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  1. Preventing neural tube defects in Europe : A missed opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, A; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; Armstrong, N; Haeusler, M; Berghold, A; Gillerot, Y; Baguette, A; Gjerga, R; Barisic, [No Value; Christiansen, M; Goujard, J; Steinbicker, [No Value; Rosch, C; McDonnell, R; Scarano, G; Calzolari, E; Neville, A; Cocchi, G; Bianca, S; Gatt, M; De Walle, H; Braz, P; Latos-Bielenska, A; Gener, B; Portillor, [No Value; Addor, MC; Abramsky, L; Ritvanen, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Daltveit, AK; Aneren, G; Olars, B; Edwards, G

    2005-01-01

    Each year, more than 4500 pregnancies in the European Union are affected by neural tube defects (NTD). Unambiguous evidence of the effectiveness of peri conceptional folic acid in preventing the majority of neural tube defects has been available since 1991. We report on trends in the total

  2. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  3. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  4. Prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid: The Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ai-Guo

    2015-08-08

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system that are caused by the closure failure of the embryonic neural tube by the 28(th) day of conception. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two major subtypes. Fetuses with anencephaly are often stillborn or electively aborted due to prenatal diagnosis, or they die shortly after birth. Most infants with spina bifida are live-born and, with proper surgical treatment, can survive into adulthood. However, these children often have life-long physical disabilities. China has one of the highest prevalence of NTDs in the world. Inadequate dietary folate intake is believed to be the main cause of the cluster. Unlike many other countries that use staple fortification with folic acid as the public health strategy to prevent NTDs, the Chinese government provides all women who have a rural household registration and who plan to become pregnant with folic acid supplements, free of charge, through a nation-wide program started in 2009. Two to three years after the initiation of the program, the folic acid supplementation rate increased to 85% in the areas of the highest NTD prevalence. The mean plasma folate level of women during early and mid-pregnancy doubled the level before the program was introduced. However, most women began taking folic acid supplements when they knew that they were pregnant. This is too late for the protection of the embryonic neural tube. In a post-program survey of the women who reported folic acid supplementation, less than a quarter of the women began taking supplements prior to pregnancy, indicating that the remaining three quarters of the fetuses remained unprotected during the time of neural tube formation. Therefore, staple food fortification with folic acid should be considered as a priority in the prevention of NTDs.

  5. [Neural tube defects and folic acid: a historical overview of a highly successful preventive intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Adriana Ordoñez; Suarez-Obando, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This article gives a broad overview of part of the historical evolution of medical knowledge about neural tube defects (NTD) and the discovery of vitamin B9 or folic acid, as well as some relevant research events that, over the course of several centuries, defined the relationships between the understanding of central nervous system embryology, the discovery of the vitamin, the correlation between folic acid and cell proliferation and lastly the development of preventive measures for this type of defects. This narrative allows us to examine historically relevant concepts underlying clinical actions with a populational impact that prevent NTDs via folic acid consumption prior to conception.

  6. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  7. Melatonin prevents neural tube defects in the offspring of diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangming; Guo, Yuji; Yuan, Qiuhuan; Pan, Yan; Wang, Liyan; Liu, Qian; Wang, Fuwu; Wang, Jingjing; Hao, Aijun

    2015-11-01

    Melatonin, an endogenous neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland, has a variety of physiological functions and neuroprotective effects. However, its protective role on the neural tube defects (NTDs) was not very clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on the incidence of NTDs (including anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida) of offspring from diabetic pregnant mice as well as its underlying mechanisms. Pregnant mice were given 10 mg/kg melatonin by daily i.p. injection from embryonic day (E) 0.5 until being killed on E11.5. Here, we showed that melatonin decreased the NTDs (especially exencephaly) rate of embryos exposed to maternal diabetes. Melatonin stimulated proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) under hyperglycemic condition through the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway. Furthermore, as a direct free radical scavenger, melatonin decreased apoptosis of NSCs exposed to hyperglycemia. In the light of these findings, it suggests that melatonin supplementation may play an important role in the prevention of neural malformations in diabetic pregnancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate an alternative to folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Women have higher requirements for folate during pregnancy. An optimal folate status must be achieved before conception and in the first trimester when the neural tube closes. Low maternal folate status is causally related to neural tube defects (NTDs). Many NTDs can be prevented by increasing maternal folate intake in the preconceptional period. Dietary folate is protective, but recommending increasing folate intake is ineffective on a population level particularly during periods of high demands. This is because the recommendations are often not followed or because the bioavailability of food folate is variable. Supplemental folate [folic acid (FA) or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF)] can effectively increase folate concentrations to the level that is considered to be protective. FA is a synthetic compound that has no biological functions unless it is reduced to dihydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate. Unmetabolized FA appears in the circulation at doses of >200 μg. Individuals show wide variations in their ability to reduce FA. Carriers of certain polymorphisms in genes related to folate metabolism or absorption can better benefit from 5-methylTHF instead of FA. 5-MethylTHF [also known as (6S)-5-methylTHF] is the predominant natural form that is readily available for transport and metabolism. In contrast to FA, 5-methylTHF has no tolerable upper intake level and does not mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Supplementation of the natural form, 5-methylTHF, is a better alternative to supplementation of FA, especially in countries not applying a fortification program. Supplemental 5-methylTHF can effectively improve folate biomarkers in young women in early pregnancy in order to prevent NTDs.

  9. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  10. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  11. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  12. Economic burden of neural tube defects and impact of prevention with folic acid: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yunni; Lindemann, Marion; Colligs, Antje; Snowball, Claire

    2011-11-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common group of serious birth defects. Although folic acid has been shown to reduce effectively the risk of NTDs and measures have been taken to increase the awareness, knowledge, and consumption of folic acid, the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized in most countries. To understand the economic burden of NTDs and the economic impact of preventing NTDs with folic acid, a systematic review was performed on relevant studies. A total of 14 cost of illness studies and 10 economic evaluations on prevention of NTDs with folic acid were identified. Consistent findings were reported across all of the cost of illness studies. The lifetime direct medical cost for patients with NTDs is significant, with the majority of cost being for inpatient care, for treatment at initial diagnosis in childhood, and for comorbidities in adult life. The lifetime indirect cost for patients with spina bifida is even greater due to increased morbidity and premature mortality. Caregiver time costs are also significant. The results from the economic evaluations demonstrate that folic acid fortification in food and preconception folic acid consumption are cost-effective ways to reduce the incidence and prevalence of NTDs. This review highlights the significant cost burden that NTDs pose to healthcare systems, various healthcare payers, and society and concludes that the benefits of prevention of NTDs with folic acid far outweigh the cost. Further intervention with folic acid is justified in countries where the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized.

  13. Prevention of neural tube defects by folic acid - awareness among women of childbearing age in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, F; Sabova, L; Pinterova, E; Hornova, J; Trnka, J

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid deficiency plays a central role in the aetiology of many congenital anomalies including neural tube defects. Protective effect of folic acid on embryo may be acquired only if taken periconceptionally. The aim of the study was to investigate the awareness about folic acid among women of childbearing age in Bratislava, Slovakia. There were 130 respondents involved in the research (106 pregnant women, 24 female students of medical faculty). Using questionnaire we acquired following data: pregnancy details, interest in diet before and during pregnancy, recommendations regarding nutrition and supplementation pre- and post-conception, knowledge about folic and other acid in 2004 and 2009. More than half of the respondents knew the sources of folic acid. The interest in the nutrition facts of the food dropped from 91 % to 58.5 %. The number of pregnant women advised about correct nutrition and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy increased from 16 % to 37 %. Planning the next gravidity with folic acid supplementation became greater than 21 % (38 % in 2009). Nevertheless, only 46 % of these women believed that proper food content with folic acid may prevent congenital anomalies. In a group of students planning to take folic acid periconceptionally the number raised up to 62.5 %. The results revealed low knowledge about the effect of folic acid on developing embryo among women of childbearing age. Effective intervention programs are needed with the aim to improve periconceptional intake of folic acid in 2004 and 2009. The results in both periods show low knowledge about this essential vitamin (Tab. 1, Fig. 8, Ref. 31).

  14. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  15. Knowledge and practice of urban Iranian pregnant women towards folic acid intake for neural tube defect prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Sepideh Bakhshande; Sedehi, Maliheh; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of urban Iranian pregnant women regarding periconceptional folic acid intake for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention. The population-based study was done on 676 primiparous women in an urban area in Golestan province in northern Iran from June to November, 2008. A questionnaire was completed by the subjects regarding their knowledge of folic acid. Questionnaires were administered to women who were seeking routine antenatal care at health centres, private gynaecological clinic and the Dezyani Gynaecologic and Obstetric Hospital. Questions covered knowledge and use of folic acid supplements and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Out of the 676 women surveyed, 96.2% reported that they heard of folate. Of these, only 27.6% knew that folate was something important in the prevention of neural tube defects. Overall, 20.12% of the total women took folic acid during periconceptional period. The most common information sources on folate were healthcare service (54.5%). Besides, 37.6% of the subjects who heard about folate were aware that green leafy vegetables were fortified with folic acid. In univariate analysis, knowledge and intake of folic acid was not associated with education and the age of women. A healthcare plan for intervention to increase the knowledge and intake of folic acid by pregnant women during the protective period is required.

  16. [Attitudes of pregnant Japanese women and folic acid intake for the prevention of neural tube defects: a nationwide Internet survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid intake is recommended for pregnant women because it significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) in the fetus. However, the risk of NTD remains medium in Japan. In this study, the attitudes of pregnant Japanese women and factors related to folic acid intake for the prevention of NTD were evaluated using a nationwide survey. An Internet-based questionnaire was conducted on 2,367 pregnant Japanese women who were registrants of a Japanese social research company in January 2012; 1,236 of these women responded. In the questionnaires, the knowledge regarding the folate intake (i.e., name of folic acid, the risk of NTD, recommended doses, and timing), actual intake of folic acid, demographic factors (i.e., age, geographical area, gestational age, and birth order), and intake of dietary supplements were surveyed. Eighty-five percent of respondents consumed folate, which was mostly obtained through dietary folic acid supplements during the first month of pregnancy or after. Factors associated with loss of folic acid intake until 3 months of pregnancy included lack of knowledge, failure to consume dietary supplements, younger age, and multigravida. Many pregnant women in Japan consumed folic acid. However, most of them started supplementation after pregnancy recognition, which is too late to reduce the risk of NTD. Alternative strategies to increase the efficacy of folic acid intake, such as recommending folic acid-enriched foods, promoting folic acid fortification efforts, and providing access to practical information, are necessary.

  17. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  18. Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-12-15

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy.

  19. Primary prevention of neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities by folic acid and multivitamins: history, missed opportunity and tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártfai, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    The history of intervention trials of periconception folic acid with multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in women has shown a recent breakthrough in the primary prevention of structural birth defects, namely neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities. Recently, some studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this new method in reducing congenital abnormalities with specific origin; for example, in the offspring of diabetic and epileptic mothers, and in pregnancy with high fever. The benefits and drawbacks of four possible uses of periconception folate/folic acid and multivitamin supplementation are discussed: we believe there has been a missed opportunity to implement this preventive approach in medical practice. The four methods are as follows: (i) dietary intake of folate and other vitamins, (ii) periconception folic acid/multivitamin supplementation, (iii) food fortification with folic acid, and (iv) the combination of oral contraceptives with 6S-5-methytetrahydrofolate (‘folate’). PMID:25083211

  20. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  1. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-03-09

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China.

  2. Developing effective campaign messages to prevent neural tube defects: a qualitative assessment of women's reactions to advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi Lindsey, Lisa L; Silk, Kami J; Von Friederichs-Fitzwater, Marlene M; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Boster, Franklin J

    2009-03-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year, can be reduced by 50-70% with daily periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid. Two studies were designed to assess college women's reactions to and perceptions of potential campaign advertising concepts derived from preproduction formative research to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. Study one assessed draft advertising concepts in eight focus groups (N = 71) composed of college-enrolled women in four cities geographically dispersed across the United States. Based on study one results, the concepts were revised and reassessed in study two with a different sample (eight focus groups; N = 73) of college women in the same four cities. Results indicated that participants generally responded favorably to concepts in each of the two studies, and provided insight into individual concepts to increase their overall appeal and effectiveness. The specific findings and implications of these results are discussed.

  3. KNOWLEDGE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF FOLIC ACID IN THE PREVENTION OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS IN BUTEMBO TOWN, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhindo Valimungighe Moise; Alexandre Amini Mitamo; Ahuka ona Longombe

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital malformations resulting from a problem of neural tube closure, at an early stage in the development of the human embryo. Numerous studies have established that these malformations, although multifactorial, are correlated with low intakes of folic acid. These studies also mentioned that the additional intake of folic acid in the periconceptional period reduces the risk. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of w...

  4. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  5. [Awareness and knowledge of the use of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects: a survey of women living in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo V, Rosa A; Lay-Son R, Guillermo; Aranda Ch, Waldo; Dib M, Martín; Espina M, Pablo; Muñoz K, María J; Muñoz B, Pilar; Navarrete C, María F; Ojeda M, Natalia V; Parra, Jorge; Rebolledo D, Cristian A; Recabal G, Pedro; Tenhamm T, Tamara

    2007-12-01

    Wheat flour in Chile is fortified with folie acid and pregnant women are also supplemented with the vitamin, but the population level of knowledge or awareness about this vitamin and its use by pregnant women is unknown. To assess the level of knowledge that postpartum women from Santiago de Chile have about folic acid. A questionnaire about folic acid and its effects on the prevention of neural tube defects was developed adapting questionnaires designed abroad. It was applied by medical students to puerperal women, hospitalized in public hospitals. The questionnaire was applied to 342 women aged 26 +/- 7 years. Sixty one percent were housewives and 55% completed high school education. Forty seven percent of these women had heard about folic acid, 9.6% knew that it was able to prevent congenital defects and only one received an adequate supplementation during pregnancy. Women aged 25 to 34 years and those with an adequate medical care during pregnancy had a significantly better knowledge about folic acid and its role in the prevention of congenital anomalies. The more common means to receive information about folic acid were midwives (34%), mass media (28%) and doctors (20%). Two hundred eleven women (62%) agreed to take folic acid in a future gestation and 58% preferred to do so using fortified foods. Post partum women from Santiago have a poor knowledge about the relevance of folic acid supplementation.

  6. Knowledge and periconceptional use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects in ethnic communities in the United Kingdom: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jordana N; Copp, Andrew J; Shawe, Jill

    2013-07-01

    It is widely accepted that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent a significant proportion of neural tube defects (NTDs). The present study evaluated how folic acid knowledge and periconceptional use for NTD prevention varies by ethnicity in the United Kingdom (U.K.). A literature search was conducted to identify studies that included assessment of folic acid knowledge or use in U.K. women of different ethnicities. Only research and referenced sources published after 1991, the year of the landmark Medical Research Council's Vitamin Study, were included. A meta-analysis was performed of studies that assessed preconceptional folic acid use in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment of knowledge and/or use of folic acid supplements in U.K. women including non-Caucasians. The available evidence indicates that South Asians specifically have less knowledge and lower periconceptional use of folic acid than Caucasians; one study found that West Indian and African women also had lower folic acid uptake. A synthesis of results from three of the studies, in a meta-analysis, shows that Caucasians are almost three times more likely to take folic acid before conception than non-Caucasians. From the limited evidence available, U.K. women of non-Caucasian ethnicity appear to have less knowledge and a lower uptake of folic acid supplementation than Caucasians during the periconceptional period. Implementing targeted, innovative education campaigns together with a mandatory fortification policy, including the fortification of ethnic minority foods, will be required for maximum prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs across different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  8. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How do health care providers diagnose neural tube defects? Neural tube defects ... AFP, as well as high levels of acetylcholinesterase; health care providers might conduct this test to confirm high ...

  9. Spina bifida and other neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, H; Volcik, K A

    2000-01-01

    NTDs, resulting from failure of the neural tube to close during the fourth week of embryogenesis, are the most common severely disabling birth defects in the United States, with a frequency of approximately 1 of every 2000 births. Neural tube malformations involving the spinal cord and vertebral arches are referred to as spina bifida, with severe types of spina bifida involving protrusion of the spinal cord and/or meninges through a defect in the vertebral arch. Depending on the level of the lesion, interruption of the spinal cord at the site of the spina bifida defect causes paralysis of the legs, incontinence of urine and feces, anesthesia of the skin, and abnormalities of the hips, knees, and feet. Two additional abnormalities often seen in children with spina bifida include hydrocephalus and the Arnold-Chiari type II malformation. Despite the physical and particular learning disabilities children with spina bifida must cope with, participation in individualized educational programs can allow these children to develop skills necessary for autonomy in adulthood. Advances in research to uncover the molecular basis of NTDs is enhanced by knowledge of the link between both the environmental and genetic factors involved in the etiology of NTDs. The most recent development in NTD research for disease-causing genes is the discovery of a genetic link to the most well-known environmental cause of neural tube malformation, folate deficiency in pregnant women. Nearly a decade ago, periconceptional folic acid supplementation was proven to decrease both the recurrence and occurrence of NTDs. The study of folate and its association with NTDs is an ongoing endeavor that has led to numerous studies of different genes involved in the folate metabolism pathway, including the most commonly studied thermolabile mutation (C677T) in the MTHFR gene. An additional focus for NTD research involves mouse models that exhibit both naturally occurring NTDs, as well as those created by

  10. Awareness, use and information sources of folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shumi; Wada, Yoshinao

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid supplementation and folate-rich diets are recommended for women of childbearing age worldwide to prevent congenital anomalies. We aimed to determine the current status of folic acid supplementation among pregnant Japanese women and identify means to increase the intake of these supplements. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1862 pregnant women who consulted the perinatal centre from September 2014 to December 2015 completed a questionnaire concerning knowledge about folic acid, sources of information and the use of folic acid supplements. Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health (Japan). In our study population, only 20·5 % of pregnant women took folic acid supplements periconceptionally even though 70·4 % knew about the protective effect of folic acid. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≥35 years (OR=2·80; 95 % CI 1·24, 6·29) and knowledge of the benefits of folic acid (OR=2·64; 95 % CI 1·92, 3·62) were associated with periconceptional folic acid use, and multiparity was negatively associated with such use. Compared with those who took folic acid supplements periconceptionally, women who did not take supplements received information through passive and less interactive media. Although folic acid awareness was relatively high among pregnant Japanese women, folic acid supplementation before conception was insufficient. To increase the intake of folic acid supplements in countries in which foods are not fortified with folic acid, an effective public health approach promoting behavioural change is necessary for women of reproductive age.

