan Organ Registry and Sharing Center and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Pancreas transplantations in the Organ Transplantation Institute of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital also were reviewed. At present, there are 5 medical centers approved for pancreas transplantation in Taiwan. Overall, a total of 156 pancreas transplantations were performed from 2005 to the end of 2016; only 9 of them were performed in the Organ Transplantation Institute of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Although the number of organ donations is rising, pancreas transplantation numbers remain low. More than 20 pancreas transplantations were performed in 2016, yet there remained a total of 111 patients registered on the wait list for pancreas transplantation at the end of this study. Thus the gap between organ donation and transplantation is still vast. With continuing improvements in Taiwanese health policies and public education regarding organ transplantation, organ donation rates have risen steadily in recent years. Moreover, quality control and continuing evolution in organ transplantation is crucial to ameliorate the difficult situation of pancreas transplantation and other solid organ transplantation in the context of low levels of donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENT OF THE POPULATION IN THE ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION, THE DONOR RESOURCE AND PLANNING OF THE EFFECTIVE NETWORK OF THE MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS (THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the requirement of the population of the Russian Federation for an organ transplantation and donor resource, to offer approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations (the centers of transplantation. Materials and methods. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the patients receiving a dialysis, data about medical care on an organ transplantation in Russia and foreign countries is made. Results. On the basis of what the assessment of requirement of the population of the Russian Federation in an organ transplantation and donor resource is carried out, approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations (the centers of transplantation and scenarios of development of organ do- nation and transplantation in Russia is offered. Conclusion. To provide the population of the Russian Federation with medical care on an organ transplantation according to real requirement and donor resource, in each region of the Russian Federation have to be organized deceased organ donation and transplantation of a cadaveric kidney. But the transplantation of extrarenal organs is better to develop in the federal centers of hi-tech medical care with donor providing from territories of adjacent regions. 

  2. Percutaneous Dilational Tracheotomy in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemirkan, Aycan; Ersoy, Zeynep; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Gedik, Ender; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients may require percutaneous dilational tracheotomy because of prolonged mechanical ventilation or airway issues, but data regarding its safety and effectiveness in solid-organ transplant recipients are scarce. Here, we evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and benefits in terms of lung mechanics, complications, and patient comfort of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy in solid-organ transplant recipients. Medical records from 31 solid-organ transplant recipients (median age of 41.0 years [interquartile range, 18.0-53.0 y]) who underwent percutaneous dilational tracheotomy at our hospital between January 2010 and March 2015 were analyzed, including primary diagnosis, comorbidities, duration of orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, the time interval between transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, tracheotomy-related complications, and pulmonary compliance and ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission was 24.0 (interquartile range, 18.0-29.0). The median interval from transplant to percutaneous dilational tracheotomy was 105.5 days (interquartile range, 13.0-2165.0 d). The only major complication noted was left-sided pneumothorax in 1 patient. There were no significant differences in ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen before and after procedure (170.0 [interquartile range, 102.2-302.0] vs 210.0 [interquartile range, 178.5-345.5]; P = .052). However, pulmonary compliance results preprocedure and postprocedure were significantly different (0.020 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.015-0.030 L/cm H2O] vs 0.030 L/cm H2O [interquartile range, 0.020-0.041 L/cm H2O); P = .001]). Need for sedation significantly decreased after tracheotomy (from 17 patients [54.8%] to

  3. Public awareness survey about organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, E; Guella, A

    2013-01-01

    This survey was conducted to assess the public perception on organ donation and transplantation. A random sample of the population attending the outpatient clinics in Dhahran Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia, from December 1, 2011, to January 31, 2012, answered a questionnaire related to the above aim. From 582 subjects who answered the questionnaire, 85 were excluded for incoherent answers. From the remaining 497, 77.7% were males and 22.3% females with the age ranging from 18 to 65 years, and the majority was at a secondary or university level of education. More than 90% were aware organ transplantation and donation. From a religious point of view, 68.6% considered it legal to donate organs versus 26.2%. Those who disagreed with the concept of donation believed that one kidney is not enough to survive (50%), and that the remaining kidney may be affected (25.8%), whereas 15.2% expressed fear of the operation. Kidney transplantation was the preferred treatment for 73.2% of respondents and 12.75% were in favor of dialysis. Regarding financial incentive, 14.5% asked for reward from the government, 3.4% believed that the reward should come from the donor, and the majority (82.1%) stated that organ donation should be for the sake of God. Finally, there was a 61.2% willingness of respondents to donate relatives' organs after brain death. The level of awareness about donation and transplantation in our population was found to be satisfactory. Religion was not a bar for organ donation; moreover, financial incentive was not found to be a positive stimulus toward donation because the majority was willing to donate for the sake of God. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Death, organ transplantation and medical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Schwartz, Michael A; Bailey, F Amos; Bos, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    A series of papers in Philosophy, Ethics and Humanities in Medicine (PEHM) have recently disputed whether non-heart beating organ donors are alive and whether non-heart beating organ donation (NHBD) contravenes the dead donor rule. Several authors who argue that NHBD involves harvesting organs from live patients appeal to "strong irreversibility" (death beyond the reach of resuscitative efforts to restore life) as a necessary criterion that patients must meet before physicians can declare them to be dead. Sam Shemie, who defends our current practice of NHBD, holds that in fact physicians consider patients to be dead or not according to physician intention to resuscitate or not. We suggest that criteria for a concept are not necessarily truth conditions for assertions involving the concept. Hence, non-heart beating donors may be declared dead without meeting the criterion of strong irreversibility even though strong irreversibility is implied by the concept of death. Our perception that a concept applies in a given case is determined not by the concept itself but by our necessary skill and judgment when using it. In the case of deciding that a patient is dead, such judgment is learned by physicians as they learn the practice of medicine and may vary according to circumstances. Current practice of NHBD can therefore be defended without abandoning death as an empirical concept, as Shemie appears to do. We conclude that the dead donor rule continues to be viable and ought to be retained so as to guarantee what the public most cares about as regards organ donation: that physicians can be trusted to make determinations of eligibility for organ donation in the interests of patients and not for other purposes such as increasing the availability of organs. PMID:18248665

  5. Death, organ transplantation and medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey F Amos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A series of papers in Philosophy, Ethics and Humanities in Medicine (PEHM have recently disputed whether non-heart beating organ donors are alive and whether non-heart beating organ donation (NHBD contravenes the dead donor rule. Several authors who argue that NHBD involves harvesting organs from live patients appeal to "strong irreversibility" (death beyond the reach of resuscitative efforts to restore life as a necessary criterion that patients must meet before physicians can declare them to be dead. Sam Shemie, who defends our current practice of NHBD, holds that in fact physicians consider patients to be dead or not according to physician intention to resuscitate or not. We suggest that criteria for a concept are not necessarily truth conditions for assertions involving the concept. Hence, non-heart beating donors may be declared dead without meeting the criterion of strong irreversibility even though strong irreversibility is implied by the concept of death. Our perception that a concept applies in a given case is determined not by the concept itself but by our necessary skill and judgment when using it. In the case of deciding that a patient is dead, such judgment is learned by physicians as they learn the practice of medicine and may vary according to circumstances. Current practice of NHBD can therefore be defended without abandoning death as an empirical concept, as Shemie appears to do. We conclude that the dead donor rule continues to be viable and ought to be retained so as to guarantee what the public most cares about as regards organ donation: that physicians can be trusted to make determinations of eligibility for organ donation in the interests of patients and not for other purposes such as increasing the availability of organs.

  6. Transplanting an organization: how does culture matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munich, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences are often cited as a major obstacle to the successful transition/integration into new situations of organizations. In this contribution, the author details the changing cultural factors impacting the operation and move of the Menninger Clinic from autonomous status to an affiliation with and first year of operation in the Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist Hospital Health Care System. Both functional and dysfunctional consequences are outlined, and specific examples illustrate how the organization's leadership and staff struggled to adapt during this complicated process. Based on the experience within the Clinic, general recommendations for managing such an acculturation are provided.

  7. Teenagers in Rural Areas Faced With Organ Donation and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrero, B; Almela, J; Ríos, A; Ros, I; Pérez-Sánchez, B; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ruiz-Carreño, P; Ferreras, D; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    In rural areas it is common to find unfavorable attitudes toward organ donation, and therefore it is important to find out the attitude and profile of new generations for improving predisposition to organ donation in these areas. Our objective was to analyze the attitude toward organ donation and the related variables of teenagers in a rural area. Students in the final year of compulsory education (mostly 15-16 years of age) were selected from secondary schools in a rural area in southeastern Spain (n = 319; population density donating their organs, 30% (n = 90) were undecided, and 5% (n = 16) were against. Attitude toward the donation of one's own organs was related with sex (P = .015), previous experience of organ donation or transplantation (P = .046), comment on the topic of organ donation within the family (P = .003; odds ratio 2.155), knowing one's mother's opinion about the matter (P = .021), knowing the correct concept of brain death (P = .012; odds ratio 2.076), and religion (P = .014). A favorable attitude of teenagers in rural areas toward organ donation is slightly higher than in the adult population and is determined by many psychosocial variables, above all family discussion about organ donation and transplantation and correct knowledge of the brain death concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Australian and New Zealand Cardiothoracic Organ Transplant Registry: first report 1984-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, A M; Kaan, A

    1992-12-01

    This initial report of the Australian and New Zealand Cardiothoracic Organ Transplant Registry summarises the results of all cardiothoracic transplants performed between February 1984 and April 1992. A total of 549 first cardiothoracic transplant procedures and six cardiac retransplant operations were performed in five transplant units throughout Australia and New Zealand. There were 466 orthotopic cardiac transplants and one heterotopic transplant with overall survival 86% at one year and 80% at five years. Two of six patients who underwent cardiac retransplantation are alive. Fifty-three heart-lung transplants were performed with 72% one year and 42% five year survival. Twenty-nine single lung transplant procedures were undertaken, with actuarial survival 72% at 12 months. Factors influencing waiting period and post-transplant survival for each type of procedure are detailed. The relative lack of donors compared with recipient demand has produced increased waiting times for every type of cardiothoracic organ transplant.

  9. Creation of a solid organ transplant program in an underdeveloped country: Mexico's General Hospital transplantation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Covarrubias, L; Rossano García, A; Cicero Lebrija, A; Luque Hernández, A; Hinojosa Heredia, H; Fernández Ángel, D; Córdova, J; García Covarrubias, A; Bautista Olayo, R; Diliz Perez, H S

    2013-05-01

    With a population of >112 million persons, all Mexicans are entitled to receive medical care by the state and more than half have limited access to healthcare. From January 1985 to March 2009, 40 renal transplants were performed from living donors with a high percentage of complications. In April 2009, a new Solid Organ Transplantation Program was started; herein, we present this enterprise to the international community and briefly present a perspective on the Mexican transplant situation. We performed a retrospective chart review of kidney and liver transplant recipients from April 2009 to November 2011, including demographic features, immunosuppression, complications as well as initial and 1 month function. We performed 68 kidney (59 living and 9 deceased donors) and 5 liver transplants (cadaveric donors). The kidney transplant recipients were 73.5% males and showed an overall mean age of 29.77 years (range, 18-60). The donor mean age was 34.08 years. Mean recipient creatinine pretransplant was 13.32 mg/dL, while at day 5 it was 2.33 and at month one, 1.32 mg/dL. Five grafts were lost (7.3%): 4 due to death with a functioning graft and 1 due to acute pyelonephritis. Five patients experienced delayed graft function Basiliximab induction was required in all but one who received thymoglobulin owing to a high panel reactive antibody. Maintenance therapy included a calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone. Liver transplant recipients were 83.6% women. The etiologies were alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 2), primary billiary cirrhosis (n = 1) and hepatitis C virus infection (n = 2). Complications included: reperfusion syndrome (n = 1), convulsive crisis (medication; n = 1), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 1), and death (n = 1). Their Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scopes were 10-21. After basiliximab induction, they had maintenance therapy with tacrolimus, MMF, and steroids. The donor mean age was 26.2 years. All survivors show normal

  10. Reduced size liver transplantation, split liver transplantation, and living related liver transplantation in relation to the donor organ shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooff, M J

    1995-01-01

    Because of the shortage of cadaveric donors, three techniques of partial liver grafting have been developed. These techniques are placed in perspective in relation to the organ shortage. Reduced size liver transplantation (RSLTx) is widely used and has results comparable to those from whole liver grafting. However, this technique, while benefitting pediatric patients, reduces the adult donor liver pool. It also makes inefficient use of an available adult donor liver. In split liver transplantation (SPLTx), the whole liver is used after bipartition for two recipients. The results are comparable to those of RSLTx. The problem with SPLTx is that it is a very demanding technique applied only in centers with extensive experience with liver resection and reduction. Living related liver transplantation (LRLTx) yields excellent results; however, it places an otherwise healthy person at risk. It is argued that instead of performing risky operations on healthy persons, the health authorities should take specific measures to alleviate the organ shortage. In the meantime, SPLTx should be developed further because of its optimal use of donor tissue. As for LRLTx, its excellent results and the present shortage of size-matched pediatric liver donors justify its use, at least for now.

  11. Clinical and immunological relevance of antibodies in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, N K; Baranwal, A K

    2016-12-01

    The two important issues affecting recipients of solid organ transplants and of importance to immunologists are (i) sensitization of the recipient to HLA antigens and the resultant humoral immune response leading to the development of anti-HLA antibodies; and ii) development of robust assays for early detection of humoral rejection post-transplant. Evidence from several studies clearly indicates that presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies especially donor specific leads to early graft loss and high titres of DSA may even lead to hyperacute or accelerated acute rejection. Long-term graft survival too is adversely affected by the presence of either pre- or post-transplant DSA. HLA matching status of the recipient - donor pair - is an important factor in the modulation of humoral response following transplantation and in a way affects de novo development of DSA. Data collected over the past decade clearly indicate significantly lower level of DSAs in optimally matched donor-recipient pairs. HLA mismatches especially those on HLA-DR and HLA-C loci have wider implications on post-transplant graft survival. The presence of circulating anti-HLA antibodies leads to endothelial damage in the newly grafted organ through complement dependent or independent pathways. Although detection of C4d deposition in renal biopsies serves as an important indicator of humoral rejection, its absence does not preclude the presence of DSAs and humoral rejection, and hence, it cannot be relied upon in every case. The emergence of epitope-based screening for anti-HLA antibodies on Luminex platform with high degree of sensitivity has revolutionized the screening for anti-HLA antibodies and DSAs. Studies indicate that humoral response to non-HLA antigens might also have a detrimental effect on allograft survival. High titres of such circulating antibodies may even lead to hyperacute rejection. Pre-emptive testing of solid organ recipients, especially kidney transplant recipients for anti

  12. Classic and current opinion in embryonic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Marc R

    2014-04-01

    Here, we review the rationale for the use of organs from embryonic donors, antecedent investigations and recent work from our own laboratory, exploring the utility for transplantation of embryonic kidney and pancreas as an organ replacement therapy. Ultrastructurally precise kidneys differentiate in situ in rats following xenotransplantation in mesentery of embryonic pig renal primordia. The developing organ attracts its blood supply from the host. Engraftment of pig renal primordia requires host immune suppression. However, beta cells originating from embryonic pig pancreas obtained very early following initiation of organogenesis [embryonic day 28 (E28)] engraft long term in nonimmune-suppressed diabetic rats or rhesus macaques. Engraftment of morphologically similar cells originating from adult porcine islets of Langerhans occurs in animals previously transplanted with E28 pig pancreatic primordia. Organ primordia engraft, attract a host vasculature and differentiate following transplantation to ectopic sites. Attempts have been made to exploit these characteristics to achieve clinically relevant endpoints for end-stage renal disease and diabetes mellitus using animal models. We and others have focused on use of the embryonic pig as a donor.

  13. Evolution of Organ Transplantation in Poland 1966 to 2014: Dates and Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, J; Czapiewski, W; Danielewska, E; Milaniak, I; Milecka, A; Patrzałek, D; Sekta, S; Saucha, W; Danek, T; Zając, K; Ostrowski, K; Malanowski, P

    2016-06-01

    Several events inspired us to collect data on organ transplantation in Poland (2016: the 50th anniversary of the first transplantation and the 20th anniversary of Polish Transplant Coordinating Center Poltransplant). The paper aims at presenting comprehensive data on all organ transplants, beginning with the first in 1966 (deceased kidney) until the end of 2014. Source documents were reports published in Poltransplant Bulletin, a website registry managed by Poltransplant, reports by the Transplantation Council and by the Transplantation Institute of Warsaw. A source data enabled us to establish a preliminary report, presented for verification during the 12th Congress of the Polish Transplantation Society. By the end of 2014, the total number of organ transplants was 26,691. Kidney transplantation is the most common (total number = 19,812). The number of living kidney transplants is low, about 50 per year. The number of liver part transplants from living donors is relatively high, 20 to 30 annually. The program of deceased liver transplantation results in more than 300 transplants yearly. The first heart transplantation was in 1985, but the number of these procedures has been decreasing. No significant increase in the number of lung transplantations was noted. The number of organ transplantations from deceased donors places Poland in the middle among European countries. The number of living donor kidney transplants is lower than in other countries; therefore a living donor liver transplantation program belongs to leading programs. Progress of lung transplantation has been slow. The development is highlighted by vascularized composite tissue transplantations of the hands and face. The strength of the report lies in its reliability and completeness. Numbers are the unique source of information to be used and referred to in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival benefit of solid-organ transplant in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abbas; Gruessner, Angelika; Agopian, Vatche G; Khalpey, Zain; Riaz, Irbaz B; Kaplan, Bruce; Halazun, Karim J; Busuttil, Ronald W; Gruessner, Rainer W G

    2015-03-01

    The field of transplantation has made tremendous progress since the first successful kidney transplant in 1954. To determine the survival benefit of solid-organ transplant as recorded during a 25-year study period in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database and the Social Security Administration Death Master File. In this retrospective analysis of UNOS data for solid-organ transplant during a 25-year period (September 1, 1987, through December 31, 2012), we reviewed the records of 1,112,835 patients: 533,329 recipients who underwent a transplant and 579 506 patients who were placed on the waiting list but did not undergo a transplant. The primary outcome was patient death while on the waiting list or after transplant. Kaplan-Meier survival functions were used for time-to-event analysis. We found that 2,270,859 life-years (2,150,200 life-years from the matched analysis) were saved to date during the 25 years of solid-organ transplant. A mean of 4.3 life-years were saved (observed to date) per solid-organ transplant recipient. Kidney transplant saved 1,372,969 life-years; liver transplant, 465,296 life-years; heart transplant, 269,715 life-years; lung transplant, 64,575 life-years; pancreas-kidney transplant, 79,198 life-years; pancreas transplant, 14,903 life-years; and intestine transplant, 4402 life-years. Our analysis demonstrated that more than 2 million life-years were saved to date by solid-organ transplants during a 25-year study period. Transplants should be supported and organ donation encouraged.

  15. Quality metrics in solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Kendra E; Ritchie, Lindsay J; Ertel, Emily; Bennett, Alexandria; Knoll, Greg A

    2018-03-20

    The best approach for determining whether a transplant program is delivering high-quality care is unknown. This review aims to identify and characterize quality metrics in solid organ transplantation. Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until February 1 2017. Relevant full text reports and conference abstracts that examined quality metrics in organ transplantation were included. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics and quality metrics from 52 full text reports and 24 abstracts. PROSPERO registration: CRD42016035353. 317 quality metrics were identified and condensed into 114 unique indicators with sufficient detail to be measured in practice, however, many lacked details on development and selection, were poorly defined, or had inconsistent definitions. The process for selecting quality indicators was described in only 5 publications and patient involvement was noted in only 1. Twenty-four reports used the indicators in clinical care, including 12 quality improvement studies. Only 14 quality metrics were assessed against patient and graft survival. >300 quality metrics have been reported in transplantation but many lacked details on development and selection, were poorly defined or had inconsistent definitions. Measures have focused on safety and effectiveness with very few addressing other quality domains such as equity and patient-centeredness. Future research will need to focus on transparent and objective metric development with proper testing, evaluation, and implementation in practice. Patients will need to be involved to ensure that transplantation quality metrics measure what is important to them.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  16. Challenging issues of overseas transplantation in mainland China: Taiwan organ transplant health professionals' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, F Jong; Fan, Y W; Chen, H M; Chiu, C M; Wang, S S; Shih, F J

    2010-12-01

    As the source of organs is limited in Taiwan, and communication systems are becoming more open between Taiwan and mainland China, the call for overseas transplantation in mainland China is increasing in Taiwan. This study explored the perspectives of Taiwan organ transplant health professionals on the challenging issues related to transplantation procedures in mainland China, including health professionalism as well as collaborative systems for information and communication technologies (ICTs). A purposive sample including overseas transplant surgeons (OTS), registered nurses (RN), overseas transplant coordinating nurses (OTCN), and e-health ICTs experts (eh-ICTs) was obtained from two medical centers in Taipei. Subjects underwent face-to-face interviews with data subjected to content analysis. The 70 subjects included OTS (n = 20), RN (n = 25), OTCN (n = 15), and eh-ICTs (n = 10). Their ages ranged from 23 to 63 years old (mean, 33.7 years). The current challenges were identified: (a) lack of workable collaborative systems for continuous medical care between two parties due to different medical recording systems in particular (86%, n = 60; OTS, n = 19; RN, n = 21; OTCN, n = 10; eh-ICTs, n = 10); (b) lack of mutual trustworthy relationships between medical delivery systems (84%, n = 59; OTS, n = 17; RN, n = 22; OTCN, n = 10; eh-ICTs, n = 10); (c) lack of accreditation systems to judge possible conflicts related to medical diagnosis and treatment protocols (79%, n = 55; OTS, n = 19; RN, n = 19; OTCN, n = 7; eh-ICTs, n = 10); (d) Taiwanese hesitation regarding the quality of transplant procedures in mainland China (71%, n = 50; OTS, n = 18; RN, n = 17; OTCN, n = 8; eh-ICTs, n = 7); and (e) stress from concerns of Taiwan medical societies about the benefits of collaboration with mainland China (64%, n = 45; OTS, n = 13; RN, n = 18; OTCN, n = 8; eh-ICTs n = 6). This discussion is still ongoing. Trapped by the limited organ source and confronted by multiple challenges

  17. Diabetic ketoacidosis associated with tacrolimus in solid organ transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.Q.; Rabbani, M.; Habib, M.; Saleem, T.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis in patients receiving tacrolimus in the post-transplant setting is rare. We describe two such cases in solid-organ transplant recipients. The first patient, a 17-year-old male, presented with severe diabetic ketoacidosis and was managed with intravenous fluids and insulin infusion. He was a known case of Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome and had received a renal transplant 2 years ago and was receiving tacrolimus since then. Although diabetic ketoacidosis resolved in 24 hours, large doses of subcutaneous insulin (unto 130 units per day) were needed to keep serum glucose within the normal range. Substitution of tacrolimus with cyclosporine obviated the need for insulin or oral hypoglycaemics. The second patient, a 55-year-old woman, presented with a history of polyuria for 3 days. She had received a hepatic transplant 2 years ago and tacrolimus was being used since then. Mild diabetic ketoacidosis was managed with fluid resuscitation and subcutaneous insulin. Her insulin requirement after an uneventful recovery has been 54 - 70 units per day. Clinicians should be cognizant of the possibility of hyperglycaemic crisis presenting as sudden onset of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients receiving tacrolimus. Use of an alternative calcineurin inhibitor may provide a safer solution to minimize future morbidity in such patients. (author)

  18. Organ transplantation in Switzerland: impact of the new transplant law on cold ischaemia time and organ transports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehlinger, Nadine B; Beyeler, Franziska; Weiss, Julius; Marti, Hans-Peter; Immer, Franz F

    2010-04-17

    On 1 July 2007 a new transplant law came into force in Switzerland. The principal item of this new law is the change from centre-oriented allocation to patient-oriented national allocation of organs. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact on cold ischaemia time (CIT) and transport requirements. From 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2008 168 brain-dead donors were registered by Swisstransplant in Switzerland. Donors have been analysed in a retrospective cohort study design. Donor characteristics, transportation requirements and CIT were assessed from the Necroreport. 74 donors (44%) were allocated in the period before the introduction of the new law (period A) and 94 donors (56%) after the new law. Donor characteristics were similar. In period A, 114 organs (37.9%) were allocated within the procurement centre, compared to 54 organs (15.5%) in period B. Transport time for liver and kidney was remarkably longer in period B. Overall, CITs remained largely stable except for a significant increase of nearly 115 minutes in the liver graft median CIT (p transplant law clearly entails an increase in the frequency of organ transports. Overall CIT is not affected. However, liver transplantation is afflicted by an increase in transports and CIT. This may affect mid-term outcome and should therefore be followed closely.

  19. [Usage of marginal organs for liver transplantation: a way around the critical organ shortage?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratschke, S; Loehe, F; Graeb, C; Jauch, K W; Angele, M K

    2009-04-01

    The transplantation of marginal organs or those meeting the so-called extended donor criteria (EDC) is today a significant option to alleviate the low availability or organs and to increase the number of transplantation which in turn is -accompanied by a lower mortality among wait-ing-list patients. However such an extension of the spender pool carries the risks of an increased incidence of organ dysfuntions and a higher recipient mortality. This situation presents an ethical problem when marginal organs are accepted for transplantation because the anticipated mortality for the individual recipient cannot be determined. The transplantation of marginal organs from -donors with a high MELD score seems to be linked to a higher mortality. In particular, the combina-tions of high donor age and long ischaemic time or advanced donor age and hepatitis C infection in the recipient are definitively associated with a significantly poorer organ survival rate. In view of the serious lack of organs, efforts should be made, for example, by shortening of the is-chae-mic time and the development of therapeutic strategies, to improve the function and increase the number of usable marginal organs and thus to increase pool of donor organs. The refusal of marginal organs on the basis of individual EDC without consideration of the status of recipient does not seem to be adequate.

  20. 77 FR 5815 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... professions, nursing, epidemiology, immunology, law and bioethics, behavioral sciences, economics and statistics, as well as representatives of transplant candidates, transplant recipients, organ donors, and..., address, telephone number, email address, and any business or professional affiliation of the person...

  1. A Study of Some Leading Organ Transplant Models in Health Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uzuntarla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most effective treatment method for patients with organ failure is an organ transplant. Although numerous patients are waiting to get organ transplants, the inadequacy in the supply of organs has become a chronic health problem around the whole world. Countries have made various regulations in their health systems that increase the supply of organs and, as a result, various organ transplantation models have been established. Organ transplantation models applied in Spain, the USA, the European Union, Iran, and Turkey have been examined in this study.

  2. Organ Procurement from Deceased Donors and its Impact on Organ Transplantation in Iran during the First Ten Years of Cadaveric Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemeyni, S M; Aghighi, M

    2012-01-01

    The Act of transplantation from deceased and dead-brain donors was ratified in the parliament in 2000. In the subsequent two years, few number of organs were procured from dead-brain patients and transplanted. Later on, a national network was established for organ procurement; units for recognizing brain death were established in Tehran and some other cities to provide the necessary infrastructure for organ transplantation from deceased and dead-brain donors. In this report, we described the outcome of organ procurement from deceased and dead-brain donors after 10 years of its establishment in Iran. To do so, we collected data from some relevant published articles and also reports of the Ministry of Health released between 2001 and 2010. By the year 2010, 3673 organs were harvested from deceased donors and transplanted. The rate of liver transplantation has increased rapidly from 16 cases in 2001 to 280 cases in 2010-almost 18 times. There were 554 cadaveric kidney transplantation in 2010; it comprised 19% of total kidney transplantations that is almost 8 times that in 2001. Over the study period, organ procurement has increased by 6-fold. The rate of organ procurement from deceased and dead-brain donors has increased dramatically over the studied period. Considering the existing potentials for this scheme of organ procurement, it seems that improving the Iranian Network for Transplant Organ Procurement will lead to better results.

  3. Is dermatome shaving a potential treatment for actinic keratosis in organ transplant recipients? A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjerkegaard, Ulrik Knap; Bischoff-Mikkelsen, Morten; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is correlated with high morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients (OTR) and it appears after a mean interval of 8 to 10 years. Prophylactic treatments are still required to prevent the development of NMSC. This study aims to investigate...

  4. Active vaccination to prevent de novo hepatitis B virus infection in liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Che; Yong, Chee-Chien; Chen, Chao-Long

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of organ donors mandates the use of liver allograft from anti-HBc(+) donors, especially in areas highly endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The incidence of de novo hepatitis B infection (DNH) is over 30%-70% among recipients of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) (+) grafts without any prophylaxis after liver transplantation (LT). Systematic reviews showed that prophylactic therapy [lamivudine and/or hepatitits B immunoglobulin (HBIG)] dramatically reduces the probability of DNH. However, there are limited studies regarding the effects of active immunization to prevent DNH, and the role of active vaccination is not well-defined. This review focuses on the feasibility and efficacy of pre- and post-LT HBV vaccination to prevent DNH in HBsAg(-) recipient using HBcAb(+) grafts. The presence of HBsAb in combination with lamivudine or HBIG results in lower incidence of DNH and may reduce the requirement of HBIG. There was a trend towards decreasing incidence of DNH with higher titers of HBsAb. High titers of HBsAb (> 1000 IU/L) achieved after repeated vaccination could eliminate the necessity for additional antiviral prophylaxis in pediatric recipients. In summary, active vaccination with adequate HBsAb titer is a feasible, cost-effective strategy to prevent DNH in recipients of HBcAb(+) grafts. HBV vaccination is advised for candidates on waiting list and for recipients after withdrawal of steroids and onset of low dose immunosuppression after transplantation. PMID:26494965

  5. Organ donation and transplantation-the Chennai experience in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, S; Rao, S; Kurian, G; Suresh, S

    2007-04-01

    Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the "Transplantation of Human Organ Act" of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed a network between hospitals for organ sharing. From the year 2000 to 2006 an organ sharing network was started in Tamil Nadu and the facilitator of this programme has been a non-government organization called MOHAN (acronym for Multi Organ Harvesting Aid Network) Foundation. The organs shared during the period number over 460 organs in two regions (both Tamil Nadu and Hyderabad). In Tamil Nadu the shared organs have included 166 Kidneys, 24 livers, 6 hearts, and 180 eyes. In 2003 sharing network was initiated by MOHAN in Hyderabad and to some extent the Tamil Nadu model was duplicated. with some success and 96 cadaver organs have been transplanted in the last 3 years. There are many advantages of organ sharing including the cost economics. At present there is a large pool of brain dead patients who could become potential organ donors in the major cities in India. Their organs are not being utilized for various support logistics. A multi-pronged strategy is required for the long term success of this program. These years in Tamil Nadu have been the years of learning, un-learning and relearning and the program today has matured slowly into what can perhaps be evolved as an Indian model. In all these years there have been various difficulties in its implementation and some of the key elements for the success of the program is the need to educate our own medical fraternity and seek their cooperation. The program requires trained counselors to be able to work in the intensive cares. The government's support is pivotal if this program to provide benefit to the common man. MOHAN Foundation has accumulated considerable experience to be able to

  6. Multicenter Analysis of Immune Biomarkers and Heart Transplant Outcomes: Results of the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-05 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, R C; Stehlik, J; Baran, D A; Armstrong, B; Stone, J R; Ikle, D; Morrison, Y; Bridges, N D; Putheti, P; Strom, T B; Bhasin, M; Guleria, I; Chandraker, A; Sayegh, M; Daly, K P; Briscoe, D M; Heeger, P S

    2016-01-01

    Identification of biomarkers that assess posttransplant risk is needed to improve long-term outcomes following heart transplantation. The Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation (CTOT)-05 protocol was an observational, multicenter, cohort study of 200 heart transplant recipients followed for the first posttransplant year. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, graft loss/retransplantation, biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) as defined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We serially measured anti-HLA- and auto-antibodies, angiogenic proteins, peripheral blood allo-reactivity, and peripheral blood gene expression patterns. We correlated assay results and clinical characteristics with the composite endpoint and its components. The composite endpoint was associated with older donor allografts (p heart transplantation. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Law and medical ethics in organ transplantation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Tom; Wheeler, Robert

    2010-05-01

    This article in the series describes how UK law and medical ethics have evolved to accommodate developments in organ transplantation surgery. August committees have formulated definitions of the point of death of the person which are compatible with the lawful procurement of functioning vital organs from cadavers. Some of the complexities of dead donor rules are examined. Live donors are a major source of kidneys and the laws that protect them are considered. Financial inducements and other incentives to donate erode the noble concept of altruism, but should they be unlawful?