  11. Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

  12. Conhecimento de médicos e enfermeiros obstetras sobre a prevenção dos defeitos no tubo neural Knowledge of physicians and obstetric nurses about the prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campelo da Conceição

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o nível de conhecimento de médicos e enfermeiros obstetras sobre a utilização de ácido fólico (AF para a prevenção dos defeitos do fechamento do tubo neural (DFTN. Estudo descritivo transversal no qual 118 voluntários (95 médicos e 23 enfermeiros, responderam um questionário com 21 perguntas sobre a prevenção dos DFTN. Os dados foram analisados em função do conhecimento relatado, das recomendações preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde (MS e das evidências científicas (EC disponíveis sobre o assunto investigado. O nível de conhecimento baseado nas EC e nas recomendações do MS foi diferente (4,64 ± 0,20 vs 5,55 ± 0,15; p The scope of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of obstetricians and obstetric nurses about folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 118 volunteers (95 physicians and 23 nurses answered a questionnaire with 21 questions about prevention of NTD. The data were analyzed according to the reported knowledge, the recommendations made by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MOH and the scientific evidence (SE available in the literature on the topic. The knowledge based on the SE and recommendations of MOH was different (4.64 ± 0.20 vs. 5.55 ± 0.15, p <0.001, Mean ± SEM. There was no difference between the knowledge of respondents compared to their training, the time spent in prenatal care and between the two classes of professionals evaluated. There were differences between the reported knowledge and that based on SE (6.76 ± 0.18 vs. 4.64 ± 0.15, p <0.001 and based on the MOH recommendations (6.76 ± 0.18 vs. 5.55 ± 0.20, p <0.001. Thus, the conclusion reached was that 94.1% of those evaluated reported knowing the importance of folic acid in preventing NTD, though 64.2% reported that they did not know when to begin administration of the supplement.

  13. pen Neural Tube Defects at the National Hospital,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neural tube defect is the most common congenital abnormality of the central nervous system. Objectives: To document the clinical patterns and neonatal outcome of babies with open neural tube defects at the National Hospital, .... prevalence of these malformations in the region. This is because there are two ...

  14. Neural tube defects in Gauteng, South Africa: Recurrence risks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neural tube defects in Gauteng, South Africa: Recurrence risks and associated factors. G Teckie, A Krause, JGR Kromberg. Abstract. Background. After congenital heart disease, neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common serious structural birth defects in human infants. Objectives. To (i) determine the recurrence risks ...

  15. Single-site neural tube closure in human embryos revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Bernadette S; Driessen, Stan; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; van den Hoff, Maurice J B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-10-01

    Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure. To verify the theories of closure, we studied serial histological sections of 10 mouse embryos between 8.5 and 9.5 days of gestation and 18 human embryos of the Carnegie collection between Carnegie stage 9 (19-21 days) and 13 (28-32 days). Neural tube closure was histologically defined by the neuroepithelial remodeling of the two adjoining neural fold tips in the midline. We did not observe multiple fusion sites in neither mouse nor human embryos. A meta-analysis of case reports on neural tube defects showed that defects can occur at any level of the neural axis. Our data indicate that the human neural tube fuses at a single site and, therefore, we propose to reinstate the single-site closure theory for neural tube closure. We showed that neural tube defects are not restricted to a specific location, thereby refuting the reasoning underlying the multi-site closure theory. Clin. Anat. 30:988-999, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetic epidemiology of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Agopian, A J; Castillo, Heidi; Castillo, Jonathan; Clayton, Gerald H; Dosa, Nienke P; Hopson, Betsy; Joseph, David B; Rocque, Brandon G; Walker, William O; Wiener, John S; Mitchell, Laura E

    2017-12-11

    It has been estimated that 60-70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) have a genetic component, but few causative genes have been identified. The lack of information on genes associated with non-syndromic NTDs in humans is especially notable as the "genomic revolution" has led to new tools (e.g., genome-wide genotyping arrays, next-generation sequencing) that are helping to elucidate the full spectrum of genetic variation (from common to rare) contributing to complex traits, including structural birth defects. However, the application of modern genomic approaches to the study of NTDs has lagged behind that of some other common structural birth defects. This may be due to the difficulty of assembling large study cohorts for anencephaly or spina bifida. The purpose of this review is to outline the evolution of genetic studies of NTDs, from studies of familial aggregation to candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, through whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. Strategies for addressing gaps in NTD genetic research are also explored.

  17. Aneuploidy among prenatally detected neural tube defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, R.F. Jr.; Lampinen, J.; Martin, L.S.; Johnson, M.P.; Evans, M.I. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    We have reported previously a 10% aneuploidy detection rate among 39 cases of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Subsequently we amassed an additional experience of over 17,000 prenatal diagnosis cases over a 5-year period. During this period 106 cases of NTDs were identified; 44 with anencephaly, 62 with open spina bifida. The average maternal age of this population with NTDs was 29 years (15-40); 6 patients declined amniocentesis. Six of 100 cytogenetic studies were aneuploid; on anencephalic fetus had inherited a maternal marker chromosome, and 5 NTD cases had trisomy 18. The average maternal age of the aneuploid cases was 21 (19-40); 3 were 35 years or older. Four of 5 trisomy 18 cases had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall aneuploidy detection rate in our cohort was 5-6, while aneuploidy occurred in 2% of the isolated NTD cases, and 24% of the MCA cases. Combining the earlier experience, 4/39 aneuploidy (2 trisomy 18, 4p+, del 13q) yields an aneuploidy detection frequency of 10/145 (7%), of which most (7/10) had trisomy 18. These data support fetal karyotyping for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and recurrence-risk counseling. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Spinal neural tube defects in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, O B; Arigbabu, S O; Kanu, O O

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects is known to vary among regions. Very little has been reported about the incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa except for the general impression that the prevalent rates are low. To determine the profile of patients presenting with neural tube defects in Lagos, Nigeria We studied all patients with congenital midline back swellings presenting to one of two neurosurgical services in the state over a 5-year period to establish the incidence of spina bifida and develop demographic data. Data collected included the age at presentation, maternal age, education and parity, presence of co-existing anomalies and the social status of the parents. One hundred and eight patients with congenital midline swellings of the back were studied. Meningomyelocele accounted for 96% of the cases seen. Half the patients presented within the first two weeks of life and although fifty percent of mothers had ultrasound scans done during pregnancy none of the patients were diagnosed prenatally. Seventy-three percent of mothers of affected children were from a low socio-economic class. The commonest co-existing congenital anomaly was lower limb deformity (Talipes equino-varus). Spina bifida is the commonest indication for neurosurgical clinic referral with the exception of trauma in our environment. The prevalence is higher among women in the lower socio-economic groups. Improved perinatal care is required to ensure that children with such birth defects get prompt medical attention and thereby prevent worsening of an already complex problem.

  19. Professor John Scott, folate and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbrand, A Victor

    2014-02-01

    John Scott (1940-2013) was born in Dublin where he was to spend the rest of his career, both as an undergraduate and subsequently Professor of Biochemistry and Nutrition at Trinity College. His research with the talented group of scientists and clinicians that he led has had a substantial impact on our understanding of folate metabolism, mechanisms of its catabolism and deficiency. His research established the leading theory of folate involvement with vitamin B12 in the pathogenesis of vitamin B12 neuropathy. He helped to establish the normal daily intake of folate and the increased requirements needed either in food or as a supplement before and during pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects. He also suggested a dietary supplement of vitamin B12 before and during pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. It would be an appropriate epitaph if fortification of food with folic acid became mandatory in the UK and Ireland, as it is in over 70 other countries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Fin-and-tube condenser performance evaluation using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ling-Xiao [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The paper presents neural network approach to performance evaluation of the fin-and-tube air-cooled condensers which are widely used in air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. Inputs of the neural network include refrigerant and air-flow rates, refrigerant inlet temperature and saturated temperature, and entering air dry-bulb temperature. Outputs of the neural network consist of the heating capacity and the pressure drops on both refrigerant and air sides. The multi-input multi-output (MIMO) neural network is separated into multi-input single-output (MISO) neural networks for training. Afterwards, the trained MISO neural networks are combined into a MIMO neural network, which indicates that the number of training data sets is determined by the biggest MISO neural network not the whole MIMO network. Compared with a validated first-principle model, the standard deviations of neural network models are less than 1.9%, and all errors fall into {+-}5%. (author)

  1. hmmr mediates anterior neural tube closure and morphogenesis in the frog Xenopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Angela; Hagenlocher, Cathrin; Ott, Tim; Schambony, Alexandra; Feistel, Kerstin

    2017-10-01

    Development of the central nervous system requires orchestration of morphogenetic processes which drive elevation and apposition of the neural folds and their fusion into a neural tube. The newly formed tube gives rise to the brain in anterior regions and continues to develop into the spinal cord posteriorly. Conspicuous differences between the anterior and posterior neural tube become visible already during neural tube closure (NTC). Planar cell polarity (PCP)-mediated convergent extension (CE) movements are restricted to the posterior neural plate, i.e. hindbrain and spinal cord, where they propagate neural fold apposition. The lack of CE in the anterior neural plate correlates with a much slower mode of neural fold apposition anteriorly. The morphogenetic processes driving anterior NTC have not been addressed in detail. Here, we report a novel role for the breast cancer susceptibility gene and microtubule (MT) binding protein Hmmr (Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor, RHAMM) in anterior neurulation and forebrain development in Xenopus laevis. Loss of hmmr function resulted in a lack of telencephalic hemisphere separation, arising from defective roof plate formation, which in turn was caused by impaired neural tissue narrowing. hmmr regulated polarization of neural cells, a function which was dependent on the MT binding domains. hmmr cooperated with the core PCP component vangl2 in regulating cell polarity and neural morphogenesis. Disrupted cell polarization and elongation in hmmr and vangl2 morphants prevented radial intercalation (RI), a cell behavior essential for neural morphogenesis. Our results pinpoint a novel role of hmmr in anterior neural development and support the notion that RI is a major driving force for anterior neurulation and forebrain morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects | Akar | Egyptian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the ...

  3. Effects of folic acid fortification on the prevalence of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sâmya Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Souza, Ariani Impieri de; Figueiroa, José Natal

    2009-08-01

    To analyze the effect of folic acid-fortified foods on the prevalence of neural tube defects in live newborns. Longitudinal study with newborns from the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Data analyzed were obtained from the Sistema Nacional de Informações de Nascidos Vivos (National Information System on Live Births). Neural tube defects were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10): anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida. Prevalences from the periods before (2000-2004) and after (2005-2006) the mandatory fortification period were compared. Time trend of three-month prevalences of neural tube defects were analyzed using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope estimator. Tendency towards reduction in the occurrence of outcome (Mann-Kendall test; p= 0.270; Sen's Slope estimator =-0.008) was not identified in the period studied. The difference between prevalences of neural tube defects in the periods before and after food fortification with folic acid was not statistically significant, according to maternal characteristics. Even though reduction in neural tube defects after the period of mandatory food fortification with folic acid was not observed, results found do not enable its benefit to prevent malformations to be ruled out. Studies assessing longer periods and considering the level of consumption of fortified products by women of fertile age are necessary.

  4. Identification and characterization of secondary neural tube-derived embryonic neural stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohammed R; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2015-05-15

    Secondary neurulation is an embryonic progress that gives rise to the secondary neural tube, the precursor of the lower spinal cord region. The secondary neural tube is derived from aggregated Sox2-expressing neural cells at the dorsal region of the tail bud, which eventually forms rosette or tube-like structures to give rise to neural tissues in the tail bud. We addressed whether the embryonic tail contains neural stem cells (NSCs), namely secondary NSCs (sNSCs), with the potential for self-renewal in vitro. Using in vitro neurosphere assays, neurospheres readily formed at the rosette and neural-tube levels, but less frequently at the tail bud tip level. Furthermore, we identified that sNSC-generated neurospheres were significantly smaller in size compared with cortical neurospheres. Interestingly, various cell cycle analyses revealed that this difference was not due to a reduction in the proliferation rate of NSCs, but rather the neuronal commitment of sNSCs, as sNSC-derived neurospheres contain more committed neuronal progenitor cells, even in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). These results suggest that the higher tendency for sNSCs to spontaneously differentiate into progenitor cells may explain the limited expansion of the secondary neural tube during embryonic development.

  5. Experience In The Management Of Neural Tube Defects At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between January 1986 and December 1997, 97 cases of neural tube defects were seen at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) Maiduguri. Male to female (M:F) ratio of 1.4:1 was observed with the commonest location of lesion being at the lumbo-sacral region. Majority of the patients came from rural ...

  6. Prevalence of neural tube defect and hydrocephalus in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the cases reported in this study were open neural tube defect (NTD). The most common defect was hydrocephalus occurring in 33 patients representing 57.9%, with spinal bifida occurring in 21 patients representing 38.6%. Encephalocele or cranium bifida occurred in only 5.3% (3 patients). Among the spinal bifida cases ...

  7. Epidemiology Of Neural Tube Defects In North Central Nigeria | Uba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    myelomeningocele, the majority of which were complicated at presentation. Consanguinity marriage and delayed or absence of antenatal care appear to be important aetiological factors. Key Words: Neural tube defects, aetiological factors, Nigeria, hydrocephalus. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery Vol.(1)1 2004: 16-19 ...

  8. Implications of zinc on fetal neural tube defects | Vats | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc is essential for normal growth and differentiation in all mammalian species and it is reported that folic acid supplementation has reduced the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD). It is still considered one of the important congenital malformations having wide implications. Zinc deficiency has been reported to produce ...

  9. Partitioning of One-Carbon Units in Folate and Methionine Metabolism Is Essential for Neural Tube Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit-Yi Leung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Abnormal folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM is implicated in neural tube defects (NTDs, severe malformations of the nervous system. MTHFR mediates unidirectional transfer of methyl groups from the folate cycle to the methionine cycle and, therefore, represents a key nexus in partitioning one-carbon units between FOCM functional outputs. Methionine cycle inhibitors prevent neural tube closure in mouse embryos. Similarly, the inability to use glycine as a one-carbon donor to the folate cycle causes NTDs in glycine decarboxylase (Gldc-deficient embryos. However, analysis of Mthfr-null mouse embryos shows that neither S-adenosylmethionine abundance nor neural tube closure depend on one-carbon units derived from embryonic or maternal folate cycles. Mthfr deletion or methionine treatment prevents NTDs in Gldc-null embryos by retention of one-carbon units within the folate cycle. Overall, neural tube closure depends on the activity of both the methionine and folate cycles, but transfer of one-carbon units between the cycles is not necessary. : Leung at al. find that embryonic neural tube closure depends both on the supply of one-carbon units to the folate cycle from glycine cleavage and on the methionine cycle. In contrast, transfer of one-carbon units from the folate cycle to the methionine cycle by MTHFR is dispensable. Keywords: one-carbon metabolism, folic acid, neural tube defects, spina bifida, glycine cleavage system, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, eye, Mthfr, Gldc

  10. File list: Oth.Emb.20.AllAg.Neural_tube [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. Proportion of neural tube defects attributable to known risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Tinker, Sarah C; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Recognized risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs) poorly predict population-level NTD risk. However, the proportion of NTDs that can be attributed to these risk factors is uncertain. To determine the proportion of NTD cases that is attributable to known or suspected risk factors (i.e., female infant sex, family history of NTDs, and maternal Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, pregestational diabetes, gestational diabetes, low dietary folate intake, lack of folic acid supplementation, anticonvulsant use, and hot tub or sauna use), we estimated the adjusted population attributable fraction (aAF) for each factor, using the method of Eide and Geffler and data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Our analyses of these data indicate that the proportion of cases of spina bifida and anencephaly that can be attributed to known risk factors is 28% and 44%, respectively. For spina bifida, the factor with the greatest attributable fraction was maternal obesity (aAF, 10%), whereas for anencephaly it was Hispanic ethnicity (aAF, 15%). Our analyses indicate that known risk factors account for <50% of NTD cases. Hence, the majority of NTD cases are attributable to, as yet, unidentified factors. These findings highlight the need for continued research to identify genetic and additional nongenetic risk factors for NTDs. Further, these findings suggest that strategies that aim to reduce the risk of NTDs associated with maternal Hispanic ethnicity and obesity may have the greatest impact on the population prevalence of these conditions.

  2. Cats, frogs, and snakes: early concepts of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Disturbed neurulation fascinated scientists of all times. In Egypt, anencephalic infants were venerated as animal-headed gods. Roman law required them to be killed. The medieval world held the mother responsible, either because of assumed imagination or "miswatching," or because of suspected intercourse with animals or devils. Modern embryology and teratology began with the use of the microscope by Malpighi in 1672. Details of neural tube closure were described by Koelliker in 1861 and by His in 1874. From 1822, genetic disease and familial recurrence due to insufficient nutrition were discerned and lower social class identified as a risk factor. It took a century to define the malnutrition as insufficient folate intake. The mandatory supplementation of folate in staple foods successfully reduced the incidence of neural tube defects in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Chile, but it was not adopted by most European countries.

  3. Malformations du tube neural en chirurgie pediatrique du chu de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encéphalocèle et 6 cas de sipina bifida. La cure chirurgicale a été le principal mode de prise en charge des patients. Seuls 91,38% des cas ont été opérés. Pour toutes les malformations du tube neural, nous avons enregistré 7 décès dont 2 décès ...

  4. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I): Full Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-01-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploi...