  8. [Organ transplantation. Questions in the interface of ethics and anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbacher, D

    2014-08-01

    In the field of organ transplantation medical ethics is confronted with a number of problems where the particular difficulty lies in the fact that ethical and anthropological questions interpenetrate. This article discusses two of these problems in this interface both of which are highly controversial: the real or apparent contradiction between the dead-donor rule and the traditional definition of death and the real or apparent contradiction between the ethical desirability of harvesting organs from non-heart beating donors and the irreversibility of brain death.

  9. Adding value? EU governance of organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Anne-Maree

    2010-03-01

    This article examines recent developments in EU governance of organ donation and transplantation, focusing on an analysis of the Commission's action plan and the proposed Directive. While the aims of the plan are laudable, a number of concerns remain with respect to the timetable for the plan and the adoption of the Directive, as well as the management of ethical and risk issues. In the final analysis, the added value of EU governance initiatives in the field is likely to be measured by the extent to which they successfully address the ongoing problem of organ shortage in Member States.

  10. Proposal for a mutual insurance pool for transplant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, R; Vining, A

    1998-10-01

    Over the past decade there have been numerous proposals to use market system incentives to attenuate the persistent shortage of transplantable human organs. While shortages have grown, opposition to market-based solutions has remained adamant. Much of the opposition has focused on monetary incentives. This article explores an alternative--a mutual insurance pool to increase the supply of organs. In the process, criticisms of earlier proposals (specifically the future delivery scheme) are addressed, the operation of an insurance pool is described, and problems associated with insurance markets are identified and addressed. The article concludes that an insurance pool could overcome public and political resistance to more explicit market-based solutions.

  11. Organ transplantation for nonresidents of the United States: a policy for transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, A K; Danovitch, G M; Delmonico, F L

    2014-08-01

    A policy proposal relating to transplantation of deceased donor organs into nonresidents of the United States was jointly sponsored by the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) International Relations and Ethics Committees and approved by the OPTN/UNOS Board in June 2012. The proposal followed prior acceptance by the Board of the definitions of "travel for transplantation" and "transplant tourism" and the introduction in March 2012 of revised data collection categories for transplant candidates who are neither citizens nor residents. The most important aspect of the new policy concerns replacement of the previous so-called "5% rule" with the review of all residency and citizenship data and the preparation of a public annual report. The new policy does not prohibit organ transplantation in nonresidents. However, the policy and public data report will ensure transparency and support transplant center responsibility to account for their practices. Since the adoption of the policy, the first 19 months of data show that less than 1% of new deceased donor waitlist additions and less than 1% of transplantation recipients were non-US citizen/nonresidents candidates who traveled to the United States for purposes of transplantation. By adopting this policy, the US transplant community promotes public trust and serves as an example to the international transplant community. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. What Is the Role of Developmental Disability in Patient Selection for Pediatric Solid Organ Transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, D S; Freiberger, D; Daly, K P; Oliva, M; Helfand, L; Haynes, K; Harrison, C H; Kim, H B

    2016-03-01

    The National Organ Transplant Act stipulates that deceased donor organs should be justly and wisely allocated based on sound medical criteria. Allocation schemes are consistent across the country, and specific policies are publicly vetted. Patient selection criteria are largely in the hands of individual organ transplant programs, and consistent standards are less evident. This has been particularly apparent for patients with developmental disabilities (DDs). In response to concerns regarding the fairness of transplant evaluations for patients with DDs, we developed a transplant centerwide policy using a multidisciplinary, community-based approach. This publication details the particular policy of our center. All patients should receive individualized assessments using consistent standards; disability should be neither a relative nor an absolute contraindication to transplantation. External review can increase trust in the selection process. Patients in persistent vegetative states should not be listed for transplantation. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Kidney Transplant Outcomes After Primary, Repeat and Kidney After Nonrenal Solid Organ Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Puneet; Gao, Xiaotian; Mehta, Rajil; Landsittel, Douglas; Wu, Christine; Nusrat, Rabeeya; Puttarajappa, Chethan; Tevar, Amit D; Hariharan, Sundaram

    2016-06-01

    Improvements in renal allograft outcomes have permitted kidney transplantation after prior kidney allograft failure as well as after nonrenal solid organ transplantation. This study compares renal allograft outcomes in the 3 groups, that is, primary, repeat, and kidney after nonrenal solid organ transplantation, where transplant group was coded as a time-dependent variable. We retrospectively reviewed registry data for kidney transplant recipients at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from January 2000 to December 2011. We compared overall graft survival between the 3 groups using Cox regression modeling. We calculated 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival and half-lives for each group where feasible. The study cohort (N = 2014) consisted of group A (primary kidney transplant, n = 1578, with 7923.2 years of follow-up time), group B (repeat kidney transplant, n = 314, with 1566.7 years of follow-up time) and group C (kidney post-nonrenal solid organ transplant, n = 176, with 844.8 years of follow-up time). Of the 1578 patients in the primary kidney transplant group, 74 later received a repeat transplant and thus also have follow-up counted in the repeat kidney transplant group. The median follow-up was 56, 53, and 55 months, respectively. The 5-year actuarial and death-censored graft survival was 68.69%, 68.79%, and 66.48% and 65.53%, 67.68%, and 62.92%, respectively (P = 0.70). There was no difference in overall graft survival in the Cox-adjusted analysis (group B: odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.26; P = 0.79; group C: odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.23; P = 0.76). The adjusted kidney graft survivals in the 3 groups were similar.

  14. TRANSPLANTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage kidney disease. There is good evidence that transplantation improves both the quality and quantity of life in renal transplant recipients when compared with dialysis.1,2. Living donor kidney transplantation has gained popularity, not only owing ...

  15. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells in Solid Organ Transplantation: Where Do We Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Marín

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, solid organ transplantation has been improved both at a surgical and postoperative level. However, despite the improvement in efficiency, safety, and survival, we are still far from obtaining full acceptance of all kinds of allograft in the absence of concomitant treatments. Today, transplanted patients are treated with immunosuppressive drugs (IS to minimize immunological response in order to prevent graft rejection. Nevertheless, the lack of specificity of IS leads to an increase in the risk of cancer and infections. At this point, cell therapies have been shown as a novel promising resource to minimize the use of IS in transplantation. The main strength of cell therapy is the opportunity to generate allograft-specific tolerance, promoting in this way long-term allograft survival. Among several other regulatory cell types, tolerogenic monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Tol-MoDCs appear to be an interesting candidate for cell therapy due to their ability to perform specific antigen presentation and to polarize immune response to immunotolerance. In this review, we describe the characteristics and the mechanisms of action of both human Tol-MoDCs and rodent tolerogenic bone marrow-derived DCs (Tol-BMDCs. Furthermore, studies performed in transplantation models in rodents and non-human primates corroborate the potential of Tol-BMDCs for immunoregulation. In consequence, Tol-MoDCs have been recently evaluated in sundry clinical trials in autoimmune diseases and shown to be safe. In addition to autoimmune diseases clinical trials, Tol-MoDC is currently used in the first phase I/II clinical trials in transplantation. Translation of Tol-MoDCs to clinical application in transplantation will also be discussed in this review.

  16. Deceased Donor Organ Transplantation Performed in the United States for Non- Citizens and Non-Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonico, Francis L; Gunderson, Susan; Iyer, Kishore R; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Pruett, Timothy L; Reyes, Jorge D; Ascher, Nancy L

    2018-01-11

    Since 2012, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) has required transplant centers to record the citizenship and residency status of patients undergoing transplantation in the United States. This policy replaced the 5% threshold of the non-US citizen/non-U.S. residents (NC/NR) undergoing organ transplantation that could result in an audit of transplant center activity.We analyzed the frequency of NC/NR deceased donor organ transplants and wait list registrations at all US transplant centers using data provided by UNOS for that purpose to the UNOS Ad Hoc International Relations Committee. During the period of 2013 - 2016, 1,176 deceased donor transplants (of all organs) were performed in NC/NR candidates (1.2 % of the total number of transplants). There were 5 kidney and 7 liver transplant centers that performed > 5% of the deceased donor kidney and deceased donor liver transplants respectively in NC/NR during the years 2014-2016 with a total of 147 deceased donor kidney transplants and 120 deceased donor liver transplants in NC/NR.This report was prepared to fulfill the transparency policy of UNOS to assure a public trust in the distribution of organs. When viewed with a public awareness of deceased donor organ shortages, it suggests the need for a more comprehensive understanding of current NC/NR activity in the US. Patterns of organ specific NC/NR registrations and transplantations at high-volume centers should prompt a review of transplant center practices to determine whether the deceased donor and center resources may be compromised for their US patients.

  17. Osteoporosis Therapy With Denosumab in Organ Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Brunova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveOsteoporosis and fragility fractures represent serious complications for the solid organ transplant population. The recommended osteoporosis therapy for organ recipients involves supplementation with calcium and vitamin D and bisphosphonate administration. However, these options can prove limited for patients with impaired renal function. An alternative therapy option is offered by denosumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand.Patients and methodsWe evaluated 63 patients with osteoporosis (23 males and 40 females, age 56.4 ± 13.1 years following solid organ transplantation (15 diabetic patients after simultaneous transplantation of the kidney and pancreas, 34 patients after kidney transplantation, and 14 patients with liver grafts. Osteoporosis was diagnosed according to standard DEXA examination using the Lunar Prodigy apparatus. Transplanted patients with impaired renal function were treated for osteoporosis of the lumbar spine (L-spine and/or proximal femur with calcium and vitamin D supplementation and 60 mg of denosumab every 6 months between the years 2012 and 2017. The mean duration of the therapy was 1.65 ± 0.7 years.ResultsAfter denosumab therapy, L-spine T-scores improved across the whole group, ranging from −2.7 ± 0.09 to −1.8 ± 1.0 (p < 0.001. T-score values for the proximal femur increased from −2.5 ± 0.8 to −2.0 ± 0.7 after the therapy (p < 0.01. We observed only a mild, statistically insignificant improvement in distal forearm T-scores. The mean increase in L-spine bone mineral density (BMD was 11.5 ± 6.2% in subjects with osteoporosis at this site and 10.4 ± 6.1% in the case of all patients. BMD of the proximal femur increased by 10.4 ± 8.3% in patients with osteoporosis and by 7.5 ± 7.3% in all patients. Denosumab therapy decreased the prevalence of osteoporosis in the L-spine from 75 to 27% (p

  18. Beyond the Officially Sacred, Donor and Believer: Religion and Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, E

    2015-09-01

    Religious concerns might represent an important issue when donation for transplantation is discussed. Even if no religious tradition formally forbids organ donation and transplantation, members of the same religious group may have differing and often conflicting opinions in their own interpretation of how their religion encourages and/or supports organ donation and transplantation, as discussed in this article. It also should be considered that even if a religion refuses to define concrete rules about organ donation and transplantation, there are a great number of factors that may influence the decision-making process. Examples may include negative perceptions of the cutting and removal of organs or ignorance about the transplantation system, both of which would influence the decision-making process concerning transplantation. Knowledge of these facts may provide useful information, perhaps increasing transplant numbers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mobile Health in Solid Organ Transplant: The Time Is Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J N; Taber, D J; McElligott, J; McGillicuddy, J W; Treiber, F

    2017-09-01

    Despite being in existence for >40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. Detractors include the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative lack of smartphones among the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can be mirrored realistically in clinical applications. Existing studies have demonstrated some potential clinical benefits of mHealth in the various phases of solid organ transplantation (SOT). Furthermore, studies in nontransplant chronic diseases may be used to guide future studies in SOT. Nevertheless, substantially more must be accomplished before mHealth becomes mainstream. Further evidence of clinical benefits and a critical need for cost-effectiveness analysis must prove its utility to patients, clinicians, hospitals, insurers, and the federal government. The SOT population is an ideal one in which to demonstrate the benefits of mHealth. In this review, the current evidence and status of mHealth in SOT is discussed, and a general path forward is presented that will allow buy-in from the health care community, insurers, and the federal government to move mHealth from research to standard care. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Evaluation of fluoroquinolones for the prevention of BK viremia after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Waikar, Sushrut S; Martin, Spencer; Roberts, Keri; Chen, Jie; Borgi, Lea; Sheashaa, Hussein; Dyer, Christine; Malek, Sayeed K; Tullius, Stefan G; Vadivel, Nidyanandh; Grafals, Monica; Abdi, Reza; Najafian, Nader; Milford, Edgar; Chandraker, Anil

    2010-07-01

    Nearly 30% of renal transplant recipients develops BK viremia, a prerequisite for BK nephropathy. Case reports have evaluated treatment options for BK virus, but no controlled studies have assessed prophylactic therapies. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics were studied for prevention of BK viremia after renal transplantation. This retrospective analysis evaluated adult renal transplant recipients with at least one BK viral load (blood) between 90 and 400 days after transplantation. Six to 12 months of co-trimoxazole was used for Pneumocystis prophylaxis. In sulfa-allergic/-intolerant patients, 6 to 12 months of atovaquone with 1 month of a fluoroquinolone was used. Fluoroquinolones can inhibit BK DNA topoisomerase. The two groups studied were those that received 30 days of levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin after transplantation and those that did not. The primary endpoint was BK viremia rates at 1 year. Of note, of the 160 patients not receiving fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, 40 received a fluoroquinolone for treatment of a bacterial infection within 3 months after transplantation. Subgroup analysis evaluating these 40 patients against the 120 who had no exposure to fluoroquinolones was completed. A 1-month fluoroquinolone course after transplantation was associated with significantly lower rates of BK viremia at 1 year compared with those with no fluoroquinolone. In the subgroup analysis, exposure to fluoroquinolone for treatment of bacterial infections within 3 months after transplantation was associated with significantly lower 1-year rates of BK viremia. This analysis demonstrates that fluoroquinolones are effective at preventing BK viremia after renal transplantation.

  1. Role of radiotherapy in the management of organ transplant recipients diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veness, M. J.; Harris, D.

    2007-01-01

    Organ transplantation has had a major effect on the lives of thousands of patients worldwide. In Australia and New Zealand, over 13 000 patients have become organ transplant recipients (OTR). Following transplantation, patients require lifelong immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection. The loss of immune surveillance results in OTR experiencing a higher incidence of infection and malignancy in comparison with the general (immunocompetent) population. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy worldwide, arising most often on the sun-exposed head and neck. Organ transplant recipients experience a higher incidence of NMSC when compared with the general population and a higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma compared with basal cell carcinoma. Organ transplant recipients also develop NMSC at a younger age and experience multiple new NMSC. Australians experience the highest incidence of NMSC in the world with a consequence that NMSC arising in OTR can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. Radiation oncologists treating patients with skin cancer will almost certainly make recommendations in the setting of NMSC arising in OTR. The aim of this article is to discuss the role of radiotherapy in the management of OTR diagnosed with NMSC. The emphasis will be on the treatment of patients with a high-risk NMSC (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, unfavourable basal cell carcinoma) because this reflects the most common clinical scenario in which a recommendation of radiotherapy, usually adjuvant, may be considered

  2. Donor-Derived Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanyie, F. A.; Gray, E. B.; Delli Carpini, K. W.; Yanofsky, A.; McAuliffe, I.; Rana, M.; Chin-Hong, P. V.; Barone, C. N.; Davis, J. L.; Montgomery, S. P.; Huprikar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is typically asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, despite chronic infection. In contrast, immunocompromised hosts such as solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for hyperinfection syndrome and/or disseminated disease, frequently resulting in fatal outcomes. Infection in these recipients may result from reactivation of latent infection or infection through transmission from an infected donor. We describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's experience with seven clusters of donor-derived infection from 2009 to 2013. Six of the seven (86%) donors were born in Latin America; donor screening was not performed prior to organ transplantation in any of these investigations. Eleven of the 20 (55%) organ recipients were symptomatic, two of whom died from complications of strongyloidiasis. We also describe the New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) experience with targeted donor screening from 2010 to 2013. Of the 233 consented potential donors tested, 10 tested positive for Strongyloides antibody; and 18 organs were transplanted. The majority (86%) of the donors were born in Central or South America. Fourteen recipients received prophylaxis after transplantation; no recipients developed strongyloidiasis. The NYODN experience provides evidence that when targeted donor screening is performed prior to transplantation, donor-derived infection can be averted in recipients. PMID:25703251

  3. Attitudes Toward Organ Donation and Transplantation in Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Falcony, R; Ramírez-Orozco, R; Ortiz-Aldana, F I; Rodríguez-Jamaica, J; Ramírez-Orozco, A; Camarena-Reynoso, H; Nava-Romero, E; Reyes, K; Martínez-Bernal, S; Sánchez-Ojeda, M; Martínez-Navarro, M; Colio-Montoya, M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic diseases have become a main cause of morbidity and mortality provoking function loss in organs. Quality of life is poor and expensive with replacement therapy. Transplantation offers a higher survival rate and a better life; however, the donation rate in Mexico is low, making it important to know the opinion of the population. Six hundred forty-two people in Guanajuato, Mexico, (>15 years old) were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, education, religion, organ donation, and transplantation attitudes were evaluated. Donation attitudes in life or death were: very willing to donation (82.8% vs 61.5%), refuse to donate (12.7% vs 29.4%), and undecided (4.5% vs 9.1%). Reasons for donation were: altruism (63%), being useful to someone (28.6%), and empathy (7.1%). Negative causes were: personal beliefs (35.6%), fear (23.7%), and ignorance or "I don't know the recipient" (18.5%). Finally, 94.5% of the population is willing to receive a transplant if they need it. Guanajuato has a high tendency to donate their own organs, but less to donate from a family member. Refusal to donate has originated from lack/misinformation that people received from health professionals. Although most people are willing to donate, this is not reflected in donation rates. To be able to make this intention reality, we must create educational models for health care personnel that will allow them to transmit proper information to the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Guidelines for the referral and management of patients eligible for solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, T I; Becker, B N; Frost, A E; Olthoff, K M; Smart, F W; Suki, W N; Wilkinson, A H

    2001-05-15

    Members of the Clinical Practice Committee, American Society of Transplantation, have attempted to define referral criteria for solid organ transplantation. Work done by the Clinical Practice Committee does not represent the official position of the American Society of Transplantation. Recipients for solid organ transplantation are growing in numbers, progressively outstripping the availability of organ donors. As there may be discrepancies in referral practice and, therefore, inequity may exist in terms of access to transplantation, there needs to be uniformity about who should be referred to transplant centers so the system is fair for all patients. A review of the literature that is both generic and organ specific has been conducted so referring physicians can understand the criteria that make the patient a suitable potential transplant candidate. The psychosocial milieu that needs to be addressed is part of the transplant evaluation. Early intervention and evaluation appear to play a positive role in maximizing quality of life for the transplant recipient. There is evidence, especially in nephrology, that the majority of patients with progressive failure are referred to transplant centers at a late stage of disease. Evidence-based medicine forms the basis for medical decision-making about accepting the patient as a transplant candidate. The exact criteria for each organ are detailed. These guidelines reflect consensus opinions, synthesized by the authors after extensive literature review and reflecting the experience at their major transplant centers. These guidelines can be distributed by transplant centers to referring physicians, to aid them in understanding who is potentially an acceptable candidate for transplantation. The more familiar physicians are with the exact criteria for specific organ transplantation, the more likely they are to refer patients at an appropriate stage. Individual transplant centers will make final decisions on acceptability for

  5. Contribution of solid organ transplant recipients to the pediatric non-hodgkin lymphoma burden in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Shiels, Meredith S; Smith, Jodi M; Clarke, Christina A; Lynch, Charles F; Kahn, Amy R; Koch, Lori; Pawlish, Karen S; Engels, Eric A

    2017-12-01

    Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients have a 100 to 200 times higher risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) than the general pediatric population. Consequently, transplant-related NHL may contribute considerably to the pediatric NHL burden in the United States. A cohort study using a linkage between the US transplant registry and 16 cancer registries was conducted. Cancer incidence rates were calculated for people less than 20 years old in the transplant and general populations. Rates were applied to transplant registry and US census data to estimate pediatric NHL counts for transplant recipients and the general population. During 1990-2012, an estimated 22,270 NHLs were diagnosed in US children and adolescents; they included 628 cases diagnosed in transplant recipients. Thus, 2.82% of pediatric NHL diagnoses in the general population (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.45%-3.19%) occurred in transplant recipients. Among transplant recipients, the most common subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; 64.5% of cases) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL; 8.6%). For DLBCL and BL, transplant recipients contributed 7.62% (95% CI, 6.35%-8.88%) and 0.87% (95% CI, 0.51%-1.23%) of diagnoses, respectively. The proportion of NHLs that occurred in transplant recipients was highest among children less than 5 years old (4.46%; 95% CI, 3.24%-5.69%) and in more recent calendar years (3.73% in 2010-2012; 95% CI, 2.07%-5.39%). DLBCL patterns were similar, with transplant recipients contributing 19.78% of cases among children less than 5 years old (95% CI, 12.89%-26.66%) and 11.4% of cases in 2010-2012 (95% CI, 5.54%-17.28%). Among children and adolescents, solid organ transplant recipients contribute a substantial fraction of NHL diagnoses, particularly DLBCL diagnoses. This fraction has increased over time. Prevention efforts targeted toward this group could reduce the overall pediatric NHL burden. Cancer 2017;123:4663-4671. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer

  6. 76 FR 44936 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Committee on Organ Transplantation (ACOT). Date and Times: August 23, 2011, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m.; August 24... (2000), ACOT was established to assist the Secretary in enhancing organ donation, ensuring that the...

  7. Influence of scientific worldviews on attitudes toward organ transplants: national survey data from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D R; Kelley, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Public acceptance of routine medical procedures is nearly universal, but controversy over dramatic or invasive procedures like transplants is common. To assess the distributions and organization of public opinion on organ transplant and to discover the magnitude of the direct and indirect impacts of religion, scientific knowledge, and acceptance of evolution on individuals' support for organ transplant. A representative sample (N=2069) of the US adult, English-speaking population in 2009. Participants were administered the International Social Science Survey/USA 2009. Organ transplants were warmly endorsed by most Americans in 2009, as earlier, but support is not universal. Confirmatory factor analysis shows that Americans' opinions on heart, kidney, and pancreas transplants all reflect the same underlying attitude toward major organ transplants. Structural equation modeling shows that scientific knowledge is the most important influence on these attitudes, with more knowledgeable persons being more supportive. Acceptance of the theory of evolution is the second most important factor, also associated with greater support for transplant. Growing up in a church-going family encourages people to support organ transplant, even after adjusting for other influences. Otherwise denomination and religious belief have only small indirect influences. Demographic differences are small. These results provide clues about future trends. A religious revival, were it to occur, would not be likely to alter support for transplants. If public knowledge of science continues to increase, or acceptance of the theory of evolution grows, support for transplant will most likely increase.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis in organ transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basset-Seguin, N; Baumann Conzett, K; Gerritsen, M J P

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of actinic keratoses (AK) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) is significantly higher than in immunocompetent patients. Rates of progression and recurrence following treatment are higher too, in part due to the effects of the immunosu......Background The incidence of actinic keratoses (AK) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) is significantly higher than in immunocompetent patients. Rates of progression and recurrence following treatment are higher too, in part due to the effects...... for treating this patient population that take into account the need for more frequent treatment and the increased pain associated with treating larger areas. Objectives Recently, a pan-European group of dermatologists with expertise in this area met to share current best practice in PDT for the treatment...... of AK in OTRs. Methods The group identified areas where PDT currently is not meeting the needs of these patients and discussed how these gaps might be addressed. Results/Conclusions This position article summarizes those discussions and makes recommendations concerning a standardized protocol...

  9. Organ transplantation in Greece: the need for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, A

    2014-11-01

    Organ transplants are not regarded as an exclusively medical process, because they involve financial, religious, philosophic, and bioethical parameters. It becomes clear that if they are to achieve their purpose, which we believe extends well beyond the medical dimension, the creation of a comprehensive framework of communication between the involved parties is of paramount importance. The aim of this paper is to present an outline and a number of considerations regarding the communicational, bioethical, and legal issues that arise from a rather dramatic state of affairs in Greece today: In 2012 the rate of organ transplants stood at only 7 per 1 million of the population. The outdated legal framework and the lack of trust on the part of patients and the public have led to a highly inefficient system that is lagging behind in many respects. The proposition made in this paper is that there is a need for a new system of communication between doctors, patients, relatives of patients, and hospitals: bioethical mediation. This is a system that has played a vital role and has produced astounding results in other countries. There is also every indication that the introduction of such a system is crucial for Greece, especially as the symptoms of the acute financial crisis are become fully visible and tangible. Mediation aims to identify solutions that are oriented toward the interests and wishes of patients, are acknowledged and accepted by all parties involved, and are in tune with the values and the principles of medical practice.

  10. Heart of the Matter: Bodies without Organs and Biopolitics in Organ Transplant Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I will look at four recent films that have organ transplantations "at their heart": 21 Grams (Alejandro González Iñárritu, 2003), L'Intrus (Claire Denis, 2001), Dirty Pretty Things (Stephen Frears, 2002) and Heart of Jenin (Leon Geller and Markus Vetter, 2008). Each film in its own way

  11. Trend Analysis of Organ and Tissue Donation for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, M J; Leal de Moraes, E; Santini Martins, M; Carlos de Almeida, E; Borges de Barros E Silva, L; Urias, V; Silvano Corrêa Pacheco Furtado, M C; Brito Nunes, Á; El Hage, S

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the tendency toward donations of tissue and organs from donors with brain death between 2001 and 2016 as registered by an organ procurement organization in São Paulo City. This quantitative, retrospective, exploratory study encompassed all Tissue and Organ Donation Terms signed between 2001 and 2016. A logistic regression model was applied to verify whether there was an upward or downward trend in donation. After statistical analysis, a significant change trend was identified in skin, bones, valve, vessel, heart, lung, and pancreas donations, indicating an increase in the donation rate through the years. The donation rate did not show changes over the years for donations of liver, kidneys, and corneas. The decision-making process regarding organ and tissue donation is restricted not only to the dilemma of whether to donate but another question then arises as well: which organs and tissues are to be donated? The discrepancy between the authorization for organ donation and the authorization for tissue donation, as well as the option for one or another organ and/or tissue, must be thoroughly examined because these factors directly affect the number of transplants and acquirements effectively accomplished. These factors may be related to explaining to one's relatives aspects of the surgery, body reassembling, and usage of such organs and/or tissues. They may also be related to the lack of knowledge concerning organ donation and the symbolism represented by the organ and/or tissue, among other factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting and preventing readmissions in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Kelly L; Fleming, James N; Staino, Carmelina; Casale, Jillian P; Boyle, Kimberly M; Pilch, Nicole A; Meadows, Holly B; Mardis, Caitlin R; McGillicuddy, John W; Nadig, Satish; Bratton, Charles F; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Taber, David J

    2016-07-01

    A lack of research exploring post-transplant process optimization to reduce readmissions and increasing readmission rates at our center from 2009 to 2013 led to this study, aimed at assessing the effect of patient and process factors on 30-d readmission rates after kidney transplantation. This was a retrospective case-control study in adult kidney transplant recipients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to assess patient and process determinants of 30-d readmissions. 384 patients were included; 30-d readmissions were significantly associated with graft loss and death (p = 0.001). Diabetes (p = 0.049), pharmacist identification of poor understanding or adherence, and prolonged time on hemodialysis prior to transplant were associated with an increased risk of 30-d readmissions. After controlling for risk factors, readmission rates were only independently predicted by pharmacist identification of patient lack of understanding or adherence regarding post-transplant medications and dialysis exposure for more than three yr (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.10-4.71, p = 0.026 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.22, 3.70, respectively), both of which were significantly modified by history of diabetes. Thirty-d readmissions are attributable to both patient and process-level factors. These data suggest that a lack of post-transplant medication knowledge in high-risk patients drives early hospital readmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Influence of HBcAb positivity in the organ donor in heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, C; Aparicio, M

    2012-11-01

    There is a significant risk of hepatitis B transmission from HBsAg (-), HBcAb (+) donors in liver transplantation, but there is little information about hepatitis B transmission from HBcAb heart donors. The present study examines the influence of HBcAb presence in relation to heart donor acceptance and offers an update of the published studies. Survey and medical database update from 1994 to October 2011. Spanish heart transplantation teams. Not applicable. Acceptance of heart transplant from an HBcAb (+) organ donor. Twelve out of 15 surveyed teams were seen to vaccinate against HBV, and two quantify HBsAb titers. Seven teams specifically request donor HBcAb status. If the latter proves positive, two do not accept transplantation, two accept if the donor is also HBsAb (+), one selects the receptor under emergency conditions, and three use drug prophylaxis isolatedly or complementary to the above. Only one case of hepatitis B has been reported in a HBcAb (-) and HBsAb (-) receptor that did not receive prophylactic measures. There have been reports of seroconversion of the HBcAb and HBsAb markers, though with an uncertain etiology. HBcAb seropositivity influences acceptance of a heart donor, but agreement is lacking. There is limited information on receptor evolution. To date there has been one reported case of hepatitis B after heart transplant. Although rare, an HBcAb (+) donor can harbor occult HBV infection. The risk of infection can be prevented with appropriate HBsAb titers following vaccination or by pharmacological measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. The necessity of strengthening the cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations at national, regional, and international levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The donation of tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this important goal, national competent health authorities should considered the establishment of a mechanism that promote the widest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations with hospitals, research medical institutions, universities, and other medical institutions and facilities. One of the issues that can facilitate this cooperation is the establishment of a coding and traceability system that could identify all tissues and organs used in transplant activities carried out in any country. The promotion of national, regional, and international cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations would enable the sharing of relevant information that could be important for medical practice and scientific studies carried out by many countries, particularly for those countries with a weak health care system.

  15. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection through solid organ transplantation: confirmation via whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, J M; Kaul, D; Limbago, B M; Ramesh, M; Cohle, S; Denison, A M; Driebe, E M; Rasheed, J K; Zaki, S R; Blau, D M; Paddock, C D; McDougal, L K; Engelthaler, D M; Keim, P S; Roe, C C; Akselrod, H; Kuehnert, M J; Basavaraju, S V

    2014-11-01

    We describe two cases of donor-derived methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia that developed after transplantation of organs from a common donor who died from acute MRSA endocarditis. Both recipients developed recurrent MRSA infection despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, and required prolonged hospitalization and hospital readmission. Comparison of S. aureus whole genome sequence of DNA extracted from fixed donor tissue and recipients' isolates confirmed donor-derived transmission. Current guidelines emphasize the risk posed by donors with bacteremia from multidrug-resistant organisms. This investigation suggests that, particularly in the setting of donor endocarditis, even a standard course of prophylactic antibiotics may not be sufficient to prevent donor-derived infection. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Immunosuppression and organ transplantation tolerance using total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a method which delivers irradiation daily in fractionated doses (200 rads) to lymphoid organs while shielding bones, lungs, and the majority of the gastrointestinal tract. TLI is lymphocytopenic in mice, rats, dogs, and humans, and both T cells and B cells are eliminated from the circulation. TLI permits establishment of specific and long-lasting tolerance to alloantigens. Permanent acceptance of allogeneic bone marrow cells without graft-versus-host disease was achieved in rats and dogs across major histocompatibility barriers. Recipients were tolerant to allografts of skin, hearts, and kidney from animals syngeneic to marrow donors or to organs from the marrow donor. This approach may be suitable for pancreas transplantation in diabetes

  17. Organ transplant education: the way to form altruistic behaviors among secondary school students toward organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, I; Przybylowski, P; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J

    2010-01-01

    Organ shortage for transplantation is a crucial problem all over the world. Educational intervention may appeal to young people's altruism, increasing organ donation and decreasing the opposition. This study assessed the influence of an educational program, including organ donation and transplantation, to forming students' altruistic behaviors. A total 680 students of 25 secondary schools were asked about their attitudes, intentions, and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation from September 2008 to June 2009 during a 45-minute lesson. In this study, altruistic attitudes were measured through questions about the expression of will to give organs away after death; to give one kidney to relatives; to use the bone marrow from a foreign person; and to sign a donor card. Attitudes were assessed by questions about conversations with relatives, an evaluation of the educational project. More than 1500 donor card were distributed and more than 90% of students wanted to sign them; 73.6% agreed to sign a donor card with the ID card. Before the project, only 8% of students had a signed donor card. Almost everybody is ready to agree to give their organs after death (80.6% male; 92.2% female), or to relatives (100% male; 90.38% female), or bone marrow (80% male; 55.7% female). The students talked to their family, informing them about their decision (36.9% male; 45.9% female). The proposed educational project successfully encouraged teenagers to make well-considered choices with regard to organ donation and created altruistic behaviors.