  5. Mediterranean diet, folic acid, and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Stronati, Mauro; Lanari, Marcello

    2017-08-17

    The Mediterranean diet has been for a very long time the basis of food habits all over the countries of the Mediterranean basin, originally founded on rural models and low consumption of meat products and high-fat/high-processed foods. However, in the modern era, the traditional Mediterranean diet pattern is now progressively eroding due to the widespread dissemination of the Western-type economy, life-style, technology-driven culture, as well as the globalisation of food production, availability and consumption, with consequent homogenisation of food culture and behaviours. This transition process may affect many situations, including pregnancy and offspring's health. The problem of the diet during pregnancy and the proper intake of nutrients are nowadays a very current topic, arousing much debate. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, in particular, has been associated with the highest risk reduction of major congenital anomalies, like the heterogeneous class of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs constitute a major health burden (0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide) and still remain a preventable cause of still birth, neonatal and infant death, or significant lifelong disabilities. Many studies support the finding that appropriate folate levels during pregnancy may confer protection against these diseases. In 1991 one randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated for the first time that periconceptional supplementation of folic acid is able to prevent the recurrence of NTDs, finding confirmed by many other subsequent studies. Anyway, the high rate of unplanned/unintended pregnancies and births and other issues hindering the achievement of adequate folate levels in women in childbearing age, induced the US government and many other countries to institute mandatory food fortification with folic acid. The actual strategy adopted by European Countries (including Italy) suggests that women take 0,4 mg folic acid/die before conception. The main question is which intervention

  6. Working Towards a Risk Prediction Model for Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A.J.; Lupo, Philip J.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Canfield, Mark A.; Mitchell, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several risk factors have been consistently associated with neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the predictive ability of these risk factors in combination has not been evaluated. METHODS To assess the predictive ability of established risk factors for NTDs, we built predictive models using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, which is a large, population-based study of nonsyndromic birth defects. Cases with spina bifida or anencephaly, or both (n = 1239), and controls (n = 8494) were randomly divided into separate training (75% of cases and controls) and validation (remaining 25%) samples. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed with the training samples. The predictive ability of these models was evaluated in the validation samples by assessing the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves. An ordinal predictive risk index was also constructed and evaluated. In addition, the ability of classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to identify subgroups of women at increased risk for NTDs in offspring was evaluated. RESULTS The predictive ability of the multivariable models was poor (area under the receiver operating curve: 0.55 for spina bifida only, 0.59 for anencephaly only, and 0.56 for anencephaly and spina bifida combined). The predictive abilities of the ordinal risk indexes and CART models were also low. CONCLUSION Current established risk factors for NTDs are insufficient for population-level prediction of a women’s risk for having affected offspring. Identification of genetic risk factors and novel nongenetic risk factors will be critical to establishing models, with good predictive ability, for NTDs. PMID:22253139

  7. Epidemiology of the neural tube defects in Kashmir Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laharwal, Masood Ahmed; Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Ramzan, Altaf Umer; Wani, Abrar Ahad; Malik, Nayil Khursheed; Arif, Sajad Hussain; Rizvi, Masooma

    2016-01-01

    Introduction/Background: Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations affecting the brain and spinal cord and have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic and environmental factors have been found to cause these defects, both individually and in combination. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, types, demographics, risk factors, and other associated anomalies relevant to NTDs in Kashmir Valley. Materials and Methods: A 2-year hospital-based prospective study was carried out from November 2013 to October 2015. A detailed history of the mother was taken along with detailed clinical examination of neonate including measurement of head circumference and checking the status of fontanella, whether - lax/full/bulging/or tense, type of NTD. Investigations that were done included were X-ray skull: Anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, X-ray spine: AP and lateral, ultrasonography abdomen, magnetic resonance imaging: Spine and brain. Results: The total number of babies with NTD's was 125 with an overall incidence of 0.503. District Kupwara was having the highest incidence (1.047) and district Srinagar the lowest incidence of NTD's (0.197). The majority of NTD's (116 cases, 92.8%) were found in the rural areas. Among the different types of NTD's, spina bifida had an incidence of 0.342 (85 cases, 68%), and anencephaly had an incidence of 0.113 (28 cases, 22.4%). There was a slight preponderance of females over males with NTD's. There were70 females (56%) and 55 males (44%) respectively with a male:female ratio of 0.8:1. Conclusions: The incidence rates of NTDs are very high for Kashmir Valley. Geographical distribution of NTDs at this place confirms a relationship between the socioeconomic status, educational status, maternal age and environmental factors for the development of an NTD. The results of this study point to the importance establishing a health policy to prevent NTDs in Kashmir Valley. PMID:27857789

  8. Unjoined primary and secondary neural tubes: junctional neural tube defect, a new form of spinal dysraphism caused by disturbance of junctional neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Sebastian; Moes, Greg; Hou, Yong Jin; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2017-10-01

    Primary and secondary neurulation are the two known processes that form the central neuraxis of vertebrates. Human phenotypes of neural tube defects (NTDs) mostly fall into two corresponding categories consistent with the two types of developmental sequence: primary NTD features an open skin defect, an exposed, unclosed neural plate (hence an open neural tube defect, or ONTD), and an unformed or poorly formed secondary neural tube, and secondary NTD with no skin abnormality (hence a closed NTD) and a malformed conus caudal to a well-developed primary neural tube. We encountered three cases of a previously unrecorded form of spinal dysraphism in which the primary and secondary neural tubes are individually formed but are physically separated far apart and functionally disconnected from each other. One patient was operated on, in whom both the lumbosacral spinal cord from primary neurulation and the conus from secondary neurulation are each anatomically complete and endowed with functioning segmental motor roots tested by intraoperative triggered electromyography and direct spinal cord stimulation. The remarkable feature is that the two neural tubes are unjoined except by a functionally inert, probably non-neural band. The developmental error of this peculiar malformation probably occurs during the critical transition between the end of primary and the beginning of secondary neurulation, in a stage aptly called junctional neurulation. We describe the current knowledge concerning junctional neurulation and speculate on the embryogenesis of this new class of spinal dysraphism, which we call junctional neural tube defect.

  9. Mir-29b Mediates the Neural Tube versus Neural Crest Fate Decision during Embryonic Stem Cell Neural Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jiajie; Wu, Yukang; Li, Guoping; Ma, Li; Feng, Ke; Guo, Xudong; Jia, Wenwen; Wang, Guiying; Yang, Guang; Li, Ping; Kang, Jiuhong

    2017-08-08

    During gastrulation, the neuroectoderm cells form the neural tube and neural crest. The nervous system contains significantly more microRNAs than other tissues, but the role of microRNAs in controlling the differentiation of neuroectodermal cells into neural tube epithelial (NTE) cells and neural crest cells (NCCs) remains unknown. Using embryonic stem cell (ESC) neural differentiation systems, we found that miR-29b was upregulated in NTE cells and downregulated in NCCs. MiR-29b promoted the differentiation of ESCs into NTE cells and inhibited their differentiation into NCCs. Accordingly, the inhibition of miR-29b significantly inhibited the differentiation of NTE cells. A mechanistic study revealed that miR-29b targets DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) to regulate neural differentiation. Moreover, miR-29b mediated the function of Pou3f1, a critical neural transcription factor. Therefore, our study showed that the Pou3f1-miR-29b-Dnmt3a regulatory axis was active at the initial stage of neural differentiation and regulated the determination of cell fate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antenatal Diagnosis of a Rare Neural Tube Defect: Sincipital Encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kehila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Fetal sincipital encephalocele is one of the most serious congenital neural tube defects with a high risk of mortality and neonatal morbidity. Prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is important in fetal medicine. Case Report. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis of sincipital encephalocele using ultrasound and MRI imaging. The diagnosis was done at 25 weeks of gestation by identifying an anterior cephalic protrusion through a defect in the skull. Conclusion. Through this case, we discuss the differential diagnosis, management, and prognosis of such lesions.

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS IN THE WORLD AND IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    D.D. Farhud; V. Hadavi; H. Sadighi

    2000-01-01

    Statistical data from 1966 till 1995 showed that Neural tube defects, in the American continent, Venezuela had the highest prevalence of 38.9 and some Latin American countries showed the low of 7.7. In Europe, Norway had the highest prevalence of 68, and Denmark the lowest, 5.8. In Asia, India had the highest of 181.8 and Japan the lowest of 10. In Africa, Nigeria had the highest of 70 and Negroes of South Africa had the lowest of 9.9. In Australia the figure was 20.05. According to the stati...

  12. Prevalentie, klinisch beeld en prognose van neuralebuisdefecten in Nederland [Prevalence, presentation and prognosis of neural tube defects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, A.L. den; Hirasing, R.A.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Jong-van de Berg, L.T.W. de; Walle, H.E.K. de; Cornel, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To determine the live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in the Netherlands and describe the clinical picture. Design. Descriptive. Setting. TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, the Netherlands. Method. Data collected through active surveillance of NTD on a monthly basis by

  13. Assessment of knowledge of female students from the Medical Department of the University of Rzeszow regarding isolated neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milewska Natalia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dysraphic defects are malformations resulting from a failed neural tube closure in a critical moment of embryogenesis. These structural alterations may include contractures, varus and valgus deformities, scoliosis or hip joint dislocations. According to the literature of the subject, the incidence of dysraphic defects ranges from 1.2% to 4.0% of live births. It is believed that 30% of cases are caused by genetic and environmental factors. The aim of the work was to assess the knowledge of female students of medical courses regarding isolated neural tube defects and their prevention.

  14. Flexible deep brain neural probes based on a parylene tube structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Kim, Eric; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Jinsheng; Xu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Most microfabricated neural probes have limited shank length, which prevents them from reaching many deep brain structures. This paper reports deep brain neural probes with ultra-long penetrating shanks based on a simple but novel parylene tube structure. The mechanical strength of the parylene tube shank is temporarily enhanced during implantation by inserting a metal wire. The metal wire can be removed after implantation, making the implanted probe very flexible and thus minimizing the stress caused by micromotions of brain tissues. Optogenetic stimulation and chemical delivery capabilities can be potentially integrated by taking advantage of the tube structure. Single-shank prototypes with a shank length of 18.2 mm have been developed. The microfabrication process comprises of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon, parylene conformal coating/refilling, and XeF2 isotropic silicon etching. In addition to bench-top insertion characterization, the functionality of developed probes has been preliminarily demonstrated by implanting into the amygdala of a rat and recording neural signals.

  15. Neural Tube Defect in Alive Neonates: Incidence Rate and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Haghollahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neural Tube Defect (NTD characterized by failure of neural tube to close properly be the second most common born defect after congenital heart disease. The most prevalent forms of NTD are Anencephaly and Spinal-bifida. Many factors are involved in this anomaly. New researches suggest environmental factors like radiation, hyperthermia, Vitamin A and acid folic deficiency, anti epileptic drug like Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, phenytoin, Folic acid antagonist like Sulfasalazine, Triametherine and systemic disease like diabet mellitus, obesity, genetic factors, the most schance 40 to 70 percentages.Methods: In this survey cross sectional study was conducted in five hospitals depend to Tehran university during three years. Study subject identified through review of admission and discharge at major hospital through regular contact with newborn nurseries and birth hospital.Results: In 38473 reported cases, 143 cases have neural tube defect. Among NTD cases, 11.9% of mothers had medical diseases in their previous history such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy-psychiatric, and disorder-heart diseases. In this study group, 5.6% have preclampsia during pregnancy period. The most common NTD anomaly in this study was anencephaly and meningomyelocele that was different from studies in literature.Conclusion: NTD result from failure of neural tube close threats fetus health up to 28 days after conception. When is often prior to the recognition of pregnancy since many pregnancy are unplanned NTD prevention is best achieve by adequate daily folic acid intake thought of reproductive ages .educational effort to promote daily intake of folic acid supplemental by women of reproductive age and NTD risk factor should be done. Early diagnostic procedure for high risk pregnancy advised.

  16. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; Han, Zhe; Chuai, Manli; Wang, Li-jing; Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka; Geng, Jian-guo; Yang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    Formation of the neural tube is the morphological hallmark for development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, neural tube development is a crucial step in the neurulation process. Slit/Robo signaling was initially identified as a chemo-repellent that regulated axon growth cone elongation, but its role in controlling neural tube development is currently unknown. To address this issue, we investigated Slit/Robo1 signaling in the development of chick neCollege of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UKural tube and transgenic mice over-expressing Slit2. We disrupted Slit/Robo1 signaling by injecting R5 monoclonal antibodies into HH10 neural tubes to block the Robo1 receptor. This inhibited the normal development of the ventral body curvature and caused the spinal cord to curl up into a S-shape. Next, Slit/Robo1 signaling on one half-side of the chick embryo neural tube was disturbed by electroporation in ovo. We found that the morphology of the neural tube was dramatically abnormal after we interfered with Slit/Robo1 signaling. Furthermore, we established that silencing Robo1 inhibited cell proliferation while over-expressing Robo1 enhanced cell proliferation. We also investigated the effects of altering Slit/Robo1 expression on Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Pax7 expression in the developing neural tube. We demonstrated that over-expressing Robo1 down-regulated Shh expression in the ventral neural tube and resulted in the production of fewer HNK-1 + migrating neural crest cells (NCCs). In addition, Robo1 over-expression enhanced Pax7 expression in the dorsal neural tube and increased the number of Slug + pre-migratory NCCs. Conversely, silencing Robo1 expression resulted in an enhanced Shh expression and more HNK-1 + migrating NCCs but reduced Pax7 expression and fewer Slug + pre-migratory NCCs were observed. In conclusion, we propose that Slit/Robo1 signaling is involved in regulating neural tube development by tightly

  17. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of The Ministry of Education, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Han, Zhe [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Chuai, Manli [College of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Wang, Li-jing [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Geng, Jian-guo, E-mail: jgeng@umich.edu [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of The Ministry of Education, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2013-05-01

    Formation of the neural tube is the morphological hallmark for development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, neural tube development is a crucial step in the neurulation process. Slit/Robo signaling was initially identified as a chemo-repellent that regulated axon growth cone elongation, but its role in controlling neural tube development is currently unknown. To address this issue, we investigated Slit/Robo1 signaling in the development of chick neCollege of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UKural tube and transgenic mice over-expressing Slit2. We disrupted Slit/Robo1 signaling by injecting R5 monoclonal antibodies into HH10 neural tubes to block the Robo1 receptor. This inhibited the normal development of the ventral body curvature and caused the spinal cord to curl up into a S-shape. Next, Slit/Robo1 signaling on one half-side of the chick embryo neural tube was disturbed by electroporation in ovo. We found that the morphology of the neural tube was dramatically abnormal after we interfered with Slit/Robo1 signaling. Furthermore, we established that silencing Robo1 inhibited cell proliferation while over-expressing Robo1 enhanced cell proliferation. We also investigated the effects of altering Slit/Robo1 expression on Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Pax7 expression in the developing neural tube. We demonstrated that over-expressing Robo1 down-regulated Shh expression in the ventral neural tube and resulted in the production of fewer HNK-1{sup +} migrating neural crest cells (NCCs). In addition, Robo1 over-expression enhanced Pax7 expression in the dorsal neural tube and increased the number of Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs. Conversely, silencing Robo1 expression resulted in an enhanced Shh expression and more HNK-1{sup +} migrating NCCs but reduced Pax7 expression and fewer Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs were observed. In conclusion, we propose that Slit/Robo1 signaling is involved in regulating neural tube

  18. Neural tube defects and associated anomalies in a fetal and perinatal autopsy series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ljudmilla A G; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Broholm, Helle

    2006-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital malformations of the central nervous system (CNS) secondary to abnormal closure of the neural tube during embryonic development. This study provides information on NTD rate, distribution, associated morphologic anomalies and organ weights in a Danish feta...

  19. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I: Full Aneuploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 9, trisomy 2, trisomy 21, trisomy 7, trisomy 8, trisomy 14, trisomy 15, trisomy 16, trisomy 5 mosaicism, trisomy 11 mosaicism, trisomy 20 mosaicism, monosomy X, and tetraploidy. NTDs may be associated with aneuploidy. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities and prompt a thorough cytogenetic investigation and genetic counseling.

  20. Neural tube defects – disorders of neurulation and related embryonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. ‘Open’ NTDs result from failure of primary neurulation as seen in anencephaly, myelomeningocele (open spina bifida) and craniorachischisis. Degeneration of the persistently open neural tube in utero leads to loss of neurological function below the lesion level. ‘Closed’ NTDs are skin-covered disorders of spinal cord structure, ranging from asymptomatic spina bifida occulta to severe spinal cord tethering, and usually traceable to disruption of secondary neurulation. ‘Herniation’ NTDs are those in which meninges, with or without brain or spinal cord tissue, become exteriorised through a pathological opening in the skull or vertebral column (e.g. encephalocele and meningocele). NTDs have multifactorial etiology, with genes and environmental factors interacting to determine individual risk of malformation. While over 200 mutant genes cause open NTDs in mice, much less is known about the genetic causation of human NTDs. Recent evidence has implicated genes of the planar cell polarity signalling pathway in a proportion of cases. The embryonic development of NTDs is complex, with diverse cellular and molecular mechanisms operating at different levels of the body axis. Molecular regulatory events include the BMP and Sonic hedgehog pathways which have been implicated in control of neural plate bending. Primary prevention of NTDs has been implemented clinically following the demonstration that folic acid, when taken as a peri-conceptional supplement, can prevent many cases. Not all NTDs respond to folic acid, however, and adjunct therapies are required for prevention of this folic acid-resistant category. PMID:24009034

  1. Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgely eFisk Green

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs. Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative (risk genotypes and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p=0.017. We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential

  2. Epidemiology of neural tube defects in the world and Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhud, D.; Hadavi, V.; Sadighi, H.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical data from 1996 till 1995, showed that Neural tube defects, in the American continent, Venezuela had the highest prevalence of 38.9 and some Latin American countries showed the low of 7.7. In Europe, Norway had the highest prevalence of 68, and Denmark the lowest, 5.8. In Asia, India had the highest of 181.8 and Japan the lowest of 10. In Africa, Nigeria had the highest of 70 and negroes of South Africa had the lowest of 9.9. In Australia the figure was 20.05. According to the statistics available of the years 1967 till 1996, anencephaly in China had the highest prevalence of 87. In the American continent, state of Michigan in the USA had the highest of 10.5 and Jamaica, in Central American, had the lowest of 2.6. In Europe, Turkey with 16.4 and Italy with 2.73; in Asia, China with 87 and Iran with 0.8 had the highest and the lowest pre valences, respectively. In Africa, Nigeria with 3.5, and in Oceania, New zealand with 7.8 in 10000, were reported. Data available on spin a bifida, from the years 1968 till 1991 showed, the highest prevalence in China with 36, and the lowest in the Alps mountains with 0.55 in 10000 individuals. In the American continent, state of Arkansas with 7.8 and California with 3.87; in Europe, England with 23.1 and Rein-Alp with 0.55 in 10000 had the highest and the lowest pre valences. Finally, in China this rate was 36, in Australia 10, in New zealand 9.4, and in Nigeria 7/10000. In a study carried out in Tehran, from 1969 till 1978 by the authors, out of 13037 birth, (17.6 in 10000) newborns had neural tube defects, with anencephaly 0.8 and spin a bifida 3.8/10000. In a new study on 8585 deliveries (1991-1997) in Hamadan (a north west Providence of Iran), Pre valences of total Nds was 50.1/10000, anencephaly 15.6 and spinabifida 6.98

  3. Neural tube defects 1974-94--down but not out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M; Seagroatt, V; Hey, K; O'Donnell, M; Godden, M; Jones, N; Botting, B

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To describe accurately the total prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in England and Wales over time, and to provide a benchmark up to 1994. METHODS: National data about NTDs reported as births or terminations are available from 1974-94, but reporting is incomplete. A local register of NTDs covering Oxfordshire/west Berkshire from 1965-94 was used to validate national data for the locality, using the method of capture and recapture, and hence to estimate incompleteness of reporting nationally. RESULTS: National underreporting is consistent at about two thirds of the true number of cases reaching at least the second trimester. The local register is much more complete, but time trends locally and nationally are similar. In England and Wales total prevalence declined from about 34 per 10000 live and stillbirths in 1974 to a plateau of just under 8 per 10000 in the 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: The decline in NTD prevalence is real and seems to have stopped. How this relates to changes in diet or the practice of vitamin supplementation is unknown, and the implications of the plateau are uncertain. OPCS figures of 500 NTDs annually in England and Wales represent about two thirds of the true number of cases. PMID:8949699

  4. Genetic, chromosomal, and syndromic causes of neural tube defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Abdelbasit, Omer B.; Shaheed, Meeralebbae M.; Alhussein, Khalid A.; Miqdad, Abeer M.; Samadi, Abdulmohsen S.; Khalil, Mohammed I.; Al-Mardawi, Elham; Salih, Mustafa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the incidence, and describe the various forms of neural tube defects (NTDs) due to genetic, chromosomal, and syndromic causes. Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from the medical records of newborn infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with NTDs and their mothers spanning 14 years (1996-2009) at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The cases were ascertained by a perinatologist, neonatologist, geneticist, radiologist, and neurologist. The literature was reviewed via a MEDLINE search. Only liveborn babies were included. Permission from the Educational Committee at the Security Forces Hospital was obtained prior to the collection of data. Results: Out of 103 infants with NTDs admitted during this period, 20 (19.4%) were found to have an underlying genetic syndromic, chromosomal and/or other anomalies. There were 5 cases of Meckel-Gruber syndrome, 2 Joubert syndrome, one Waardenburg syndrome, one Walker-Warburg syndrome, 2 chromosomal disorders, 2 caudal regression, one amniotic band disruption sequence, one associated with omphalocele, one with diaphragmatic hernia, and 4 with multiple congenital anomalies. Conclusions: There is a high rate of underlying genetic syndromic and/or chromosomal causes of NTDs in the Saudi Arabian population due to the high consanguinity rate. Identification of such association can lead to more accurate provisions of genetic counseling to the family including preimplantation genetic diagnosis or early termination of pregnancies associated with lethal conditions. PMID:25551112

  5. Chemical cleaning's role in tube failure prevention and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, K.J.; Dooley, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Properly applied, chemical cleaning is a valuable tool used to prevent tube failures involving overheating and corrosion due to waterside deposits. In many cases, however, cleaning becomes yet an additional cost associated with correction of tube failure incidents. Discussion is focused on approaches taken to appraise tube waterside cleanliness and determine the need to clean, as typically practiced in conventional fossil plants. Also presented is an assessment of the suitability and limitations of these approaches to plants with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) units. (orig.)