  18. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Wacker, Frank; Hueper, Katja; Jang, Mi-Sun; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Gueler, Faikah; Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel; Lehner, Frank; Braesen, Jan Hinrich

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p < 0.001; lung transplantation 1058 ± 96 ms, p < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the renal medulla. Accordingly, the corticomedullary difference was diminished shortly after solid organ transplantation. T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of acute kidney injury with T1 mapping MRI following solid organ transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peperhove, Matti; Vo Chieu, Van Dai; Gutberlet, Marcel; Hartung, Dagmar; Tewes, Susanne; Wacker, Frank; Hueper, Katja [Hannover Medical School, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Jang, Mi-Sun; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haller, Hermann; Gueler, Faikah [Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Warnecke, Gregor; Fegbeutel, Christiane; Haverich, Axel [Hannover Medical School, Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Lehner, Frank [Hannover Medical School, General, Abdominal and Transplant Surgery, Hannover (Germany); Braesen, Jan Hinrich [Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence. T1 times in renal cortex and medulla and the corticomedullary difference were compared between groups using one-way ANOVA adjusted for multiple comparison with the Tukey test, and T1 times were correlated with renal function using Pearson's correlation. Compared to healthy volunteers T1 times were significantly increased after solid organ transplantation in the renal cortex (healthy volunteers 987 ± 102 ms; kidney transplantation 1299 ± 101 ms, p < 0.001; lung transplantation 1058 ± 96 ms, p < 0.05) and to a lesser extent in the renal medulla. Accordingly, the corticomedullary difference was diminished shortly after solid organ transplantation. T1 changes were more pronounced following kidney compared to lung transplantation, were associated with the stage of renal impairment and significantly correlated with renal function. T1 mapping may be helpful for early non-invasive assessment of acute kidney injury and renal pathology following major surgery such as solid organ transplantation. (orig.)

  20. The logistics management and coordination in procurement phase of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Ruhet

    2008-12-01

    The number of organ transplantation surgeries has increased particularly in the last decade due to technological and scientific advances in medicine. Despite this increase, many patients, however, remain in waiting lists for transplantation surgery. Main reasons for these waiting lists are that there are limited number of organ donations and specifically problems in the management of organ transplantation activities. An efficient management of the allocation and transportation of organs (in other words, logistics management of organ transplantation) are thus extremely important. The aim of the paper is to review current practices of logistics management in the procurement phase of organ transplantation. It initially reviews the organizational structures of the international and national coordination centres, which are founded to coordinate organ transplantation activities and to enhance collaboration among physicians and medical staff. The paper, then, focuses on the possible managerial problems encountered during the procurement phase of organ transplantation. With this respect, common transportation difficulties from global and local perspective are also analyzed. This paper tries to take attention to a systematic regard of the organ transplantation from logistics point of view, thus providing applicable solutions to managerial problems in terms of allocation and transportation of organs.

  1. Multispectral imaging of organ viability during uterine transplantation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Neil T.; Saso, Srdjan; Stoyanov, Danail; Sauvage, Vincent; Corless, David J.; Boyd, Michael; Noakes, David E.; Thum, Meen-Yau; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. R.; Elson, Daniel S.

    2014-02-01

    Uterine transplantation surgery has been proposed as a treatment for permanent absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) in the case of loss of the uterus. Due to the complexity of the vasculature correct reanastomosis of the blood supply during transplantation surgery is a crucial step to ensure reperfusion and viability of the organ. While techniques such as fluorescent dye imaging have been proposed to visualise perfusion there is no gold standard for intraoperative visualisation of tissue oxygenation. In this paper results from a liquid crystal tuneable filter (LCTF)-based multispectral imaging (MSI) laparoscope are described. The system was used to monitor uterine oxygen saturation (SaO2) before and after transplantation. Results from surgeries on two animal models (rabbits and sheep) are presented. A feature-based registration algorithm was used to correct for misalignment induced by breathing or peristalsis in the tissues of interest prior to analysis. An absorption spectrum was calculated at each spatial pixel location using reflectance data from a reference standard, and the relative contributions from oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin were calculated using a least squares regression algorithm with non-negativity constraints. Results acquired during animal surgeries show that cornual oxygenation changes are consistent with those observed in point measurements taken using a pulse oximeter, showing reduced SaO2 following reanastomosis. Values obtained using the MSI laparoscope were lower than those taken with the pulse oximeter, which may be due to the latter's use of the pulsatile arterial blood signal. Future work incorporating immunological test results will help to correlate SaO2 levels with surgical outcomes.

  2. SOLID ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION IN THE SVERDLOVSK REGION: EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of solid organ transplantation in the Sverdlovsk Region Clinical Hospital № 1, a practical healthcare center. We have analyzed the clinical results and the practical feasibility of transplantation of donor organs: the kidney, liver and heart in the leading regional multi-profi le clinic. The clinical effi cacy of transplantation in patients with the irreversible decompensated phase of solid organs has been shown. We have substantiated the prospective directions of the development of transplantation practices in the region.

  3. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2013 6th report of National Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the state and prospects of the development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2013. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the register in 2013 in the Russian Federation functioned 35 centers of kidney transplantation, 15 centers of liver transplantation and 10 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation included more than 4000 potential recipients that makes 15–16% of total number of the patients receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity made 2,9 per million population (pmp. Effi ciency of donor programs continues to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2013 increased to 72,4%, the share of multiorgan explantation increased to 52,9%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2,6. The rate of kidney transplantation made 6,5 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 1,9 pmp; the rate of heart transplantation made 1,1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The signifi cant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half of all kidney transplantations and 70% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. In 2013 Ministry of Health of Russia continued development of the new federal law «On donation of human organs and their transplantation». Under the auspices of the Russian Transplant Society 11 clinical guidelines about organ donation and transplantation were developed and approved. Together with earlier approved

  4. Increasing violent deaths and organ transplantation in Brazil: is there a parallel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gomes Ramalho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Mortality from violent causes has significantly increased in Brazil, as well as the number of deceased-donor organ transplantation. Although the increase in the number of transplants correlates with higher organ availability, through the increase in potential donors, this is not the unique aspect to be considered. The effective and articulated action of transplantation network seems to be decisive to this outcome.

  5. Impact of legal measures prevent transplant tourism: the interrelated experience of The Philippines and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Benita; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parallel changes that have taken place in recent years in two countries, Israel and The Philippines, the former once an "exporter" of transplant tourists and the latter once an "importer" of transplant tourists. These changes were in response to progressive legislation in both countries under the influence of the Declaration of Istanbul. The annual number of Israeli patients who underwent kidney transplantation abroad decreased from a peak of 155 in 2006 to an all-time low of 35 in 2011 while in the Philippines the annual number of foreign transplant recipients fell from 531 in 2007 to two in 2011. The experience of these two countries provides a "natural experiment" on the potential impact of legal measures to prevent transplant tourism.

  6. Regional and international integrated telemedicine network for organ transplant (HC 4028 & IN 4028 European Commission DGXIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, S. G.; Brugal, G.; Godo, F.; Bercic, B.; Nagy, G.; Avar, G.; Adelh, D.; Lagouarde, P.

    2000-01-01

    A substantial portion of future medical practice will depend greatly on improved collaboration between the providers throughout the healthcare sector, and effective sharing of data and expertise by different healthcare professionals. In organ transplant it is a rule, donor organs are matched to recipients via national or multinational organ-sharing organizations. Only through close co-operation between transplant surgeons, immunologists, nephrologists, pathologists, radiologists and other physicians could one increase the efficiency of organ transplantation. Information technology (IT) has become an inevitable and inherent part of transplantation medicine. The RETRANSPLANT project interfaces and integrates IT from the European Union Fourth Framework projects to support the development of regional organ transplant information networks in Central Europe. PMID:11080009

  7. Evolution of body weight parameters up to 3 years after solid organ transplantation: The prospective Swiss Transplant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Sonja; Nikolic, Nataša; Denhaerynck, Kris; Binet, Isabelle; Koller, Michael; Boely, Elsa; De Geest, Sabina

    2017-03-01

    Obesity and weight gain are serious concerns after solid organ transplantation (Tx); however, no unbiased comparison regarding body weight parameter evolution across organ groups has yet been performed. Using data from the prospective nationwide Swiss Transplant Cohort Study, we compared the evolution of weight parameters up to 3 years post-Tx in 1359 adult kidney (58.3%), liver (21.7%), lung (11.6%), and heart (8.4%) recipients transplanted between May 2008 and May 2012. Changes in mean weight and body mass index (BMI) category were compared to reference values from 6 months post-Tx. At 3 years post-Tx, compared to other organ groups, liver Tx recipients showed the greatest weight gain (mean 4.8±10.4 kg), 57.4% gained >5% body weight, and they had the highest incidence of obesity (38.1%). After 3 years, based on their BMI categories at 6 months, normal weight and obese liver Tx patients, as well as underweight kidney, lung and heart Tx patients had the highest weight gains. Judged against international Tx patient data, the majority of our Swiss Tx recipients' experienced lower post-Tx weight gain. However, our findings show weight gain pattern differences, both within and across organ Tx groups that call for preventive measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2015. 8th report of National Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of the organ donation and transplantation in theRussian Federationaccording to 2015.Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics by years, between certain regions of theRussian Federation, the transplantation centers is done.Results. According to the register in2015 inthe Russian Federation 36 centers of renal transplantation, 17 centers of liver transplantation and 10 centers of heart transplantation were functioning. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2015 included 4167 potential recipients that make 13% of the total number of the patients (31 500 receiving a dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2015 made 3.0 pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2015 continues to increase: the share of multiorgan retrievals made 57.8%, average number of organs, received from one effective donor, made 2.7. In 2015 the rate of kidney transplantation made 6.5 pmp; the rate of liver transplantation made 2.2 pmp; the rate of heart transplantation made 1.2 pmp. The number of transplantations of liver and heart in theRussian Federationcontinues to increase. The number of transplantations of kidney remains approximately at one level in the range of 950–1050.Moscowcapital region continues to be the center of stability and development of the organ donation and transplantation in the country, in which 10 centers of transplantation are functioning and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out.Conclusion. The potential for further development of the transplantation care in theRussian Federationcontinues to persist. In particular, at the expense of increasing efficiency of regional donation programs, expanding practices of multiorgan recuperation and transplantations of extrarenal organs, through

  9. 75 FR 62487 - Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the Commissioner... cardiovascular disease and multiple organ transplants, as well as topics covered at the hearing by: (1) e-mail... considering ways to quickly identify diseases and other serious medical conditions that obviously meet the...

  10. Rabies Virus Transmission in Solid Organ Transplantation, China, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuilian; Zhang, Heng; Luo, Meiling; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Chen, Faming; Liu, Ruchun; Chen, Tianmu

    2017-09-01

    We report rabies virus transmission among solid organ transplantation recipients in Changsha, China, in 2016. Two recipients were confirmed to have rabies and died. Our findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the possibility of rabies virus transmission through organ transplantation for clinical and public health reasons.

  11. The effect of the Syrian crisis on organ transplantation in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bassam

    2015-04-01

    The war in Syria that started in March 2011 has destroyed much of the country's infrastructure including many hospitals. The total number of kidney transplants performed in Syria in 2010 was 385 transplants before the number gradually declined to 154 transplants in 2013, a decrease of 60%. In addition, the number of operational kidney transplant centers has decreased from 8 to 4 centers. Unrelated-donor kidney transplant decreased from 70% during the years that preceded the crisis to 47% in 2013. More than 50% of physicians and surgeons involved in kidney transplant are not practicing transplant currently in their centers. Difficulties in the provision of immunosuppressive drugs for all patients in all provinces constitute a major challenge for the health authorities and transplant patients, especially patients who cannot arrange an alternate source. The project to initiate liver transplant came to a halt because foreign trainers could not visit Syria. The autologous bone marrow transplant program continued to function, but in a smaller and irregular manner. The commitment of transplant teams despite the large challenges was, and still is, extraordinary. In conclusion, all aspects of organ transplant have been affected, paralyzing new projects and negatively affecting existing programs.

  12. Nocardia Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: A Multicenter European Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussement, Julien; Lebeaux, David; van Delden, Christian; Guillot, Hélène; Freund, Romain; Marbus, Sierk; Melica, Giovanna; Van Wijngaerden, Eric; Douvry, Benoit; Van Laecke, Steven; Vuotto, Fanny; Tricot, Leïla; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Dantal, Jacques; Hirzel, Cédric; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Rodriguez-Nava, Veronica; Lortholary, Olivier; Jacobs, Frédérique

    2016-08-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare, life-threatening opportunistic infection, affecting 0.04% to 3.5% of patients after solid organ transplant (SOT). The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for Nocardia infection after SOT and to describe the presentation of nocardiosis in these patients. We performed a retrospective case-control study of adult patients diagnosed with nocardiosis after SOT between 2000 and 2014 in 36 European (France, Belgium, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Spain) centers. Two control subjects per case were matched by institution, transplant date, and transplanted organ. A multivariable analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to identify risk factors for nocardiosis. One hundred and seventeen cases of nocardiosis and 234 control patients were included. Nocardiosis occurred at a median of 17.5 (range, 2-244) months after transplant. In multivariable analysis, high calcineurin inhibitor trough levels in the month before diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 6.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.58-14.51), use of tacrolimus (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.17-6.00) and corticosteroid dose (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22) at the time of diagnosis, patient age (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), and length of stay in the intensive care unit after SOT (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09) were independently associated with development of nocardiosis; low-dose cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was not found to prevent nocardiosis. Nocardia farcinica was more frequently associated with brain, skin, and subcutaneous tissue infections than were other Nocardia species. Among the 30 cases with central nervous system nocardiosis, 13 (43.3%) had no neurological symptoms. We identified 5 risk factors for nocardiosis after SOT. Low-dose cotrimoxazole was not found to prevent Nocardia infection. These findings may help improve management of transplant recipients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  13. Transplantation d'organes : quelles voies de recherche ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard , Monique; Chatenoud , Lucienne; Compagnon , Philippe; Cuturi , Maria Cristina; Durand , François; Durrbach , Antoine; Grimbert , Philippe; Hauet , Thierry; Lang , Philippe; Legendre , Christophe; Morelon , Emmanuel; Samuel , Didier; Sebbag , Laurent; Thabut , Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Malgré des progrès indéniables, la transplantation d’organes est confrontée à des obstacles récurrents. D’un point de vue médical, le principal obstacle est représenté par le système immunitaire du receveur qui met en place et coordonne un ensemble de mécanismes visant à détruire le greffon allogénique reconnucomme du non-soi. Si la réponse immune joue un rôle capital dans le rejet ou l’acceptation du greffon, de multiples mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires conditionnent le devenir du gre...

  14. Study Rationale, Design and Pre-Transplant Alloantibody Status: A First Report of Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children-04 (CTOTC-04) in Pediatric Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Warren A; Zeevi, Adriana; Mason, Kristen L; Feingold, Brian; Bentlejewski, Carol; Addonizio, Linda J; Blume, Elizabeth D; Canter, Charles E; Dipchand, Anne I; Hsu, Daphne T; Shaddy, Robert E; Mahle, William T; Demetris, Anthony J; Briscoe, David M; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Ahearn, Joseph M; Iklé, David N; Armstrong, Brian D; Morrison, Yvonne; Diop, Helena; Odim, Jonah; Webber, Steven A

    2018-02-15

    Anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies are associated with worse outcomes following organ transplantation. Among sensitized pediatric heart candidates, requirement for negative donor-specific cytotoxicity crossmatch increases wait times and mortality. However, transplantation with positive crossmatch may increase post-transplant morbidity and mortality. We address this clinical challenge in a prospective, multi-center, observational cohort study of children listed for heart transplantation (CTOTC-04). Outcomes were compared among sensitized recipients who underwent transplant with positive crossmatch, non-sensitized recipients, and sensitized recipients without positive crossmatch. Positive crossmatch recipients received antibody removal and augmented immunosuppression, while other recipients received standard immunosuppression with corticosteroid avoidance. This first CTOTC-04 report summarizes study rationale and design, and reports on pre-transplant sensitization status using solid phase technology. Risk factors for sensitization were explored. Of 317 screened patients, 290 were enrolled and 240 underwent transplantation. Core laboratory evaluation demonstrated that over half of patients were anti-HLA sensitized. Over 80% of sensitized patients had class I (with or without class II) HLA antibodies, and one third of sensitized patients had at least one HLA antibody with median fluorescence intensity (MFI) ≥8000. Logistic regression models demonstrated male sex, weight, congenital heart disease history, prior allograft and ventricular assist device are independent risk factors for sensitization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegtenhorst, Bendix R; Dor, Frank J M F; Elkhal, Abdala; Rodriguez, Hector; Yang, Xiaoyong; Edtinger, Karoline; Quante, Markus; Chong, Anita S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2014-06-15

    Donor organ scarcity remains a significant clinical challenge in transplantation. Older organs, increasingly utilized to meet the growing demand for donor organs, have been linked to inferior transplant outcomes. Susceptibility to organ injury, reduced repair capacity, and increased immunogenicity are interrelated and impacted by physiological and pathological aging processes. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are needed to develop age-specific interventional strategies with regards to organ preservation, immunosuppression, and allocation. In this overview, we summarize current knowledge of injury and repair mechanisms and the effects of aging relevant to transplantation.

  16. Bacterial urinary tract infection after solid organ transplantation in the RESITRA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, E; Torre-Cisneros, J; Blanes, M; Montejo, M; Cervera, C; Aguado, J M; Len, O; Carratalá, J; Cordero, E; Bou, G; Muñoz, P; Ramos, A; Gurguí, M; Borrell, N; Fortún, J

    2012-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in renal transplant patients, but it is necessary to determine the risk factors for bacterial UTI in recipients of other solid organ transplants (SOTs), as well as changes in etiology, clinical presentation, and prognosis. In total, 4388 SOT recipients were monitored in 16 transplant centers belonging to the Spanish Network for Research on Infection in Transplantation (RESITRA). The frequency and characteristics of bacterial UTI in transplant patients were obtained prospectively from the cohort (September 2003 to February 2005). A total of 192 patients (4.4%) presented 249 episodes of bacterial UTI (0.23 episodes per 1000 transplantation days); 156 patients were kidney or kidney-pancreas transplant recipients, and 36 patients were liver, heart, and lung transplant recipients. The highest frequency was observed in renal transplants (7.3%). High frequency of cystitis versus pyelonephritis without related mortality was observed in both groups. The most frequent etiology was Escherichia coli (57.8%), with 25.7% producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). In all transplants but renal, most cases occurred in the first month after transplantation. Cases were uniformly distributed during the first 6 months after transplantation in renal recipients. Age (odds ratio [OR] per decade 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.17), female gender (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.42-2.13), and the need for immediate post-transplant dialysis (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.29-2.05) were independent variables associated with bacterial UTI in renal and kidney-pancreas recipients. The independent risk factors identified in non-renal transplants were age (OR per decade 1.79, 95% CI 1.09-3.48), female gender (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.43-2.49), and diabetes (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.001-1.040). UTI was frequent in renal transplants, but also not unusual in non-renal transplants. Because E. coli continues to be the most frequent etiology, the emergence of ESBL

  17. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  18. Impact of enterococcal colonization and infection in solid organ transplantation recipients from the Swiss transplant cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, E; Kralidis, G; Boggian, K; Cusini, A; Garzoni, C; Manuel, O; Meylan, P R A; Mueller, N J; Khanna, N; van Delden, C; Berger, C; Koller, M T; Weisser, M

    2014-02-01

    The burden of enterococcal infections has increased over the last decades with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) being a major health problem. Solid organ transplantation is considered as a risk factor. However, little is known about the relevance of enterococci in solid organ transplantation recipients in areas with a low VRE prevalence. We examined the epidemiology of enterococcal events in patients followed in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study between May 2008 and September 2011 and analyzed risk factors for infection, aminopenicillin resistance, treatment, and outcome. Of the 1234 patients, 255 (20.7%) suffered from 392 enterococcal events (185 [47.2%] infections, 205 [52.3%] colonizations, and 2 events with missing clinical information). Only 2 isolates were VRE. The highest infection rates were found early after liver transplantation (0.24/person-year) consisting in 58.6% of Enterococcus faecium. The highest colonization rates were documented in lung transplant recipients (0.33/person-year), with 46.5% E. faecium. Age, prophylaxis with a betalactam antibiotic, and liver transplantation were significantly associated with infection. Previous antibiotic treatment, intensive care unit stay, and lung transplantation were associated with aminopenicillin resistance. Only 4/205 (2%) colonization events led to an infection. Adequate treatment did not affect microbiological clearance rates. Overall mortality was 8%; no deaths were attributable to enterococcal events. Enterococcal colonizations and infections are frequent in transplant recipients. Progression from colonization to infection is rare. Therefore, antibiotic treatment should be used restrictively in colonization. No increased mortality because of enterococcal infection was noted. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 77 FR 28607 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... bioethics, behavioral sciences, economics and statistics, as well as representatives of transplant...; law and bioethics; behavioral sciences; economics and econometrics; organ procurement organizations... detailed information concerning financial interests, consultancies, research grants, and/or contracts that...

  20. Exercise training in solid organ transplant recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didsbury, Madeleine; McGee, Richard G; Tong, Allison; Craig, Jonathan C; Chapman, Jeremy R; Chadban, Steve; Wong, Germaine

    2013-03-15

    Exercise training is effective in improving the cardiovascular risk profiles of nontransplanted patients, but the health benefits and potential harms of routine exercise training after solid organ transplantation are unclear. This study aims to assess the health benefits and harms of supervised exercise training programs in solid organ recipients. We systematically reviewed all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the outcomes of exercise training programs in solid organ recipients against standard care. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Transplant Library from the Centre for Evidence in Transplantation, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to June 2012. In total, 15 eligible RCTs involving 643 patients (9 cardiac transplants [n=250 patients], 2 kidney transplants [n=164 patients], 3 lung transplants [n=110 patients], and 1 liver transplant [n=119 patients]) were included. Cardiac transplant recipients who engaged in an exercise program after transplantation showed significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (standardized mean difference, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-1.45) but no improvement in the overall serum lipid profile, blood pressure, and glycemic control compared with standard care. Among other solid organ transplant recipients, no significant improvements in exercise capacity or cardiovascular risk factors such as incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplantation were observed, but all effect estimates were very imprecise. Exercise training is a promising but unproven intervention for improving the cardiovascular outcomes of solid organ transplant recipients. Existing trials are small, of relatively short duration, and focused on surrogate outcomes. Large-scale RCTs are urgently required if resources are to be directed toward exercise programs.

  1. The Constitutional Influence on Organ Transplants with Specific Reference to Organ Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Labuschagne

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the influence of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 on the law pertaining to organ transplants with specific reference to methods of organ procurement. These methods include a system of opting-in, presumed consent, required request, required response, the sale of organs, and organ procurement from prisoners. It is argued, in view of the acute shortage of organs, that the various organ procurement methods are in need of review in the context of the question of whether they are acceptable and sustainable within the constitutional framework. To this end, the article deals with the application, limitation and interpretation of the rights in the Bill of Rights and its interface with the various organ procurement methods in the context of a discussion of applicable legislation and relevant case law. It is argued that a constitutional analysis of the topic is indicative that the State has indeed failed to provide a proper or satisfactory legislative and regulatory framework to relieve the critical shortage of human organs available for transplantation, by ultimately failing to uphold the applicable constitutional rights and values as discussed.

  2. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants1

    OpenAIRE

    Slegtenhorst, Bendix R; Dor, Frank JMF; Elkhal, Abdala; Rodriguez, Hector; Yang, Xiaoyong; Edtinger, Karoline; Quante, Markus; Chong, Anita S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    Donor organ scarcity remains a significant clinical challenge in transplantation. Older organs, increasingly utilized to meet the growing demand for donor organs, have been linked to inferior transplant outcomes. Susceptibility to organ injury, reduced repair capacity, and increased immunogenicity are interrelated and impacted by physiological and pathological aging processes. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are needed to develop age-specific interventional strategies with regards to ...

  3. Organ donation and transplantation: Awareness and roles of healthcare professionals-A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawoniyi, Oluwafunmilayo; Gormley, Kevin; McGleenan, Emma; Noble, Helen Rose

    2018-03-01

    To examine the role of healthcare professionals in the organ donation and transplantation process. Globally, there remains a perennial disequilibrium between organ donation and organ transplantation. Several factors account for this disequilibrium; however, as healthcare professionals are not only strategically positioned as the primary intermediaries between organ donors and transplant recipients, but also professionally situated as the implementers of organ donation and transplantation processes, they are often blamed for the global organ shortage. Mixed-method systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols 2015 checklist. Databases were searched including CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE using the search terms "organ donation," "healthcare professionals," "awareness" and "roles" to retrieve relevant publications. Thirteen publications met the inclusion criteria. The global organ shortage is neither contingent upon unavailability of suitable organs nor exclusively dependent upon healthcare professionals. Instead, the existence of disequilibrium between organ donation and transplantation is necessitated by a web of factors. These include the following: healthcare professionals' attitudes towards, and experience of, the organ donation and transplantation process, underpinned by professional education, specialist clinical area and duration of professional practice; conflicts of interests; ethical dilemmas; altruistic values towards organ donation; and varied organ donation legislations in different legal jurisdictions. This review maintains that if this web of factors is to be adequately addressed by healthcare systems in different global and legal jurisdictions, there should be sufficient organs voluntarily donated to meet all transplantation needs. There is a suggestion that healthcare professionals partly account for the global shortage in organ donation, but there is a need to examine how

  4. Historical and current perspectives on bone marrow transplantation for prevention and treatment of immunodeficiencies and autoimmunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, R A; Verjee, T

    2001-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases often fully meet the definition of "experiments of nature." Much of the expanding understanding of the lymphoid systems and immunologic functions generated in recent years has been derived from studying patients with primary, generally genetically determined immunodeficiency diseases, as well as other relatively rare secondary immunodeficiency diseases. Increasing knowledge of immunologic defenses, their interacting cellular and molecular components, the evolving details of sequential stages of cellular differentiation, and the nature and control of the cellular and molecular interactions in immunity have now made it possible to define precisely many primary immunodeficiency diseases in full molecular genetic terms. With this wealth of scientific information based on experimental and clinical research, incredible advances have also been made in using bone marrow transplantation (BMT) often as a curative treatment for immunodeficiency, some 60 to 70 other diseases, leukemias, lymphomas, other cancers, and a rapidly expanding constellation of metabolic diseases or enzyme deficiencies. Also, progress in applying allogeneic BMT to prevent, treat, and cure complex autoimmune diseases, primary immunodeficiency diseases and certain forms of cancers, is considered. Further, mixed BMT (syngeneic plus allogeneic) that establishes a form of stable mixed chimerism has also been employed in animal experiments, which revealed that BMT can be used to treat not only immunodeficiency diseases, but also systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases, eg, diabetes and erythematous lupus-like diseases. Moreover, performing BMT in conjunction with organ allografts, eg, thymus or pancreatic transplants, has successfully prevented rejection of these allografts, sometimes without recourse to long-term irradiation or toxic chemical immunosuppressive agents. A crucial role for stromal cells in cellular engineering has now also been realized in animal

  5. [Current developments in liver transplantation in Germany: MELD-based organ allocation and incentives for transplant centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitt, H J; Loss, M; Scherer, M N; Becker, T; Jauch, K-W; Nashan, B; Schmidt, H; Settmacher, U; Rogiers, X; Neuhaus, P; Strassburg, C

    2011-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents a successful and well-established therapeutic concept for patients with advanced liver diseases. Organ donor shortage continues to pose a significant problem. To ensure fair and transparent allocation of too few post-mortem grafts, the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD)-based allocation was implemented in December 2006. This has decreased waiting list mortality from 20 to 10 % but at the same time has reduced post OLT survival (1-year survival from almost 90% to below 80%), which is largely due to patients with a labMELD score > 30. Following MELD introduction the regular allocation threshold has increased from a matchMELD of initially 25 to meanwhile 34. At the same time the quality of donor organs has seen a continuous deterioration over the last 10 - 15 years: 63% of organs are "suboptimal" with a donor risk index of > 1.5. Moreover, the numbers of living-related liver transplantations have decreased. In Germany incentives for transplant centres are inappropriate: patients with decompensated cirrhosis, high MELD scores and high post-transplant mortality as well as marginal liver grafts are accepted for transplantation without the necessary consideration of outcomes, and against a background of the still absent publication and transparency of outcome results. The outlined development calls for measures for improvement: (i) the increase of donor grafts (e. g., living donation, opt-out solutions, non-heart beating donors), (ii) the elimination of inappropriate incentives for transplant centres, (iii) changes of allocation guidelines, that take the current situation and suboptimal donor grafts into account, and (iv) the systematic and complete collection of transplant-related data in order to allow for the development of improved prognostic scores. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Reactivation of coccidioidomycosis despite antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckich, David W; Blair, Janis E; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Seville, Maria Teresa; Kusne, Shimon

    2011-07-15

    Coccidioidomycosis is an airborne infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides, which is endemic to the southwestern United States. Cell-mediated immunity is required for the control of this infection, and some patients such as organ transplant recipients, who lack such immunity, have a high risk of severe, disseminated, or relapsed infection with high mortality. Previously latent coccidioidal infection can reactivate after transplantation. Antifungal prophylaxis has substantially decreased the risk of reactivated coccidioidomycosis after transplantation in these patients. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with coccidioidomycosis who underwent solid organ transplantation at our center to identify factors for recrudescent coccidioidomycosis (despite antifungal prophylaxis) after transplantation. Between June 1999 and June 2009, 100 patients with previous coccidioidomycosis underwent solid organ transplantation at our institution. Ninety-four (94%) received anticoccidioidal prophylaxis after transplantation. The six patients who did not receive such prophylaxis did not experience reactivated coccidioidomycosis. Five patients who received anticoccidioidal prophylaxis experienced reactivated infection. All five patients survived with further antifungal treatment. Among patients who experienced recrudescent infection despite antifungal prophylaxis, African American race was an identified risk factor. Pretransplant dissemination may be a risk factor for reactivated coccidioidomycosis, but this finding was not statistically significant. Whether nonadherence to prophylaxis played a small or large role is uncertain. Antifungal prophylaxis effectively suppressed recrudescent coccidioidomycosis after solid organ transplantation for the large majority of patients with a history of coccidioidomycosis before transplantation. Strict lifelong adherence to antifungal prophylaxis is imperative.