  6. Morphogens, modeling and patterning the neural tube: an interview with James Briscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, James

    2015-01-20

    James Briscoe has a BSc in Microbiology and Virology (from the University of Warwick, UK) and a PhD in Molecular and Cellular Biology (from the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, now Cancer Research UK). He started working on the development of the neural tube in the lab of Tom Jessel as a postdoctoral fellow, establishing that there was graded sonic hedgehog signaling in the ventral neural tube. He is currently a group leader and Head of Division in Developmental Biology at the MRC National Institute for Medical Research (which will become part of the Francis Crick Institute in April 2015). He is working to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of graded signaling in the vertebrate neural tube.We interviewed him about the development of ideas on morphogenetic gradients and his own work on modeling the development of the neural tube for our series on modeling in biology.

  7. Air Pollution, Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Factors, and Neural Tube Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Tager, Ira B; Lurmann, Frederick; Hammond, S Katharine; Shaw, Gary M

    2015-11-01

    Environmental pollutants and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors have been associated with neural tube defects, but the potential impact of interaction between ambient air pollution and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors on the risks of neural tube defects is not well understood. We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to investigate whether associations between air pollutant exposure in early gestation and neural tube defects were modified by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997-2006. There were 5 pollutant exposures, 3 outcomes, and 9 neighbourhood socioeconomic factors included for a total of 135 investigated associations. Estimates were adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. We present below odds ratios (ORs) that exclude 1 and a chi-square test of homogeneity P-value of factors in the association of particulate matter and neural tube defects in California. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity, thyroid hormone concentration and oxidant status in neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Sibel; Agacayak, Elif; Tunc, Senem Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Findik, Fatih Mehmet; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Gul, Talip

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between neural tube defects and paraoxonase-1 activity in amniotic fluid. We studied total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, paraoxonase-1 activity and thyroid hormone amniotic fluid concentration in fetuses with neural tube defects. The present study was performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Dicle University between September 2011 and June 2013. The study group included 37 amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women (16-20 weeks of gestation) with fetuses affected by neural tube defects. The control group consisted of 36 pregnant women who were diagnosed with a high-risk pregnancy according to first or second trimester aneuploidy screening and were later confirmed on amniocentesis to have genetically normal fetuses. Amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity and total oxidant status were significantly higher (P = 0.023, P = 0.029, respectively) whereas free T4 was significantly lower (P = 0.022) in fetuses with neural tube defects compared with control subjects. In fetuses with neural tube defects, amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity correlated positively with total oxidant status (r = 0.424**, P = 0.010), and amniotic fluid total antioxidant capacity correlated positively with free t4 (r = 0.381*, P = 0.022). This is the first study in the literature to show an association between paraoxonase-1 activity and thyroid hormone concentration and neural tube defects. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Claudins are essential for cell shape changes and convergent extension movements during neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumholtz, Amanda I; Simard, Annie; Nikolopoulou, Evanthia; Oosenbrug, Marcus; Collins, Michelle M; Piontek, Anna; Krause, Gerd; Piontek, Jörg; Greene, Nicholas D E; Ryan, Aimee K

    2017-08-01

    During neural tube closure, regulated changes at the level of individual cells are translated into large-scale morphogenetic movements to facilitate conversion of the flat neural plate into a closed tube. Throughout this process, the integrity of the neural epithelium is maintained via cell interactions through intercellular junctions, including apical tight junctions. Members of the claudin family of tight junction proteins regulate paracellular permeability, apical-basal cell polarity and link the tight junction to the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we show that claudins are essential for neural tube closure: the simultaneous removal of Cldn3, -4 and -8 from tight junctions caused folate-resistant open neural tube defects. Their removal did not affect cell type differentiation, neural ectoderm patterning nor overall apical-basal polarity. However, apical accumulation of Vangl2, RhoA, and pMLC were reduced, and Par3 and Cdc42 were mislocalized at the apical cell surface. Our data showed that claudins act upstream of planar cell polarity and RhoA/ROCK signaling to regulate cell intercalation and actin-myosin contraction, which are required for convergent extension and apical constriction during neural tube closure, respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon nano-tubes - what risks, what prevention?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Myriam; Lafon, Dominique; Roos, Frederique

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nano-tubes are arousing considerable interest in both the research world and industry because of their exceptional intrinsic properties and dimensional characteristics. Health risks of nano-tubes have been little studied, although the general public is already aware of their existence on account of their numerous promising applications. Existing, sometimes extremely brief, publications only reveal insufficient data for assessing risks sustained due to carbon nano-tube exposure. Yet, the great interest aroused by these new chemicals would indicate strongly that the number of exposed workers will increase over the coming years. It therefore appears essential to review not only the characteristics and applications of carbon nano-tubes, but also the prevention means to be implemented during their handling. We recommend application of the principle of precaution and measures to keep the exposure level as low as possible until the significance of occupational exposure and the corresponding human health risks are better known and have been assessed. (authors)

  11. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, including maternal fumonisin consumption, periconceptional zinc deficiency, parental occupational exposure and residential proximity to pesticides, lower socioeconomic status, fetal alcohol syndrome, mutations in the VANGL1 gene, human athymic Nude/SCID fetus, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the NOS3 gene. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  12. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as Currarino syndrome, sacral defect with anterior meningocele, Jarcho-Levin syndrome (spondylo-costal dysostosis, lateral meningocele syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, and hyperthermia. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  13. A Robust Single Primate Neuroepithelial Cell Clonal Expansion System for Neural Tube Development and Disease Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a model of primate neural tube (NT development is important to promote many NT disorder studies in model organisms. Here, we report a robust and stable system to allow for clonal expansion of single monkey neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs to develop into miniature NT-like structures. Single NESCs can produce functional neurons in vitro, survive, and extensively regenerate neuron axons in monkey brain. NT formation and NESC maintenance depend on high metabolism activity and Wnt signaling. NESCs are regionally restricted to a telencephalic fate. Moreover, single NESCs can turn into radial glial progenitors (RGPCs. The transition is accurately regulated by Wnt signaling through regulation of Notch signaling and adhesion molecules. Finally, using the “NESC-TO-NTs” system, we model the functions of folic acid (FA on NT closure and demonstrate that FA can regulate multiple mechanisms to prevent NT defects. Our system is ideal for studying NT development and diseases.

  14. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-06-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as omphalocele, OEIS (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects) complex, pentalogy of Cantrell, amniotic band sequence, limb-body wall complex, Meckel syndrome, Joubert syndrome, skeletal dysplasia, diabetic embryopathy, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of glucose metabolism. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  15. Folic acid and neural tube defects: are Jordanian pregnant women aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebous, H D; Ma'aita, M E; Alkhazaleh, F A

    2014-01-01

    To assess Jordanian pregnant women's awareness of folic acid and its contribution to neural tube defects (NTDs) prevention and to their folic acid intake. One thousand pregnant women were interviewed about their knowledge of folic acid for NTDs prevention and their folic acid intake using a questionnaire. Of 1,000 women surveyed, 93.4% reported hearing of folic acid and 30.3% of NTDs. Only 16.2% knew that folic acid can reduce NTDs risk; 42.0% of those aware of folic acid believed it should be taken periconceptionally but only 16.9% did so. The most common information sources on folic acid were physicians (82.8%). Whereas a large percentage of pregnant Jordanian women were aware of folic acid, only a small proportion are aware that it prevents NTDs and should be taken periconceptionally. Also, there was a gap between awareness, knowledge, and intake of folic acid. Awareness and knowledge of NTDs was less prevalent among Jordanian women. Despite the efforts that have been undertaken, further effort is required to educate Jordanian women about folic acid contribution to NTDs prevention.

  16. Neural tube defects in Waardenburg syndrome: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph; Miriyala, Kalpana

    2017-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by sensorineural deafness and pigment abnormalities, and is caused by variants in the PAX3 homeodomain. PAX3 variants have been associated with severe neural tube defects in mice and humans, but the frequency and clinical manifestations of this symptom remain largely unexplored in humans. Consequently, the role of PAX3 in human neural tube formation remains a study of interest, for clinical as well as research purposes. Though the association between spina bifida and WS1 is now well-documented, no study has attempted to characterize the range of spina bifida phenotypes seen in WS. Spina bifida encompasses several diagnoses with a wide scope of clinical severity, ranging from spina bifida occulta to myelomeningocele. We present a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 caused by a novel missense variant in PAX3, presenting with myelomeningocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation, and hydrocephalus at birth. Additionally, we review 32 total cases of neural tube defects associated with WS. Including this report, there have been 15 published cases of myelomeningocele, 10 cases of unspecified spina bifida, 3 cases of sacral dimples, 0 cases of meningocele, and 4 cases of miscellaneous other neural tube defects. Though the true frequency of each phenotype cannot be determined from this collection of cases, these results demonstrate that Waardenburg syndrome type 1 carries a notable risk of severe neural tube defects, which has implications in prenatal and genetic counseling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Are concentrations of alkaline earth elements in maternal hair associated with risk of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Wang, Bin; Huo, Wenhua; Liu, Yingying; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-12-31

    The relationship between maternal intake of alkaline earth elements (AEEs) during the period of neural tube closure and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is still unclear. We propose that AEE deficiency during the early period of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of NTDs in the offspring. In this study, we recruited 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women who delivered healthy infants (controls). The concentrations of four AEEs (Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) in maternal hair sections that grew during early pregnancy were analyzed. Information on the dietary habits of the mothers was also collected by questionnaire. Higher concentrations of the four AEEs in hair had protective effects against the risk of total NTDs, with odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (comparing groups separated by each median level) of 0.44 (0.28-0.68) for Mg, 0.56 (0.36-0.87) for Ca, 0.45 (0.28-0.70) for Sr, and 0.41 (0.26-0.65) for Ba. Significant negative dose-response trends were identified for the relationships between the four AEE concentrations in maternal hair and the risks of anencephaly and spina bifida, but not for encephalocele. The frequencies of maternal consumption of fresh green vegetables, fresh fruit, and meat or fish were positively correlated with the concentrations of AEEs in hair. We concluded that the maternal intake of AEEs may play an important role in preventing NTD formation in offspring, and that this intake is related to maternal dietary habits of consuming fresh green vegetables, fresh fruit, and fish or meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Folic acid supplementation as prophylaxis of neural tube defect in the Lower Silesia region: fact or fiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagłaj, Maciej; Wojtyłko, Anna

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of nationwide programme of prophylaxis of neural tube defects in the Lower Silesia region. A questionnaire study was conducted among all mothers of infants admitted between 2001 and 2010 to the Department of Pediatric Surgery and Urology in Wroclaw Medical Academy. The data regarding pregnancy and delivery, newborn's medical condition, family history, parental health, profession and education, and finally folic acid supplementation by mothers were analysed. Among 1278 newborn infants, in 148 children (11.6%) central nervous system (CNS) defects were diagnosed. Among 894 mothers (69.9%) who took part in the study, 159 of them (17.8%) confirmed taking folic acid before becoming pregnant. The rate of supplementation with folic acid showed a rising trend in the study period and increased from 7.1% in 2001 to 35.8% in 2010. Folic acid was taken more frequently by the women living in urban areas (24.2%) than by those living in rural regions (9.2%). With regard to the educational level, the highest rate of supplementation with folic acid was noted among the women with high education (37.8%). Forty-eight percent of mothers were informed about prevention of neural tube defects by their physician, while in 32% of them the family or media were the source of information. Mothers of 255 infants confirmed that they knew about prevention of congenital defects by vitamin intake, but they had not taken folic acid before pregnancy. 1. Realization of the programme of prevention of neural tube defects in Lower Silesia region is highly unsatisfactory. 2. The actions undertaken on the national and local level and aimed to popularize the knowledge about prevention of CNS defects among women are assessed to be ineffective in the Lower Silesia region and need urgent verification.

  19. Recommended method to prevent leakage of titanium tube in condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun

    2010-01-01

    Qinshan Phase III is located at the estuary area of Qiantang River, where contains much slit and sand in the seawater. Since the units were put into operation, tube bundles in the condenser have been scratched, damaged or blocked by hard foreign materials, and outside wall thickness reduced and broken due to various reasons. Many tube bundles are discarded. In order to effectively prevent the re-occurrence of such problem and eliminate the existing defects, equipment management personnels of Qinshan Phase III work together with experts both from home and abroad, and perfom root-analysis for various cause of defects. After the problem root is identified, a serious of specific and effective measures are taken to prevent and eliminate the problem and reached a good effect. This paper herein is written for comments and reference. (authors)

  20. Neural tube closure depends on expression of Grainyhead-like 3 in multiple tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Sandra C P; Hirst, Caroline S; Savery, Dawn; Rolo, Ana; Lickert, Heiko; Andersen, Bogi; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2018-03-15

    Failure of neural tube closure leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), common congenital abnormalities in humans. Among the genes whose loss of function causes NTDs in mice, Grainyhead-like3 (Grhl3) is essential for spinal neural tube closure, with null mutants exhibiting fully penetrant spina bifida. During spinal neurulation Grhl3 is initially expressed in the surface (non-neural) ectoderm, subsequently in the neuroepithelial component of the neural folds and at the node-streak border, and finally in the hindgut endoderm. Here, we show that endoderm-specific knockout of Grhl3 causes late-arising spinal NTDs, preceded by increased ventral curvature of the caudal region which was shown previously to suppress closure of the spinal neural folds. This finding supports the hypothesis that diminished Grhl3 expression in the hindgut is the cause of spinal NTDs in the curly tail, carrying a hypomorphic Grhl3 allele. Complete loss of Grhl3 function produces a more severe phenotype in which closure fails earlier in neurulation, before the stage of onset of expression in the hindgut of wild-type embryos. This implicates additional tissues and NTD mechanisms in Grhl3 null embryos. Conditional knockout of Grhl3 in the neural plate and node-streak border has minimal effect on closure, suggesting that abnormal function of surface ectoderm, where Grhl3 transcripts are first detected, is primarily responsible for early failure of spinal neurulation in Grhl3 null embryos. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Localization and distribution of superoxide dismutase-1 in the neural tube morphogenesis of chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhage, Prajakta A; Kamble, Lekha K; Bhargava, Shobha Y

    2017-02-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD- 1) is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates the levels of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) by catalyzing the conversion of superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and oxygen. ROS are known to play a significant role in various cellular processes, via redox modification of a variety of molecules that participate in signaling pathways involved in this processes. As the levels of ROS in cells are controlled by the levels of antioxidant enzymes, thus SOD-1 may be indirectly involved in regulating different cellular processes by maintaining the required levels of H 2 O 2. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated the possible involvement of SOD- 1 in the neurulation during the development of chick embryo. During gastrulation, SOD- 1 immunoreactivity was observed throughout the ectoderm and cauda mesoderm areas, however, its presence during neurulation was restricted to certain areas of neural tube particularly in the dorsal neural tube where neural tube closure takes place. Assaying enzyme activity revealed a significant increase in the SOD activity during neurulation. Further, inhibition of SOD- 1 by Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) induced abnormalities in the development of the neural tube. SOD- 1 inhibition specifically affected the closure of neural tube in the anterior region. Thus, here we report the presence of SOD- 1 mainly in the ectoderm and tissues of ectodermal origin during gastrulation to neurulation which suggests that it may be involved in the regulating the cellular processes during neural tube morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal bereavement in the antenathal period and Neural tube defect in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2013-01-01

    is the best-known cause of the disease. Objective: To investigate if severe emotional stress exposure related to maternal bereavement due to loss of a close relative in the antenatal period is associated with neural tube defect in the offspring. Methods: A nationwide register-based follow-up study including...... bifida and 2,095 with hydrocephalous. For all neural tube defects combined no significant association was seen (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.88; 1.31), however stratified on sex a higher risk was seen in girls compared to boys. Moreover, when bereavement was due to death of an older child an increased risk...

  3. Use of Gastrostomy Tube to Prevent Maternal PKU Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoerer, Jessica A Scott; Obernolte, Lisa; Van Calcar, Sandra; Heighway, Susan; Bankowski, Heather; Williams, Phillip; Rice, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Maternal Phenylketonuria Syndrome (MPKU) can occur in infants born to mothers with PKU with poor metabolic control during pregnancy. Elevated phenylalanine (phe) acts as a teratogen to the developing fetus with consequences including intellectual disability, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, growth retardation, and congenital heart disease. MPKU can be prevented if metabolic control is achieved by 8-10 weeks gestation. If control is not achieved, there is a significant risk for MPKU. Therefore, in women with poor metabolic control at time of pregnancy, establishing metabolic control quickly is important.Clinically, establishing metabolic control in women with PKU can present challenges. Social issues, psychological issues, and insufficient education about PKU play an important role in a patient's inability to reinstitute this challenging diet. Maintaining phe levels within a range to allow for infant growth, while preventing toxicity, is challenging, particularly for those women who no longer follow the PKU diet. Gastrostomy tube placement is an option to deliver medical formula to women who are unable to restart diet due to severe nausea or palatability issues.Here we discuss two pregnancies in which a gastrostomy tube was placed to achieve metabolic control after other measures failed to reduce phe concentrations into the recommended range. For these two pregnancies, placement of the gastrostomy tube led to improvement in phe levels with normal infant outcomes including normal growth, head circumference, and heart structure.

  4. Nutrition, One-Carbon Metabolism and Neural Tube Defects: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are a group of severe congenital malformations, induced by the combined effects of genes and the environment. The most valuable finding so far has been the protective effect of folic acid supplementation against NTDs. However, many women do not take folic acid supplements until they are pregnant, which is too late to prevent NTDs effectively. Long-term intake of folic acid–fortified food is a good choice to solve this problem, and mandatory folic acid fortification should be further promoted, especially in Europe, Asia and Africa. Vitamin B2, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, choline, betaine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can also reduce the NTD risk by interacting with the one-carbon metabolism pathway. This suggest that multivitamin B combined with choline, betaine and n-3 PUFAs supplementation may have a better protective effect against NTDs than folic acid alone. Genetic polymorphisms involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with NTD risk, and gene screening for women of childbearing age prior to pregnancy may help prevent NTDs induced by the risk allele. In addition, the consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee, and low intakes of fruit and vegetable are also associated with the increased risk of NTDs, and should be avoided by women of childbearing age.

  5. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  6. Evaluation of the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects by fetal ultrasonographic examination in different centres across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyd, PA; Wellesley, DG; De Walle, HEK; Tenconi, R; Garcia-Minaur, S; Zandwijken, GRJ; Stoll, C; Clementi, M

    2000-01-01

    Objective-Evaluation of prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects by ultrasound examination in unselected populations across Europe. Setting-Prenatal ultrasound units in areas that report to contributing congenital malformation registers. Methods-All cases with a suspected or confirmed neural tube

  7. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes : A registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. E. H.; Otten, E.; Verheij, J. B. G. M.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs

  8. Folate and neural tube defects - Recommendations from a Danish working group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Andersson, G.

    1998-01-01

    A working group was established to evaluate the need for an increased folate intake in Danish women to decrease the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTD are birth defects a which include anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. In Denmark the incidence is about 1.4 per 1,000 pregnancies...

  9. Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

  10. Modeling the cooling performance of vortex tube using a genetic algorithm-based artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouraria Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been used to model the effects of four important parameters consist of the ratio of the length to diameter(L/D, the ratio of the cold outlet diameter to the tube diameter(d/D, inlet pressure(P, and cold mass fraction (Y on the cooling performance of counter flow vortex tube. In this approach, experimental data have been used to train and validate the neural network model with MATLAB software. Also, genetic algorithm (GA has been used to find the optimal network architecture. In this model, temperature drop at the cold outlet has been considered as the cooling performance of the vortex tube. Based on experimental data, cooling performance of the vortex tube has been predicted by four inlet parameters (L/D, d/D, P, Y. The results of this study indicate that the genetic algorithm-based artificial neural network model is capable of predicting the cooling performance of vortex tube in a wide operating range and with satisfactory precision.

  11. Severed cuff inflation tubing of endotracheal tube: A novel way to prevent cuff deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrut K; Chaudhuri, Souvik; Joseph, Tim T; Kamble, Deependra; Gotur, Gopal; Venkatesh, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    A well-secured endotracheal tube (ETT) is essential for safe anesthesia. The ETT has to be fixed with the adhesive plasters or with tie along with adhesive plasters appropriately. It is specially required in patients having beard, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients or in oral surgeries. If re-adjustment of the ETT is necessary, we should be cautious while removal of the plasters and tie, as there may be damage to the cuff inflation system. This can be a rare cause of ETT cuff leak, thus making maintenance of adequate ventilation difficult and requiring re-intubation. In a difficult airway scenario, it can be extremely challenging to re-intubate again. We report an incidence where the ETT cuff tubing was severed while attempting to re-adjust and re-fix the ETT and the patient required re-intubation. Retrospectively, we thought of and describe a safe, reliable and novel technique to prevent cuff deflation of the severed inflation tube. The technique can also be used to monitor cuff pressure in such scenarios.

  12. dNTP deficiency induced by HU via inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase affects neural tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Zhen; Wang, Xiuwei; Dong, Yanting; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Murine NTDs were successfully induced by means of hydroxyurea (HU). • The impairment of dNTP was induced via inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase. • dNTP deficiency induced by HU caused defective DNA synthesis and repair. • Abnormal apoptosis and proliferation induced by HU affected neural tube development. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental toxic chemicals in utero during the neural tube development period can cause developmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neural tube development programming, the murine neural tube defects (NTDs) model was induced by interrupting folate metabolism using methotrexate in our previous study. The present study aimed to examine the effects of dNTP deficiency induced by hydroxyurea (HU), a specific ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, during murine neural tube development. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with various doses of HU on gestation day (GD) 7.5, and the embryos were checked on GD 11.5. RNR activity and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels were measured in the optimal dose. Additionally, DNA damage was examined by comet analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular behaviors in NTDs embryos were evaluated with phosphorylation of histone H3 (PH-3) and caspase-3 using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NTDs were observed mostly with HU treatment at an optimal dose of 225 mg/kg b/w. RNR activity was inhibited and dNTP levels were decreased in HU-treated embryos with NTDs. Additionally, increased DNA damage, decreased proliferation, and increased caspase-3 were significant in NTDs embryos compared to the controls. Results indicated that HU induced murine NTDs model by disturbing dNTP metabolism and further led to the abnormal cell balance between proliferation and apoptosis

  13. Lack of association between folate-receptor autoantibodies and neural-tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, Anne M

    2009-07-09

    BACKGROUND: A previous report described the presence of autoantibodies against folate receptors in 75% of serum samples from women with a history of pregnancy complicated by a neural-tube defect, as compared with 10% of controls. We sought to confirm this finding in an Irish population, which traditionally has had a high prevalence of neural-tube defects. METHODS: We performed two studies. Study 1 consisted of analysis of stored frozen blood samples collected from 1993 through 1994 from 103 mothers with a history of pregnancy complicated by a neural-tube defect (case mothers), 103 mothers with a history of pregnancy but no complication by a neural-tube defect (matched with regard to number of pregnancies and sampling dates), 58 women who had never been pregnant, and 36 men. Study 2, conducted to confirm that the storage of samples did not influence the folate-receptor autoantibodies, included fresh samples from 37 case mothers, 22 control mothers, 10 women who had never been pregnant, and 9 men. All samples were assayed for blocking and binding autoantibodies against folate receptors. RESULTS: In Study 1, blocking autoantibodies were found in 17% of case mothers, as compared with 13% of control mothers (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 3.39), and binding autoantibodies in 29%, as compared with 32%, respectively (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.50). Study 2 showed similar results, indicating that sample degradation was unlikely. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and titer of maternal folate-receptor autoantibodies were not significantly associated with a neural-tube defect-affected pregnancy in this Irish population.

  14. Estimates of global and regional prevalence of neural tube defects for 2015: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Kancherla, Vijaya; Moorthie, Sowmiya; Darlison, Matthew W; Modell, Bernadette

    2018-02-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are associated with substantial mortality, morbidity, disability, and psychological and economic costs. Many are preventable with folic acid, and access to appropriate services for those affected can improve survival and quality of life. We used a compartmental model to estimate global and regional birth prevalence of NTDs (live births, stillbirths, and elective terminations of pregnancy) and subsequent under-5 mortality. Data were identified through web-based reviews of birth defect registry databases and systematic literature reviews. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate. For 2015, our model estimated 260,100 (uncertainty interval (UI): 213,800-322,000) NTD-affected birth outcomes worldwide (prevalence 18.6 (15.3-23.0)/10,000 live births). Approximately 50% of cases were elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies (UI: 59,300 (47,900-74,500)) or stillbirths (57,800 (UI: 35,000-88,600)). Of NTD-affected live births, 117,900 (∼75%) (UI: 105,500-186,600) resulted in under-5 deaths. Our systematic review showed a paucity of high-quality data in the regions of the world with the highest burden. Despite knowledge about prevention, NTDs remain highly prevalent worldwide. Lack of surveillance and incomplete ascertainment of affected pregnancies make NTDs invisible to policy makers. Improved surveillance of all adverse outcomes is needed to improve the robustness of total NTD prevalence estimation, evaluate effectiveness of prevention through folic acid fortification, and improve outcomes through care and rehabilitation. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as omphalocele, OEIS (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects complex, pentalogy of Cantrell, amniotic band sequence, limb-body wall complex, Meckel syndrome, Joubert syndrome, skeletal dysplasia, diabetic embryopathy, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of glucose metabolism. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multi facto rial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:131-140

  16. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, including DK phocomelia syndrome (von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome, Siegel-Bartlet syndrome, fetal warfarin syndrome, craniotelencephalic dysplasia, Czeizel-Losonci syndrome, maternal cocaine abuse, Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome, parietal foramina (cranium bifidum, Apert syndrome, craniomicromelic syndrome, XX-agonadism with multiple dysraphic lesions including omphalocele and NTDs, Fryns microphthalmia syndrome, Gershoni-Baruch syndrome, PHAVER syndrome, periconceptional vitamin B6 deficiency, and autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  17. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization (Ds-like human malformations, isolated hemihyper-plasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  18. Slit molecules prevent entrance of trunk neural crest cells in developing gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Nora; Ortega, Blanca; Giovannone, Dion; Ra, Hannah; Reyes, Michelle; Asención, Viviana; McNicoll, Ian; Ma, Le; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2015-04-01

    Neural crest cells emerge from the dorsal neural tube early in development and give rise to sensory and sympathetic ganglia, adrenal cells, teeth, melanocytes and especially enteric nervous system. Several inhibitory molecules have been shown to play important roles in neural crest migration, among them are the chemorepulsive Slit1-3. It was known that Slits chemorepellants are expressed at the entry to the gut, and thus could play a role in the differential ability of vagal but not trunk neural crest cells to invade the gut and form enteric ganglia. Especially since trunk neural crest cells express Robo receptor while vagal do not. Thus, although we know that Robo mediates migration along the dorsal pathway in neural crest cells, we do not know if it is responsible in preventing their entry into the gut. The goal of this study was to further corroborate a role for Slit molecules in keeping trunk neural crest cells away from the gut. We observed that when we silenced Robo receptor in trunk neural crest, the sympathoadrenal (somites 18-24) were capable of invading gut mesenchyme in larger proportion than more rostral counterparts. The more rostral trunk neural crest tended not to migrate beyond the ventral aorta, suggesting that there are other repulsive molecules keeping them away from the gut. Interestingly, we also found that when we silenced Robo in sacral neural crest they did not wait for the arrival of vagal crest but entered the gut and migrated rostrally, suggesting that Slit molecules are the ones responsible for keeping them waiting at the hindgut mesenchyme. These combined results confirm that Slit molecules are responsible for keeping the timeliness of colonization of the gut by neural crest cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... additional physical or psychological conditions, including digestive, vision, sexual, social, and emotional problems; obesity; and depression. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Spina bifida: Health issues & treatments. Retrieved March 20, 2012, from http://www.cdc. ...

  20. The Hectd1 Ubiquitin Ligase is Required for Development of the Head Mesenchyme and Neural Tube Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohn, Irene E.; Anderson, Kathryn V.; Niswander, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Closure of the cranial neural tube depends on normal development of the head mesenchyme. Homozygous-mutant embryos for the ENU-induced open mind (opm) mutation exhibit exencephaly associated with defects in head mesenchyme development and dorsal-lateral hinge point formation. The head mesenchyme in opm mutant embryos is denser than in wildtype embryos and displays an abnormal cellular organization. Since cells that originate from both the cephalic paraxial mesoderm and the neural crest populate the head mesenchyme, we explored the origin of the abnormal head mesenchyme. opm mutant embryos show apparently normal development of neural crest-derived structures. Furthermore, the abnormal head mesenchyme in opm mutant embryos is not derived from the neural crest, but instead expresses molecular markers of cephalic mesoderm. We also report the identification of the opm mutation in the ubiquitously expressed Hectd1 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Two different Hectd1 alleles cause incompletely penetrant neural tube defects in heterozygous animals, indicating that Hectd1 function is required at a critical threshold for neural tube closure. This low penetrance of neural tube defects in embryos heterozygous for Hectd1 mutations suggests that Hectd1 should be considered as candidate susceptibility gene in human neural tube defects. PMID:17442300

  1. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as infertility, periconceptional clomiphene use and assisted reproductive technology, periconceptional folic acid deficiency and effects offolic acid supplementation and fortification on NTD rates, periconceptional vitamin B1 2 deficiency, single nucleotide polymorphisms and polymorphisms in g...

  2. Fgf8-Related Secondary Organizers Exert Different Polarizing Planar Instructions along the Mouse Anterior Neural Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo-Enriquez, Ivan; Partanen, Juha; Martinez, Salvador; Echevarria, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Early brain patterning depends on proper arrangement of positional information. This information is given by gradients of secreted signaling molecules (morphogens) detected by individual cells within the responding tissue, leading to specific fate decisions. Here we report that the morphogen FGF8 exerts initially a differential signal activity along the E9.5 mouse neural tube. We demonstrate that this polarizing activity codes by RAS-regulated ERK1/2 signaling and depends on the topographical...

  3. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Endotracheal Tube Position and X-ray Image Classification: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhani, Paras

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) in differentiating subtle, intermediate, and more obvious image differences in radiography. Three different datasets were created, which included presence/absence of the endotracheal (ET) tube (n?=?300), low/normal position of the ET tube (n?=?300), and chest/abdominal radiographs (n?=?120). The datasets were split into training, validation, and test. Both untrained and pre-trained deep neural net...

  4. Prevenção de defeitos do tubo neural: prevalência do uso da suplementação de ácido fólico e fatores associados em gestantes na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Prevention of neural tube defects: prevalence of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and associated factors in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Leal Sclowitz Mezzomo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência do uso do ácido fólico e fatores associados na gestação e no período periconcepcional, realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional nas cinco maternidades da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu no período de 1º de abril a 15 de agosto de 2006, com 1.450 mulheres. As entrevistas foram realizadas em nível hospitalar por questionário padronizado. A análise estatística se realizou por regressão de Poisson. A prevalência do uso de ácido fólico na gestação foi de 31,8%, e no período periconcepcional, foi de 4,3%. Os fatores associados ao uso de ácido fólico foram: cor branca, escolaridade acima de nove anos, renda acima de 600 Reais, idade acima de trinta anos, gestação planejada, sete ou mais consultas de pré-natal, consultas na rede privada de saúde e conhecimento sobre o ácido fólico. Para diminuir a prevalência de defeitos do tubo neural, é importante promover-se o uso do ácido fólico nas mulheres em idade fértil, nas mulheres sócio-economicamente menos favorecidas e torná-lo disponível na rede pública de saúde.To determine folic acid use and associated factors, a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in all five maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Data were collected from April 1 to August 15, 2006 (n = 1,450 women. A standard questionnaire was applied in the hospitals. Statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence of folic acid consumption during pregnancy was 31.8%, and periconceptional use was 4.3%. The following were associated with folic acid use: white skin color, schooling > 9 years, family income > R$600, age > 30 years, planned pregnancy, > 7 prenatal visits, knowledge on folic acid, and prenatal care in the private health system. In order to prevent neural tube defects, it is important to promote folic acid use among childbearing-age women and to supply folic

  5. Arsenate-induced maternal glucose intolerance and neural tube defects in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Denise S.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have linked environmental arsenic (As) exposure to increased type 2 diabetes risk. Periconceptional hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most common structural birth defect. A suspected teratogen, arsenic (As) induces NTDs in laboratory animals. Objectives: We investigated whether maternal glucose homeostasis disruption was responsible for arsenate-induced NTDs in a well-established dosing regimen used in studies of arsenic's teratogenicity in early neurodevelopment. Methods: We evaluated maternal intraperitoneal (IP) exposure to As 9.6 mg/kg (as sodium arsenate) in LM/Bc/Fnn mice for teratogenicity and disruption of maternal plasma glucose and insulin levels. Selected compounds (insulin pellet, sodium selenate (SS), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), L-methionine (L-Met), N-tert-Butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN)) were investigated for their potential to mitigate arsenate's effects. Results: Arsenate caused significant glucose elevation during an IP glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Insulin levels were not different between arsenate and control dams before (arsenate, 0.55 ng/dl; control, 0.48 ng/dl) or after glucose challenge (arsenate, 1.09 ng/dl; control, 0.81 ng/dl). HOMA-IR index was higher for arsenate (3.9) vs control (2.5) dams (p = 0.0260). Arsenate caused NTDs (100%, p < 0.0001). Insulin pellet and NAC were the most successful rescue agents, reducing NTD rates to 45% and 35%. Conclusions: IPGTT, insulin assay, and HOMA-IR results suggest a modest failure of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance characteristic of glucose intolerance. Insulin's success in preventing arsenate-induced NTDs provides evidence that these arsenate-induced NTDs are secondary to elevated maternal glucose. The NAC rescue, which did not restore maternal glucose or insulin levels, suggests oxidative disruption plays a role.

  6. Folato, vitamina B12 e ferritina sérica e defeitos do tubo neural Folate, vitamin B12, serum ferritin and defects of the neural tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Thame

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar os níveis de folatos, vitamina B12 e ferritina em pacientes cujos fetos apresentaram defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. O folato sangüíneo e a vitamina B12 atuam como cofatores para as enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese do DNA. A interrupção deste processo pode impedir o fechamento do tubo neural. A suplementação vitamínica contendo folato pode reduzir as taxas de ocorrência de defeitos de tubo neural, embora exista a preocupação de que esta prevenção possa mascarar a deficiência de vitamina B12. Métodos: dosagens de vitamina B12 e ferritina pelo método de enzimaimunoensaio com micropartículas e a dosagens de ácido fólico pelo método de captura iônica (IMx ABBOTT. Resultados: a porcentagem de gestantes com deficiência de vitamina B12 (níveis séricos Purpose: to determine folate, vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients whose fetuses presented neural-tube defects (NTD. Blood folate and vitamin B12 act as cofactors of enzymes involved in DNA biosynthesis. Interruption of this process may block neural-tube closing. Vitamin supplementation with folate may reduce occurrence rates and recurrence of NTD, although there is concern about the fact that this prevention may mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: vitamin B12 and ferritin determinations by enzyme immunoassay with microparticles and folic acid determination using the ion capture method (IMx ABBOTT. Results: the percentage of pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficirncy (serum levels < 150 pg/ml was 11.8%. There was no case of folate deficiency (serum levels < 3.0 ng/ml and prevalence of pregnant women with iron store deficiency was 47.1% (serum levels < ng/mg. Conclusions: occording to the results obtained in this study (prevalence of 11.8% of vitamin B12 and 0% of folate deficient pregnant women we suggest that supplementation should be administered after serum vitamin B12 determination.