  7. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2014 7th REPORT OF NATIONAL REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To carry out monitoring of the organization and development of organ donation and transplantation in the Russian Federation according to 2014. Materials and methods. Questioning of heads of all the centers of transplantation is carried out. The comparative analysis of the obtained data in dynamics of years, between certain regions of the Russian Federation, the transplantation centers, and also with data of the international registers is made. Results. According to the Register in 2014 in the Russian Federation functioned 36 centers of kidney transplantation, 14 centers of liver transplantation and 9 centers of heart transplantation. The waiting list of kidney transplantation in 2014 included 4636 potential recipients that makes 16% of total number of the patients 29 000 receiving dialysis. The rate of donor activity in 2014 made 3.2 per million population (pmp. Efficiency of donor programs in 2014 continued to increase: the share of effective donors after brain death in 2014 increased to 77.2%, the share of multiorgan explantation made 50.5%, average number of organs received from one effective donor made 2.6. In 2014 the rate of kidney transplantation made 7.0 pmp, the rate of liver transplantation made 2.1 pmp and the rate of heart transplantation made 1.1 pmp. In the Russian Federation the number of transplantations of liver and heart continues to increase. The significant contribution to development of the organ donation and transplantation brings the Moscow region in which 11 centers of transplantation function and nearly a half from all kidney transplantations and more than 65% of all liver and heart transplantations are carried out. Conclusion. In theRussian Federation the potential for further development of the transplantology remains. In particular, at the expense of increase in the efficiency of regional donation programs, introduction of technologies, expansion of the practices of multiorgan donation and transplantations of

  8. Clinical Utility of Viral Load in Management of Cytomegalovirus Infection after Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The negative impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on transplant outcomes warrants efforts toward improving its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. During the last 2 decades, significant breakthroughs in diagnostic virology have facilitated remarkable improvements in CMV disease management. During this period, CMV nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) evolved to become one of the most commonly performed tests in clinical virology laboratories. NAT provides a means for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of CMV infection in transplant recipients. Viral quantification also introduced several principles of CMV disease management. Specifically, viral load has been utilized (i) for prognostication of CMV disease, (ii) to guide preemptive therapy, (iii) to assess the efficacy of antiviral treatment, (iv) to guide the duration of treatment, and (v) to indicate the risk of clinical relapse or antiviral drug resistance. However, there remain important limitations that require further optimization, including the interassay variability in viral load reporting, which has limited the generation of standardized viral load thresholds for various clinical indications. The recent introduction of an international reference standard should advance the major goal of uniform viral load reporting and interpretation. However, it has also become apparent that other aspects of NAT should be standardized, including sample selection, nucleic acid extraction, amplification, detection, and calibration, among others. This review article synthesizes the vast amount of information on CMV NAT and provides a timely review of the clinical utility of viral load testing in the management of CMV in solid organ transplant recipients. Current limitations are highlighted, and avenues for further research are suggested to optimize the clinical application of NAT in the management of CMV after transplantation. PMID:24092851

  9. Development of Graft-Site Candidiasis in 3 Solid Organ Transplant Recipients from the Same Donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bandar, Nasrin; Kroy, Daniela C; Fuller, Tom Florian; Kramer, Jürgen; Liefeldt, Lutz; Budde, Klemens; Blobel, Conrad; Miller, Kurt; Friedersdorff, Frank

    2017-07-11

    BACKGROUND Graft-site candidiasis rarely develops in solid organ transplant recipients; however, severe life-threatening complications can occur. We report the course of 3 solid organ transplant recipients developing graft-site candidiasis. CASE REPORT All grafts, consisting of 2 kidneys and 1 liver, were procured from a single donor. Patient data were collected from our database. Candida albicans was isolated from a swab taken during multiple-organ recovery. Complications associated with candidiasis occurred in all 3 recipients with preservation of the liver transplant. Both renal transplant recipients had vascular complications, eventually resulting in graft nephrectomy and subsequent return to dialysis. The patients recovered completely without residual effects of their prior fungal infection. CONCLUSIONS Fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients are rare. Since the sequelae of these infections are serious and usually pertain to more than 1 recipient at a time, antifungal prophylaxis may be warranted in select donors.

  10. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study's framework for assessing lifelong psychosocial factors in solid-organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geest, Sabina; Burkhalter, Hanna; Berben, Lut; Bogert, Laura Jane; Denhaerynck, Kris; Glass, Tracy R; Goetzmann, Lutz; Kirsch, Monika; Kiss, Alexander; Koller, Michael T; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2013-09-01

    Understanding outcomes after transplant requires a biopsychosocial model that includes biomedical and psychosocial factors. The latter, to date, are assessed only in a limited way as part of transplant registries or cohort studies. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS) is a nationwide open cohort study (starting May 2008) to systematically and prospectively assess psychosocial factors. This article describes the framework underpinning STCS's psychosocial assessment. The STCS framework was adapted from the multidimensional conceptual perspective of Dew et al to describe transplant psychosocial domains and specific outcomes by adding a time perspective, a system perspective, and interaction among domains. We propose a multidimensional, multilevel biopsychosocial framework representing mutually influencing domains from before to after transplant, and exemplify each domain by factors included in STCS and their measurement. The transplant patient, centrally positioned, is described by clinical and sociodemographic characteristics (eg, socioeconomic status, educational, professional, and relationship status). The following psychosocial domains further describe the patient: (1) physical/functional (eg, perceived health status, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness), (2) psychological (eg, depression, stress), (3) behavioral (eg, medication adherence, smoking, drug use, physical activity, sun protection), (4) social (eg, work capacity/return to work), and (5) global quality of life. Factors associated with health care system level (eg, trust in transplant team) are also included in the model. The STCS's psychosocial framework provides a basis for studying the interplay of biomedical, sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and health care system factors in view of transplant outcomes and therefore has the potential to guide biopsychosocial transplant research.

  11. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients 2014 Data Report: Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Junchao; Wu, Guosheng; Qing, Annie; Everly, Matthew; Cheng, Elaine; Terasaki, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As of September 19, 2014, 2441 cases of intestinal transplantation have been performed in 46 centers (2400 deceased, 41 living). Eight centers did more than 100 transplants. Annual case numbers peaked in 2007 (N = 198) and steadily decreased to 109 cases in 2013. Short gut syndrome (68%) and functional bowel problems (15%) are two major indications for intestinal transplantation. The 3 major types of transplants involving the intestine include: isolated intestine transplant (I); simultaneous intestine, liver, and pancreas transplant (I+L+P); and, combined intestine and liver (I+L) transplant. Graft survival has significantly improved in recent years, mainly due to improved first year graft survival. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year graft survivals were: 74%, 42%,and 26%, respectively (I); 70%, 50%, and 40%, respectively (I+L+P); and 61%, 46%, and 40%, respectively (I+L). The longest graft survivals for I, l+L+P, and l+L were 19 years, 16 years, and 23 years, respectively. Steroids, Thymoglobulin, and rituximab are 3 major induction agents used in recent years. Prograf, steroids, and Cellcept are 3 major maintenance agents. Induction recipients (68% of all patients) had a significantly lower acute rejection rate than nonrecipients before discharge (60% versus 75%, p transplants, while 6% (N = 29) received ABO compatible transplants. ABO identical transplant recipients had a significantly higher 5-year graft survival rate than ABO compatible recipients (39% versus 21%, p transplants were lower than those of ABO identical transplants. However, the difference did not reach statistical significance (46% versus 49%, p = 0.07). The effect of ABO compatibility on graft outcome was further confirmed by Cox Analysis. ABO incompatible transplants are still rarely performed (N = 4) in intestine. In conclusion, annual case numbers of intestinal transplants have been decreasing, regardless of improved graft survival. ABO compatible intestinal transplants previously had a significantly

  12. 42 CFR 413.202 - Organ procurement organization (OPO) cost for kidneys sent to foreign countries or transplanted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organ procurement organization (OPO) cost for kidneys sent to foreign countries or transplanted in patients other than Medicare beneficiaries. 413.202...-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.202 Organ procurement organization...

  13. Epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections in solid organ transplants over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenger, B M; Doucette, K; Smith, S W

    2016-04-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplantation (SOT). We sought to determine the types of nosocomial BSIs and risk factors for them in SOT. Prospectively collected databases of all SOT and nosocomial BSIs occurring at our institution for a 10-year period were reviewed. From 2003-2012, we observed 157 nosocomial BSI episodes in 2257 SOTs, the majority of which were caused by staphylococci and enterococci (67.5%). The most common sources of BSI were central line, organ space, respiratory, and gastrointestinal. Kidney transplant patients had the lowest risk of acquiring a BSI compared with other SOT types. Lung transplant patients were at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus BSI and heart transplant patients were at increased risk of a Candida albicans BSI, when compared to other organ transplant types. When coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) or C. albicans was isolated, the central line was most often the source. The implementation of central-line bundles during the study period correlated temporally with a decreased rate of CoNS BSI. Over the 10-year period, vancomycin-resistant enterococci became the most common enterococcal BSI. Donor-positive cytomegalovirus status was associated with an increased risk of BSI, when compared to donor-negative patients. This study demonstrates the common sources, risk factors, and causative organisms of BSI, which can guide empiric antibiotic choices, and highlights areas where preventative interventions could be targeted to prevent nosocomial BSI in SOT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Opinions and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation of residents of selected villages in Podlaskie Voivodeship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Grażyna; Popławska, Barbara; Bachórzewska-Gajewska, Hanna; Małyszko, Jacek S; Małyszko, Jolanta

    2015-05-08

    In recent years, transplantation, a specific area of medicine, has achieved more and more support and acceptance among different nations around the world. However, there are still many ethical, moral, and legal barriers related to this form of treatment of end-stage organ failures. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and opinions of rural residents about organ transplantation. The research method is a diagnostic survey of 395 rural residents of selected villages of the region of Podlasie, located in north-east Poland. The research tool used to carry out the study was the authors' questionnaire. Organs procurement and transplantation from deceased donors are accepted by 72.6% of respondents. About 60% of the respondents would agree to organ donation for transplantation from the members of their family after death and 65.3% of the residents would be donors after their death. Half of the respondents (55.9%) believe that the final decision as to the donation of organs from a deceased person should be taken by the family. A positive attitude towards organ transplantation was expressed by 67.6% of respondents. Inhabitants of rural areas mostly agree with procurement of organs from the deceased and also from living donors. However, the enthusiasm and goodwill associated with the transplantation of organs after death diminished when the problem affects members of the family. Positive attitude about transplantation is related to age and level of the education.

  15. Outcome of kidney transplant in primary, repeat, and kidney-after-nonrenal solid-organ transplantation: 15-year analysis of recent UNOS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Husseini, A; Aghil, A; Ramirez, J; Sawaya, B; Rajagopalan, N; Baz, M; Mei, X; Davenport, D L; Gedaly, R

    2017-11-01

    The number of nonrenal solid-organ transplants increased substantially in the last few decades. Many of these patients develop renal failure and receive kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient and kidney allograft survival in primary, repeat, and kidney-after-nonrenal organ transplantation using national data reported to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) from January 2000 through December 2014. Survival time for each patient was stratified into the following: Group A (comparison group)-recipients of primary kidney transplant (178 947 patients), Group B-recipients of repeat kidney transplant (17 819 patients), and Group C-recipients of kidney transplant performed after either a liver, heart, or lung transplant (2365 patients). We compared survivals using log-rank test. Compared to primary or repeat kidney transplant, patient and renal allograft survival was significantly lower in those with previous nonrenal organ transplant. Renal allograft and patient survival after liver, heart, or lung transplants are comparable. Death was the main cause of graft loss in patients who had prior nonrenal organ transplant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 42 CFR 488.61 - Special procedures for approval and re-approval of organ transplant centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organ transplant centers. 488.61 Section 488.61 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... kidney transplant centers or the pertinent national coverage decisions (NCDs) for extra-renal organ... CMS approves an extra-renal organ transplant center under the conditions of participation, the NCDs no...

  17. Interprofessional communication in organ transplantation in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Rosanne Etheredge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Communication is essential to the transplant process, but it is challenging in South Africa (SA because of the complexity of the country and the health system, the nature of transplantation as a technical procedure with inherent psychological considerations, and the large number of professionals involved. Transplant communication has not been explored in SA, and this study was the first to use health communication methods to generate empirical evidence relating to it. Objective. To explore communication in transplant settings in Gauteng Province, SA. Methods. Qualitative methods were used to collect data across six hospitals and transplant centres in Gauteng. State and private institutions were equally represented. Health professionals and transplant co-ordinators participated. Thematic analysis of data was undertaken. Results. Facilitators of interprofessional transplant communication included appreciation of its importance to good practice and cohesive individual transplant teams. Barriers to interprofessional communication were observed when individual teams had to come together in a multi-team, interdisciplinary environment, when interchange became aggressive, and when information was not passed on to other health professionals timeously. These barriers had implications for continuity of care and ethics, which could lead to moral distress. Conclusion. Transplantation in Gauteng is characterised by aspects of good teamwork, and the importance of effective communication is acknowledged. Transplantation also faces some challenges in terms of interprofessional communication. Recommendations for mitigating some of the gaps include integrating a health communication specialist into the transplant process, ‘knotworking’, the use of apology, and an advance warning text-message system for transplant professionals.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ/tissue donation and transplantation among health care professionals working in organ transplantation or dialysis units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, T; Selimen, D; Yildirim, M; Kucuk, H F

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the awareness and attitudes of health care professionals toward organ/tissue donation and transplantation. We included 309 health care professionals from 27 dialysis centers and eight organ transplantation centers in Istanbul in the present study conducted from April 2008 to August 2008. The 24-item questionnaire, including items concerning sociodemographic features and knowledge about and attitudes toward organ/tissue donation and transplantation, was applied by face-to-face interviews. An organ/tissue donation card was completed among 77% of subjects, while 90% were identified as supporting transplantation. The main reasons identified for lack of donation were lack of confidence (59.7%), fear of procurement (31.5%), and inappropriate use of harvested organs (18.1%). In conclusion, targeting health care professionals in the first place and development of nationwide media and educational campaigns on the ethical, moral, as well as religious dimensions of transplantation and donation seem crucial to increase the number of individuals who can act as role models via their positive impact on the general public's attitudes toward organ donation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Michael

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit. Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed. However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine.

  20. The increasing burden of potentially preventable liver disease among adult liver transplant recipients: A comparative analysis of liver transplant indication by era in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jessica; Balderson, Glenda; Hellard, Margaret; Gow, Paul; Strasser, Simone; Stuart, Katherine; Wigg, Alan; Jeffrey, Gary; Gane, Ed; Angus, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), and non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are leading indications for adult liver transplantation in Australia and New Zealand. However, these diseases are potentially preventable through effective primary and/or secondary prevention strategies. This study evaluates the relative contribution of potentially preventable liver diseases to liver transplant numbers in Australia and New Zealand over time. Prospectively recorded clinical, demographic, and outcome data were collected from the Australian and New Zealand Liver Transplant Registry for all primary adult liver transplants performed in Australia and New Zealand from 1 January 1985 until 31 December 2012. Potentially preventable liver disease was defined as HBV, HCV, NAFLD, ALD, and HCC. The etiology of liver disease leading to liver transplantation and the proportion of preventable liver disease-related liver transplantation was compared between Era 1 (1985-1993), Era 2 (1994-2003), and Era 3 (2004-2012). Overall, 1252 of 3266 adult primary liver transplants (38.3%) were performed for potentially preventable liver disease. There was a significant increase in the proportion of liver transplants because of preventable liver disease from 21.2% (93 of 439) in Era 1, to 49.8% (623 of 1252) in Era 2 and 63.5% (1000 of 1575) in Era 3 (P New Zealand have been because of potentially preventable liver diseases and the prevalence of these diseases has increased over time. This finding represents an opportunity for clinicians to make a significant impact on the overall burden of advanced liver disease in Australia and New Zealand by improving primary and secondary prevention measures. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Organ donation and transplantation in the UK-the last decade: a report from the UK national transplant registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel J; Bradbury, Lisa L; Martin, Kate; Neuberger, James

    2014-01-15

    Over the decade between 2003 and 2012, the UK has seen major changes in how organ donation and transplantation is delivered. The number of deceased organ donors has increased from 709 (12.0 per million population [pmp]) to 1,164 (18.3 pmp); this increase has been predominantly a result of an increase in donors after circulatory death (DCD) (from 1.1 pmp to 7.9 pmp) while the numbers of donors after brain death (DBD) has remained broadly stable (around 10.5 pmp). The donor population has become older (from 14% 60 years or over to 35%) and heavier (from 14% with body mass index >=30 kg/m2 to 23%). Despite these changes in demographic factors, the number of organs retrieved from DBD donors has risen from a mean of 3.6 to 4.0 per donor and for DCD donors from 2.2 to 2.6. The number of transplants in adults in 2012 was 2,709 (967 DBD, 708 DCD, and 1,034 living) for kidney alone, 246 pancreas (including 172 kidney and pancreas), 792 (611 DBD, 142 DCD, 36 living, and 3 domino) for liver, 136 for heart only, and 179 (145 DBD and 34 DCD) for lung only. Median waiting times to transplant for adult patients were 1,167, 339, 141, 293, and 311 days, respectively. The proportion of adult non-urgent registrants in 2009 (2007 for kidneys) who were removed from the waiting list or died awaiting a graft within 1 year was 3% for kidneys, 6% for pancreas, 19% for liver, 27% for heart, and 24% for lung. Outcomes after solid organ transplants are improving; for adult patients grafted between 2003 and 2005, 5-year graft survival for kidney is 84% (DBD), 87% (DCD), and 92% (living donor), for simultaneous kidney and pancreas 72%, and for pancreas alone 50% (DBD). Five-year patient survival for liver is 77% (DBD) and 68% (DCD), heart 67%, and lung 52% (DBD). Although rates of organ donation and transplantation have increased in the UK, this has been almost solely because of a rise in DCD donation. Although donor age and weight is increasing, graft survival has generally improved. Despite a

  2. Quality metrics in solid organ transplantation: protocol for a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Kendra E; Bennett, Alexandria; Fergusson, Nicholas; Knoll, Greg A

    2016-06-14

    Transplantation is often the best, if not the only treatment for end-stage organ failure; however, the quality metrics for determining whether a transplant program is delivering safe, high quality care remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe quality indicators or metrics in patients who have received a solid organ transplant. We will conduct a systematic scoping review to evaluate and describe quality indicators or metrics in patients who have received a solid organ transplant. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials. Two reviewers will conduct all screening and data extraction independently. The articles will be categorized according to the six domains of quality, and the metrics will be appraised using criteria for a good quality measure. The results of this review will guide the development, selection, and validation of appropriate quality metrics necessary to drive quality improvement in transplantation. PROSPERO CRD42016035353 .

  3. Role of CD8+ regulatory T cells in organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyan Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CD8 + T cells are regulatory T cells (Tregs that suppress both alloimmunity and autoimmunity in many animal models. This class of regulatory cells includes the CD8 + CD28 - , CD8 + CD103 + , CD8 + FoxP3 + and CD8 + CD122 + subsets. The mechanisms of action of these regulatory cells are not fully understood; however, the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β as well as the direct killing of target cells via Fas L/Fas and the perforin/granzyme B pathways have been demonstrated in various models. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the suppressive effects of Tregs and to provide experimental support for potential clinical trials. We recently observed that CD8 + CD122 + Tregs more potently suppressed allograft rejection compared to their CD4 + CD25 + counterparts, supporting the hypothesis that CD8 + Tregs may represent a new and promising Treg family that can be targeted to prevent allograft rejection in the clinic. In this review, we summarize the progress in the field during the past 7-10 years and discuss CD8 + Treg phenotypes, mechanisms of action, and their potential clinical applications; particularly in composite tissue transplants in burn and trauma patients.

  4. Successful lung transplant from donor after cardiac death: a potential solution to shortage of thoracic organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Stephen H; Durham, Lucian A; Scott, John P; Cassivi, Stephen D

    2010-02-01

    Lung transplant is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease but is limited because of the shortage of acceptable donor organs. Organ donation after cardiac death is one possible solution to the organ shortage because it could expand the pool of potential donors beyond brain-dead and living donors. We report the preliminary experience of Mayo Clinic with donation after cardiac death, lung procurement, and transplant.

  5. Successful Lung Transplant From Donor After Cardiac Death: A Potential Solution to Shortage of Thoracic Organs

    OpenAIRE

    McKellar, Stephen H.; Durham, Lucian A.; Scott, John P.; Cassivi, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Lung transplant is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease but is limited because of the shortage of acceptable donor organs. Organ donation after cardiac death is one possible solution to the organ shortage because it could expand the pool of potential donors beyond brain-dead and living donors. We report the preliminary experience of Mayo Clinic with donation after cardiac death, lung procurement, and transplant.

  6. Management of cytomegalovirus infection and disease after solid-organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, W; Speich, R

    2001-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) continues to be a cause of substantial morbidity and death after solid-organ transplantation. There are 3 major consequences of CMV infection: CMV disease, including a wide range of clinical illnesses; superinfection with opportunistic pathogens; and injury to the transplanted

  7. Realizing HOPE: The Ethics of Organ Transplantation From HIV-Positive Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Christine M; Segev, Dorry; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-07-19

    The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act now allows transplantation of organs from HIV-positive living and deceased donors to HIV-positive individuals with end-stage organ disease in the United States. Although clinical experience with such transplants is limited to a small number of deceased-donor kidney transplants from HIV-positive to HIV-positive persons in South Africa, unprecedented HIV-positive-to-HIV-positive liver transplantations and living-donor kidney transplantations are also now on the horizon. Initially, all HIV-positive-to-HIV-positive transplantations will occur under research protocols with safeguards and criteria mandated by the National Institutes of Health. Nevertheless, this historic change brings ethical opportunities and challenges. For HIV-positive individuals needing an organ transplant, issues of access, risk, and consent must be considered. For potential HIV-positive donors, there are additional ethical challenges of privacy, fairness, and the right to donate. Careful consideration of the ethical issues involved is critical to the safe and appropriate evaluation of this novel approach to transplantation.

  8. Factors associated with the development of cytomegalovirus infection following solid organ transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Sørensen, Søren S; Iversen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a potentially serious complication in transplant patients. In this study we explored the risk factors for CMV infection in the 12 months following a solid organ transplantation (n = 242) in patients monitored for CMV infection from 2004 to 2007....

  9. 76 FR 7223 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... available medical science, and assuring the public that the system is as effective and equitable as possible..., transplantation medicine and surgery, critical care medicine and other medical specialties involved in the... presentations on disease transmission and informed consent, transplant tourism, organ donation and...

  10. Transplanting Diseases from Organ Donors in Western Europe: Fault Liability or Strict Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Nils; Verhoeven, Dimitri

    2015-06-01

    This article will examine the problem of disease transmission through organ transplantation from a civil liability perspective. Both fault liability and strict product liability might be possible. These two types of liability will be compared, while applying them to the actions of the central parties involved in organ donation and transplantation, namely the physician/hospital, the donor and the organ exchange organisation. While product liability is generally an easier way to obtain compensation than fault liability, it might nevertheless place too heavy a burden on the transplant professionals.

  11. The net transfer of transplant organs across race, sex, age, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2004-11-01

    To determine how sociodemographic characteristics influence both access to transplantation and organ donation. For all transplants in the United States from 1996 to 2001, donor-recipient pairs were categorized as white-white, white-black, black-white, or black-black. The difference in the percentage of white-black versus black-white pairs was calculated as a measure of the net transfer of organs from one racial group to another. A similar approach was used to examine the net transfer of organs across other sociodemographic categories. Among cadaveric renal transplants, 66% of donor-recipient pairs were white-white, 23% were white-black, 5% were black-white, and 6% were black-black. Thus, there was an 18% net transfer of organs from white donors to black recipients (23% minus 5%). Among living donor transplants involving spouses, there was a 36% net transfer from wives to husbands. Among all cadaveric transplants, there was a 36% to 68% net transfer from younger donors to older recipients. Among cadaveric nonrenal transplants, there was a 7% to 18% net transfer from lower-income donors to higher-income recipients. The sociodemographic characteristics of persons who donate organs and those who benefit from organ transplantation differ markedly. Efforts to improve access and increase donation should address these differences.

  12. REDUCED-SIZE LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION, SPLIT LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION, AND LIVING-RELATED LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION IN RELATION TO THE DONOR ORGAN SHORTAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOOFF, MJH

    Because of the shortage of cadaveric donors, three techniques of partial liver grafting have been developed. These techniques are placed in perspective in relation to the organ shortage. Reduced size liver transplantation (RSLTx) is widely used and has results comparable to those from whole liver

  13. EPICO 3.0. Antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Aguado, José María; Ferrer, Ricard; Rodríguez, Alejandro H; Maseda, Emilio; Llinares, Pedro; Grau, Santiago; Muñoz, Patricia; Fortún, Jesús; Bouzada, Mercedes; Pozo, Juan Carlos Del; León, Rafael

    Although over the past decade the management of invasive fungal infection has improved, considerable controversy persists regarding antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. To identify the key clinical knowledge and make by consensus the high level recommendations required for antifungal prophylaxis in solid organ transplant recipients. Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was conducted anonymously and by e-mail with 30 national multidisciplinary experts, specialists in invasive fungal infections from six national scientific societies, including intensivists, anesthetists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases that responded to 12 questions prepared by the coordination group, after an exhaustive review of the literature in the last few years. The level of agreement achieved among experts in each of the categories should be equal to or greater than 70% in order to make a clinical recommendation. In a second term, after extracting the recommendations of the selected topics, a face-to-face meeting was held with more than 60 specialists who were asked to validate the pre-selected recommendations and derived algorithm. Echinocandin antifungal prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant with major risk factors (retransplantation, renal failure requiring dialysis after transplantation, pretransplant liver failure, not early reoperation, or MELD>30); heart transplant with hemodialysis, and surgical re-exploration after transplantation; environmental colonization by Aspergillus, or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection; and pancreas and intestinal transplant in case of acute graft rejection, hemodialysis, initial graft dysfunction, post-perfusion pancreatitis with anastomotic problems or need for laparotomy after transplantation. Antifungal fluconazole prophylaxis should be considered in liver transplant without major risk factors and MELD 20-30, split or living

  14. [Brain death and organ transplantation: ethical dilemmas for nursing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windels-Buhr, D

    1997-06-01

    According to the WHO Program, nurses should be active in public health care as equal members of a multiprofessional team. This position requires competent professional action, which also implies moral competence, especially necessitated by the coming paradigmatic changes caused by shifts in the previous and current boundaries of the paradigm human being. One reason for this shift are the greater medical technical possibilities. The medical definition of brain death as the death of a human being per se is one example of the altered boundary and its consequences. Must future components of the nursing metaparadigm be changed because of this? To what extent is nursing ethically obligated to integrate changes in social values into its metaparadigm, ethics and objectives? The nursing metaparadigm, Henderson's definition of nursing, the ICN's Basic Code of Ethics, and the nursing model according to Roper, Logan & Tierney were used as the basis in the analysis of the subject matter and problems. Furthermore, philosophical viewpoints of Jonas & Harris will be included to clarify the deontological and teleological aspects of standard ethics. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the intra- and interprofessional ethical discourse about brain death and organ transplantation among nursing professionals.

  15. Influenza vaccination and humoral alloimmunity in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeiren, Pieter; Aubert, Vincent; Sugamele, Rocco; Aubert, John-David; Venetz, Jean-Pierre; Meylan, Pascal; Pascual, Manuel; Manuel, Oriol

    2014-09-01

    Annual influenza vaccination is recommended in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, concerns have been raised about the impact of vaccination on antigraft alloimmunity. We evaluated the humoral alloimmune responses to influenza vaccination in a cohort of SOT recipients between October 2008 and December 2011. Anti-HLA antibodies were measured before and 4-8 weeks after influenza vaccination using a solid-phase assay. Overall, 169 SOT recipients were included (kidney = 136, lung = 26, liver = 3, and combined = 4). Five (2.9%) of 169 patients developed de novo anti-HLA antibodies after vaccination, including one patient who developed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) 8 months after vaccination. In patients with pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies, median MFI was not significantly different before and after vaccination (P = 0.73 for class I and P = 0.20 for class II anti-HLA antibodies) and no development of de novo DSA was observed. Five episodes of rejection (2.9%) were observed within 12 months after vaccination, and only one patient had de novo anti-HLA antibodies. The incidence of development of anti-HLA antibodies after influenza vaccination in our cohort of SOT recipients was very low. Our findings indicate that influenza vaccination is safe and does not trigger humoral alloimmune responses in SOT recipients. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  16. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Ganciclovir-Resistant Cytomegalovirus Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Cynthia E; Knudsen, Janine L; Lease, Erika D; Jerome, Keith R; Rakita, Robert M; Boeckh, Michael; Limaye, Ajit P

    2017-07-01

    Ganciclovir-resistant (ganR) cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an emerging and important problem in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Only through direct comparison of ganR- and ganciclovir-sensitive (ganS) CMV infection can risk factors and outcomes attributable specifically to ganciclovir resistance appropriately be determined. We performed a retrospective, case-control (1:3) study of SOT recipients with genotypically confirmed ganR-CMV (n = 37) and ganS-CMV infection (n = 109), matched by donor/recipient CMV serostatus, year and organ transplanted, and clinical manifestation. We used χ2 (categorical) and Mann-Whitney (continuous) tests to determine predisposing factors and morbidity attributable to resistance, and Kaplan-Meier plots to analyze survival differences. The rate of ganR-CMV was 1% (37/3467) overall and 4.1% (32/777) among CMV donor-positive, recipient-negative patients, and was stable over the study period. GanR-CMV was associated with increased prior exposure to ganciclovir (median, 153 vs 91 days, P < .001). Eighteen percent (3/17) of lung transplant recipients with ganR-CMV had received <6 weeks of prior ganciclovir (current guideline-recommended resistance testing threshold), and all non-lung recipients had received ≥90 days (median, 160 [range, 90-284 days]) prior to diagnosis of ganR-CMV. GanR-CMV was associated with higher mortality (11% vs 1%, P = .004), fewer days alive and nonhospitalized (73 vs 81, P = .039), and decreased renal function (42% vs 19%, P = .008) by 3 months after diagnosis. GanR-CMV is associated with longer prior antiviral duration and higher attributable morbidity and mortality than ganS-CMV. Upcoming revised CMV guidelines should incorporate organ transplant-specific thresholds of prior drug exposure to guide rational ganR-CMV testing in SOT recipients. Improved strategies for prevention and treatment of ganR-CMV are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society

  17. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, Daniel L.

    1989-09-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to assist in the creation of specific prevention plans. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) contains two types of knowledge—domain and tutoring. The domain knowledge for wildfire prevention is structured around several foci: (1) individual concepts used in prevention planning; (2) explicitly specified interrelationships between concepts; (3) deductive methods that contain subjective judgment normally unavailable to less-experienced users; (4) analytical models of fire behavior used for identification of hazard areas; (5) how-to guidance needed for performance of planning tasks; and (6) expository information that provides a rationale for planning steps and ideas. Combining analytical, procedure, inferential, conceptual, and expositional knowledge into a tutoring environment provides the student and/or user with a multiple perspective of the subject matter. A concept network provides a unifying framework for structuring and utilizing these diverse forms of prevention planning knowledge. This network structure borrows from and combines semantic networks and frame-based knowledge representations. The flexibility of this organization facilitates an effective synthesis and organization of multiple knowledge forms.

  18. The donor advocacy team: a risk management program for living organ, tissue, and cell transplant donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Susumu; Soyama, Akihiko; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Kurihara, Shintaro; Hidaka, Masaaki; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Hara, Takanobu; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kanetaka, Kengo; Takatsuki, Mistuhisa

    2017-08-01

    Although the incidence of living donor death is low in Japan, statistics show one living liver donor death in more than 7000 living liver transplants. Thus, medical transplant personnel must recognize that the death of a living organ or tissue transplant donor can occur and develop an appropriate risk management program. We describe how Nagasaki University Hospital established and implemented a Donor Advocacy Team (DAT) program: a risk management program for initiation in the event of serious, persistent, or fatal impairment of an organ, tissue, or cell transplantation from a living donor. The purposes of the DAT program are as follows: 1. To disclose official information without delay. 2. To provide physical and psychological care to the patient experiencing impairment and their family. 3. To provide psychological care to the medical staff in charge of the transplant. 4. To standardize the responses of the diagnosis and treatment department staff and other hospital staff. 5. To minimize the damage that the whole medical transplantation system may suffer and leverage the occurrence for improvement. To address (1) and (5), actions, such as reporting and responses to the government, mass media, transplant-related societies, and organ transplant networks, have been established to ensure implementation.

  19. Outcomes of organ transplants when the donor is a prior recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G S; Goldberg, D S; Levine, M H; Abt, P L

    2018-02-01

    Organ shortage continues to challenge the field of transplantation. One potential group of donors are those who have been transplant recipients themselves, or Organ Donation After Transplant (ODAT) donors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to describe ODAT donors and to compare outcomes of ODAT grafts versus conventional grafts. From October 1, 1987 to June 30, 2015, 517 former recipients successfully donated 803 organs for transplant. Former kidney recipients generally survived a median of approximately 4 years before becoming an ODAT donor whereas liver, lung, and heart recipients generally survived less than a month prior to donation. In the period June 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014, liver grafts from ODAT donors had a significantly higher risk of graft failure compared to non-ODAT liver transplants (P = .008). Kidney grafts donated by ODAT donors whose initial transplant occurred >1 year prior were associated with significantly increased graft failure (P = .012). Despite increased risk of graft failure amongst certain ODAT grafts, 5-year survival was still high. ODAT donors should be considered another form of expanded criteria donor under these circumstances. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Long-Term Follow-Up of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in a Dual Solid Organ Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bilal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most frequent causes of healthcare-associated infections, and its rates are also increasing in the community. Mounting evidence suggests that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT may be effective; however, as there is paucity of data regarding the use of FMT in patients with solid organ transplants, we present a case of successful FMT in a patient with dual solid organ transplant.