  7. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. Access to health care for children with neural tube defects: Experiences of mothers in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah M. Simpamba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Zambia, all children born with neural tube defects requiring surgery need to be referred to a tertiary level hospital in Lusaka, the capital city, where the specialists are based. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers accessing health care who had recently given birth to a child with a neural tube defect. Methods and analysis: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 20 mothers at the tertiary level hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was used to identify codes, which were later collapsed into categories and themes. Findings: Five themes emerged: access to health care, access to transport, access to information, concerns about family and support needs. Discussion: Barriers to access to health care included geographical barriers and barriers linked to availability. Geographical barriers were related to distance between home and the health centre, and referral between health facilities. Barriers to availability included the lack of specialist health workers at various levels, and insufficient hospital vehicles to transport mothers and children to the tertiary level hospital. The main barrier to affordability was the cost of transport, which was alleviated by either family or government support. Acceptability of the health services was affected by a lack of information, incorrect advice, the attitude of health workers and the beliefs of the family. Conclusion: Access to health care by mothers of children with neural tube defects in Zambia is affected by geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. The supply-side barriers and demand-side barriers require different interventions to address them. This suggests that health policy is needed which ensures access to surgery and follow-up care.

  9. Access to health care for children with neural tube defects: Experiences of mothers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpamba, Micah M; Struthers, Patricia M; Mweshi, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    In Zambia, all children born with neural tube defects requiring surgery need to be referred to a tertiary level hospital in Lusaka, the capital city, where the specialists are based. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers accessing health care who had recently given birth to a child with a neural tube defect. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 20 mothers at the tertiary level hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was used to identify codes, which were later collapsed into categories and themes. Five themes emerged: access to health care, access to transport, access to information, concerns about family and support needs. Barriers to access to health care included geographical barriers and barriers linked to availability. Geographical barriers were related to distance between home and the health centre, and referral between health facilities. Barriers to availability included the lack of specialist health workers at various levels, and insufficient hospital vehicles to transport mothers and children to the tertiary level hospital. The main barrier to affordability was the cost of transport, which was alleviated by either family or government support. Acceptability of the health services was affected by a lack of information, incorrect advice, the attitude of health workers and the beliefs of the family. Access to health care by mothers of children with neural tube defects in Zambia is affected by geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. The supply-side barriers and demand-side barriers require different interventions to address them. This suggests that health policy is needed which ensures access to surgery and follow-up care.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of mobile phones on the neural tube development of chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umur, Ahmet Sukru; Yaldiz, Can; Bursali, Adem; Umur, Nurcan; Kara, Burcu; Barutcuoglu, Mustafa; Vatansever, Seda; Selcuki, Deniz; Selcuki, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of radiation of mobile phones on developing neural tissue of chick embryos. There were 4 study groups. All Groups were placed in equal distance, from the mobile phones. Serial sections were taken from each Group to study the neural tube segments. The TUNEL results were statistically significant (p negative in the 48 and 72 hours in the Control Group, had moderate activity in the third Group 3, weak activity in the 48 hour, and was negative in the 72 hour in other groups. Caspase-9 immunoreactivity was weak in Group 1, 2 and 3 at 30 hours and was negative in Group 1 and 4 at 48 and 72 hours. Caspase-9 activity in the third Group was weak in all three stages. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones caused developmental delay in chick embryos in early period. This finding suggests that the use of mobile phones by pregnant women may pose risks.

  11. Fgf8-related secondary organizers exert different polarizing planar instructions along the mouse anterior neural tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Crespo-Enriquez

    Full Text Available Early brain patterning depends on proper arrangement of positional information. This information is given by gradients of secreted signaling molecules (morphogens detected by individual cells within the responding tissue, leading to specific fate decisions. Here we report that the morphogen FGF8 exerts initially a differential signal activity along the E9.5 mouse neural tube. We demonstrate that this polarizing activity codes by RAS-regulated ERK1/2 signaling and depends on the topographical location of the secondary organizers: the isthmic organizer (IsO and the anterior neural ridge (anr but not on zona limitans intrathalamica (zli. Our results suggest that Sprouty2, a negative modulator of RAS/ERK pathway, is important for regulating Fgf8 morphogenetic signal activity by controlling Fgf8-induced signaling pathways and positional information during early brain development.

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis, Fetal Surgery, Recurrence Risk and Differential Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening with α-fetoprotein (AFP and ultrasonography have allowed the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs in current obstetric care, and open spina bifida has been considered a potential candidate for in utero treatment in modern pediatric surgery. This article provides an overview of maternal serum AFP screening, amniotic fluid AFP assays, amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase immunoassays and level II ultrasound for NTDs, prenatal repair of fetal myelomeningocele, recurrence risk of NTDs, and differential diagnosis of NTDs on prenatal ultrasound.

  13. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inherited risk Hormone replacement therapy Weight and height Endometriosis The following are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer: Oral contraceptives Tubal ligation Giving birth Salpingectomy ...

  14. High glucose-induced oxidative stress represses sirtuin deacetylase expression and increases histone acetylation leading to neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Yang, Peixin

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modifications are implicated in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). Because cellular stress plays a causal role in diabetic embryopathy, we investigated the possible role of the stress-resistant sirtuin (SIRT) family histone deacetylases. Among the seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), pre-gestational maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro significantly reduced the expression of SIRT 2 and SIRT6 in the embryo or neural stem cells, respectively. The down-regulation of SIRT2 and SIRT6 was reversed by superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) over-expression in the in vivo mouse model of diabetic embryopathy and the SOD mimetic, tempol and cell permeable SOD, PEGSOD in neural stem cell cultures. 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ), a superoxide generating agent, mimicked high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression. The acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 56 (H3K56), H3K14, H3K9, and H3K27, putative substrates of SIRT2 and SIRT6, was increased by maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro, and these increases were blocked by SOD1 over-expression or tempol treatment. SIRT2 or SIRT6 over-expression abrogated high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 or SIRT6 expression, and prevented the increase in acetylation of their histone substrates. The potent sirtuin activator (SRT1720) blocked high glucose-increased histone acetylation and NTD formation, whereas the combination of a pharmacological SIRT2 inhibitor and a pan SIRT inhibitor mimicked the effect of high glucose on increased histone acetylation and NTD induction. Thus, diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro suppresses SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression through oxidative stress, and sirtuin down-regulation-induced histone acetylation may be involved in diabetes-induced NTDs. The mechanism underlying pre-gestational diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs) is still elusive. Our study unravels a new epigenetic mechanism in which maternal diabetes-induced oxidative stress represses

  15. SOX10 structure-function analysis in the chicken neural tube reveals important insights into its role in human neurocristopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossais, François; Wahlbuhl, Mandy; Kriesch, Jana; Wegner, Michael

    2010-06-15

    The HMG-domain containing transcription factor Sox10 is essential for neural crest (NC) development and for oligodendrocyte differentiation. Heterozygous SOX10 mutations in humans lead to corresponding defects in several NC-derived lineages and to leukodystrophies. Disease phenotypes range from Waardenburg syndrome and Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease to Peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, Central dysmyelination, Waardenburg syndrome and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH). The phenotypic variability can partly be explained by the action of modifier genes, but is also influenced by the mutation that leads to haploinsufficiency in some and to mutant SOX10 proteins with altered properties in other cases. Here, we used in ovo electroporation in the developing neural tube of chicken to determine which regions and properties of SOX10 are required for early NC development. We found a strict reliance on the DNA-binding activity and the presence of the C-terminal transactivation domain and a lesser influence of the dimerization function and a conserved domain in the center of the protein. Intriguingly, dominant-negative effects on early NC development were mostly observed for truncated SOX10 proteins whose production in patients is probably prevented by nonsense-mediated decay. In contrast, mutant SOX10 proteins that occur in patients were usually inactive. Any dominant negative activity which some of these mutants undoubtedly possess must, therefore, be restricted to single NC-derived cell lineages or oligodendrocytes at later times. This contributes to the phenotypic variability of human SOX10 mutations.

  16. Endocytic recycling protein EHD1 regulates primary cilia morphogenesis and SHH signaling during neural tube development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Rainey, Mark A; Arya, Priyanka; Dutta, Samikshan; George, Manju; Storck, Matthew D; McComb, Rodney D; Muirhead, David; Todd, Gordon L; Gould, Karen; Datta, Kaustubh; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2016-02-17

    Members of the four-member C-terminal EPS15-Homology Domain-containing (EHD) protein family play crucial roles in endocytic recycling of cell surface receptors from endosomes to the plasma membrane. In this study, we show that Ehd1 gene knockout in mice on a predominantly B6 background is embryonic lethal. Ehd1-null embryos die at mid-gestation with a failure to complete key developmental processes including neural tube closure, axial turning and patterning of the neural tube. We found that Ehd1-null embryos display short and stubby cilia on the developing neuroepithelium at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5). Loss of EHD1 also deregulates the ciliary SHH signaling with Ehd1-null embryos displaying features indicative of increased SHH signaling, including a significant downregulation in the formation of the GLI3 repressor and increase in the ventral neuronal markers specified by SHH. Using Ehd1-null MEFS we found that EHD1 protein co-localizes with the SHH receptor Smoothened in the primary cilia upon ligand stimulation. Under the same conditions, EHD1 was shown to co-traffic with Smoothened into the developing primary cilia and we identify EHD1 as a direct binding partner of Smoothened. Overall, our studies identify the endocytic recycling regulator EHD1 as a novel regulator of the primary cilium-associated trafficking of Smoothened and Hedgehog signaling.

  17. Exome analysis in an Estonian multiplex family with neural tube defects-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Liina; Kals, Mart; Kivistik, Paula Ann; Metspalu, Andres; Paal, Ann; Nikopensius, Tiit

    2017-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of common and severe congenital birth defects that occur during early embryonic development due to incomplete closure of the neural tube. The genetic architecture of human NTDs, including spina bifida and hydrocephalus, is highly heterogeneous, with multiple genes/loci and both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions involved. Hence, the variation in outcomes also most likely relates to a combination of the severity of different variants in multiple genes and genetic modifiers affecting the biochemical traits. Here, we present a multiple-spouse family with one pedigree lineage where three brothers are affected with NTDs-two lumbar spina bifidas without hydrocephalus and one obstructive hydrocephalus. We sequenced the exomes of three NTD patients and their parents. The analysis revealed a heterozygous c.844ins68 variant in CBS, which was carried by all affected individuals and inherited from their mother. All affected individuals had a variable set of additional low frequency deleterious variants in PTK7, PLCD4, IL4I1 or RASSF4 as likely causal loci contributing to the disease development. This report extends the current knowledge of the genetic background of NTDs and proposes that common and low frequency variants in genes involved mostly in one-carbon metabolism or planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways can act in an additive manner to increase the genetic risk of the disease.

  18. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Preet Allagh

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India. Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  19. Birth Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagh, Komal Preet; Shamanna, B. R.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.; Ness, Andy R.; Doyle, Pat; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pant, Hira B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Methods A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement. Results The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn. Conclusion The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India. PMID:25768737

  20. UVC fluencies for preventative treatment of pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated polymer tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Ladefoged, Søren D.; Begovic, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    tubes. Light propagation enhancement in tubes can be obtained if the refractive index of the intra-luminal saline solution is higher than that of the polymer. This condition is achieved by using Teflon tubes with a low refractive index (1.34) instead of the polymers with a high refractive index (1...... is demonstrated to be a preventative disinfection treatment on tubes made of Teflon, which enhances the UVC light propagation, and on tubes made of a softer material, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), which is suitable for catheters but much less suitable for UVC light propagation. Simulating an aseptic breach (∼103...... mJ cm-2 killed the bacteria present in the tubes and kept them disinfected for a period of 3-4 days....

  1. UVC fluencies for preventative treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated polymer tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Ladefoged, Søren D; Begovic, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    tubes. Light propagation enhancement in tubes can be obtained if the refractive index of the intra-luminal saline solution is higher than that of the polymer. This condition is achieved by using Teflon tubes with a low refractive index (1.34) instead of the polymers with a high refractive index (1...... is demonstrated to be a preventative disinfection treatment on tubes made of Teflon, which enhances the UVC light propagation, and on tubes made of a softer material, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), which is suitable for catheters but much less suitable for UVC light propagation. Simulating an aseptic breach (~10......, that a fluence of 21 mJ cm(-2) killed the bacteria present in the tubes and kept them disinfected for a period of 3-4 days....

  2. Integration of signals along orthogonal axes of the vertebrate neural tube controls progenitor competence and increases cell diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Sasai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence-temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal-contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling.

  3. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as infertility, periconceptional clomiphene use and assisted reproductive technology, periconceptional folic acid deficiency and effects offolic acid supplementation and fortification on NTD rates, periconceptional vitamin B1 2 deficiency, single nucleotide polymorphisms and polymorphisms in genes of folate metabolism, and maternal autoantibodies to folate receptors. NTDs associated with maternal and fetal risk factors are an important cause of NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:141-1 50

  4. Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnood, Babak; Loane, Maria; Walle, Hermien de

    2015-01-01

    for mandatory folic acid fortification of food does not exist? METHODS: This was a population based, observational study using data on 11 353 cases of NTD not associated with chromosomal anomalies, including 4162 cases of anencephaly and 5776 cases of spina bifida from 28 EUROCAT (European Surveillance......STUDY QUESTION: What are the long term trends in the total (live births, fetal deaths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly) and live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in Europe, where many countries have issued recommendations for folic acid supplementation but a policy...... of Congenital Anomalies) registries covering approximately 12.5 million births in 19 countries between 1991 and 2011. The main outcome measures were total and live birth prevalence of NTD, as well as anencephaly and spina bifida, with time trends analysed using random effects Poisson regression models...

  5. Maternal occupation and the risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Langlois, Peter H; Mitchell, Laura E; Agopian, A J

    2017-07-19

    We evaluated the association between maternal occupation and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Data for 491 nonsyndromic cases were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for deliveries between 1999 and 2009. We randomly selected 2,291 controls among all live births in Texas during this time. Maternal occupations were classified using automated software and manual assignment. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between maternal occupation and risk for any NTD, adjusting for maternal race/ethnicity, any diabetes, and maternal body mass index. These analyses were repeated for spina bifida specifically. Some maternal occupations, particularly those related to business/finance, health care practice, and cleaning/maintenance, were significantly associated with increased risk of spina bifida and/or any NTD. Further research is needed to identify the specific occupational exposures related to NTD risk.

  6. Oxymetazoline is equivalent to ciprofloxacin in preventing postoperative otorrhea or tympanostomy tube obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Veena V; Gaughan, John; Isaacson, Glenn; Szeremeta, Wasyl

    2005-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin and oxymetazoline solutions instilled after tympanostomy tube placement in the prevention of postoperative otorrhea and tube occlusion. Prospective cross-sectional series. We reviewed all bilateral myringotomy and tube placement operations performed by two full-time attending pediatric otolaryngologists during a 9 month period. Data from 488 patients who underwent surgery for otitis media were collected. Demographic and clinical variables including age, sex, number of tube insertions in the past, previous adenoidectomy, type of effusion present at surgery, and type of drop prescribed postoperatively were recorded. All patients were evaluated in the office 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship of these variables with the occurrence of otorrhea and tube patency. Odds ratios were calculated. No significant differences in postoperative otorrhea or tube patency were found between ciprofloxacin (Ciloxan) and oxymetazoline solutions (Afrin, Visine LR). Oxymetazoline and ciprofloxacin solutions are equivalent in the prevention of postoperative otorrhea and tube occlusion after tympanostomy tube placement. The implications for medication cost and potential adverse reactions are discussed.

  7. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  8. Neural Tube Defects in Costa Rica, 1987–2012: Origins and Development of Birth Defect Surveillance and Folic Acid Fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz Barboza-Argüello, María; Umaña-Solís, Lila M.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L.; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica—through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas—CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987–2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992–1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987–1991; 1996–1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999–2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003–2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1–10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3–5.3) for the post–fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs. PMID:24952876

  9. Using artificial neural networks to model extrusion processes for the manufacturing of polymeric micro-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekras, N; Artemakis, I

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a methodology and an application example are presented aiming to show how Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can be used to model manufacturing processes when mathematical models are missing or are not applicable e.g. due to the micro- and nano-scaling, due to non-conventional processes, etc. Besides the ANNs methodology, the results of a Software System developed will be presented, which was used to create ANNs models for micro and nano manufacturing processes. More specifically results of a specific application example will be presented, concerning the modeling of extrusion processes for polymeric micro-tubes. ANNs models are capable for modeling manufacturing processes as far as adequate experimental and/or historical data of processes' inputs and outputs are available for their training. The POLYTUBES ANNs models have been trained and tested with experimental data records of process' inputs and outputs concerning a micro-extrusion process of polymeric micro-tubes for several materials such as: COC, PC, PET, PETG, PP and PVDF. The main ANN model of the extrusion application example has 3 inputs and 9 outputs. The inputs are: tube's inner and outer diameters, and the material density. The model outputs are 9 process parameters, which correspond to the specific inputs e.g. process temperature, die inner and outer diameters, extrusion pressure, draw speed etc. The training of the ANN model was completed, when the errors for the model's outputs, which expressed the difference between the training target values and the ANNs outputs, were minimized to acceptable levels. After the training, the micro-extrusion ANN is capable to simulate the process and can be used to calculate model's outputs, which are the process parameters for any new set of inputs. By this way a satisfactory functional approximation of the whole process is achieved. This research work has been supported by the EU FP7 NMP project POLYTUBES.

  10. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Glejsted Ingstrup

    Full Text Available Maternal emotional stress during pregnancy has previously been associated with congenital neural malformations, but most studies are based on data collected retrospectively. The objective of our study was to investigate associations between antenatal maternal bereavement due to death of a close relative and neural tube defects (NTDs in the offspring.We performed a register-based cohort study including all live-born children (N = 1,734,190 from 1978-2008. Exposure was bereavement due to loss of a close relative from one year before conception to the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. The outcome was NTDs in the offspring according to the International Classification of Disease. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs.A total of 2% children were born to mothers who lost a close relative prenatally. During 30 years of follow-up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889, anencephaly (n = 85 and encephalocele (n = 164. And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring was seen (OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.33.Overall maternal bereavement in the antenatal period was not related to NTDs in liveborn offspring.

  11. Preventive and corrective actions for tube degradation and new steam generator design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuge, A.; Hirano, H.; Sato, M.; Takamatsu, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the updated comprehensive overview on, (1) Tube degradation experiences through twenty three years operation of PWR Steam Generators in Japan. (2) Corrective and preventive techniques for tube repair operations, non-destructive examinations, and up-graded water chemistry control. (3) Strategy on the option of Steam Generator replacement. (4) Up-graded design features of Mitsubishi Steam Generator based on the long term operating experiences. (author)

  12. Spectrum of prenatally detected central nervous system malformations: Neural tube defects continue to be the leading foetal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddesh, Anjurani; Gupta, Geetika; Sharan, Ram; Agarwal, Meenal; Phadke, Shubha R

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of malformations is an important method of prevention and control of congenital anomalies with poor prognosis. Central nervous system (CNS) malformations amongst these are the most common. The information about the prevalence and spectrum of prenatally detected malformations is crucial for genetic counselling and policymaking for population-based preventive programmes. The objective of this study was to study the spectrum of prenatally detected CNS malformations and their association with chromosomal abnormalities and autopsy findings. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in north India from January 2007 to December 2013. The details of cases with prenatally detected CNS malformations were collected and were related with the foetal chromosomal analysis and autopsy findings. Amongst 6044 prenatal ultrasonographic examinations performed; 768 (12.7%) had structural malformations and 243 (31.6%) had CNS malformations. Neural tube defects (NTDs) accounted for 52.3 per cent of CNS malformations and 16.5 per cent of all malformations. The other major groups of prenatally detected CNS malformations were ventriculomegaly and midline anomalies. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 8.2 per cent of the 73 cases studied. Foetal autopsy findings were available for 48 foetuses. Foetal autopsy identified additional findings in eight foetuses and the aetiological diagnosis changed in two of them (4.2%). Amongst prenatally detected malformations, CNS malformations were common. NTD, which largely is a preventable anomaly, continued to be the most common group. Moreover, 60 per cent of malformations were diagnosed after 20 weeks, posing legal issues. Chromosomal analysis and foetal autopsy are essential for genetic counselling based on aetiological diagnosis.