  1. The concept of brain death did not evolve to benefit organ transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Calixto; Korein, Julius; Ferrer, Yazmina; Portela, Liana; de la C García, Maria; Manero, José M

    2007-01-01

    Although it is commonly believed that the concept of brain death (BD) was developed to benefit organ transplants, it evolved independently. Transplantation owed its development to advances in surgery and immunosuppressive treatment; BD owed its origin to the development of intensive care. The first autotransplant was achieved in the early 1900s, when studies of increased intracranial pressure causing respiratory arrest with preserved heartbeat were reported. Between 1902 and 1950, the BD concept was supported by the discovery of EEG, Crile's definition of death, the use of EEG to demonstrate abolition of brain potentials after ischaemia, and Crafoord's statement that death was due to cessation of blood flow. Transplantation saw the first xenotransplant in humans and the first unsuccessful kidney transplant from a cadaver. In the 1950s, circulatory arrest in coma was identified by angiography, and the death of the nervous system and coma dépassé were described. Murray performed the first successful kidney transplant. In the 1960s, the BD concept and organ transplants were instantly linked when the first kidney transplant using a brain‐dead donor was performed; Schwab proposed to use EEG in BD; the Harvard Committee report and the Sydney Declaration appeared; the first successful kidney, lung and pancreas transplants using cadaveric (not brain‐dead) donors were achieved; Barnard performed the first human heart transplant. This historical review demonstrates that the BD concept and organ transplantation arose separately and advanced in parallel, and only began to progress together in the late 1960s. Therefore, the BD concept did not evolve to benefit transplantation. PMID:17400615

  2. ORGAN DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2012 (V report of National Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of a condition and prospects of organ donation and transplantation development in Russia in the form of the National Registry is carried out under the auspices of the Profile commission on transplantology of Minis- try of Health of Russia and the Russian Transplant Society. According to the registry in 2012 the indicator of do- nor activity decreased, but the indicator of transplant activity remained at the level of the last years. Decrease the number of deceased donors managed to be compensated by means of increase of efficiency of donor programs: by increase of the number of donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, by increase in average of the organs received from one deceased donor. In 2012 the number of transplantations of heart and liver increased. The main funding mechanism for organs transplantation in Russia is the state task to the transplant centers (fede- ral financing, its role increases. For increase of stability of donor providing it is necessary to continue to develop legal base in the organ donation and transplantation sphere. 

  3. Ethics of organ donation and transplantation involving prisoners: the debate extends beyond our borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, G P; Komesaroff, P; Gorton, M W; Snell, G I

    2008-01-01

    The transplantation of solid organs raises many ethical considerations, many of which focus on the need to expand the donor pool, the limiting step in achieving ongoing growth in solid organ transplantation. A contentious source of organs, albeit not one practised in Australia or New Zealand, is the retrieval of donor organs from executed prisoners on death row. Although potentially increasing the organ donor pool, the acceptance of such organ donors raises significant ethical and legal concerns. These issues, although not appearing to affect directly and influence Australians, cannot be ignored given our position, both geographical and medical, in the wider Asia-Pacific region.

  4. Tolerance of organ transplant recipients to physical activity during a high-altitude expedition: climbing Mount Kilimanjaro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwin van Adrichem; Marion J. Siebelink; Janneke M. Dilling; Greetje Kuiken; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; Erik A.M. Verschuuren; Bart L. Rottier

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is generally unknown to what extent organ transplant recipients can be physically challenged. During an expedition to Mount Kilimanjaro, the tolerance for strenuous physical activity and high-altitude of organ transplant recipients after various types of transplantation was compared

  5. Tolerance of Organ Transplant Recipients to Physical Activity during a High-Altitude Expedition : Climbing Mount Kilimanjaro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin J.; Siebelink, Marion J.; Rottier, Bart L.; Dilling, Janneke M.; Kuiken, Greetje; van der Schans, Cees P.; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is generally unknown to what extent organ transplant recipients can be physically challenged. During an expedition to Mount Kilimanjaro, the tolerance for strenuous physical activity and high-altitude of organ transplant recipients after various types of transplantation was compared to

  6. [Attitudes of medical staff potentially participating in the organ donation process towards organ donation and transplantation in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammenos, D; Bein, T; Briegel, J; Eckardt, K-U; Gerresheim, G; Lang, C; Nieß, C; Zeman, F; Breidenbach, T

    2014-06-01

    Organ donation rates in Germany are lower than in other countries and have declined further after manipulations of the waiting lists in some German transplant centers became public. Attitudes and commitment of medical personnel are crucial for successful organ donation. Therefore, we studied the attitudes of hospital staff towards organ donation and transplantation. In 50 Bavarian hospitals, medical professionals working in units relevant to organ donation were asked to respond to an anonymous questionnaire. 2983 questionnaires could be evaluated. The majority of all respondents had a positive attitude towards organ donation; 71 % were willing to donate their organs after brain death and 57 % were willing to accept a transplant in case of organ failure. Rates of positive attitude were lower among nurses than among physicians. 28 % indicated that recent developments had a negative impact on their attitude and of those approximately half evaluated the work of transplant centers negatively. Overall only 23 % considered organ allocation as fair. The majority of nurses and a large proportion of physicians considered themselves as not well informed. The current loss of confidence into organ donation and transplantation also affects the attitude of medical personnel. Intensified measures of information and full transparency of all procedures are urgently needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Regenerative Medicine in Organ and Tissue Transplantation: Shortly and Practically Achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary Rouchi, A.; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of organ/tissue transplantation, the therapeutic modality of choice in end-stage organ failure, organ shortage has been the main problem in transplantation medicine. Given the so far unsolved obstacle, all hope-raising procedures to possibly tackle this long-lasting problem can draw attentions. In this context, “regenerative medicine” sounds to be more promising compared to other approaches. To consider the huge impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on the treatment of some congenital or acquired hematological or metabolic disorders and some advances to produce tissue engineered materials on one hand, and to take all aspects of this emerging and costly interdisciplinary field of research into consideration, on the other hand, inevitably makes this reality unchanged, in particular in countries with low or middle income, that allograft (from deceased or living donors) will remain for years as the irreplaceable source of organ transplantation. PMID:26306154

  8. Regenerative Medicine in Organ and Tissue Transplantation: Shortly and Practically Achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary Rouchi, A; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, M

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of organ/tissue transplantation, the therapeutic modality of choice in end-stage organ failure, organ shortage has been the main problem in transplantation medicine. Given the so far unsolved obstacle, all hope-raising procedures to possibly tackle this long-lasting problem can draw attentions. In this context, "regenerative medicine" sounds to be more promising compared to other approaches. To consider the huge impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on the treatment of some congenital or acquired hematological or metabolic disorders and some advances to produce tissue engineered materials on one hand, and to take all aspects of this emerging and costly interdisciplinary field of research into consideration, on the other hand, inevitably makes this reality unchanged, in particular in countries with low or middle income, that allograft (from deceased or living donors) will remain for years as the irreplaceable source of organ transplantation.

  9. The future of replacement and restorative therapies: from organ transplantation to regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, A S

    2013-01-01

    As we continue to have severe shortages of organs for transplantation, we need to consider alternatives for the future. The most likely to make a real difference in the long term is regenerative medicine (RM), a field that has emerged from the conjunction of stem cell biology and cell therapies; gene therapy; biomaterials and tissue engineering; and organ transplantation. Transplantation and RM share the same essential goal: to replace or restore organ function. Herein I briefly review some major breakthroughs of RM that are relevant to the future of organ transplantation, with a focus on the needs of people in the developing world. A definition of RM is provided and the ethical, legal, and social issues are briefly highlighted. In conclusion, I provide a projection of what the future may be for RM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 11798 - Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration published a...

  11. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type matches or is compatible to your own. Blood-type incompatible transplants are also possible but require additional medical treatment before and after transplant to reduce the risk of organ rejection. These are known as ABO incompatible kidney transplants. ...

  12. The donor organ as an 'object a': a Lacanian perspective on organ donation and transplantation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2014-11-01

    Bioethical discourse on organ donation covers a wide range of topics, from informed consent procedures and scarcity issues up to 'transplant tourism' and 'organ trade'. This paper presents a 'depth ethics' approach, notably focussing on the tensions, conflicts and ambiguities concerning the status of the human body (as something which constitutes a whole, while at the same time being a set of replaceable elements or parts). These will be addressed from a psychoanalytical (Lacanian) angle. First, I will outline Lacan's view on embodiment as such. Subsequently, I will argue that, for organ recipients, the donor organ becomes what Lacan refers to as an object a, the 'partial object' of desire, the elusive thing we are deprived of, apparently beyond our grasp. Within the recipient's body an empty space emerges, a kind of 'vacuole', once occupied by a faltering organ (now removed). This space can only be filled by a 'gift' from the other, by an object a. Once implanted, however, this implant becomes an 'extimate' object: something both 'external' and 'intimate', both 'embedded' and 'foreign', and which is bound to remain an object of concern for quite some time, if not for life. A Lacanian analysis allows us, first of all, to address the question what organ transplantation has in common with other bodily practices involving bodily parts procured from others, such as cannibalism. But it also reveals the basic difference between the two, as well as the distance between the 'fragmented body' of Frankenstein's 'monster'--as an aggregate of replaceable parts--and the multiple organ recipients (the 'puzzle people') of today.

  13. Spontaneous decision of organ donation in patients signing informed consent for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heits, N; Guenther, R; Kuechler, T; Becker, T; Braun, F

    2013-05-01

    The shortage of postmortem donor organs is a well-known problem in Germany. Willingness in the general population is 80%, but less than 14% have an organ donor card. We evaluated the free decision of liver transplant candidates who filled out a donor card before signing the informed consent for the transplant procedure. We analyzed 122 patients of mean age 55.9 years (range, 15.4-74.1) who signed an informed consent for liver transplantation between January 10, 2007, and January 24, 2012. The patients received the original text of the German organ donor card with tick boxes on the informed consent form for liver transplantation. All patients were informed that their decision had no impact on further management. Patients were able to choose between (1) becoming a donor, (2) refusal, (3) transfer of the decision to another person, or (4) no decision. All patients signed the informed consent to be listed for liver transplantation: 73.8% (n = 90) chose to become a donor; 5.7% (n = 7) refused; 5.7% (n = 7) transferred the decision to another person; and 14.8% (n = 18) did not come to a decision. Interestingly, not all candidates for liver transplantation were willing to become an organ donor in the time of expressed consent. However, willingness to sign the donor card was much higher among liver transplant candidates compared with the general population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid Organ Transplantation in Older Adults: Current Status and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecassis, M.; Bridges, N.D.; Clancy, C.J.; Dew, M.A.; Eldadah, B.; Englesbe, M.J.; Flessner, M.F.; Frank, J.C.; Friedewald, J.; Gill, J; Gries, C.; Halter, J.B.; Hartmann, E.L.; Hazzard, W.R.; Horne, F.M.; Hosenpud, J.; Jacobson, P.; Kasiske, B.L.; Lake, J.; Loomba, R.; Malani, P.N.; Moore, T.M.; Murray, A.; Nguyen, M-H; Powe, N.R.; Reese, P.P.; Reynolds, H.; Samaniego, M.D.; Schmader, K.E.; Segev, D.L.; Shah, A.S.; Singer, L.G.; Sosa, J.A.; Stewart, Z.A.; Tan, J.C.; Williams, W.W.; Zaas, D.W.; High, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of patients older than 65 years are referred for and have access to organ transplantation, and an increasing number of older adults are donating organs. Although short-term outcomes are similar in older versus younger transplant recipients, older donor or recipient age is associated with inferior long-term outcomes. However, age is often a proxy for other factors that might predict poor outcomes more strongly and better identify patients at risk for adverse events. Approaches to transplantation in older adults vary across programs, but despite recent gains in access and the increased use of marginal organs, older patients remain less likely than other groups to receive a transplant, and those who do are highly selected. Moreover, few studies have addressed geriatric issues in transplant patient selection or management, or the implications on health span and disability when patients age to late life with a transplanted organ. This paper summarizes a recent trans-disciplinary workshop held by ASP, in collaboration with NHLBI, NIA, NIAID, NIDDK, and AGS, to address issues related to kidney, liver, lung, or heart transplantation in older adults and to propose a research agenda in these areas. PMID:22958872

  15. Persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyplosz, B; Burdet, C; François, H; Durrbach, A; Duclos-Vallée, J C; Mamzer-Bruneel, M-F; Poujol, P; Launay, O; Samuel, D; Vittecoq, D; Consigny, P H

    2013-09-01

    Immunization using live attenuated vaccines represents a contra-indication after solid organ transplantation (SOT): consequently, transplant candidates planning to travel in countries where yellow fever is endemic should be vaccinated prior to transplantation. The persistence of yellow fever vaccine-induced antibodies after transplantation has not been studied yet. We measured yellow-fever neutralizing antibodies in 53 SOT recipients vaccinated prior to transplantation (including 29 kidney recipients and 18 liver recipients). All but one (98%) had protective titers of antibodies after a median duration of 3 years (min.: 0.8, max.: 21) after transplantation. The median antibody level was 40 U/L (interquartile range: 40-80). For the 46 patients with a known or estimated date of vaccination, yellow-fever antibodies were still detectable after a median time of 13 years (range: 2-32 years) post-immunization. Our data suggest there is long-term persistence of antibodies to yellow fever in SOT recipients who have been vaccinated prior to transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. DYNAMICS OF PROCALCITONIN AT THE PATIENT AFTER COMBINED ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Case report represents two episodes of procalcitonin elevation in dynamics, connected with different induction mechanisms of this sepsis marker at the patient after combined pancreas and kidney transplantation

  17. Teaching ethics in organ transplantation and tissue donation - cases and movies

    OpenAIRE

    Schicktanz, Silke; Wiesemann, Claudia; Wöhlke, Sabine; Carmi, Amnon

    2010-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a thrilling new option for modern surgery giving hope for chronically ill patients, and, at the same time, stirring controversial ethical questions on human identity and the meaning of the human body. Being a global and transnational endeavor, organ transplantation raises universal ethical concerns and, yet, has to be adapted to culturally mediated believes. In this book, 30 case studies collected from all over the world illustrate the range of global and local, ethic...

  18. Posaconazole liquid suspension in solid organ transplant recipients previously treated with voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, S; Ostrander, D; Marr, K

    2015-06-01

    Posaconazole (PCZ) has become an attractive alternative to voriconazole (VCZ) in transplant recipients with suspected or proven invasive filamentous fungal infections, causing fewer drug interactions. Here, we describe our experience with PCZ after VCZ in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. VCZ was replaced by PCZ liquid solution in 19 SOT recipients (15 lung, 2 kidney, 1 liver, and 1 heart/lung) with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (12/19; 63.2%), possible invasive pulmonary fungal infection (2/19; 10.5%), prophylaxis (2/19; 10.5%), or pulmonary scedosporiosis, mucormycosis, and mixed fungal species (1 each). Rationales for switch were suspected adverse reactions to VCZ (17/19; 89.4%) and desire to broaden spectrum of coverage to include agents of mucormycosis (3/19; 15.8%). PCZ was well tolerated in all patients. In those patients with baseline liver enzyme abnormalities, a median change occurred in concentrations of alanine transaminase (-20 IU/L), aspartate aminotransferase (-17.5 IU/L), and alkaline phosphatase (-61.5 IU/L). Clinical success (resolution, stabilization, or prevention of infection) was achieved in 16/19 (84%) people. PCZ appears to have a reasonable safety and tolerability profile and may be an effective alternative in SOT patients who require an agent with anti-mold activity, but are unable to tolerate VCZ. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Marijuana Use and Organ Transplantation: a Review and Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Harinder Singh; Winder, Gerald Scott

    2017-10-27

    Physicians of all disciplines must rapidly adjust their clinical practices following the expansion of marijuana legalization across the country. Organ transplantation teams are uniquely struggling in this gray zone with eight states having passed laws explicitly banning the denial of transplant listing based on a patient's use of medical marijuana. In this review, we examine the clinical evidence of marijuana use in transplant patients to enable psychiatric providers to meaningfully contribute to the relevant medical and psychiatric aspects of this issue in a unique patient population. There is no consensus among experts regarding marijuana use in transplantation patients. There are extant case reports of post-transplant complications attributed to marijuana use including membranous glomerulonephritis, ventricular tachycardia, and tacrolimus toxicity. However, recent studies suggest that the overall survival rates in kidney, liver, lung, and heart transplant patients using marijuana are equivalent to non-users. Transplant teams should not de facto exclude marijuana users from transplant listing but instead holistically evaluate a patient's candidacy, integrating meaningful medical, psychiatric, and social variables into the complex decision-making process. Psychiatric providers can play a key role in this process. Appropriate stewardship over donor organs, a limited and precious resource, will require a balance of high-clinical standards with inclusive efforts to treat as many patients as possible.

  20. Neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged children undergoing evaluation for organ transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Tanya N; Beer, Stacey S; Miloh, Tamir; Dreyer, William J; Caudle, Susan E

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the current literature on neuropsychological functioning in two groups of children requiring organ transplants (liver or heart) and present recent clinical data collected through the liver and cardiac transplantation programs at a large pediatric academic medical center. Data included in this study came from 18 patients who completed evaluations for heart transplant (n = 8) or liver transplant (n = 10) between the ages of 2 and 6 years (inclusive). Measures examining neurocognitive, emotional-behavioral, and adaptive functioning were collected as part of standard pre-transplant clinical neuropsychological evaluations. Within each organ group, mean scores were calculated and compared with normative population mean scores using one sample t-tests. In addition, non-parametric binomial tests were calculated to examine whether the proportion of individuals falling more than one standard deviation below the population mean was significantly greater in the patient groups than the normative population base rate of 16%. Patients in both groups performed below normative expectation in several neurocognitive and adaptive domains. However, neither group showed significant difficulties in behavioral or emotional regulation. Results from this study document cognitive delays in preschool-aged children undergoing evaluations for liver transplant or heart transplant, highlighting the importance of intervention and long-term monitoring of these two patient populations, as well as the need for neuropsychologist involvement with transplant teams.

  1. The transplantable organ shortage in Singapore: has implementation of presumed consent to organ donation made a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwek, Tong Kiat; Lew, Thomas W K; Tan, Hui Ling; Kong, Sally

    2009-04-01

    The success of solid organ transplantation in the treatment of end-stage organ failure has fuelled a growing demand for transplantable organs worldwide that has far outstripped the supply from brain dead heart-beating donors. In Singapore, this has resulted in long waiting lists of patients for transplantable organs, especially kidneys. The Human Organ Transplant Act, introduced in 1987, is an opt-out scheme that presumes consent to removal of certain organs for transplantation upon death. Despite this legislation, the number of deceased organ donors in Singapore, at 7 to 9 per million population per year, remains low compared to many other developed countries. In this paper, we reviewed the clinical challenges and ethical dilemmas encountered in managing and identifying potential donors in the neurological intensive care unit (ICU) of a major general hospital in Singapore. The large variance in donor actualisation rates among local restructured hospitals, at 0% to 56.6% (median 8.8%), suggests that considerable room still exists for improvement. To address this, local hospitals need to review their processes and adopt changes and best practices that will ensure earlier identification of potential donors, avoid undue delays in diagnosing brain death, and provide optimal care of multi-organ donors to reduce donor loss from medical failures.

  2. Rat Hindlimb Cryopreservation and Transplantation: A Step Toward "Organ Banking".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, A; Friedman, O; Natan, Y; Gur, E; Shani, N

    2017-11-01

    In 2016, over 5 million reconstructive procedures were performed in the United States. The recent successes of clinical vascularized composite allotransplantations, hand and face transplantations included, established the tremendous potential of these life-enhancing reconstructions. Nevertheless, due to limited availability and lifelong immunosuppression, application is limited. Long-term banking of composite transplants may increase the availability of esthetically compatible parts with partial or complete HLA matching, reducing the risk of rejection and the immunosuppressive burden. The study purpose was to develop efficient protocols for the cryopreservation and transplantation of a complete rodent limb. Directional freezing is a method in which a sample is cooled at a constant-velocity linear temperature gradient, enabling precise control of the process and ice crystal formation. Vitrification is an alternative cryopreservation method in which the sample solidifies without the formation of ice crystals. Testing both methods on a rat hindlimb composite tissue transplantation model, we found reliable, reproducible, and stable ways to preserve composite tissue. We believe that with further research and development, cryopreservation may lead to composite tissue "banks." This may lead to a paradigm shift from few and far apart emergent surgeries to wide-scale, well-planned, and better-controlled elective surgeries. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Benefits of Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) specialized training on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, Melania G; Harrison, Tyler R; Valero, Ricard; Morgan, Susan E; Páez, Gloria; Zhou, Quan; Rébék-Nagy, Gábor; Manyalich, Martí

    2015-04-01

    Training on organ donation and transplantation is relevant for transplantation improvement. This study aimed at investigating the perceived benefits of Transplant Procurement Management training programs on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation. An online survey was developed in 5 languages (Spanish, English, Italian, French, and Portuguese) and its link was emailed to 6839 individuals. They were asked to forward it to other professionals in organ donation and transplantation. The link was also shared on Facebook and at relevant congresses. Two research questions on the perceived influence of specialized training programs were identified. A total of 1102 participants (16.1%) took the survey; 87% reported participating in Transplant Procurement Management training programs, of which 95% selected Transplant Procurement Management courses as the most influential training they had participated in. For research question one, 98% reported influence on knowledge (score 4.5 [out of 5]), 93% on technical (4.2) and communication skills (4.1), 89% on attitude toward organ donation and transplantation (4.1), 92% on motivation to work (4.2), 91% on desire to innovate (4.0), 87% and 79% on ability to change organ donation and trans plantation practices (3.9) and policies (3.5). For research question 2, main and interaction effects for position at the time of training and type of training were reported. Transplant Procurement Management training programs had positive perceived effects.

  4. Does the nature of residual immune function explain the differential risk of non-melanoma skin cancer development in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Ji-Won; Overgaard, Nana H; Burke, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Patients receiving immunosuppression to prevent organ transplant rejection are at a greatly increased risk of developing nonmelanoma skin cancer. In recent years a correlation has been identified between the class of immunosuppressant that these patients receive and their subsequent cancer risk; ...

  5. Determinants of influenza vaccination among solid organ transplant recipients attending Sicilian reference center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restivo, Vincenzo; Vizzini, Giovanni; Mularoni, Alessandra; Di Benedetto, Cinzia; Gioè, Santi Mauro; Vitale, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Among solid organ transplant recipients, influenza infection is commonly associated with higher morbidity and mortality than immunocompetent hosts. Therefore, in these subjects influenza vaccination is of paramount importance. The main objective of the study was to assess compliance to vaccination and analyze factors associated with influenza vaccination of solid organ transplant recipients admitted to the Sicilian solid organ transplant Reference Center IRCCS-ISMETT in Palermo during 2014-2015 influenza season. Thirty one (37.8%) out of 82 solid organ transplant recipients were vaccinated against influenza. The main reason for vaccination refusal was fear of adverse reaction (n = 16, 31.4%), impaired health status (n = 14, 27.4%) and low vaccine efficacy (n = 10, 19.6%). Vaccinated solid organ transplant recipients compare with unvaccinated had smaller hospital admissions for infectious respiratory diseases (9.7% Vs 23.5%) during surveillance period. On multivariate analysis the factors positively associated with influenza vaccination were the advice of Reference Center physicians (OR 53.4, p vaccine against pneumococcus (OR 7.0, p = 0.016). This study showed that Reference Center physicians play a key role on vaccine communication and recommendation for patients at risk and it underlines the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. However, it remains that, although physician advice resulted a strong determinant for vaccination, influenza vaccination coverage in this subset of population remains still unsatisfactory.

  6. The impact of health information technology on organ transplant care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazkhani, Zahra; Pirnejad, Habibollah; Rashidi Khazaee, Parviz

    2017-04-01

    Health Information Technology (HIT) has a potential to promote transplant care. However, a systematic appraisal on how HIT application has so far affected transplant care is greatly missing from the literature. We systematically reviewed trials that evaluated HIT impact on process and patient outcomes as well as costs in organ transplant care. A systematic search was conducted in OVID versions of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane, and IEEE databases from January 1990 to December 2015. Studies were included if they: (i) evaluated HIT interventions; (ii) reported results for organ transplant population; (iii) reported quantitative data on process, patient, and cost outcomes; and (iv) used a randomized controlled trial or quasi-experimental study design. Primarily, 12,440 publications were identified; from which ten met inclusion criteria. Among HIT systems, uses of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) targeting different aspects of the complex organ transplant care were common. In terms of process outcomes, HIT positively impacted the timeliness of care, laboratory and medication management practices such as promoting therapeutic or diagnostic protocol compliance by clinicians, and reducing medication errors. Regarding patient outcomes, HIT demonstrated a beneficial impact on the percentage of post-transplant patients with normal lab values and decreasing immunosuppressive toxicity and also deviation from the predefined immunosuppressive therapeutic window. However, in terms of mortality, readmission, rejection, and antiviral resistance rates, the impact was not clearly established in the literature. Finally, these systems were associated with savings in the costs of transplant care in three studies. This is the first study reviewing HIT impact on transplant care outcomes. CDSSs have mainly been reported to support transplant care in realizing the above-mentioned benefits. However, to make conclusions

  7. Trypanozoma cruzi Infection in Patients Undergoing Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañez, Noelia; Alderete, Manuel; Benso, Jose; Valledor, Alejandra; Smud, Astrid; Schijman, Alejandro; Besuschio, Susana; Barcan, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background It is estimated that 1.5 million people are infected with T. cruzi in Argentina (4%). Chagas reactivation rate (R) in patients with solid organ transplantation (SOT) is around 33%, being higher in cardiac transplantation (Tx). Objective To describe the clinical characteristics, evolution, mortality, to evaluate reactivation risk factors and to analyze the usefulness of molecular tests in patients undergoing at SOT with Chagas’ disease risk (ChR) (R or Donor-derived transmission, -DT-), in a hospital in our country. Methods Retrospective cohort from all the patients who received an SOT in our hospital from January 1988 to March 2017. All patients with ChR: either R or DT were analyzed. Inclusion: survival more 30 days and 6 months of follow-up or until death. We performed post-Tx monitoring with parasitaemia (Strout), and serial whole blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, weekly until 2 months, every 2 weeks until the sixth month and monthly until the year, later annual. PCR monitoring is done since 2006. Results We performed 1932 SOT in 29 years: 54 SOT in patients with ChR, 46 chagasic recipients (CR) and 8 chagasic donors (CD) to negative recipient 24/46 (52%) presented R, (see Table 1), 4 had more than one episode. Time to first R was 67 days (r = 3–296, median 30 days). At the time of the R Strout was performed in 19 episode 13 were negative, PCR was positive in 10/10 of perfcormed test, 32% vs. 100% (P = 0.001). Clinical R: 5 episode in 4 patients (panniculitis 3, 1 with myocarditis, 1 myocarditis). Strout was negative in 2 of these, in the other episode monitoring had not been performed. Immunosuppression (IS): there were no differences in the IS, (induction and treatment of rejections). Reactivation: 21/24 responded to treatment, 2 spontaneously PCR-negative, 1 died. Mortality: 6/24 (25%) in pt. R and 2/17 (12%) in pt no R (P = ns), not related mortality. DT occurred in 1/ 3 liver and in 0/5 renal recipients

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes of the Faculty of Theology Students on Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdil Yilmaz, Seher; Opak Yücel, Burcu; Çuhadar, Döndü

    2017-06-01

    The objective in this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes of the Faculty of Theology students on organ transplantation. The study that was planned as a descriptive study took place between March-May 2014 with the participation of 119 students enrolled at the Faculty of Theology. It was determined as a result of the study that the students see lack of knowledge (49.6%) as the top obstacle for organ transplantation followed by religion (21%), that 52.1% accept that organ transplantation is not forbidden in Islam; that 27.7% agree with the thought that considers it disturbing and unnerving to carry an organ or tissue from another body; that 80.7% agree with the idea stating that organ transplantation should be carried out even if it provides only a possibility for treatment or for prolonging one's life and that 82.4% agree with the opinion that statements in favor of organ transplantation to be declared by the Directorate of Religious Affairs will increase organ transplantation. Clergymen play an important role in affecting the behavior and attitudes of large public masses, and thus it is important that the positive ideas of these individuals with regard to organ donation will thus have indirect but positive effects on the attitudes of the public with regard to organ transplantation. Hence, it is thought that determining the attitudes of clergymen candidates who will educate the public both at schools and at places of prayer and increasing their awareness in this subject will contribute to increasing the awareness of the public with regard to organ donation.

  9. The Effect of State Policies on Organ Donation and Transplantation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Paula; Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Vijayan, Anitha; Wellen, Jason R; Martin, Erika G

    2015-08-01

    Shortages in transplantable solid organs remain a critical public health challenge in the United States. During the past 2 decades, all states have implemented policies to increase organ supply, although their effectiveness is unknown. To determine the effects on organ donation and transplantation rates of state policies to provide incentives for volunteer donation. Using a quasi-experimental design and difference-in-differences regression analyses, we estimated the effect of policies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia on organ donors per capita and the number of transplantations from January 1, 1988, to December 31, 2010. Analyses were also stratified by type of donor (living vs deceased). Data were derived from the United Network for Organ Sharing. All data collection occurred between July 7 and September 27, 2013. Policies of interest were the presence of first-person consent laws, donor registries, dedicated revenue streams for donor recruitment activities, population education programs, paid leave for donation, and tax incentives. Information on states' passage of various policies was obtained from primary legislative and legal sources. The number of organ donors and transplantations per state, per year, during the study period. From 1988 to 2010, the number of states passing at least 1 donation-related policy increased from 7 (14%) to 50 (100%). First-person consent laws, donor registries, public education, paid leave, and tax incentives had no robust, significant association with either donation rates or number of transplants. The establishment of revenue policies, in which individuals contribute to a protected state fund for donation promotion activities, was associated with a 5.3% increase in the absolute number of transplants (95% CI, 0.57%-10.1%; P = .03). These associations were driven by a 4.9% increase in organ donations (95% CI, 0.97%-8.7%; P = .01) and an 8.0% increase in transplants (95% CI, 3.1%-12.9%; P = .001) from

  10. Pseudoaneurysms complicating organ transplantation: The roles of duplex sonography, CT, and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobben, P.; Zajko, A.B.; Fuhrman, C.R.; Skolnick, M.L.; Bowen, A.D.; Bron, K.M.; Starzl, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms are a life-threatening complication of organ transplantation. In the past 6 years more than 2,100 organ (liver, kidney, pancreas) transplants have been performed at the authors' institution. Fourteen patients had pseudoaneurysms. Intrahepatic or intrarenal pseudoaneurysms due to percutaneous biopsy developed in three cases, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms in seven cases, and mycotic pseudoaneurysms in five cases, in two of which they were at the anastomoses. A splenic artery pseudoaneurysm developed in one patient. Duplex sonography and CT were performed in nine cases each, and suggested possible pseudoaneurysm in five and seven cases, respectively. All 14 pseudoaneurysms were identified at angiography. The authors conclude that Duplex US and CT are complementary tests in evaluating pseudoaneurysms, after organ transplantation. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Angiography remains the definitive examination for diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of pseudoaneurysms. In patients with liver transplants and hemobilia, angiography is the screening examination of choice

  11. State regulation in the field of transplantation of organs and other anatomical materials: concept and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shulga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the concepts of «state regulation of the economics» and «state regulation of health care». It is defined the concept of «state regulation in the field of transplantation of organs and other anatomical materials». The components of its institutional and legal mechanisms (methods and tools are determined. It is proved that transplant coordination is the method of state regulation in the field of transplantation what includes a set of coordinated institutional actions of some subjects of state regulation and health care institutions regarding finding of donor, procurement, distribution and transplantation of organs and other anatomical materials. It is concluded that the analysis of the current transplant coordination in Ukraine gives grounds to assert the existence of essential imperfections. It is proposed the own model of transplant coordination, which should include three levels (national, regional, local. It is summarized that optimal state regulation in the field of transplantation of organs and other anatomical materials will be possible only through the collaboration of its legal and institutional mechanisms.