  13. Prevalence of neural tube defects and folic acid knowledge and consumption--Puerto Rico, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of infant mortality in both the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine and brain; two of the most common NTDs are spina bifida and anencephaly. In the United States, NTD prevalence is higher among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black women. In Puerto Rico, where most residents are Hispanic, the prevalence of NTDs (8.68 per 10,000 live births) is higher than in the mainland United States (5.59). Consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy can prevent NTDs. To assess trends in NTD prevalence and prevalence of knowledge and consumption of folic acid supplements in Puerto Rico, data were analyzed from the Birth Defects Surveillance System (BDSS) for 1996-2005 and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 1997-2006. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that prevalence of folic acid knowledge and consumption among women of childbearing age increased from 1997 to 2003 but decreased from 2003 to 2006. During similar periods, NTD prevalence declined from 1996 to 2003 but did not change significantly from 2003 to 2005. To resume the decline in prevalence of NTDs, additional measures might be needed to increase folic acid supplement use among Puerto Rican women of childbearing age.

  14. Impact of an online educational program on pharmacy students' knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykhovsky, Margarita; Meier, Mary Frances K; Mager, Natalie A DiPietro

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacy students must receive adequate training regarding folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). Pharmacy students' knowledge should be evaluated and effective methods utilized to improve it, if needed. The objective of this study was to assess baseline knowledge among third-year students in a 0-6 Doctor of Pharmacy program and to evaluate the impact of an online educational video. Baseline knowledge was assessed by a pretest adapted with permission from the March of Dimes (MOD). Students watched a 30-minute MOD video and completed a posttest. Nine months later, students completed a longitudinal posttest. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in the percentage of correct responses to each question. A total of 133 (90.5%) students completed the educational program and 105 (78.9%) completed the longitudinal test. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge from baseline were seen for 9 of 10 questions on the posttest and for 6 of 10 questions on the longitudinal test. Online videos are tools to teach pharmacy students key information regarding folic acid and NTD; however, material should be reinforced in experiential education as well. Counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid fulfills an important public health need. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Incidence of neural tube defects in the natural radiation coastal areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district, stands out among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Natural deposit of monazite sand, containing Thorium (8-10%), Uranium (0.3%) and corresponding decay products, is the source of elevated background radiation, ranging from < 1 to 45 mGy/year. Wide variation in dose, due to the patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand, enables in built controls. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation (NLNR) areas. The study carried out since 1995 does not seem to implicate HLNR in the incidence of neural tube defects among newborns

  16. Routine ultrasonography compared with maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein for neural tube defect screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, Carol T; Schoen, Edgar J; Walton, David L; Krieger, Robyn C; O'Keefe, Jennifer; To, Trinh T; Ray, G Thomas

    2005-10-01

    This study was done to estimate the value of prenatal maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening compared with that of routine ultrasonography in the diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs). An integrated database was used retrospectively to identify cases of NTDs among 219,000 consecutive pregnancy outcomes observed during a 7-year period at 40 Kaiser Permanente facilities in Northern California. We specifically examined types of NTD and the tests used to diagnose cases. We identified 189 NTD cases, 102 of which had received MSAFP screening. Results of MSAFP testing were negative in 25 (25%) of these 102 cases. Without other testing, these 25 NTD diagnoses would have been missed. These included 15 (38%) of the 40 spina bifida cases screened, 6 (67%) of the 9 encephalocele cases screened, and 4 (8%) of the 53 anencephaly cases screened. Of the 186 NTD cases diagnosed prenatally, 115 (62%) were initially detected by routine ultrasonography administered during the second trimester without knowledge of MSAFP values; 69 (37%) were diagnosed by targeted ultrasonography after MSAFP screening indicated a higher risk for NTD; and 2 (1%) were diagnosed by pathology examination after miscarriage. Compared with MSAFP performed alone for screening, routine second-trimester ultrasonography was more likely to discover an NTD.

  17. Neural tube defects in the Republic of Ireland in 2009-11.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2014-03-18

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are associated with deficient maternal folic acid peri-conceptionally. In Ireland, there is no mandatory folic acid food fortification, partly due to declining NTD rates in recent years. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incident rate of NTD during the period 2009-11 and describe epidemiologically NTD in Ireland.METHODSCases were ascertained through multiple sources, including three regional congenital anomaly registers, all maternity hospitals nationally and paediatric hospitals providing care for children with spina bifida in the Republic of Ireland during the period 2009-11.RESULTSFrom 225 998 total births, 236 NTDs were identified, giving an incidence of 1.04\\/1 000 births, increasing from 0.92\\/1 000 in 2009 to 1.17\\/1 000 in 2011. Of all cases, 45% (n = 106) had anencephaly, 49% (n = 115) had spina bifida and 6% (n = 15) had an encephalocoele; 78% (n = 184) were liveborn or stillborn and 22% (n = 52) were terminations abroad. Peri-conceptional folic acid supplement intake was 13.7% among the 52.5% (n = 124) of cases whose folic acid supplement intake was known.CONCLUSIONThe incidence of NTDs in the Republic of Ireland appears to be increasing. Renewed public health interventions, including mandatory folic acid food fortification, must be considered to reduce the incidence of NTD.

  18. Periconceptional maternal fever, folic acid intake, and the risk for neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Stephen M; Parker, Samantha E; Mitchell, Allen A; Tinker, Sarah C; Werler, Martha M

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between maternal fever in early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to reduce the risk of these outcomes. Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1998-2015), we examined the impact of folic acid on the relationship between maternal fever in the periconceptional period (28 days before and after the last menstrual period) and NTDs. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mothers of 375 cases and 8247 nonmalformed controls were included. We observed an elevated risk for NTDs for fever in the periconceptional period (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-4.0). This association was weaker for mothers who reported consuming the recommended amount of folic acid (≥400 μg per day; OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-4.0) than mothers with low folic acid intake (fever and an increased risk for NTDs and also provide evidence that this association was attenuated for mothers who reported consuming folic acid at recommended levels in the periconceptional period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. U-tube steam generator empirical model development and validation using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlos, A.G.; Chong, K.T.; Atiya, A.

    1992-01-01

    Empirical modeling techniques that use model structures motivated from neural networks research have proven effective in identifying complex process dynamics. A recurrent multilayer perception (RMLP) network was developed as a nonlinear state-space model structure along with a static learning algorithm for estimating the parameter associated with it. The methods developed were demonstrated by identifying two submodels of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG), each valid around an operating power level. A significant drawback of this approach is the long off-line training times required for the development of even a simplified model of a UTSG. Subsequently, a dynamic gradient descent-based learning algorithm was developed as an accelerated alternative to train an RMLP network for use in empirical modeling of power plants. The two main advantages of this learning algorithm are its ability to consider past error gradient information for future use and the two forward passes associated with its implementation. The enhanced learning capabilities provided by the dynamic gradient descent-based learning algorithm were demonstrated via the case study of a simple steam boiler power plant. In this paper, the dynamic gradient descent-based learning algorithm is used for the development and validation of a complete UTSG empirical model

  20. Mature teratoma in association with neural tube defect (occipital encephalocele): series of four cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nishant; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Meher Chand; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Both occipital encephalocele and teratomas are midline congenital malformations. Encephalocele is a form of neural tube defect in which there is a congenital defect of the cranium through which occurs a protrusion of brain matter or meninges, while teratoma is a tumor derived from all three germ layers. The association between occipital encephalocele and teratoma has not been reported to date. In the present study, the authors present a series of four such cases. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The interaction between Shroom3 and Rho-kinase is required for neural tube morphogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debamitra Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shroom3 is an actin-associated regulator of cell morphology that is required for neural tube closure, formation of the lens placode, and gut morphogenesis in mice and has been linked to chronic kidney disease and directional heart looping in humans. Numerous studies have shown that Shroom3 likely regulates these developmental processes by directly binding to Rho-kinase and facilitating the assembly of apically positioned contractile actomyosin networks. We have characterized the molecular basis for the neural tube defects caused by an ENU-induced mutation that results in an arginine-to-cysteine amino acid substitution at position 1838 of mouse Shroom3. We show that this substitution has no effect on Shroom3 expression or localization but ablates Rock binding and renders Shroom3 non-functional for the ability to regulate cell morphology. Our results indicate that Rock is the major downstream effector of Shroom3 in the process of neural tube morphogenesis. Based on sequence conservation and biochemical analysis, we predict that the Shroom-Rock interaction is highly conserved across animal evolution and represents a signaling module that is utilized in a variety of biological processes.

  2. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Endotracheal Tube Position and X-ray Image Classification: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Paras

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) in differentiating subtle, intermediate, and more obvious image differences in radiography. Three different datasets were created, which included presence/absence of the endotracheal (ET) tube (n = 300), low/normal position of the ET tube (n = 300), and chest/abdominal radiographs (n = 120). The datasets were split into training, validation, and test. Both untrained and pre-trained deep neural networks were employed, including AlexNet and GoogLeNet classifiers, using the Caffe framework. Data augmentation was performed for the presence/absence and low/normal ET tube datasets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC), area under the curves (AUC), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Statistical differences of the AUCs were determined using a non-parametric approach. The pre-trained AlexNet and GoogLeNet classifiers had perfect accuracy (AUC 1.00) in differentiating chest vs. abdominal radiographs, using only 45 training cases. For more difficult datasets, including the presence/absence and low/normal position endotracheal tubes, more training cases, pre-trained networks, and data-augmentation approaches were helpful to increase accuracy. The best-performing network for classifying presence vs. absence of an ET tube was still very accurate with an AUC of 0.99. However, for the most difficult dataset, such as low vs. normal position of the endotracheal tube, DCNNs did not perform as well, but achieved a reasonable AUC of 0.81.

  3. Eddy Current Signature Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects Using A Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Gabe V.

    2005-01-01

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is degradation of their tubes. Although seven primary defect categories exist, one of the principal causes of tube failure is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). This type of defect usually begins on the secondary side surface of the tubes and propagates both inwards and laterally. In many cases this defect is found at or near the tube support plates

  4. Eddy Current Signature Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects Using A Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabe V. Garcia

    2005-01-03

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is degradation of their tubes. Although seven primary defect categories exist, one of the principal causes of tube failure is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). This type of defect usually begins on the secondary side surface of the tubes and propagates both inwards and laterally. In many cases this defect is found at or near the tube support plates.

  5. A study on the possible involvement of the PAX3 gene in human neural tube defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hol, F.A.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Geurds, M.P.A. [University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are congenital malformations of the central nervous system which are generally attributed to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Recently, the molecular defect responsible for the phenotype of the Splotch mouse, a monogenic model system for NTD, was determined. A mutation disrupts the homeodomain of the gene for Pax3. In humans, mutations in the cognate gene for PAX3 can cause Waardenburg syndrome (WS), which is associated with NTD. Based on these findings, PAX3 can be regarded as a candidate gene for human NTD. To test this hypothesis we have screened the DNA of 39 familial and 70 sporadic NTD patients for mutations in the coding exons and flanking intron sequences of the PAX3 gene. SSC analysis revealed abnormal bands in exon 2, exon 5, exon 6 and exon 7 in different patients. A missense mutation was identified in exon 6 downstream from the homeodomain in several patients resulting in an amino acid substitution (Thr315Lys) in the protein. However, the same substitution was detected in unaffected controls suggesting no biological significance. Above shifts most likely represent polymorphisms that are irrelevant for NTD. A conspicuous SSC-band shift was observed in exon 5 of one familial patient with spina bifida. Sequencing revealed that the patient was heterozygous for a 5 bp deletion upstream of the homeodomain. The deletion causes a frameshift, which leads to premature termination of translation. Mild characteristics of WS were detected in several members of the family including the index patient. DNA analysis showed co-segregation of the mutation with these symptoms. Although PAX3 mutations can increase the penetrance of NTD in families with WS, our results show that their presence is not sufficient to cause NTD.

  6. Do neural tube defects lead to structural alterations in the human bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Helena M F; Lobo, Márcio Luiz de P; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Cardoso, Luis Eduardo M; Favorito, Luciano Alves

    2011-05-01

    Anencephaly is the most severe neural tube defect in human fetuses. The objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the bladder in anencephalic human fetuses. We studied 40 bladders of normal human fetuses (20 male and 20 female, aged 14 to 23 WPC) and 12 bladders of anencephalic fetuses (5 male and 7 female, aged 18 to 22 WPC). The bladders were removed and processed by routine histological techniques. Stereological analysis of collagen, elastic system fibers and smooth muscle was performed in sections. Data were expressed as volumetric density (Vv-%). The images were captured with Olympus BX51 microscopy and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done using the software Image Pro and Image J. For biochemical analysis, samples were fixed in acetone, and collagen concentrations were expressed as micrograms of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired t-test (p<0.05). We observed a significant increase (p<0.0001) in the Vv of collagen in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (69.71%) when compared to normal fetuses (52.74%), and a significant decrease (p<0.0001) in the Vv of smooth muscle cells in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (23.96%) when compared to normal fetuses (38.35%). The biochemical analyses showed a higher concentration of total collagen in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (37354 µg/mg) when compared to normal fetuses (48117 µg/mg, p<0.02). The structural alterations of the bladder found in this study may suggest the existence of functional alterations in the bladder of anencephalic human fetuses.

  7. A spatial model to predict the incidence of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lianfa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental exposure may play an important role in the incidences of neural tube defects (NTD of birth defects. Their influence on NTD may likely be non-linear; few studies have considered spatial autocorrelation of residuals in the estimation of NTD risk. We aimed to develop a spatial model based on generalized additive model (GAM plus cokriging to examine and model the expected incidences of NTD and make the inference of the incidence risk. Methods We developed a spatial model to predict the expected incidences of NTD at village level in Heshun County, Shanxi Province, China, a region with high NTD cases. GAM was used to establish linear and non-linear relationships between local covariates and the expected NTD incidences. We examined the following village-level covariates in the model: projected coordinates, soil types, lithodological classes, distance to watershed, rivers, faults and major roads, annual average fertilizer uses, fruit and vegetable production, gross domestic product, and the number of doctors. The residuals from GAM were assumed to be spatially auto-correlative and cokriged with regional residuals to improve the prediction. Our approach was compared with three other models, universal kriging, generalized linear regression and GAM. Cross validation was conducted for validation. Results Our model predicted the expected incidences of NTD well, with a good CV R2 of 0.80. Important predictive factors included the fertilizer uses, locations of the centroid of each village, the shortest distance to rivers and faults and lithological classes with significant spatial autocorrelation of residuals. Our model out-performed the other three methods by 16% or more in term of R2. Conclusions The variance explained by our model was approximately 80%. This modeling approach is useful for NTD epidemiological studies and intervention planning.

  8. Magnitude of Neural Tube Defects and Associated Risk Factors at Three Teaching Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Gedefaw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is scarcity of data on prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs in lower-income countries. Local data are important to understand the real burden of the problem and explore risk factors to design and implement preventive approaches. This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors of NTDs. A hospital-based cross-sectional and unmatched case-control study was conducted at three teaching hospitals of Addis Ababa University. NTDs were defined as cases of anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele based on ICD-10 criteria. The prevalence of NTDs was calculated per 10,000 births for both birth and total prevalence. During seven months, we observed 55 cases of NTDs out of 8677 births after 28 weeks of gestation—birth prevalence of 63.4 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval (CI, 51–77. A total of 115 cases were medically terminated after 12 weeks of gestation. Fifty-six of these terminations (48.7% were due to NTDs. Thus, total prevalence of NTDs after 12 weeks’ gestation is 126 per 10,000 births (95% CI, 100–150. Planned pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24–0.92, male sex (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33–0.94, normal or underweight body mass index (aOR, 0.49; 95%, 0.29–0.95, and taking folic acid or multivitamins during first trimester (aOR, 0.47; 95%, 0.23–0.95 were protective of NTDs. However, annual cash family income less than $1,300 USD (aOR, 2.5; 95%, 1.2–5.5, $1,300–1,800 USD (aOR, 2.8; 95%, 1.3–5.8, and $1,801–2,700 USD (aOR, 2.6; 95%, 1.2–5.8 was found to be risk factors compared to income greater than $2,700 USD. The prevalence of NTDs was found to be high in this setting. Comprehensive preventive strategies focused on identified risk factors should be urgently established. More studies on prevention strategies, including folic acid supplementations, should be conducted in the setting.