  12. New directions for rabbit antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin(®)) in solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohty, Mohamad; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Saliba, Faouzi; Zuckermann, Andreas; Morelon, Emmanuel; Lebranchu, Yvon

    2014-09-01

    In the 30 years since the rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) Thymoglobulin(®) was first licensed, its use in solid organ transplantation and hematology has expanded progressively. Although the evidence base is incomplete, specific roles for rATG in organ transplant recipients using contemporary dosing strategies are now relatively well-identified. The addition of rATG induction to a standard triple or dual regimen reduces acute cellular rejection, and possibly humoral rejection. It is an appropriate first choice in patients with moderate or high immunological risk, and may be used in low-risk patients receiving a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-sparing regimen from time of transplant, or if early steroid withdrawal is planned. Kidney transplant patients at risk of delayed graft function may also benefit from the use of rATG to facilitate delayed CNI introduction. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, rATG has become an important component of conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens, following demonstration of reduced acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. More recently, a role for rATG has also been established in reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. In autoimmunity, rATG contributes to the treatment of severe aplastic anemia, and has been incorporated in autograft projects for the management of conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, and systemic sclerosis. Finally, research is underway for the induction of tolerance exploiting the ability of rATG to induce immunosuppresive cells such as regulatory T-cells. Despite its long history, rATG remains a key component of the immunosuppressive armamentarium, and its complex immunological properties indicate that its use will expand to a wider range of disease conditions in the future.

  13. [Ethics in organ transplantation: continous search for defining what is acceptable].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Acevedo, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In the past 50 years, Transplant Medicine has been adopted worldwide as a growing option for treatment of many organic diseases. Ethical Issues in organ replacement therapy have emerged since the beginning. Significant advancements in the care of critically ill patients, as well as the increasing need of cadaveric organs for transplantation, definitively influenced a complex discussion about new criteria for definition of death, one of the most complex ethic debates in last century. Criteria for organ assignment are also cause of profound debate, especially when the number of patients waiting for an organ is extremely high compared with organ availability. Living donor represents a very complex figure in modern medicine, security issues as well as the need to offer them absolute respect to their capacity to decide must be considered in every patient. Ethics in transplantation represent a continuous search for defining what is acceptable.

  14. Postmortem brain donation and organ transplantation in schizophrenia: what about patient consent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Bergman-Levy, Tal; Greenberg, Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    In patients with schizophrenia, consent postmortem for organ donation for transplantation and research is usually obtained from relatives. By means of a questionnaire, the authors investigate whether patients with schizophrenia would agree to family members making such decisions for them as well as compare decisions regarding postmortem organ transplantation and brain donation between patients and significant family members. Study results indicate while most patients would not agree to transplantation or brain donation for research, a proportion would agree. Among patients who declined organ donation for transplantation or brain research, almost half of family members would have agreed to brain donation for research and over 40% to organ transplantation. Male relatives are more likely to agree to organ donation from their deceased relatives for both transplantation and research. The authors argue that it is important to respect autonomy and interests of research subjects even if mentally ill and even if no longer living. Consent may be assisted by appropriate educational interventions prior to patient death.

  15. Knowledge levels of and attitudes to organ donation and transplantation among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Onur Ozlem; Onsuz, Muhammed Fatih; Topuzoglu, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine knowledge levels and attitudes about organ donation and transplantation among university students. This descriptive study was performed with third-grade students of medicine, pharmacy, and law at a university. Samples weren't selected in the study and it was executed with 145 students who had agreed to participate in the study. The data was collected using a questionnaire of 19 questions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. 71.7% of students had positive views about transplantation of their own organs to a suitable recipient, with half of them giving being useful to others as a reason. Among students who had negative views about organ donation, the most important reason given was that it would mean a loss of bodily integrity. 44.1% of participants had positive views about transplantation of their relatives' organs to another person after death. 51.7% of participants had positive views about transplantation of the organs of a homeless person to another person after death. Students had generally positive views about organ donation. However; organ transplantation and donation should be included in the students' educational programs in order to increase positive attitudes and organ donations, and transform attitudes into behaviors.

  16. Precision monitoring of immunotherapies in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Rose; Khush, Kiran; De Vlaminck, Iwijn

    2017-05-15

    Pharmacological immunotherapies are a key component of post-transplant therapy in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In current clinical practice, immunotherapies largely follow a one-size fits all approach, leaving a large portion of transplant recipients either over- or under-immunosuppressed, and consequently at risk of infections or immune-mediated complications. Our goal here is to review recent and rapid advances in precision and genomic medicine approaches to monitoring of post-transplant immunotherapies. We will discuss recent advances in precision measurements of pharmacological immunosuppression, measurements of the plasma and gut microbiome, strategies to monitor for allograft injury and post-transplant malignancies via circulating cell-free DNA, and comprehensive measurements of the B and T cell immune cell repertoire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SHOULD WE ALLOW ORGAN DONATION EUTHANASIA? ALTERNATIVES FOR MAXIMIZING THE NUMBER AND QUALITY OF ORGANS FOR TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could be used to save the lives of others. At present the majority of these organs go to waste. In this paper we consider and evaluate a range o...

  18. [138 episodes of bacteremia or fungemia in patients with solid organ (renal or hepatic) transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A; Mensa, J; Almela, M; Vilardell, J; Navasa, M; Claramonte, J; Cruceta, A; Serrano, R; García-Valdecasas, J C; Soriano, E

    1994-07-02

    To study the bacteremias and fungemias of the patients with solid organ transplantation (kidney or liver) and analyze the differences according to the type of graft. A prospective study included in a control program of bacteremias of a 1000-bed hospital and a follow up study of the infections of the patients who had undergone kidney transplantation (KT) (1985-1991) and liver transplantation (LT) (1988-1991) were carried out. One hundred thirty-one bacteremias and 5 fungemias, 75 in 62 patients with KT out of a total of 568 transplantations (11%) and 63 out of 54 patients with LT out of a total of 185 transplantations (29%) were identified. The prevalence of bacteremia in LT was greater (p enterobacterias (12 and 12, respectively), Pseudomonas sp. (14 and 6, respectively), Candida sp. (2 and 3, respectively) with similar rates in both transplants. The origin of bacteremia was; renal and urinary tract, most frequent in KT (21 and 2 respectively) (p = 0.001). The origin of bacteremia was: renal and urinary tract, most frequent in KT (21 and 2 respectively) (p < 0.001), intraabdominal and biliary tract, most frequent in LT (4 and 14, respectively) (p = 0.007); intravenous catheter, most frequent in LT (16 and 24 respectively) (p < 0.05); lung, most frequent in LT although without statistical significance (3 and 8, respectively), (p = NS), and finally, surgical wound (4 and 1, respectively) (p = NS). Seventeen patients died (14 with LT and 3 with KT). The incidence of bacteremia and the mortality related, was greater in LT than that observed in KT. The most frequent origin in KT was the kidney and urinary tract and the biliary and intraabdominal organs and the intravenous catheter were most prevalent in liver transplants. Staphylococcus sp was the most frequent germ in both types of transplantation and polymicrobian infection in liver transplants. Gram-negative germs caused higher mortality in liver transplantation.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections in allogeneic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehreschild, Jörg J; Rüping, Maria J G T; Steinbach, Angela; Cornely, Oliver A

    2010-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are severe complications in patients receiving immunosuppression after solid organ or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Extensive study has been conducted on therapeutic strategies for IFD in neutropenic patients, mostly those with hematological malignancy. There is an ongoing discussion on whether these studies may be applied to transplant patients as well. We have reviewed relevant literature on transplantation and clinical mycology of the last 20 years and selected articles relevant for today's treatment decisions. This article reports on the epidemiology of IFD in transplant recipients and current antifungal drugs in the context of tansplantation medicine. For invasive aspergillosis and invasive candidiasis, we give a detailed report of current clinical evidence. This review is intended as a quick-start for clinicians and other care providers new to transplant care and as an update for experienced transplant physicians. In a field in which evidence is scarce and conflicting, we provide evidence-based strategies for diagnosing and treating the most relevant IFD in transplant recipients. Physicians treating transplant patients should maintain a high level of awareness towards IFD. They should know the local epidemiology of IFD to make the optimal decision between current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Prophylaxis or early treatment should be considered given the high mortality of IFD.

  20. HPV-related cancers after solid organ transplantation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, M M; Finch, J L; Lynch, C F; Goodman, M T; Engels, E A

    2013-12-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk including risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers of the cervix, anus, penis, vagina, vulva and oropharynx. We examined the incidence of HPV-related cancers in 187 649 US recipients in the Transplant Cancer Match Study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) compared incidence rates to the general population, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) compared rates across transplant subgroups. We observed elevated incidence of HPV-related cancers (SIRs: in situ 3.3-20.3, invasive 2.2-7.3), except for invasive cervical cancer (SIR 1.0). Incidence increased with time since transplant for vulvar, anal and penile cancers (IRRs 2.1-4.6 for 5+ vs. cancers (IRRs 0.4-0.7) but increased incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (IRR 2.1). Thus, specific features associated with recipient characteristics, transplanted organs and medications are associated with incidence of HPV-related cancers after transplant. The absence of increased incidence of invasive cervical cancer highlights the success of cervical screening in this population and suggests a need for screening for other HPV-related cancers. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Preservation of deep inferior epigastric artery at kidney transplantation prevents atrophy of lower rectus abdominis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Daiki; Harada, Hiroshi; Morita, Ken; Oba, Koji; Fukuzawa, Nobuyuki; Hotta, Kiyohiko; Sasaki, Hajime; Miyazaki, Chihoko; Nonomura, Katsuya

    2012-05-27

    The deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), which feeds the lower rectus abdominis muscle (lower RAM), is usually transected in kidney transplantation. In this study, we investigated whether preservation of DIEA can prevent lower RAM atrophy. Two hundred and forty-five kidney transplant recipients (150 men and 95 women) were enrolled in the study (mean age 39.9 years) and were divided into two groups according to whether DIEA was transected (group A, n = 175) or preserved (group B, n = 70). The extent of lower RAM atrophy calculated in computed tomography (performed 1 year after transplantation) and incidence of lower RAM atrophy were compared between the two groups. The most predictive factors for lower RAM atrophy were assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model. The extent of lower RAM atrophy was significantly lower in group B (15.0 ± 18.5%) than that in group A (38.9 ± 25.4%, P = 0.003). The incidence of lower RAM atrophy was less prevalent in group B (20.0%) compared with that in group A (62.9%, P DIEA was the only independent predictive factor for lower RAM atrophy (P DIEA during kidney transplant can prevent lower RAM atrophy.

  2. [Opinion and knowledge of the population of a Brazilian city about organ donation and transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Julio Cezar Uili; Cilião, Camilla; Parolin, Mônica Beatriz; de Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira; Gama Filho, Ozimo Pereira; Saad, Danilo Tatim; Pistori, Rafael Petracca; Martone, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    To determine the opinion and knowledge of the population of Curitiba about organ donation and transplantation. The opinion and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation of 1,000 subjects over 18 years of age were determined. The subjects responded to a questionnaire of 20 queries. Respondents had age, gender, social-economic, and education distributions similar to those of the Brazilian population, as defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Eighty-seven percent of respondents were in favor of organ donation. There was no difference in the percentage of respondents in favor of donation in relation to gender, marital status, religion, and income. The main reasons in favor of donation were to save life, to help other persons and to donate life. The main reasons against donation were distrust towards medicine or the Brazilian transplantation organization, the existence of organ sale, and fear of body mutilation. Most respondents believed that wealthy people have a better chance to receive an organ than poor people, that sales of organs exists in Brazil, and that misdiagnosis of brain death may occur. Most respondents are in favor of organ donation and have a good knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. The majority distrusts Brazilian organization of organ distribution and brain death diagnosis.

  3. Organ transplantation and meaning of life: the quest for self fulfilment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Jacques

    2013-08-01

    Today, the frequency and the rate of success resulting from advances in medicine have made organ transplantations an everyday occurrence. Still, organ transplantations and donations modify the subjective experience of human beings as regards the image they have of themselves, of body, of life and of death. If the concern of the quality of life and the survival of the patients is a completely human phenomenon, the fact remains that the possibility of organ transplantation and its justification depend a great deal on the culture in which we live. The exploration of the philosophical tradition allows for a reconsideration of organ transplantation. If we listen to people who have experienced the decline of one of their organs and their own rebirth through the organ of someone else, we arrive at the conclusion that they went through an extreme experience in which nothing appeared as before. All those experiences intensify philosophical questionings on the meaning of life with respect to self fulfilment. The concept of nature as the experience of others can be an authentic source from which to nourish our thoughts about organ transplantation. However, and this is our hypothesis, we need something more if we are to decide something about our own life. We need a hermeneutical stance in relation to ourselves and to our world. Philosophical counselling, as a long established tradition originating with Pythagoras and later reframed by the German philosopher Achenbach could be useful in inspiring a reflection on the good life, chiefly as it takes the form of a Socratic dialogue.

  4. The roles of nurses to augment organ donation and transplantation: a survey of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, F; Sucu, G; Karazeybek, E

    2011-03-01

    Insufficiency in organ donation from cadavers is a worldwide problem. In Turkey, sufficient numbers of organs from cadavers are not available for transplantation; this situation had led to the further growth in the gap between the demand for and availability of organs for transplantation. To determine the opinions and approaches of nursing students about the roles of nurses to augment organ donation and transplantation. This descriptive research sampled 309 nursing students using a form including 21 questions generated from a related literature view. Written consent was obtained from the participants. The data were analyzed for percent distributions by SPSS for Windows 11 software. Nursing students as future health professionals were aware of the roles and responsibilities of nurses to augment organ donation and transplantation. According to the opinions of nursing students, the roles of nurses could be classified as "raising public awareness," "care for recipient, donor, and their families," "conducting research," "supporting related organizations," and "being a role model for the public." The responsibilities of nurses to augment organ donation and transplantation are not limited to intensive care units, emergency units, as well as dialysis and hospital patients. The nursing workforce can also be utilized to generate public awareness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Efficiency indicators to assess the organ donation and transplantation process: systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Marina Martins; Araujo, Claudia Affonso; de Aguiar Roza, Bartira; Schirmer, Janine

    2016-08-01

    To search the literature and identify indicators used to monitor and control the organ donation and transplantation process and to group these indicators into categories. In November 2014, a systematic review of the literature was carried out in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), EBSCO, Emerald, Proquest, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The following search terms (and the corresponding terms in Brazilian Portuguese) were employed: "efficiency," "indicators," "organ donation," "tissue and organ procurement," and "organ transplantation." Of the 344 articles retrieved, 23 original articles published between 1992 and 2013 were selected and reviewed for analysis of efficiency indicators. The review revealed 117 efficiency indicators, which were grouped according to similarity of content and divided into three categories: 1) 71 indicators related to organ donation, covering mortality statistics, communication of brain death, clinical status of donors and exclusion of donors for medical reasons, attitude of families, confirmation of donations, and extraction of organs and tissues; 2) 22 indicators related to organ transplantation, covering the surgical procedure per se and post-transplantation follow-up; and 3) 24 indicators related to the demand for organs and the resources of hospitals involved in the process. Even if organ transplantation is a recent phenomenon, the high number of efficiency indicators described in the literature suggests that scholars interested in this field have been searching for ways to measure performance. However, there is little standardization of the indicators used. Also, most indicators focus on the donation step, suggesting gaps in the measurement of efficiency at others points in the process. Additional indicators are needed to monitor important stages, such as organ distribution (for example, organ loss indicators) and post-transplantation aspects (for example, survival and quality of life).

  6. Prevention of organic iodide formation in BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjunen, T.; Laitinen, T.; Piippo, J.; Sirkiae, P.

    1996-01-01

    During an accident, many different forms of iodine may emerge. Organic iodides, such as methyl iodide and ethyl iodide, are relatively volatile, and thus their appearance leads to increased concentration of gaseous iodine. Since organic iodides are also relatively immune to most accident mitigation measures, such as sprays and filters, they can affect the accident source term significantly even when only a small portion of iodine is in organic form. Formation of organic iodides may not be limited by the amount of organic substances available. Excessive amounts of methane can be produced, for example, during oxidation of boron carbide, which is used in BWR's as a neutron absorber material. Another important source is cable insulation. In a BWR, a large quantity of cables is placed below the pressure vessel. Thus a large quantity of pyrolyse gases will be produced, should the vessel fail. Organic iodides can be formed as a result of many different reactions, but at least in certain conditions the main reaction takes place between an organic radical produced by radiolysis and elemental iodine. A necessary requirement for prevention of organic iodide production is therefore that the pH in the containment water pools is kept high enough to eliminate formation of elemental iodine. In a typical BWR the suppression pool water is usually unbuffered. As a result, the pH may be dominated by chemicals introduced during an accident. If no system for adding basic chemicals is operable, the main factor affecting pool water pH may be hydrochloric acid released during cable degradation. Should this occur, the conditions could be very favorable for production of elemental iodine and, consequently, formation of organic iodides. Although high pH is necessary for iodine retention, it could have also adverse effects. High pH may, for example, accelerate corrosion of containment materials and alter the characteristics of the solid corrosion products. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  7. The Times, They are a-Changing: HOPE for HIV-to-HIV Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ghady; Singh, Nina

    2017-09-01

    HIV-infected persons who achieve undetectable viral loads on antiretroviral therapy currently have near-normal lifespans. Liver disease is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths, and as a result of longer survival, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease in HIV is increasing. HIV-infected persons undergoing organ transplantation generally achieve comparable patient and graft survival rates compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts, despite a nearly threefold increased risk of acute rejection. However, the ongoing shortage of suitable organs can limit transplantation as an option, and patients with HIV have higher waitlist mortality than others. One way to solve this problem would be to expand the donor pool to include HIV-infected individuals. The results of a South Africa study involving 27 HIV-to-HIV kidney transplants showed promise, with 3- and 5-year patient and graft survival rates similar to those of their HIV-uninfected counterparts. Similarly, individual cases of HIV-to-HIV liver transplantation from the United Kingdom and Switzerland have also shown good results. In the United States, HIV-to-HIV kidney and liver transplants are currently permitted only under a research protocol. Nevertheless, areas of ambiguity exist, including streamlining organ allocation practices, optimizing HIV-infected donor and recipient selection, managing donor-derived transmission of a resistant HIV strain, determining optimal immunosuppressive and antiretroviral regimens, and elucidating the incidence of rejection in HIV-to-HIV solid organ transplant recipients.

  8. Evidence of the Association Between Psychology and Tissue and Organ Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J D A; Ariente, L C; Roza, B A; Mucci, S

    2016-09-01

    The addition of psychologists to organ transplant teams is still new in Brazil. In seeking the efficient performance of this professional, the knowledge of the scientific production and the development of research in the area is fundamental. In this sense, this study aims to survey the Brazilian scientific research that has investigated the psychologic aspects involved in tissue and organ transplantation. A literature narrative review was performed with the use of the "Transplante AND Psicologia" descriptors in the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the CAPES Journal Portal. Fifty-three articles were found, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria: publications dating from 2000 to 2014 and the main topic of interest of the studies being quality of life, followed by organ donation. The instruments used most frequently were interviews developed by the researchers and the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire. Recent Brazilian studies on the association between psychology and transplantation are still scarce, possibly because of the recent addition of psychologists to transplantation teams. Therefore, it is suggested that more scientific research is made in the area and that the objects of study are more varied, to ensure adequacy of the psychologist to meet the specific demands of organ and tissue transplantation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Medication adherence among adolescent solid-organ transplant recipients: A survey of healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pooja; Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Kelly, Sarah L; Buchanan, Cindy; Rawlinson, Alana Resmini

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to medication adherence and to discover recommendations for interventions among providers of pediatric solid-organ transplant patients. An anonymous online survey was administered to a multidisciplinary pool of pediatric transplant providers from February 2015 to March 2016. It consisted of 15 questions regarding transplant providers' attitudes, clinical practice, and beliefs pertaining to medication adherence among teenage solid-organ transplant recipients. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Responses to open-ended questions were coded and categorized into themes. One hundred ten surveys were completed by providers specializing in pediatric heart, kidney, liver, lung, and/or intestinal transplantation. Commonly cited reasons for poor adherence were forgetting/poor planning (94%), the desire to be normal (86%), lack of support (86%), and poor parental monitoring (79%). Suggestions to improve adherence included increasing peer and family support, providing education, and incorporating technology into adherence regimens. Barriers to adherence in transplant patients are recognized by providers and are both similar to and disparate from patient and family identified barriers published in the literature. Providers recognize the importance of education, social support, and technologically driven interventions on improving outcomes in the transplant population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Partnership for transplantation: a new initiative to increase deceased organ donation in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosieradzki, M; Czerwinski, J; Jakubowska-Winecka, A; Kubik, T; Zawilinska, E; Kobryn, A; Bohatyrewicz, R; Zieniewicz, K; Nyckowski, P; Becler, R; Snarska, J; Danielewicz, R; Rowinski, W

    2012-09-01

    Despite the long-standing history of transplantation, the shortage of organs has remained its most restrictive factor. In 2010, the number of actual deceased organ donors in Poland was 13.5/million population (pmp). However, a huge difference in organ recovery rates is evident between various regions, eg, 32 pmp, in western Pomerania compared with 1-3 pmp in southern districts. A substantial number of patients who die while awaiting organ transplantations could be saved were effective programs able to overcome barriers in deceased organ donation. Such programs, eg, the European Donor Hospital Education Program, Donor Action, European Training Program on Organ Donation, United States Collaborative in Donation were introduced several years ago, but after transient improvements there has not been real progress. A new comprehensive program-Regional Partnership for Transplantation-was initiated a year ago in 4 districts of southern Poland by the Polish Union for Transplantation Medicine. The letter of intent to activate the donation program was signed by the local administration, the president of the local medical school, president of the Physician's Chamber, transplant centers, the Polish Union for Transplantation, and the Polish Transplant Coordinating Center. The plan of action included training of in-hospital coordinators, visits to all regional hospitals in company of a representative of the hospital founding body, examination of the real donation pool and the need for participation in a donation program training and education of the hospital staff in legal and organizational aspects of donation, brain death recognition, and various aspects of donor care. In addition, the program included communication skills workshops for intensive care unit physicians (with participation of 2 actors, an experienced anesthesiologist, and a psychologist), lectures for high school and university students and for hospital chaplains as well as alumni of higher seminaries. The

  11. SOME OF THE MECHANISMS OF EXTRACORPOREAL PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY IN SOLID ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the risk of kidney transplant rejection is a perspective trend in modern medical science. One of the promising methods for reducing the activity of immune conflict between the recipient and the donor organ and the achievement of partial immunological tolerance is photochemotherapy. This method is widely used in over- seas heart and lung Transplantation. Domestic experience of applying this method in renal transplant recipients is extremely small. In this review of literature a modern representation of the scientists on the mechanism of action of this method is presented. 

  12. Impact Factors and Attitudes Toward Organ Donation Among Transplantation Patients and Their Caregivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q-X; Xie, J-F; Zhou, J-D; Xiao, S-S; Liu, A-Z; Hu, G-Q; Chen, Y; Wang, C-Y

    2017-11-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate the attitudes toward organ donation among renal transplantation patients and their caregivers. In addition, we sought to explore the impact factors that affect their attitudes toward deceased organ donation. A self-administrated questionnaire was used, which consisted of two parts: 1) demographic data, and 2) transplantation and donation-related data. This study was conducted in three transplantation follow-up centers in three hospitals using a cross-sectional approach. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analysis descriptive and inferential statistics for data. The responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. We received 426 effective questionnaires. The renal transplantation patients' mean age was 40.84 years. Among these patients, 67.8% were willing to accept the organ transplantation surgery for their relatives, 67.4% were willing to donate a living kidney to a close relative, 62.7% were willing to donate organs after death, 53.5% were willing to register in the national organ donation system, and 51.4% were willing to sign the organ donation consent when facing their relatives becoming a potential organ donor. Age, marriage status, education level, understanding of transplantation procedures and understanding of donation procedures had statistical significance in the difference of the attitudes toward donate their organs after death (P transplantation patients in our study are more willing to donate organs after death than their caregivers, but both their attitudes toward deceased donation were not very optimistic. There is a significant relationship between participants' willingness and knowledge of organ donation; patients with more understanding of the transplantation and donation procedure were more willing to donate organs after death. Affected by traditional values such as Confucianism, many people still cannot accept registering in the national organ donation system or sign

  13. SHOULD WE ALLOW ORGAN DONATION EUTHANASIA? ALTERNATIVES FOR MAXIMIZING THE NUMBER AND QUALITY OF ORGANS FOR TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could be used to save the lives of others. At present the majority of these organs go to waste. In this paper we consider and evaluate a range of ways to improve the number and quality of organs available from this group of patients. Changes to consent arrangements (for example conscription of organs after death) or changes to organ donation practice could dramatically increase the numbers of organs available, though they would conflict with currently accepted norms governing transplantation. We argue that one alternative, Organ Donation Euthanasia, would be a rational improvement over current practice regarding withdrawal of life support. It would give individuals the greatest chance of being able to help others with their organs after death. It would increase patient autonomy. It would reduce the chance of suffering during the dying process. We argue that patients should be given the choice of whether and how they would like to donate their organs in the event of withdrawal of life support in intensive care. Continuing current transplantation practice comes at the cost of death and prolonged organ failure. We should seriously consider all of the alternatives. PMID:20459428

  14. Modification of the education system for organ procurement coordinators in Japan after the revision of the Japanese Organ Transplantation Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, S; Kato, O; Ashikari, J; Fukushima, N

    2012-05-01

    From October 1997 to July 2010, only 86 brain-dead (BD) organ donations were obtained and no organs were retrieved from children under 15 years of age because of the strict Japan Organ Transplantation Act. The Act was revised on July 17, 2010, allowing organs to be donated after BD with family consent. To manage the increased donations after the revision, the Japan Organ Transplant Network (JOT) employed 10 organ procurement coordinators (OPCs) and modified its education systems. We retrospectively reviewed the modified education programs to evaluate whether they were effective and whether the processes of organ donation were promptly performed after the revision of the Act. The modifications of education program were: changing OPC to guideline manuals to correspond to the revised Transplant Act; OPCs were taught the new organ procurement system; and a special education program was provided for the 10 newcomers for 2 months. After 12 months of the revision, 58 BD organ donations were accomplished, whereas they had averaged 6.6 in a year before the revision. Two pediatric BD organ donations were accomplished without problem. One priority organ donation to a relative was performed uneventfully. After applying the modified education program, skilled JOT OPCs and leader JOT OPCs increased. To manage increased organ donations after the revision of the Act, the educational system was modified and 58 brain dead organ donations were performed safely. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Should we allow organ donation euthanasia? Alternatives for maximizing the number and quality of organs for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Savulescu, Julian

    2012-01-01

    There are not enough solid organs available to meet the needs of patients with organ failure. Thousands of patients every year die on the waiting lists for transplantation. Yet there is one currently available, underutilized, potential source of organs. Many patients die in intensive care following withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment whose organs could be used to save the lives of others. At present the majority of these organs go to waste. In this paper we consider and evaluate a range of ways to improve the number and quality of organs available from this group of patients. Changes to consent arrangements (for example conscription of organs after death) or changes to organ donation practice could dramatically increase the numbers of organs available, though they would conflict with currently accepted norms governing transplantation. We argue that one alternative, Organ Donation Euthanasia, would be a rational improvement over current practice regarding withdrawal of life support. It would give individuals the greatest chance of being able to help others with their organs after death. It would increase patient autonomy. It would reduce the chance of suffering during the dying process. We argue that patients should be given the choice of whether and how they would like to donate their organs in the event of withdrawal of life support in intensive care. Continuing current transplantation practice comes at the cost of death and prolonged organ failure. We should seriously consider all of the alternatives. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Induction of unresponsiveness to major transplantable organs in adult mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Mollen, N.; Hirasawa, H.; Asano, T.; Ferrebee, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Transplantation of renal allografts obtained from prospectively selected genotypically DLA-identical donors into supralethally irradiated dogs reconstituted with their own stored bone marrow has produced a state of unresponsiveness to these kidneys in the recipients. Eleven of 18 kidneys transplanted at 12 hours after marrow replacement currently survive with normal function and maintain life in the recipients. Similar results occurred in eight of 13 allografts transplanted at 28 hours and in eight of 13 kidneys grafted at 36 hours after marrow replacement. Only four of 16 recipients of kidneys transplanted at the time of marrow replacement were unresponsive to their allografts. Similarly, only five of 19 recipients of kidneys placed in irradiated dogs at 40 hours before marrow replacement accepted such allografts. When kidney transplants were placed into the recipients 20 hours before removal of marrow, irradiation, and reconstitution with stored marrow, only three of 21 dogs became unresponsive to such allografts. In five of 12 instances, the recipients were also unresponsive to skin allografts obtained from their respective kidney donors. Rejection of these skin grafts had no detectable effect on the function and survival of kidney allografts from the same source. Seven of eight skin grafts obtained from other DLA-identical donors were rejected. Eleven DLA-incompatible skin allografts placed on the recipients at the same time were rejected within 11 to 20 days. Supralethal total body irradiation and bone marrow replacement can establish in the adult canine host a privileged phase of immunological reactivity during which exposure to alloantigens produces specific long-term unresponsiveness rather than sensitization. The use of stored autologous rather than allogeneic bone marrow for reconstitution of the irradiated recipient eliminates the hazards of GVH complication usually associated with this procedure

  17. Monitoring of organ transplants through genomic analyses of circulating cell-free DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vlaminck, Iwijn

    Solid-organ transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage organ diseases, but complications due to infection and acute rejection undermine its long-term benefits. While clinicians strive to carefully monitor transplant patients, diagnostic options are currently limited. My colleagues and I in the lab of Stephen Quake have found that a combination of next-generation sequencing with a phenomenon called circulating cell-free DNA enables non-invasive diagnosis of both infection and rejection in transplantation. A substantial amount of small fragments of cell-free DNA circulate in blood that are the debris of dead cells. We discovered that donor specific DNA is released in circulation during injury to the transplant organ and we show that the proportion of donor DNA in plasma is predictive of acute rejection in heart and lung transplantation. We profiled viral and bacterial DNA sequences in plasma of transplant patients and discovered that the relative representation of different viruses and bacteria is informative of immunosuppression. This discovery suggested a novel biological measure of a person's immune strength, a finding that we have more recently confirmed via B-cell repertoire sequencing. Lastly, our studies highlight applications of shotgun sequencing of cell-free DNA in the broad, hypothesis free diagnosis of infection.

  18. Bacterial meningitis in solid organ transplant recipients: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, K E B; Brouwer, M C; van der Ende, A; van de Beek, D

    2016-10-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of infections of the central nervous system. However, the incidence and clinical course of bacterial meningitis in SOT recipients are unclear. We studied occurrence, disease course, and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in SOT recipients in the Netherlands. All patients with a medical history of solid organ transplantation were selected from our nationwide prospective cohort study on community-acquired bacterial meningitis in patients >16 years old, performed from March 1, 2006 to October 31, 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were collected prospectively. For transplant recipients, additional information was collected retrospectively. We identified 6 SOT recipients, all receiving renal transplants. The annual incidence of bacterial meningitis was 7-fold higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.94-17.02, P bacterial meningitis (fever, neck stiffness, and change in mental status). Seizures were common, occurring in 33% of patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes were identified in 2 patients each, and Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were both identified once. Four of 6 patients (67%) had an unfavorable functional outcome. Bacterial meningitis is a rare but devastating complication of solid organ transplantation. SOT recipients are at high risk for developing meningitis, and recognition of this condition may be difficult, owing to atypical clinical manifestation. © 2016 The Authors. Transplant Infectious Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation.METHOD: this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo.RESULTS: the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  1. Experience of nurses in the process of donation of organs and tissues for transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Edvaldo Leal; dos Santos, Marcelo José; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2014-01-01

    to investigate the meaning of the action of nurses in the donation process to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation. this qualitative study with a social phenomenological approach was conducted through individual interviews with ten nurses of three Organ and Tissue Procurement Services of the city of São Paulo. the experience of the nurses in the donation process was represented by the categories: obstacles experienced in the donation process, and interventions performed. The meaning of the action to maintain the viability of organs and tissues for transplantation was described by the categories: to change paradigms, to humanize the donation process, to expand the donation, and to save lives. knowledge of the experience of the nurses in this process is important for healthcare professionals who work in different realities, indicating strategies to optimize the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation.

  2. Ethical and legal issues related to the donation and use of nonstandard organs for transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2013-12-01

    Transplantation of nonstandard or expanded criteria donor organs creates several potential ethical and legal problems in terms of consent and liability, and new challenges for research and service development; it highlights the need for a system of organ donation that responds to an evolving ethical landscape and incorporates scientific innovation to meet the needs of recipients, but which also safeguards the interests and autonomy of the donor. In this article, the use of deceased donor organs for transplants that fail to meet standard donor criteria and the legitimacy of interventions and research aimed at optimizing their successful donation are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P; Robbins, Robert C; Naesens, Maarten; Butte, Atul J; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2013-10-21

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design.

  4. A common rejection module (CRM) for acute rejection across multiple organs identifies novel therapeutics for organ transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Purvesh; Roedder, Silke; Kimura, Naoyuki; De Vusser, Katrien; Morgan, Alexander A.; Gong, Yongquan; Fischbein, Michael P.; Robbins, Robert C.; Naesens, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Using meta-analysis of eight independent transplant datasets (236 graft biopsy samples) from four organs, we identified a common rejection module (CRM) consisting of 11 genes that were significantly overexpressed in acute rejection (AR) across all transplanted organs. The CRM genes could diagnose AR with high specificity and sensitivity in three additional independent cohorts (794 samples). In another two independent cohorts (151 renal transplant biopsies), the CRM genes correlated with the extent of graft injury and predicted future injury to a graft using protocol biopsies. Inferred drug mechanisms from the literature suggested that two FDA-approved drugs (atorvastatin and dasatinib), approved for nontransplant indications, could regulate specific CRM genes and reduce the number of graft-infiltrating cells during AR. We treated mice with HLA-mismatched mouse cardiac transplant with atorvastatin and dasatinib and showed reduction of the CRM genes, significant reduction of graft-infiltrating cells, and extended graft survival. We further validated the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on graft survival by retrospective analysis of electronic medical records of a single-center cohort of 2,515 renal transplant patients followed for up to 22 yr. In conclusion, we identified a CRM in transplantation that provides new opportunities for diagnosis, drug repositioning, and rational drug design. PMID:24127489

  5. Organ donation and transplantation training for future professional nurses as a health and social awareness policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Montesinos, M J; Manzanera Saura, J T; Mikla, M; Ríos, A; López-Navas, A; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Rodríguez, M M; Ramírez, P

    2010-01-01

    Training and information for university nursing students about the organ donation and transplantation process is necessary because it will influence their attitudes toward the subject. We analyzed attitudes toward organ donation among nursing students in a donation and transplantation training course and any changes in opinions as a result of the course. We questioned 48 students in the third year of nursing (University of Murcia, Spain) who were attending a 32-hour training course about donation and transplantation. We used a descriptive concurrent study, through the completion of a validated opinion survey with 27 items before and after the training course. Attitudes toward donation were favorable in 87% of respondents increasing to 94% after course completion. Before starting the course, 87% believed that there were not enough transplantable organs available to cover needs compared to 96% after the course. Before the course, 46% stated that they did not have complete information about the subject. Taking part in the course has encouraged family discussion about the subject (85% to 90%) and improved knowledge about family opinions (64% to 83%; P = .031). Attitudes toward living donation did not change after the course. However, there was an improvement in knowledge of the Spanish organ distribution system. Attitudes toward organ donation among third-year nursing students were favorable, and increased after undergoing a course about donation and transplantation. The most important part of the course was the increase in theoretical knowledge about the matter as well as the health education.

  6. Evaluation of the Motivation to Consent to and to Refuse Organ Donation Among Participants of Educational Meetings Concerning Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaniak, I; Wilczek-Rużyczka, E; Wierzbicki, K; Sadowski, J; Kapelak, B; Przybyłowski, P

    2016-06-01

    Improvement of the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors is a key component of strategies applied in many countries aiming to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Attitudes toward living and posthumous donation are favorable. Research shows that the outlook on organ donation and the degree of the willingness to become an organ donor are associated with a wide range of variables. The main objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the willingness to donate organs and the reasons for refusing consent. The study included 191 participants (135 female and 56 male) aged 16 to 61 years (mean age 26.86 ± 12.88). A cross-sectional study was conducted during educational meetings concerning organ donation that was addressed to students, teachers, and nurses. Survey tools included the Individual Questionnaire: Study of attitudes toward transplantation, consisting of 26 closed questions (with the consent of the Statistical Office in Krakow). In all, 97.4% of the respondents accepted transplantation from living donors, and 95.8% accepted deceased donations. Of the respondents, 78.5% agreed to posthumous life-saving organ donation. There was a significant difference between the respondents' sex, age, social group, place of living, and the reasons for their willingness to donate organs both posthumously and during their lifetime, as well as reasons for refusal. Our findings showed that the study group in general had favorable views on treatment involving transplantation and declared willingness to make a posthumous organ donation. These views vary depending on demographic variables. The education on the subject of organ and tissue donation has a positive impact on donation and transplantation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  8. Spectrum of Cancer Risk among U.S. Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: The Transplant Cancer Match Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Kasiske, Bertram L.; Israni, Ajay K.; Snyder, Jon J.; Wolfe, Robert A.; Goodrich, Nathan P.; Bayakly, A. Rana; Clarke, Christina A.; Copeland, Glenn; Finch, Jack L.; Fleissner, Mary Lou; Goodman, Marc T.; Kahn, Amy; Koch, Lori; Lynch, Charles F.; Madeleine, Margaret M.; Pawlish, Karen; Rao, Chandrika; Williams, Melanie A.; Castenson, David; Curry, Michael; Parsons, Ruth; Fant, Gregory; Lin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Context Solid organ transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk due to immunosuppression and oncogenic viral infections. Since most prior research has concerned kidney recipients, large studies that include recipients of differing organs can inform cancer etiology. Objective Describe the overall pattern of cancer among solid organ transplant recipients. Design Cohort study using linked data from the U.S. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (1987–2008) and 13 state/regional cancer registries. Participants and Setting Solid organ transplant recipients in the U.S. Main Outcome Measure Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and excess absolute risks (EARs) assessing relative and absolute cancer risk in transplant recipients compared to the general population. Results Registry linkages yielded data on 175,732 solid organ transplants (58.4% kidney, 21.6% liver, 10.0% heart, 4.0% lung). Overall cancer risk was elevated (N=10,656 cases, incidence 1374.7 per 100,000 person-years; SIR 2.10, 95%CI 2.06–2.14; EAR 719.3, 95%CI 693.3–745.6, per 100,000 person-years). Risk was increased (p<0.001) for 32 different malignancies, some related to known infections (e.g., anal cancer, Kaposi sarcoma) and others unrelated (e.g., melanoma, thyroid and lip cancers). The most common malignancies with elevated risk were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (N=1504, incidence 194.0; SIR 7.54, 95%CI 7.17–7.93; EAR 168.3, 95%CI 158.6–178.4) and cancers of the lung (N=1344, incidence 173.4; SIR 1.97, 95%CI 1.86–2.08; EAR 85.3, 95%CI 76.2–94.8), liver (N=930, incidence 120.0; SIR 11.56, 95%CI 10.83–12.33; EAR 109.6, 95%CI 102.0–117.6), and kidney (N=752, incidence 97.0; SIR 4.65, 95%CI 4.32–4.99; EAR 76.1, 95%CI 69.3–83.3). Lung cancer risk was most elevated in lung recipients (SIR 6.13, 95%CI 5.18–7.21) but also increased among other recipients (SIR 1.46, 95%CI 1.34–1.59 for kidney; 1.95, 1.74–2.19 for liver; 2.67, 2.40–2.95 for heart). Liver cancer was elevated only

  9. Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Dialogue with American Indian Healers and Western Health-Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Bellanger, Patricia; Norman, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Surgically replacing organs in the human body has become an acceptable and successful procedure in Western medicine. In more recent years, replacing major organs in the human body with those procured from deceased or living donors has become commonplace. Disparities exist at the earliest stages in the donor and transplantation process in that…

  10. [Attitudes towards transplantation and organ donation in high school graduates of math gymnasium in Osijek].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, Zibar; Zvonimir, Popović; Nikola, Raguz Lucić; Vlasta, Orlić Karbić

    2011-10-01

    Testing attitudes and opinions ofgraduate students in Osijek towards organ donation and transplantation. Examinees and methods: The research included 99 students of math gymnasium in Osijek (54 males and 45 females, mean age 18 years). They fulfilled an anonymous questionnaire, consisted of 24 questions about transplantation, willingness to donate organs, consciousness of importance of donating organs and attitudes of religion towards organ donation. Statistical analysis was made by SPSS 16.0 computer program using Chi-square test. Most of the gymnasium students (80.8%) have already heard about organ donation, 76.8% of them have received information by television. 59.4% students know how a transplantation is being performed, but the majority (64.6%) of them don't know whom to address to receive additional information about organ donation. 27.3% students have discussed transplantation inside their families and 17.2% examinees know someone who signed the donor card. 55.6% examinees are convinced that transplantation procedure is safe and efficient. 41.4% thinks that family should give permission for explantation of a deceased patient's organs, while 33.3% consider it not necessary. Regarding the question whether examinees think that organ transplantation was a mutilation, 91.9% of them answered "no". Although 55.6% students believe that doctors would put the same effort in saving patients, independent whether they possessed donor card or not, there were 60.6% that thought it was possible to obtain organ in Croatia by illegal ways. Nevertheless, 79.8% students would receive organ from a deceased person, 64.6% would donate organs after their death. Observing ethical and religious attitudes, 92.9% are sure that organ donation is a humane gesture. 82.8% examinees were believers and 60.6% of them didn't know attitudes of their religion towards organ donation. Women have significantly more willingness to donate their organ to family member during their lives (97.8%), while

  11. Organ donation for transplantation: a clinical study with emphasis on liver donation

    OpenAIRE

    Pruim, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis was the continuing organ shortage. Several factors have been held responsible for this shortage, including refusal of permission for organ donation by the next-of-kin, insufficient recognition of potential organ donors by the medical staff, and -unjustified- discard of donors by transplant teams either due to logistic reasons or because of medical reasons. Apart from the logistic reasons, we have explored these different causes for organ shortage. With respect...

  12. Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Abdala, Edson; Morris, Michele I; Azevedo, Luiz S; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; Petersen, Eskild; Camargo, Luis Fernando A; Wright, Alissa Jade; Beeching, Nicholas J; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; Santoro-Lopes, Guilherme; Len, Oscar; Stucchi, Raquel S B; Manuel, Oriol; Faria, Luciana Costa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Huprikar, Shirish; Molina, Israel; Mourão, Paulo Henrique Orlandi; Kotton, Camille N; Aguado, José María

    2018-02-01

    The Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America clinical practice guideline is intended to guide clinicians caring for solid-organ transplant (SOT) donors, candidates and recipients regarding infectious diseases (ID) issues related to this geographical region, mostly located in the tropics. These recommendations are based on both systematic reviews of relevant literature and expert opinion from both transplant ID and travel medicine specialists. The guidelines provide recommendations for risk evaluation and laboratory investigation, as well as management and prevention of infection of the most relevant endemic diseases of Latin America. This summary includes a brief description of the guideline recommendations but does not include the complete rationale and references for each recommendation, which is available in the online version of the article, published in this journal as a supplement. The supplement contains 10 reviews referring to endemic or travel diseases (eg, tuberculosis, Chagas disease [ChD], leishmaniasis, malaria, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, travelers diarrhea, arboviruses, endemic fungal infections, viral hepatitis, and vaccines) and an illustrative section with maps (http://www.pmourao.com/map/). Contributors included experts from 13 countries (Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Italy, Peru, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay) representing four continents (Asia, the Americas and Europe), along with scientific and medical societies.

  13. Imaging spectrum of central nervous system complications of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Bargallo, Nuria [Universitat de Barcelona, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBARS), Resonance Magnetic Image Core Facility, Barcelona (Spain); Floeisand, Yngvar [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Department of Hematology, Oslo (Norway); Sponheim, Jon [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Transplantation Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Graus, Francesc [Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Neurology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBARS), Neuroimmunology Program, Barcelona (Spain); Hald, John K. [Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-02-15

    Neurologic complications are common after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) and affect 30-60% of transplant recipients. The aim of this article is to provide a practical imaging approach based on the timeline and etiology of CNS abnormalities, and neurologic complications related to transplantation of specific organs. The lesions will be classified based upon the interval from HSCT procedure: pre-engraftment period <30 days, early post-engraftment period 30-100 days, late post-engraftment period >100 days, and the interval from SOT procedure: postoperative phase 1-4 weeks, early posttransplant syndromes 1-6 months, late posttransplant syndromes >6 months. Further differentiation will be based on etiology: infections, drug toxicity, metabolic derangements, cerebrovascular complications, and posttransplantation malignancies. In addition, differentiation will be based on complications specific to the type of transplantation: allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), heart, lung, kidney, pancreas, and liver. Thus, in this article we emphasize the strategic role of neuroradiology in the diagnosis and response to treatment by utilizing a methodical approach in the work up of patients with neurologic complications after transplantation. (orig.)

  14. Imaging spectrum of central nervous system complications of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, Andres; Bargallo, Nuria; Floeisand, Yngvar; Sponheim, Jon; Graus, Francesc; Hald, John K.

    2017-01-01

    Neurologic complications are common after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) and affect 30-60% of transplant recipients. The aim of this article is to provide a practical imaging approach based on the timeline and etiology of CNS abnormalities, and neurologic complications related to transplantation of specific organs. The lesions will be classified based upon the interval from HSCT procedure: pre-engraftment period <30 days, early post-engraftment period 30-100 days, late post-engraftment period >100 days, and the interval from SOT procedure: postoperative phase 1-4 weeks, early posttransplant syndromes 1-6 months, late posttransplant syndromes >6 months. Further differentiation will be based on etiology: infections, drug toxicity, metabolic derangements, cerebrovascular complications, and posttransplantation malignancies. In addition, differentiation will be based on complications specific to the type of transplantation: allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), heart, lung, kidney, pancreas, and liver. Thus, in this article we emphasize the strategic role of neuroradiology in the diagnosis and response to treatment by utilizing a methodical approach in the work up of patients with neurologic complications after transplantation. (orig.)

  15. Prospective clinical testing of regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg in organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGUS W THOMSON

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering the incidence and severity of rejection and reducing patients’ dependence on anti-rejection drugs. Generation of donor- or recipient-derived DCreg that suppress T cell responses and prolong transplant survival in rodents or non-human primates has been well-described. Recently, good manufacturing practice (GMP-grade DCreg have been produced at our Institution for prospective use in human organ transplantation. We briefly review experience of regulatory immune therapy in organ transplantation and describe our experience generating and characterizing human monocyte-derived DCreg. We propose a phase I/II safety study in which the influence of donor-derived DCreg combined with conventional immunosuppression on subclinical and clinical rejection and host alloimmune responses will be examined in detail.

  16. Algerian Immigrants to Spain: Study of Attitude to the Donation of Organs for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Carrillo, J; López-Navas, A I; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    Many Africans are emigrating to the European Economic Community from countries with little knowledge of transplantation. This population has not yet been studied. Analyze the attitude toward donation among the Algerian population living in Spain. We studied the population born in Algeria and residing in Spain, over 15 years old, and stratified by age and sex. Attitude was surveyed using a questionnaire of organ donation for transplantation ("PCID-DTO Ríos"). Support from African immigration associations was needed to advise on the location of potential respondents. The completion was anonymous and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained to assist in the study. Of the 441 respondents, 27% (n = 119) were in favor of donation after death, 43% (n = 191) were against, and 30% (n = 131) were undecided. The variables associated with the attitude toward the donation were sex (P = .033), having offspring (P = .027), having commented on the subject of organ transplantation at the family level (P organ donation and transplantation (P transplant recipient or donor, with this subgroup having the most favorable attitude (68% vs 19%, P donation of their own organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Asian American adolescents' willingness to donate organs and engage in family discussion about organ donation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeta, Joyce A; Cooper, Bruce A; Ascher, Nancy L; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Christine M; Chen, Jyu-Lin

    2012-03-01

    Despite the growing need for organ donation among Asian Americans, studies suggest that they are reluctant to donate. To examine the association of attitudes and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation with willingness to donate and willingness to engage in family discussion about organ donation among Asian American adolescents. A cross-sectional study. The Big Island of Hawaii. Self-identified Asian American adolescents (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean), ages 16 to 17 years old, and each adolescent's parent or guardian. Asian American adolescents provided demographic information and completed the Modified Organ Donation Attitude Survey, the Organ Donation and Transplantation Knowledge Survey, and the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. A parent or guardian also provided demographic information. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations with willingness to donate and to engage in family discussion about organ discussion. Willingness to donate was associated with positive knowledge related to general aspects about organ donation and cultural limitations in receiving an organ transplant, a high level of acculturation, and a low level of negative attitudes (R2 = 0.402, F = 18.86, P = .005). Asian American adolescents with approving or positive attitudes were likely to engage in family discussion about organ donation (R2 = 0.195, F = 27.93, P = .005). To reinforce and maintain high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, organ donation education is most likely needed in high schools.

  18. Review paper: Organ transplants: ethical, social, and religious issues in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Noor Zurani Md Haris; Razack, Azad Hassan; Dublin, Norman

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in the fields of organ donation and organ transplant have introduced new hope for the treatment of serious diseases. However, this promise has been accompanied by several issues. The most common issue raised is ethical implications, but in a multicultural society like Malaysia, additional concerns arise pertaining to social and religious issues. These concerns needs to be addressed as attitudes toward and acceptability of organ donation varies according to social, culture, and religion. The diverse cultural, religious, and traditional concepts pertaining to organ donation may hamper its acceptability and cause a lack of willingness to donate organs. The purpose of this article is to briefly explore the ethical issues involved in organ transplant and the various religious opinions on organ donation. It is hoped that this knowledge and understanding may benefit both health care providers and patients in a multicultural society like Malaysia.

  19. Transplant tourism: the ethics and regulation of international markets for organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2013-01-01

    "Medical Tourism" is the travel of residents of one country to another country for treatment. In this article I focus on travel abroad to purchase organs for transplant, what I will call "Transplant Tourism." With the exception of Iran, organ sale is illegal across the globe, but many destination countries have thriving black markets, either due to their willful failure to police the practice or more good faith lack of resources to detect it. I focus on the sale of kidneys, the most common subject of transplant tourism, though much of what I say could be applied to other organs as well. Part I briefly reviews some data on sellers, recipients, and brokers. Part II discusses the bioethical issues posed by the trade, and Part III focuses on potential regulation to deal with these issues. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Incidence and outcomes of primary central nervous system lymphoma in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Parag; Shiels, Meredith S; Lynch, Charles F; Engels, Eric A

    2018-02-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) risk is greatly increased in immunosuppressed human immunodeficiency virus-infected people. Using data from the US transplant registry linked with 17 cancer registries (1987-2014), we studied PCNSL and systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in 288 029 solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant recipients had elevated incidence for PCNSL compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio = 65.1; N = 168), and this elevation was stronger than for systemic NHL (standardized incidence ratio=11.5; N = 2043). Compared to kidney recipients, PCNSL incidence was lower in liver recipients (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 0.52), similar in heart and/or lung recipients, and higher in other/multiple organ recipients (aIRR = 2.45). PCNSL incidence was higher in Asians/Pacific Islanders than non-Hispanic whites (aIRR = 2.09); after induction immunosuppression with alemtuzumab (aIRR = 3.12), monoclonal antibodies (aIRR = 1.83), or polyclonal antibodies (aIRR = 2.03); in recipients who were Epstein-Barr virus-seronegative at the time of transplant and at risk of primary infection (aIRR = 1.95); and within the first 1.5 years after transplant. Compared to other recipients, those with PCNSL had increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 11.79) or graft failure/retransplantation (aHR = 3.24). Recipients with PCNSL also had higher mortality than those with systemic NHL (aHR = 1.48). In conclusion, PCNSL risk is highly elevated among transplant recipients, and it carries a poor prognosis. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. A Multistep, Consensus-Based Approach to Organ Allocation in Liver Transplantation: Toward a "Blended Principle Model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, U; Burra, P; Mazzaferro, V; Belli, L; Pinna, A D; Spada, M; Nanni Costa, A; Toniutto, P

    2015-10-01

    Since Italian liver allocation policy was last revised (in 2012), relevant critical issues and conceptual advances have emerged, calling for significant improvements. We report the results of a national consensus conference process, promoted by the Italian College of Liver Transplant Surgeons (for the Italian Society for Organ Transplantation) and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, to review the best indicators for orienting organ allocation policies based on principles of urgency, utility, and transplant benefit in the light of current scientific evidence. MELD exceptions and hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed to construct a transplantation priority algorithm, given the inequity of a purely MELD-based system for governing organ allocation. Working groups of transplant surgeons and hepatologists prepared a list of statements for each topic, scoring their quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using the Centers for Disease Control grading system. A jury of Italian transplant surgeons, hepatologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, epidemiologists, representatives of patients' associations and organ-sharing organizations, transplant coordinators, and ethicists voted on and validated the proposed statements. After carefully reviewing the statements, a critical proposal for revising Italy's current liver allocation policy was prepared jointly by transplant surgeons and hepatologists. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. 76 FR 78216 - Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... organs covered by section 301 of NOTA. (73 FR 11420.) HRSA also sought feedback on the optimal way to... of the organ relating to the organ's utility for reconstruction, repair, or replacement--examples of... replacement or supplementation of a recipient's organ with an organ that performs the same basic function or...

  3. Family perspectives on organ and tissue donation for transplantation: a principlist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Marcelo José; Feito, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    The family interview context is permeated by numerous ethical issues which may generate conflicts and impact on organ donation process. This study aims to analyze the family interview process with a focus on principlist bioethics. This exploratory, descriptive study uses a qualitative approach. The speeches were collected using the following prompt: "Talk about the family interview for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation, from the preparation for the interview to the decision of the family to donate or not." For the treatment of qualitative data, we chose the method of content analysis and categorical thematic analysis. The study involved 18 nurses who worked in three municipal organ procurement organizations in São Paulo, Brazil, and who conducted family interviews for organ donation. Ethical considerations: The data were collected after approval of the study by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo. The results were classified into four categories and three subcategories. The categories are the principles adopted by principlist bioethics. The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice permeate the family interview and reveal their importance in the organs and tissues donation process for transplantation. The analysis of family interviews for the donation of organs and tissues for transplantation with a focus on principlist bioethics indicates that the process involves many ethical considerations. The elucidation of these aspects contributes to the discussion, training, and improvement of professionals, whether nurses or not, who work in organ procurement organizations and can improve the curriculum of existing training programs for transplant coordinators who pursue ethics in donation and transplantation as their foundation.

  4. Thymus transplantation and disease prevention in the diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H.M.; Bellgrau, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bio-Breeding rat T lymphocytes proliferate poorly in response to alloantigen. Transplantation of Bio-Breeding rats with fetal thymus tissue from diabetes resistant rats leads to an improvement in the T cell proliferative response, but only if the thymus contains bone marrow-derived, radiation-resistant thymic antigen presenting cells of the diabetes-resistant phenotype. The current study provides evidence that thymus transplantation leading to the restoration of Bio-Breeding T cell proliferative function can also significantly reduce the incidence of insulitis and prevent the development of diabetes. It appears that a defect in the bone marrow-derived thymic APC population contributes to an abnormal maturation of Bio-Breeding T lymphocytes which in turn predisposes animals to insulitis and diabetic disease

  5. [Role of an anesthesiologist-resuscitation specialist in organ donation for transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaroshetskiĭ, A I; Protsenko, D N; Gel'fand, B R

    2010-01-01

    There is an annual reduction in the number of donors worldwide. An anesthesiologist-resuscitation specialist is a key figure in the whole system of organ donation. The so-called transplantation, i.e., the organization of the whole process of interaction between a healthy care facility, a local organ donation center, and ancillary laboratory and diagnostic services is one of his/her primary roles in organ donation. The organizational, legal, and ethic issues of organ donation for transplantation are discussed from the viewpoint of an anesthesiologist-resuscitation specialist. There is a parallel between the treatment of a patient with multiple organ dysfunction and the management of a donor with brain death.

  6. Organ Transplantation in the Face of Donor Shortage - Ethical Implications with a Focus on Liver Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauerer, Michael; Kaiser, Katharina; Nagel, Eckhard

    2016-08-01

    Transplantation medicine is associated with several ethical issues related to the lack of organs. Major questions concern the regulations for giving permission for organ removal, informing the public about organ donation, setting of organ allocation priorities, waiting list access, and strategies to counteract scarcity. This contribution is based on analyses of legal regulations, guidelines of self-regulatory bodies, administrative data, and literature from medical, normative, and empiric disciplines. It addresses the above-mentioned issues descriptively with a focus on Germany and liver transplantation. The basic principle of beneficence justifies a shift from voluntariness towards an obligation to document one's decision regarding organ donation. Organ allocation is obviously tangent to fundamental values and concepts of justice. At that, there is no consistent agreement on whether to prioritize the sickest patient or to maximize the overall health benefit. Restrictions relating to waiting list access are the subject of controversies. The reasons for denial of access are largely related to high demands on the prospect of success. Strategies to counteract organ scarcity partly conflict with the respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, or justice. We propose to focus on recent most promising strategies to counteract scarcity in the short-term: demanding a documented decision on organ donation and an orientation towards the Spanish model of organization. Concepts for waiting list access should constantly be reviewed considering all medical evidence and must not be based on moralism. Moreover, we suggest to consider public preferences for organ allocation and strengthen the confidence in transplantation medicine.

  7. Heart and lung organ offer acceptance practices of transplant programs are associated with waitlist mortality and organ yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Andrew; Valapour, Maryam; Skeans, Melissa A; Salkowski, Nicholas; Colvin, Monica; Kasiske, Bertram L; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J

    2018-04-19

    Variation in heart and lung offer acceptance practices may affect numbers of transplanted organs and create variability in waitlist mortality. To investigate these issues, offer acceptance ratios, or adjusted odds ratios, for heart and lung transplant programs individually and for all programs within donation service areas (DSAs) were estimated using offers from donors recovered July 1, 2016-June 30, 2017. Logistic regressions estimated the association of DSA-level offer acceptance ratios with donor yield and local placement of organs recovered in the DSA. Competing risk methodology estimated the association of program-level offer acceptance ratios with incidence and rate of waitlist removals due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant. Higher DSA-level offer acceptance was associated with higher yield (odds ratios [ORs]: lung, 1.04 1.11 1.19 ; heart, 1.09 1.21 1.35 ) and more local placement of transplanted organs (ORs: lung, 1.01 1.12 1.24 ; heart, 1.47 1.69 1.93 ). Higher program-level offer acceptance was associated with lower incidence of waitlist removal due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant (hazard ratios [HRs]: heart, 0.80 0.86 0.93 ; lung, 0.67 0.75 0.83 ), but not with rate of waitlist removal (HRs: heart, 0.91 0.98 1.06 ; lung, 0.89 0.99 1.10 ). Heart and lung offer acceptance practices affected numbers of transplanted organs and contributed to program-level variability in the probability of waitlist mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Gerundium: A Comprehensive Public Educational Program on Organ Donation and Transplantation and Civil Law in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, D Á; Mihály, S; Rajczy, K; Zsom, L; Zádori, G; Fedor, R; Eszter, K; Enikő, B; Asztalos, L; Nemes, B

    2015-09-01

    Organ transplantation has become an organized, routine, widely used method in the treatment of several end-stage diseases. Kidney transplantation means the best life-quality and longest life expectancy for patients with end-stage renal diseases. Transplantation is the only available long-term medical treatment for patients with end-stage liver, heart, and lung diseases. Despite the number of transplantations increasing worldwide, the needs of the waiting lists remain below expectations. One of the few methods to increase the number of transplantations is public education. In cooperation with the University of Debrecen Institute for Surgery Department of Transplantation, the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service Organ Coordination Office, and the Local Committee Debrecen of Hungarian Medical Students' International Relations Committee (HuMSIRC), the Gerundium, a new educational program, has been established to serve this target. Gerundium is a special program designed especially for youth education. Peer education means that age-related medical student volunteers educate their peers during interactive unofficial sessions. Volunteers were trained during specially designed training. Medical students were honored by HuMSIRC, depending on their activity on the basis of their own regulations. Uniform slides and brochures to share were designed. Every Hungarian secondary school was informed. The Local Committee Budapest of HuMSIRC also joined the program, which helps to expand our activity throughout Hungary. The aim of the program is public education to help disperse disapproval, if presented. As a multiple effect, our program promotes medical students to have better skills in the field of transplantation, presentation, and communication skills. Our program is a voluntary program with strong professional support and is free of charge for the community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health-related quality of life after solid organ transplantation: the role of sport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Mazzoni, Davide; Totti, Valentina; Roi, Giulio Sergio; Mosconi, Giovanni; Nanni Costa, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sport activity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of solid organ transplant recipients participating in sports competitions. A group of 168 sportive transplanted patients (STP), a group of 97 nonsportive transplanted patients (NSTP), and a group of 152 sportive healthy controls (SHC) were compared on the eight scales of the SF-36 questionnaire. STP and NSTP reported significantly lower scores than SHC on the physical functioning scale. STP did not differ from SHC in the Role-Physical, General Health, and Vitality scales, while NSTP reported significantly lower scores. STP obtained higher scores than NSTP and SHC on Mental Health. Among STP, the effect of quantity of sport activity was significant on General Health and Role Emotional, with more sport activity associated with higher HRQoL. Organ failure and post-transplant therapies may have negative consequences on HRQoL. Sports activities and participation in sports competitions can reduce this impact, improving general and psychological functioning of solid organ transplant recipients.

  10. Commercial living non-related organ transplantation: a viewpoint from a developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Peter F

    2006-10-01

    In developed countries, the use of living unrelated donors is restricted to purely altruistic donors who have a close and emotional relationship with the recipients. By law, commercial transplantation is illegal. Increasing shortness of donors, the excellent results of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors as well as the very low risk for the donor has been used as an argument for paid organ donation. Arguments in favour are the relief of donor-organ shortage, short waiting times for renal transplantation, economic benefits for the donor as well as the economic benefits for society by reducing the costs of dialysis by more transplants. Major arguments against are exploitation of the donor, coercion, and a growing black market. Despite the fact that different societies have different norms or reproaches that we are failing our patients and accept the death of thousands, kidney trade has created an environment of corruption and commercialisation, which brings even the cadaver transplant program into disrepute. However, denying the existence of paid organ donation does not contribute to solve the problem. A public discussion about consequences of changing ethics and human rights, rather than pragmatic solutions, is needed.

  11. Severe life-threatening Ehrlichia chaffeensis infections transmitted through solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, S H; Joshi, V; Cox, E R; Amoroso, A; Palekar, S

    2014-02-01

    Donor-derived infections from organ transplantation are rare occurrences with preoperative screening practices. Ehrlichia chaffeensis, a tick-borne illness, transmitted through solid organ transplantation has not been reported previously to our knowledge. We present cases of 2 renal allograft recipients who developed severe E. chaffeensis infection after receipt of organs from a common deceased donor. The 2 renal transplant patients who developed E. chaffeensis infection are reported in case study format with review of the literature. Approximately 3 weeks after renal transplantation, both patients developed an acute febrile illness and rapid clinical decline. Recipient A underwent an extensive infectious workup that revealed positive E. chaffeensis DNA from polymerase chain reaction on peripheral blood. Recipient B's clinical team obtained acute and convalescent antibody titers for E. chaffeensis, which demonstrated acute infection. Recipients A and B were treated with doxycycline and tigecycline, respectively, with clinical cure. These cases demonstrate that tick-borne pathogens, such as E. chaffeensis, can be transmitted through renal transplantation. E. chaffeensis can be associated with excessive morbidity and mortality, commonly owing to delay in diagnosis and poor response to non-tetracycline antibiotics. In populations with endemic tick-borne illness, donors should be questioned about tick exposure, and appropriate antibiotics can be administered if indicated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Phenomenon of Demikhov. Transplantation of vital organs in experiment (1960. Review of literature, methodological background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Glyantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article (the first one of five presents the analysis of the 1st and 2nd chapters from V.P. Demikhov's monograph "Transplantation of vital organs in experiment" (MedGIz Publisher, Moscow, 1960, the chapters presenting a brief literature review and methodological background of the problem. In his review, the author reported the available literature data on the subject of his research, and focused his attention rather on substantiating the ways of biological regulation of the transplant immunity in homoplastic graft transplantations than on the technical aspects of homoplastic organ and tissue transplantation that were a passed stage for him. The study of the methodological approaches used by V.P. Demikhov has shown that he well-mastered all previously developed methods of organ transplantation considering the views of contemporary immunology, and also offered his own scientific and practical solutions for various aspects of vascular suture, the ways to overcome the biological tissue incompatibility, the issues of cardiac anesthesiology and cardiac critical care.

  13. Organ Donation and Transplantation From Donors With Systemic Infection: A Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X; Chen, C; Zhou, J; Han, M; Wang, X; Wang, C; He, X

    2016-09-01

    Donors with bacteremia and sepsis are often considered to be controversial for organ retrieval due to potential transmission of an infectious agent to the recipient. Herein we report our initial experience of organ donation and transplantation results from donors with systemic infection. From January 2013 to December 2014, 125 cases of donation were completed in our organ procurement organization including 90 cases of donation after brain death (DBD) and 35 cases of donation after circulatory death (DCD). The results of bacterial culture of the donor's peripheral venous blood (PVB), blood from central venous catheter (BCVC), urine, bronchial aspiration, and tip of central venous catheter (TCVC; Maki's semiquantitative culture) were retrospectively reviewed. All liver transplant recipients received specific antibiotics according the susceptibility profiles of the PVB cultures, and all kidney transplant recipients received specific antibiotics according the susceptibility profiles of the PVB and urine cultures. Bacterial infection diseases transmission from donors of the liver and kidney transplant recipients were also retrospectively reviewed. The positive rates of the bacterial culture of the donor's bronchial aspiration, PVB, BCVC, TCVC, and urine were 46.4% (39/84), 20.2% (24/119), 15.8% (12/76), 11.1% (3/27), and 7.0% (8/115), respectively. Only 28.1% (9/32) of donors with positive cultures of PVB or urine received specific antimicrobial therapy before harvesting. Twenty-two livers and 46 kidneys from donors with systemic infection (positive PVB culture) were transplanted, and no case of bacterial infection diseases transmission occurred in the recipients. In the circumstance of donor systemic infection with positive bacterial culture of PVB, the liver and kidney can be transplanted safely with prophylactic antibiotics. Donors with systemic infection are not a contraindication for organ donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir prophylaxis in pediatric solid organ transplant patients at risk for Epstein–Barr virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E Vezina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Heather E Vezina1,2, Richard C Brundage2, Thomas E Nevins3, Henry H Balfour Jr1,31Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 2Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Antiviral prophylaxis with valganciclovir is used frequently in pediatric solid organ transplant patients to prevent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-induced infections and tissue-invasive disease including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD. This approach is untested in clinical trials and valganciclovir dosing strategies in children are highly variable. Our objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir in the plasma of pediatric kidney and liver transplant patients taking valganciclovir for EBV prophylaxis. Virologic response was also evaluated. Ganciclovir was measured by liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection. EBV DNA was quantified by TaqMan® polymerase chain reaction. NONMEM® VI was used for data analysis. Ganciclovir plasma profiles were consistent with a one-compartment model. Final model estimates of apparent oral clearance (L/h, apparent volume of distribution (L, and absorption rate constant were 7.33, 35.1, and 0.85, respectively. There was evidence of lower bioavailability in children younger than three years. All eight subjects achieved ganciclovir plasma concentrations above reported in vitro concentrations needed to inhibit EBV replication by 50%. However, four subjects had detectable EBV DNA with a median (range of 18,300 (4,400 to 54,900 copies/mL of whole blood. These findings support the need for further studies of the clinical pharmacology and efficacy of valganciclovir for EBV prophylaxis.Keywords: valganciclovir, ganciclovir, pharmacokinetics, Epstein–Barr virus, pediatrics, solid organ transplantation

  15. Physical activity in solid organ transplant recipients: organizational aspects and preliminary results of the Italian project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roi, G S; Stefoni, S; Mosconi, G; Brugin, E; Burra, P; Ermolao, A; Granito, M; Macini, P; Mastrosimone, S; Nacchia, F; Pegoraro, C; Rigotti, P; Sella, G; Sgarzi, S; Tamè, M R; Totti, V; Trerotola, M; Tripi, F; Nanni Costa, A

    2014-09-01

    Most of the difficulties when trying to realize the proposal to prescribe physical activity for transplantation patients come from patient attitudes and cultural beliefs that ignore the benefits of exercise, but there also are organizational aspects arising from the difficulties that these patients face in accessing supervised exercise facilities. To address these difficulties, the Italian study project "Transplant … and Now Sport" was developed based on a model of cooperation among transplantation specialists, sports physicians, and exercise specialists organized as a team combining their specific skills to effectively actuate the physical exercise programs. This preliminary report is based on 26 patients (16 male, 10 female; 47.8±10.0 years old; 21 kidney and 5 liver transplantations; time from transplantation 2.3±1.4 years) who performed prescribed and supervised exercises consisting of 3 sessions per week of aerobic and strengthening exercises for 1 year. Preliminary results show a significant decrease in body mass index (t=1.966; PSocial Functioning, and Role Emotional scale scores showed a significant improvement (PSport" show the positive effects of the model based on cooperation among transplantation centers, sports medicine centers, and gyms in the administration of a supervised exercise prescription. These data should be considered a contribution to developing and promoting further detailed exercise protocols and to fostering improved posttransplantation health and survival, helping to ensure that physical activity becomes a safe routine medical treatment plan of patient management. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Donor research and matching system based on data mining in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncugil, Ali Serhan; Ozgulbas, Nermin

    2010-06-01

    It is very important to identify the appropriate donor in organ transplantation under the time constraint. Clearly, adequate time must be spent in appropriate donor research in that kind of vital operation. On the other hand, time is very important to search for other alternatives in case of inappropriate donor. However, the possibility for determining the most probable donors as fast as possible has an great importance in using time efficiently. From this point view, the main objective of this paper is developing a system which provides probabilistic prior information in donor transplantation via data mining. While the sytem development process, the basic element is the data of successful organ transplantations. Then, the hidden information and patterns will be discovered from this data. Therefore, this process requires the data mining methods from its definition. In this study, an appropriate donor detection system design based on data mining is suggested.

  17. Outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, C; Deshpande, A; Desai, M; Jani, B S; Sferra, T J; Gilroy, R; Olyaee, M

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing in the pediatric population. Pediatric recipients of solid organ transplantation (SOT) may be at a higher risk for CDI in part because of chemotherapy and prolonged hospitalization. We utilized data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database to study the incidence and outcomes related to CDI as a complicating factor in pediatric recipients of SOT. Our results demonstrate that hospitalized children with SOT have increased rates of infection, with the greatest risk for younger children with additional comorbidities and severe illness. The type of transplanted organ affects the risk for CDI, with the lowest incidence observed in renal transplant patients. The occurrence of CDI in the pediatric SOT population contributes to a greater length of stay and higher hospital charges. However, CDI is not an independent predictor of increased in- hospital mortality in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Strategies for establishing organ transplant programs in developing countries: the Latin America and Caribbean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2006-07-01

    The Latin America and Caribbean region is composed of 39 countries. It is remarkable the progress of transplantation in the region in despite of the low economic resources when compared to other regions. The criteria for brain death are well established and culturally accepted. The consent for retrieval is based on required family consent in most countries. The regulations for living donors are also well established, with restrictions to unrelated donors and prohibition of any kind of commerce. The access to transplant is limited by the model of public financing by each country, and those with public universal coverage have no financial restrictions to cover the costs for any citizen; in countries with restricted coverage, the access is restricted to the employment status. There is a progressive increment in the annual number of solid organ transplants in Latin America, reaching near 10,000 in 2004, accomplished by adequate legislation that is also concerned with the prohibition of organ commerce.

  19. Joint Arthroplasties other than the Hip in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Noor, Arkan S

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation Surgery has undergone a great development during the last thirty years and the survival of solid organ recipients has increased dramatically. Osteo-articular diseases such as osteoporosis, fractures, avascular bone necrosis and osteoarthritis are relatively common in these patients and joint arthroplasty may be required. The outcome of hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head after renal transplantation has been studied and documented by many researchers. However, the results of joint arthroplasties other than the hip in solid organs recipients were only infrequently reported in the literature. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted in order to investigate the outcome of joint arthroplasties other than the hip in kidney, liver or heart transplant recipients. Nine pertinent articles including 51 knee arthroplasties, 8 shoulder arthroplasties and 1 ankle arthroplasty were found. These articles reported well to excellent results with a complication rate and spectrum comparable with those reported in nontransplant patients. PMID:19572036

  20. Increased resistin in brain dead organ donors is associated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resistin increases during several inflammatory diseases and after intracerebral bleeding or head trauma. Resistin activates the endothelium and may initiate an inflammatory response. No data are available on resistin in brain dead donors (DBD) that regularly manifest a pronounced inflammatory state. Methods We analyzed plasma resistin in 63 DBDs and correlated results with donor variables and the postoperative course following kidney transplantation using organs from these donors. Endocan and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were also studied. Twenty-six live kidney donors (LD) and the corresponding kidney transplantations were used as controls. Results DBDs had higher resistin (median/range 30.75 ng/ml, 5.41–173.6) than LD (7.71 ng/ml, 2.41–15.74, p organ retrieval are associated with DGF after kidney transplantation. The resistin increase seems related to the inflammatory state after brain death but not to the cause of death. PMID:24070260

  1. Consideration of children with intellectual disability as candidates for solid organ transplantation-A practice in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Aaron; Diekema, Douglas; Goldberg, Aviva

    2018-02-01

    Children with intellectual disability were historically excluded from consideration as recipients of solid organ transplants. In light of an evolution in provider practices, this commentary will define intellectual disability and review the relevant provider attitudes and guidelines and known outcomes of solid organ transplant in this population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Tregs prevent GVHD and promote immune reconstitution in HLA-haploidentical transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Mauro; Falzetti, Franca; Carotti, Alessandra; Terenzi, Adelmo; Castellino, Flora; Bonifacio, Elisabetta; Del Papa, Beatrice; Zei, Tiziana; Ostini, Roberta Iacucci; Cecchini, Debora; Aloisi, Teresa; Perruccio, Katia; Ruggeri, Loredana; Balucani, Chiara; Pierini, Antonio; Sportoletti, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Falini, Brunangelo; Reisner, Yair; Velardi, Andrea; Aversa, Franco; Martelli, Massimo F

    2011-04-07

    Hastening posttransplantation immune reconstitution is a key challenge in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). In experimental models of mismatched HSCT, T-regulatory cells (Tregs) when co-infused with conventional T cells (Tcons) favored posttransplantation immune reconstitution and prevented lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In the present study, we evaluated the impact of early infusion of Tregs, followed by Tcons, on GVHD prevention and immunologic reconstitution in 28 patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies who underwent HLA-haploidentical HSCT. We show for the first time in humans that adoptive transfer of Tregs prevented GVHD in the absence of any posttransplantation immunosuppression, promoted lymphoid reconstitution, improved immunity to opportunistic pathogens, and did not weaken the graft-versus-leukemia effect. This study provides evidence that Tregs are a conserved mechanism in humans.

  3. Recovery of transplantable organs after cardiac or circulatory death: Transforming the paradigm for the ethics of organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGregor Joan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organ donation after cardiac or circulatory death (DCD has been introduced to increase the supply of transplantable organs. In this paper, we argue that the recovery of viable organs useful for transplantation in DCD is not compatible with the dead donor rule and we explain the consequential ethical and legal ramifications. We also outline serious deficiencies in the current consent process for DCD with respect to disclosure of necessary elements for voluntary informed decision making and respect for the donor's autonomy. We compare two alternative proposals for increasing organ donation consent in society: presumed consent and mandated choice. We conclude that proceeding with the recovery of transplantable organs from decedents requires a paradigm change in the ethics of organ donation. The paradigm change to ensure the legitimacy of DCD practice must include: (1 societal agreement on abandonment of the dead donor rule, (2 legislative revisions reflecting abandonment of the dead donor rule, and (3 requirement of mandated choice to facilitate individual participation in organ donation and to ensure that decisions to participate are made in compliance with the societal values of respect for autonomy and self-determination.

  4. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance does not affect outcomes in patients undergoing solid organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Heilman, Raymond L; Engel, Rodney A; Carey, Elizabeth J; Freeman, Ciara; Rakela, Jorge; Mulligan, David C; Fonseca, Rafael; Stewart, Alexander Keith

    2011-09-15

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is an asymptomatic plasma cell proliferative disorder with a lifelong risk of progression to multiple myeloma or another plasma cell dyscrasia. Despite a high incidence in the general population and an increased relative risk for later malignancy, there are few reports about the clinical course of MGUS or risk profile in long-term immunosuppressed patients. We reviewed 1593 solid organ transplant patients and reported the frequency and outcomes of patients with MGUS identified pretransplant. Polyclonal gammopathy pretransplant is common with 17% of all patients and as many as 75% of liver transplant candidates having increased globulins.However, a monoclonal immunoglobulin was identified in only 3% of all solid organ transplant patients pretransplant (n=34). Importantly, in these 34 patients, no cases of progression to multiple myeloma, amyloid, or lymphoma were observed during immune suppression, and there was no association between posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders and pretransplant MGUS. Death in MGUS patients was not associated with progression of the monoclonal clone or development of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignancy. In conclusion, routine testing for MGUS before transplantation is not prognostic nor a contraindication to transplant, and therefore, it is not recommended.

  5. Assessing Transplant Attitudes: Understanding Minority Men's Perspectives on the Multifarious Barriers to Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Bryan D; Naelitz, Bryan D; Jackson, Brielle; Howard, Mariah; Nowacki, Amy; Modlin, Charles S

    2017-08-01

    African Americans comprise 11 % of living organ donors, yet constitute 34 % of the kidney transplant waiting list. There are many barriers to organ donation among minorities that include decreased awareness of transplantation, cultural mistrust of the medical community, financial concerns, and fear of the transplant operation. This study investigates the societal misconceptions and demographic health factors that correlate with minority participation in organ and tissue donation. A 57 question Health and Wellness survey was designed to assess participants' demographic information, medical history, professional background, and opinions regarding organ transplantation. Participants were also asked to complete Quality Metric's Short Form-8 (SF-8) survey to assess physical health, mental health, and quality-of-life. Three hundred twenty-six surveys were administered to minority men. The majority of men were identified as African American, and 55 % were below the age of 40. Though 44 % of participants were willing to donate, only 27 % were registered as organ and tissue donors. Minorities who held misconceptions about organ donation-including the belief that they were too old or unhealthy to donate, for example-had lower general, physical, and mental health scores than those who did not (p = shortage for organs or who know a registered donor, an organ recipient, a dialysis patient, or someone on the waiting list were more willing to donate organs. Improving the general, physical, and mental health of minorities, coupled with an active educational outreach program, could result in a greater percentage of minorities registering and willing to be organ and tissue donors.

  6. Combined heart-kidney transplant improves post-transplant survival compared with isolated heart transplant in recipients with reduced glomerular filtration rate: Analysis of 593 combined heart-kidney transplants from the United Network Organ Sharing Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamlou, Tara; Welke, Karl F; McMullan, D Michael; Cohen, Gordon A; Gelow, Jill; Tibayan, Frederick A; Mudd, James M; Slater, Matthew S; Song, Howard K

    2014-01-01

    Criteria for simultaneous heart-kidney transplant (HKTx) recipients are unclear. We characterized the evolution of combined HKTx in the United States over time compared with isolated heart transplantation (HTx) and determined factors maximizing post-transplant survival. We focused on whether a threshold estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) could be identified that justified combined transplantation. A supplemented United Network Organ Sharing Dataset identified HTx and HKTx recipients from 2000 to 2010. eGFR was calculated for HTx and recipients were grouped into eGFR quintiles. Time-related mortality was compared among recipients, with multivariable factors sought using Cox proportional hazard regression models. We identified 26,183 HTx recipients, of whom 593 were HKTx recipients. HTx increased modestly over time (3.6%), whereas prevalence of HKTx increased dramatically (147%). Risk-unadjusted survival was similar among HTx recipients (8.4 ± 0.04 years) and HKTx recipients (7.7 ± 0.2 years) (P = .76). Isolated HTx recipients in the lowest eGFR quintile had decreased survival (P transplant survival in patients with eGFR <37 mL/minute and can be recommended in this subgroup. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Karl Martin; Pipeleers, Lissa

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in dialysis patients is high and further increases after transplantation due to weight gain and the detrimental metabolic effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Corticosteroids cause insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and arterial hypertension. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is diabetogenic by inhibiting insulin secretion, whereas cyclosporine causes hypertension and increases cholesterol levels. Mtor antagonists are responsible for hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism by mechanisms that also implicate insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome in transplant recipients has numerous detrimental effects such as increasing the risk of new onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease events and patient death. In addition, it has also been linked with accelerated loss of graft function, proteinuria and ultimately graft loss. Prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome are based on increasing physical activity, promotion of weight loss and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Bariatric surgery before or after renal transplantation in patients with body mass index >35 kg/m(2) is an option but its long term effects on graft and patient survival have not been investigated. Steroid withdrawal and replacement of tacrolimus with cyclosporine facilitate control of diabetes, whereas replacement of cyclosporine and mtor antagonists can improve hyperlipidemia. The new costimulation inhibitor belatacept has potent immunosuppressive properties without metabolic adverse effects and will be an important component of immunosuppressive regimens with better metabolic risk profile. Medical treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has to take potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive medication and drug accumulation due to renal insufficiency into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Awareness on organ transplantation among health care professionals and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedul Karim Ahmad

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was conducted in different medical college hospitals of Dhaka city during the months of Jan-March 2009. The objective of this study was to find out the awareness level on organ transplantation amongst the teachers, doctors and nurses working in these medical college hospitals and 1st to 5th year students. A structured questionnaire was given to the respondents. The total number of respondents was 462 of which 103 (22.3% were doctors, 268 (58% were medical students and 91 (19.7% were nurses. Among the study group 31.4% knew that there was an organ transplantation law in Bangladesh and 16.5% said that there was no such law whereas 52.2% had no idea whatsoever about the law. Of the respondents 33.8% were willing to donate their organs after death, 41.6% did not want to donate and 24.2% were not sure. This study revealed that there was a lack of understanding regarding the religious views on organ transplantation. Only 37.1% of respondents thought that were was no religious objection to organ transplantation whereas 27.1% felt that there was religious objection while 35.7% were not sure. The study shows that there is significant lack of awareness regarding organ transplantation issues among the health care professionals and medical students in Bangladesh. The dictates of religion on this matter were also not clear to most of the respondents. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(2: 55-58

  9. Organ transplantation and donation from the point of view of medical students in Iran: Ethical aspects and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Kiani, Mehrzad; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Salehi, Bahare

    2018-01-31

    Organ transplantation is an effective process that prolongs the lives of individuals suffering from incapacitating conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the view point of medical students in Iran regarding ethical aspects and knowledge on organ transplantation and donation. The participants included 165 medical students from different faculties of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. They were assessed using a reliable questionnaire that examined their ethical aspects and knowledge regarding organ transplantation and donation. All data analyses were performed using Chi-square and analysis of variance tests with SPSS software. Results showed that main sources of respondents’ knowledge on organ transplantation and donation were TV, 51.52 % (n = 85) and Internet, 19.39 % (n = 32). 91.51% (n = 151) of the respondents understand and 8.48% (n =14) do not understand the concept of brain death. 49.69% (n = 82) of the respondents were willing to donate their organs. A brain death donor was selected by respondents as the best option for organs transplantation (72.12%; n = 119). The respondents selected young patients as the preferred recipients of an organ (69.69%; n = 115). There was no correlation between gender, age, educational level, marital status and attitude towards organ transplantation. From the results, there is need for an organized educational planning for medical students in ethical issue and knowledge on organ and tissue transplantation.

  10. Computational Approaches to Facilitate Epitope-Based HLA Matching in Solid Organ Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geneugelijk, Kirsten; Wissing, Jeroen; Koppenaal, Dirk; Niemann, Matthias; Spierings, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Epitope-based HLA matching has been emerged over the last few years as an improved method for HLA matching in solid organ transplantation. The epitope-based matching concept has been incorporated in both the PIRCHE-II and the HLAMatchmaker algorithm to find the most suitable donor for a recipient.

  11. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  12. Bacterial meningitis in solid organ transplant recipients: a population-based prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K. E. B.; Brouwer, M. C.; van der Ende, A.; van de Beek, D.

    2016-01-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of infections of the central nervous system. However, the incidence and clinical course of bacterial meningitis in SOT recipients are unclear. We studied occurrence, disease course, and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in SOT recipients in the

  13. Clinical and immunologic aspects of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowshani, Ajda T.; Bemelman, Frederike J.; van Leeuwen, Ester M. M.; van Lier, René A. W.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in recipients after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Widespread and prolonged use of antiviral drugs has changed the natural course of CMV disease by delaying its onset and causing drug resistance. CMV induces a

  14. Association of human leukocyte antigen haplotypes with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease after solid organ transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subklewe, Marion; Marquis, Rene; Choquet, Sylvain; Leblond, Veronique; Garnier, Jeanne-Luce; Hetzer, Roland; Swinnen, Lode J.; Oertel, Stephan; Papp-Vary, Matthias; Gonzalez-Barca, Eva; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Schoenemann, Constanze; May, Juergen; Pezzutto, Antonio; Riess, Hanno

    2006-01-01

    Background. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after solid organ transplantation (SOT) is commonly characterized by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven proliferation of recipient B cells due to impaired immune surveillance in the context of immunosuppression. Because EBV-specific T-cell

  15. West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-19

    William Hale reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, West Nile Virus RNA in Tissues from Donor Associated with Transmission to Organ Transplant Recipients.  Created: 11/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2013.

  16. Transplant tourism and organ trafficking: Ethical implications for the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfee, Floraidh Ar

    2016-11-01

    Organ availability for transplantation has become an increasingly complex and difficult question in health economics and ethical practice. Advances in technology have seen prolonged life expectancy, and the global push for organs creates an ever-expanding gap between supply and demand, and a significant cost in bridging that gap. This article will examine the ethical implications for the nursing profession in regard to the procurement of organs from an impoverished seller's market, also known as 'Transplant Tourism'. This ethical dilemma concerns itself with resource allocation, informed consent and the concepts of egalitarianism and libertarianism. Transplant Tourism is an unacceptable trespass against human dignity and rights from both a nursing and collective viewpoint. Currently, the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council, the Royal college of Nursing Australia, The Royal College of Nursing (UK) and the American Nurses Association do not have position statements on transplant tourism, and this diminishes us as a force for change. It diminishes our role as advocates for the most marginalised in our world to have access to care and to choice and excludes us from a very contemporary real debate about the mismatch of organ demand and supply in our own communities. As a profession, we must have a voice in health policy and human rights, and according to our Code of Ethics in Australia and around the world, act to promote and protect the fundamental human right to healthcare and dignity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Performance of Creatinine-Based GFR Estimating Equations in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaffi, Kamran; Uhlig, Katrin; Perrone, Ronald D.; Ruthazer, Robin; Rule, Andrew; Lieske, John C.; Navis, Gerjan; Poggio, Emilio D.; Inker, Lesley A.; Levey, Andrew S.

    Background: Accurate assessment of kidney function is important for the management of solid-organ transplant recipients. In other clinical populations, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) most commonly is estimated using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) creatinine or the

  18. The riskiest job in medicine: transplant surgeons and organ procurement travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englesbe, M J; Merion, R M

    2009-10-01

    Transplant surgeons are exposed to workplace risk due to the urgent nature of travel related to organ procurement. A retrospective cohort study was completed using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and the National Transportation Safety Board. A web-based survey was administered to members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. The survey response rate was 38% (281/747). Involvement in > or =1 procurement-related travel accident was reported by 15% of respondents; surgeons reported 61 accidents and 11 fatalities. Air travel was used in 26% of procurements and was involved in 56% of accidents. The risk of fatality while traveling on an organ procurement flight was estimated to be 1000 times higher than scheduled commercial flight. Involvement in a 'near miss accident' was reported by 80.8%. Only 16% of respondents reported feeling 'very safe' while traveling. Procurement of organs by the geographically closest transplant center would have reduced the need for air travel (>100 nautical miles) for lung, heart, liver and pancreas procurement by 35%, 43%, 31% and 49%, respectively (p travel is associated with significant risk. Improvements in organ procurement travel are needed.

  19. Increasing the Number of Organ Transplants in the United States by Optimizing Donor Authorization Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D S; French, B; Abt, P L; Gilroy, R K

    2015-08-01

    While recent policies have focused on allocating organs to patients most in need and lessening geographic disparities, the only mechanism to increase the actual number of transplants is to maximize the potential organ supply. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using OPTN data on all "eligible deaths" from 1/1/08 to 11/1/13 to evaluate variability in donor service area (DSA)-level donor authorization rates, and to quantify the potential gains associated with increasing authorization rates. Despite adjustments for donor demographics (age, race/ethnicity, cause of death) and geographic factors (rural/urban status of donor hospital, statewide participation in deceased-donor registries) among 52 571 eligible deaths, there was significant variability (p donor authorization rates across the 58 DSAs. Overall DSA-level adjusted authorization rates ranged from 63.5% to 89.5% (median: 72.7%). An additional 773-1623 eligible deaths could have been authorized, yielding 2679-5710 total organs, if the DSAs with authorization rates below the median and 75th percentile, respectively, implemented interventions to perform at the level of the corresponding reference DSA. Opportunities exist within the current organ acquisition framework to markedly improve DSA-level donor authorization rates. Such initiatives would mitigate waitlist mortality while increasing the number of transplants. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. New organ transplant policies in Japan, including the family-oriented priority donation clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Kaoruko

    2011-03-15

    The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan that took effect in July 2010 allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, only with family consent. The amended law also allows individuals to prioritize family members to receive their donated organs after death. This policy differs from the prioritization policy in Israel, which provides incentives to individuals who agree to help each other in society and rectifies the problem of free riders, individuals who are willing to accept an organ but refuse to donate. Despite these differences, however, the Japanese and Israeli policies have revealed new ethical dilemmas, including the fear of compromising fairness in organ allocation.

  1. The Power and the Promise of Cell Reprogramming: Personalized Autologous Body Organ and Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Ana Belen Alvarez; Lucas, Michaela; Dilley, Rodney J; McLenachan, Samuel; Chen, Fred Kuanfu; Requena, Jordi; Sal, Marti Farrera; Lucas, Andrew; Alvarez, Inaki; Jaraquemada, Dolores; Edel, Michael J

    2014-04-04

    Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or direct reprogramming to desired cell types are powerful and new in vitro methods for the study of human disease, cell replacement therapy, and drug development. Both methods to reprogram cells are unconstrained by the ethical and social questions raised by embryonic stem cells. iPSC technology promises to enable personalized autologous cell therapy and has the potential to revolutionize cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Potential applications of iPSC technology are rapidly increasing in ambition from discrete cell replacement applications to the iPSC assisted bioengineering of body organs for personalized autologous body organ transplant. Recent work has demonstrated that the generation of organs from iPSCs is a future possibility. The development of embryonic-like organ structures bioengineered from iPSCs has been achieved, such as an early brain structure (cerebral organoids), bone, optic vesicle-like structures (eye), cardiac muscle tissue (heart), primitive pancreas islet cells, a tooth-like structure (teeth), and functional liver buds (liver). Thus, iPSC technology offers, in the future, the powerful and unique possibility to make body organs for transplantation removing the need for organ donation and immune suppressing drugs. Whilst it is clear that iPSCs are rapidly becoming the lead cell type for research into cell replacement therapy and body organ transplantation strategies in humans, it is not known whether (1) such transplants will stimulate host immune responses; and (2) whether this technology will be capable of the bioengineering of a complete and fully functional human organ. This review will not focus on reprogramming to iPSCs, of which a plethora of reviews can be found, but instead focus on the latest developments in direct reprogramming of cells, the bioengineering of body organs from iPSCs, and an analysis of the immune response induced by i

  2. The Power and the Promise of Cell Reprogramming: Personalized Autologous Body Organ and Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Alvarez Palomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs or direct reprogramming to desired cell types are powerful and new in vitro methods for the study of human disease, cell replacement therapy, and drug development. Both methods to reprogram cells are unconstrained by the ethical and social questions raised by embryonic stem cells. iPSC technology promises to enable personalized autologous cell therapy and has the potential to revolutionize cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. Potential applications of iPSC technology are rapidly increasing in ambition from discrete cell replacement applications to the iPSC assisted bioengineering of body organs for personalized autologous body organ transplant. Recent work has demonstrated that the generation of organs from iPSCs is a future possibility. The development of embryonic-like organ structures bioengineered from iPSCs has been achieved, such as an early brain structure (cerebral organoids, bone, optic vesicle-like structures (eye, cardiac muscle tissue (heart, primitive pancreas islet cells, a tooth-like structure (teeth, and functional liver buds (liver. Thus, iPSC technology offers, in the future, the powerful and unique possibility to make body organs for transplantation removing the need for organ donation and immune suppressing drugs. Whilst it is clear that iPSCs are rapidly becoming the lead cell type for research into cell replacement therapy and body organ transplantation strategies in humans, it is not known whether (1 such transplants will stimulate host immune responses; and (2 whether this technology will be capable of the bioengineering of a complete and fully functional human organ. This review will not focus on reprogramming to iPSCs, of which a plethora of reviews can be found, but instead focus on the latest developments in direct reprogramming of cells, the bioengineering of body organs from iPSCs, and an analysis of the immune response induced by i

  3. Risk of hepatobiliary cancer after solid organ transplant in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiol, Jill; Pawlish, Karen; Goodman, Marc T; McGlynn, Katherine A; Engels, Eric A

    2014-09-01

    Studies of liver cancer risk in recipients of solid organ transplants generally have been small, yielding mixed results, and little is known about biliary tract cancers among transplant recipients. We identified incident hepatobiliary cancers among 201,549 US recipients of solid organs, from 1987 through 2008, by linking data from the US transplant registry with 15 cancer registries. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), comparing risk relative to the general population. We also calculated incidence rate ratios (RRs), comparing risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and total (intrahepatic and extrahepatic) cholangiocarcinoma among subgroups of recipients. Of transplant recipients, 165 developed hepatobiliary cancers (SIR, 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.4). HCC risk was increased among liver recipients (SIR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2), especially 5 or more years after transplant (SIR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Cholangiocarcinoma was increased among liver (SIR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-4.8) and kidney recipients (SIR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1). HCC was associated with hepatitis B virus (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-6.9), hepatitis C virus (RR, 10; 95% CI, 5.9-16.9), and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (RR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-4.8). Cholangiocarcinoma was associated with azathioprine maintenance therapy (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). Among liver recipients, primary sclerosing cholangitis was associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma, compared with the general population (SIR, 21; 95% CI, 8.2-42) and compared with liver recipients without primary sclerosing cholangitis (RR, 12.3; 95% CI, 4.1-36.4). Risks for liver and biliary tract cancer are increased among organ transplant recipients. Risk factors for these cancers include medical conditions and potentially medications taken by recipients. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding of and attitudes to organ donation and transplantation: a survey among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Daniele; De Bona, Manuela; Ruminati, Rino; Ermani, Mario; Naccarato, Remo; Burra, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Students have a positive attitude to organ donation and transplantation, usually associated with their personal willingness to donate their organs after death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the opinions of university students on transplantation and organ donation, at a single Italian university. University undergraduates attending the first year on five different courses in 2001 were surveyed at Padua University by using an anonymous 13-item questionnaire. 97.2% of the students completed the questionnaire (77.4% females, mean age 20.4 yr); they were attending Medicine (33.8%), Agriculture (5.9%), Veterinary Medicine (11.4%), Psychology (18.5%) and Educational Sciences (30.4%). The majority was aware of the problem of the paucity of organ donations and deaths on the waiting list in Italy. Most students would accept transplantation in the case of a human donor (97%), an artificial organ (95%) or an animal donor (76%); and 87% of them were prepared to donate their own organs after death. No differences were seen when students attending science courses were compared with those attending art courses. Italian university students have a very positive attitude and willingness to donate their own organs after death, with no differences emerging as regards type of university education.

  5. Attitudes and beliefs of South African medical students toward organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobnach, Sanju; Borkum, Megan; Millar, Alastair J W; Hoffman, Ross; Muller, Elmi; McCurdie, Fiona; Kahn, Delawir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and analyse the attitudes and beliefs of medical students regarding organ donation, procurement, and transplantation. Medical students at the University of Cape Town were prospectively surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 346 study participants; the mean age was 21 (range 18-33) yr, 38% were male and 62% was female. Only 8% of respondents were registered donors; clinical and white students constituted the majority of this group. Of the 315 "non-donors," the main reason for not donating was "I have not really thought about organ donation" (59%). Most students (91%) would accept an artificial organ; and 87% and 52% of students would accept human and animal organs respectively. Muslim students (11%, preincarnati