  9. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yilan; Zhang, Yan; He, Lei; Wang, Jinfeng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Ningxu; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world's highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China's government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world's average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area. In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley's k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS) software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads. In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05) reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on the incidence of NTDs in our study

  10. Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilan Liao

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world's highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China's government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning, health education, genetic counseling, antenatal ultrasonography and serological screening. However, the rate of NTDs in Shanxi Province is still higher than the world's average morbidity rate after intervention. In addition, Shanxi Province has abundant coal reserves, and is the largest coal production province in China. The objectives of this study are to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the NTD rate in rural areas of Shanxi Province, China, and identify geographical environmental factors that were associated with NTDs in the risk area.In this study, Heshun County and Yuanping County in Shanxi Province, which have high incidence of NTDs, were selected as the study areas. Two paired sample T test was used to analyze the changes in the risk of NTDs from the time dimension. Ripley's k function and spatial filtering were combined with geographic information system (GIS software to study the changes in the risk of NTDs from the spatial dimension. In addition, geographical detectors were used to identify the risk geographical environmental factors of NTDs in the study areas, especially the areas close to the coal sites and main roads.In both Heshun County and Yuanping County, the incidence of NTDs was significantly (P<0.05 reduced after intervention. The results from spatial analysis showed that significant spatial heterogeneity existed in both counties. NTD clusters were still identified in areas close to coal sites and main roads after interventions. This study also revealed that the elevation, fault and soil types always had a larger influence on the incidence of NTDs

  11. Epidémiologie et facteurs de risque des anomalies de fermeture du tube neural: données marocaines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Chahid, Naima; Benmiloud, Loubna; Elammari, Laila; Lahlou, Khalid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les anomalies de fermeture du tube neural sont des défauts congénitaux de la formation du système nerveux central. L'incidence varie entre 3 et 40 cas pour 10000 dans le monde. Il existe des facteurs de risque de survenue de cette affection. La prévention reste un élément important dans la prise en charge. L'objectif de ceete étude est d’étudier les paramètres sociodémographiques, maternels, obstétricaux et néonatals des anomalies de fermeture du tube neural et analyser les facteurs de risque responsables dans notre contexte. Méthodes Etude prospective cas-témoin sur 4 ans. Ont été recrutés tous les cas portant une malformation du tube neural isolée ou associée à d'autres malformations. Les données maternelles, obstétricales et néonatales ont été enregistrées. L'analyse statistique était réalisée par le biais d'un logiciel de statistiques SPSS version 17.0 pour Windows. Résultats Soixante huit cas ont été inclus. Quatre-vingts cinq pour cent des malformations étaient isolées. L'anencéphalie était l'anomalie la plus retrouvée (67%). L’âge maternel moyen était 31,03±7,50 ans. La consanguinité parentale était notée dans 9 cas. Un niveau socio-économique bas et un non suivi des grossesses ont été rapportés dans 29% des cas. L’étude a retrouvé des antécédents de mort-nés et de morts néonatales dans 4% des cas. La consommation de Fenugrec était significativement associée aux malformations du tube neural et a été retrouvée dans 8 cas contre 1 cas dans le groupe sain. La voie haute d'accouchement était utilisée dans 29% des cas. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 35,55±4,16 semaines d'aménorrhée. Il n'y avait pas de prédominance de sexe. On avait noté une relation significative entre les malformations du tube neural et l'avènement d'une asphyxie périnatale, 15 cas présentaient un apgar à 0 à la première minute et 12 cas un apgar inférieur à 7 à la cinquième minute. Conclusion

  12. Detection of copy number variants reveals association of cilia genes with neural tube defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs are one of the most common birth defects caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Currently, little is known about the genetic basis of NTDs although up to 70% of human NTDs were reported to be attributed to genetic factors. Here we performed genome-wide copy number variants (CNVs detection in a cohort of Chinese NTD patients in order to exam the potential role of CNVs in the pathogenesis of NTDs. METHODS: The genomic DNA from eighty-five NTD cases and seventy-five matched normal controls were subjected for whole genome CNVs analysis. Non-DGV (the Database of Genomic Variants CNVs from each group were further analyzed for their associations with NTDs. Gene content in non-DGV CNVs as well as participating pathways were examined. RESULTS: Fifty-five and twenty-six non-DGV CNVs were detected in cases and controls respectively. Among them, forty and nineteen CNVs involve genes (genic CNV. Significantly more non-DGV CNVs and non-DGV genic CNVs were detected in NTD patients than in control (41.2% vs. 25.3%, p<0.05 and 37.6% vs. 20%, p<0.05. Non-DGV genic CNVs are associated with a 2.65-fold increased risk for NTDs (95% CI: 1.24-5.87. Interestingly, there are 41 cilia genes involved in non-DGV CNVs from NTD patients which is significantly enriched in cases compared with that in controls (24.7% vs. 9.3%, p<0.05, corresponding with a 3.19-fold increased risk for NTDs (95% CI: 1.27-8.01. Pathway analyses further suggested that two ciliogenesis pathways, tight junction and protein kinase A signaling, are top canonical pathways implicated in NTD-specific CNVs, and these two novel pathways interact with known NTD pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from the genome-wide CNV study suggests that genic CNVs, particularly ciliogenic CNVs are associated with NTDs and two ciliogenesis pathways, tight junction and protein kinase A signaling, are potential pathways involved in NTD pathogenesis.

  13. Evaluation of common genetic variants in 82 candidate genes as risk factors for neural tube defects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pangilinan, Faith

    2012-08-02

    AbstractBackgroundNeural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects (~1 in 1000 pregnancies in the US and Europe) that have complex origins, including environmental and genetic factors. A low level of maternal folate is one well-established risk factor, with maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation reducing the occurrence of NTD pregnancies by 50-70%. Gene variants in the folate metabolic pathway (e.g., MTHFR rs1801133 (677 C > T) and MTHFD1 rs2236225 (R653Q)) have been found to increase NTD risk. We hypothesized that variants in additional folate\\/B12 pathway genes contribute to NTD risk.MethodsA tagSNP approach was used to screen common variation in 82 candidate genes selected from the folate\\/B12 pathway and NTD mouse models. We initially genotyped polymorphisms in 320 Irish triads (NTD cases and their parents), including 301 cases and 341 Irish controls to perform case–control and family based association tests. Significantly associated polymorphisms were genotyped in a secondary set of 250 families that included 229 cases and 658 controls. The combined results for 1441 SNPs were used in a joint analysis to test for case and maternal effects.ResultsNearly 70 SNPs in 30 genes were found to be associated with NTDs at the p < 0.01 level. The ten strongest association signals (p-value range: 0.0003–0.0023) were found in nine genes (MFTC, CDKN2A, ADA, PEMT, CUBN, GART, DNMT3A, MTHFD1 and T (Brachyury)) and included the known NTD risk factor MTHFD1 R653Q (rs2236225). The single strongest signal was observed in a new candidate, MFTC rs17803441 (OR = 1.61 [1.23-2.08], p = 0.0003 for the minor allele). Though nominally significant, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, with respect to sample size and scope of evaluation of candidate polymorphisms, this is the largest NTD genetic association study reported to date. The scale of the study and the

  14. Evaluation of common genetic variants in 82 candidate genes as risk factors for neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangilinan Faith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural tube defects (NTDs are common birth defects (~1 in 1000 pregnancies in the US and Europe that have complex origins, including environmental and genetic factors. A low level of maternal folate is one well-established risk factor, with maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation reducing the occurrence of NTD pregnancies by 50-70%. Gene variants in the folate metabolic pathway (e.g., MTHFR rs1801133 (677 C > T and MTHFD1 rs2236225 (R653Q have been found to increase NTD risk. We hypothesized that variants in additional folate/B12 pathway genes contribute to NTD risk. Methods A tagSNP approach was used to screen common variation in 82 candidate genes selected from the folate/B12 pathway and NTD mouse models. We initially genotyped polymorphisms in 320 Irish triads (NTD cases and their parents, including 301 cases and 341 Irish controls to perform case–control and family based association tests. Significantly associated polymorphisms were genotyped in a secondary set of 250 families that included 229 cases and 658 controls. The combined results for 1441 SNPs were used in a joint analysis to test for case and maternal effects. Results Nearly 70 SNPs in 30 genes were found to be associated with NTDs at the p MFTC, CDKN2A, ADA, PEMT, CUBN, GART, DNMT3A, MTHFD1 and T (Brachyury and included the known NTD risk factor MTHFD1 R653Q (rs2236225. The single strongest signal was observed in a new candidate, MFTC rs17803441 (OR = 1.61 [1.23-2.08], p = 0.0003 for the minor allele. Though nominally significant, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Conclusions To our knowledge, with respect to sample size and scope of evaluation of candidate polymorphisms, this is the largest NTD genetic association study reported to date. The scale of the study and the stringency of correction are likely to have contributed to real associations failing to survive

  15. Prevention of SCC occurring in an expansion transition region of steam generator tubing by Ni-plating in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Applicability of a nickel-plating technique was investigated for a possible proactive method to prevent stress corrosion cracking in the expansion transition region of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubing around the top of the tubesheet. The surface of steam generator tubes is plated with nickel in the region from the bottom ends of the U-tubes up to above the location where the tube is to be expanded, before the expansion process. The nickel-plated regions of the tubes are then inserted into the holes of the tube sheet and expanded to build up a steam generator. In order to verify the applicability and the effectiveness of the technique, mockup tests were performed for nickel-plated Alloy 600 HTMA tubes with hydraulic expansions. Integrity of the expanded nickel plating layers was examined and susceptibility to SCC was evaluated by using the C-ring and the slow strain rate tests in simulated pressurized water reactor environments. (author)

  16. Novel Mutation of LRP6 Identified in Chinese Han Population Links Canonical WNT Signaling to Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiwen; Yang, Xueyan; Li, Bin-Bin; Chen, Shuxia; Yang, Luming; Cheng, Liangping; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Hongyan; Zheng, Yufang

    2018-01-15

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most frequent cause of human congenital abnormalities, are debilitating birth defects due to failure of neural tube closure. It has been shown that noncanonical WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is required for convergent extension (CE), the initiation step of neural tube closure (NTC). But the effect of canonical WNT//β-catenin signaling during NTC is still elusive. LRP6 (low density lipoprotein receptor related proteins 6) was identified as a co-receptor for WNT/β-catenin signaling, but recent studies showed that it also can mediate WNT/PCP signaling. In this study, we screened mutations in the LRP6 gene in 343 NTDs and 215 ethnically matched normal controls of Chinese Han population. Three rare missense mutations (c.1514A>G, p.Y505C); c.2984A>G, p.D995G; and c.4280C>A, p.P1427Q) of the LRP6 gene were identified in Chinese NTD patients. The Y505C mutation is a loss-of-function mutation on both WNT/β-catenin and PCP signaling. The D995G mutation only partially lost inhibition on PCP signaling without affecting WNT/β-catenin signaling. The P1427Q mutation dramatically increased WNT/β-catenin signaling but only mildly loss of inhibition on PCP signaling. All three mutations failed to rescue CE defects caused by lrp6 morpholino oligos knockdown in zebrafish. Of interest, when overexpressed, D995G did not induce any defects, but Y505C and P1427Q caused more severe CE defects in zebrafish. Our results suggested that over-active canonical WNT signaling induced by gain-of-function mutation in LRP6 could also contribute to human NTDs, and a balanced WNT/β-catenin and PCP signaling is probably required for proper neural tube development. Birth Defects Research 110:63-71, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of alpha-foetoprotein in the eluate of dried blood. A method for antenatal screening of neural tube defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travert, G.; Herlicoviez, M.; Laroche, D.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) in dried blood spots is reported. The main technical characteristics (reproducibility, sensitivity, recovery of exogenous AFP added and AFP stability in dried blood) are evaluated. They indicate that this method is feasible and well adapted to AFP measurement during pregnancy. AFP determination in maternal serum allows early detection of at least 80% of neural tube defects. The use of dried blood spots as samples for AFP assay makes our method a possible mass screening test for these malformations, which occur with an incidence of 12 for 10,000 [fr

  18. Stapling and Section of the Nasogastric Tube during Sleeve Gastrectomy: How to Prevent and Recover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Péquignot

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery has become an integral part of morbid obesity treatment with well-defined indications. Some complications, specific or not, due to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG procedure have recently been described. We report a rare complication unpublished to date: a nasogastric section during great gastric curve stapling. A 44-year-old woman suffered of severe obesity (BMI 36.6 kg/m2 with failure of medical treatments for years. According to already published technique, a LSG was performed. Six hours postoperatively, a nurse removed the nasogastric tube according to the local protocol and the nasogastric tube was abnormally short, with staples at its extremity. Surgery was performed with peroperative endoscopy. In conclusion, this is the first publication of a nasogastric section during LSG. Therefore we report this case and propose a solution to prevent its occurrence. To avoid this kind of accident, we now systematically insert the nasogastric tube by mouth through a Guedel cannula. Then, to insert the calibrating bougie, we entirely withdraw the nasogastric tube.

  19. Stapling and Section of the Nasogastric Tube during Sleeve Gastrectomy: How to Prevent and Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péquignot, A; Dhahria, A; Mensah, E; Verhaeghe, P; Badaoui, R; Sabbagh, C; Regimbeau, J-M

    2011-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has become an integral part of morbid obesity treatment with well-defined indications. Some complications, specific or not, due to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) procedure have recently been described. We report a rare complication unpublished to date: a nasogastric section during great gastric curve stapling. A 44-year-old woman suffered of severe obesity (BMI 36.6 kg/m2) with failure of medical treatments for years. According to already published technique, a LSG was performed. Six hours postoperatively, a nurse removed the nasogastric tube according to the local protocol and the nasogastric tube was abnormally short, with staples at its extremity. Surgery was performed with peroperative endoscopy. In conclusion, this is the first publication of a nasogastric section during LSG. Therefore we report this case and propose a solution to prevent its occurrence. To avoid this kind of accident, we now systematically insert the nasogastric tube by mouth through a Guedel cannula. Then, to insert the calibrating bougie, we entirely withdraw the nasogastric tube.

  20. Interdigitation of the distal anastomosis between tubed fasciocutaneous flap and cervical esophagus for stricture prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Shih, Hsiang-Shun; Chen, Chien-Chang; Tay, Sherilyn Keng Lin; Jeng, Seng-Feng; Kuo, Yur-Ren

    2011-02-01

    Distal end circular stricture is a major complication following circumferential pharyngoesophageal reconstruction with tubed fasciocutaneous free flaps. To reduce the stricture rates, we have incorporated spatulation with interdigitation at the distal anastomosis site. This study investigated whether this procedure could decrease the stricture rate. Retrospective review. There were 51 patients who underwent tubed fasciocutaneous free flap reconstruction following total laryngo-pharyngo-esophagectomy between July 2002 and August 2008. The interdigitation technique was applied in 10 patients; the 41 remaining patients underwent simple circumferential anastomosis. This modification technique consists of incising both distal skin tube and cervical esophagus into three triangular parts, respectively, and interdigitation by interposition of these flaps. Of the 10 patients with this procedure, five patients were reconstructed with an anterolateral thigh flap and five with a radial forearm flap. All 10 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The mean follow-up period was 30.2 months. Of the 41 patients without any modification, 12 patients (29.3%) developed a stricture; however, in our series of 10 patients undergoing this modification, there was no stricture formation except one (10.0%) who had been reconstructed with a radial forearm flap. The nine remaining patients all achieved a modified or unrestricted full oral diet without complications. Esophagography revealed a wide and patent anastomosis without stricture. This interdigitation technique could prevent circular contracture at the neopharyngoesophageal segment in reconstruction with tubed fasciocutaneous free flaps. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Frecuencia de los defectos del tubo neural en Asturias: impacto del diagnóstico prenatal Prevalence of neural tube defects in Asturias (Spain: impact of prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la frecuencia de defectos del tubo neural (DTN -anencefalia, espina bífida y encefalocele-en Asturias, su evolución temporal y el impacto del diagnóstico prenatal. Métodos: Se estudiaron los casos de DTN en nacidos y abortos inducidos durante el período 1990-2004, utilizando la base de datos del Registro de Defectos Congénitos de Asturias, de base poblacional. Se calcularon las tasas de prevalencia total y al nacimiento. Resultados: La prevalencia total de DTN fue de 12,2 casos por 10.000 nacidos (5,9 anencefalias, 5,0 espinas bífidas y 1,3 encefaloceles y mostró una tendencia ligeramente descendente, con un descenso significativo de la espina bífida, mientras que las cifras de anencefalia y encefalocele se mantuvieron estables. Finalizaron en aborto inducido tras el diagnóstico prenatal el 88% de los casos (anencefalia 96,7%; espina bífida 80%; encefalocele 84,6%, lo que determinó una prevalencia al nacimiento muy baja (1,4 DTN por 10.000 nacidos. Conclusiones: En Asturias, en los últimos 15 años se ha producido un descenso selectivo en la prevalencia total de espina bífida de causa no aclarada. La prevención secundaria, mediante los programas de diagnóstico prenatal y la consiguiente interrupción del embarazo, fue el motivo del marcado descenso de la frecuencia en los nacidos; la simple recomendación de suplementación periconcepcional con ácido fólico no parece haber logrado el efecto buscado.Objective: To describe the frequency and prevalence trend for neural tube defects (NTD (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele in Asturias (Spain, as well as the impact of prenatal diagnosis programs. Methods: All cases of NTD in births and induced abortions were studied, using data from the Registry of Congenital Defects of Asturias for 1990-2004. Total and birth prevalence rates were calculated. Results: The prevalence of NTD for 1990-2004 was 12.2 per 10,000 births (5.9 anencephaly, 5.0 spina bifida and 1

  2. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  3. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  4. Prenatal paradox: an integrative review of women's experiences with prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Tamra L

    2017-04-01

    As prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects evolves technologically and becomes increasingly utilized worldwide, an evaluation of the available evidence on women's experiences with prenatal screening is warranted. To conduct an integrative review to enhance understanding of women's experiences with prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects. Systematic literature searches from January 2005 through January 2016, using the CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychInfo electronic databases and ancestry searches of included studies were performed to identify previously published, peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies. The integrative review method as proposed by Whittemore and Knafl was selected. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review. The literature reveals that prenatal screening occurs in a complex social, ethical, and political reality. A theme of paradox emerged indicating the incongruity between reported and perceived risk, the tension between informational utility and moral decisions concerning pregnancy management, and the pervasive influences of authoritative and experiential knowledge. There is a need for future inquiry to critically examine the interrelationships of individual, biomedical, ethical, and sociopolitical factors surrounding prenatal screening.

  5. Syndromes and Disorders Associated with Omphalocele (III: Single Gene Disorders, Neural Tube Defects, Diaphragmatic Defects and Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele can be associated with single gene disorders, neural tube defects, diaphragmatic defects, fetal valproate syndrome, and syndromes of unknown etiology. This article provides a comprehensive review of omphalocele-related disorders: otopalatodigital syndrome type II; Melnick–Needles syndrome; Rieger syndrome; neural tube defects; Meckel syndrome; Shprintzen–Goldberg omphalocele syndrome; lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome; cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome; fetal valproate syndrome; Marshall–Smith syndrome; fibrochondrogenesis; hydrolethalus syndrome; Fryns syndrome; omphalocele, diaphragmatic defects, radial anomalies and various internal malformations; diaphragmatic defects, limb deficiencies and ossification defects of skull; Donnai–Barrow syndrome; CHARGE syndrome; Goltz syndrome; Carpenter syndrome; Toriello–Carey syndrome; familial omphalocele; Cornelia de Lange syndrome; C syndrome; Elejalde syndrome; Malpuech syndrome; cervical ribs, Sprengel anomaly, anal atresia and urethral obstruction; hydrocephalus with associated malformations; Kennerknecht syndrome; lymphedema, atrial septal defect and facial changes; and craniosynostosis- mental retardation syndrome of Lin and Gettig. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert one to the possibility of omphalocele-related disorders and familial inheritance and prompt a thorough genetic counseling for these disorders.

  6. Notomelia and related neural tube defects in a baby born in Niger: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelani, A B; Moumouni, H; Issa, A W; Younsaa, H; Fokou, Hmu; Sani, R; Sanoussi, S; Denholm, L J; Beever, J E; Catala, M

    2017-03-01

    Notomelia associated with neural tube defects are rare diseases. A baby was born in Niger with multiple congenital embryonic malformations on the posterior midline. The most rostral malformation was an accessory limb (polymelia) at the level of the lumbar vertebrae composed of two long bones, a foot and three toes. Accessory male genitalia were present at the base of this malformed accessory limb which had no apparent motor or sensory innervation. The second malformation was a sacral vestigial appendage with an adjacent dermal sinus opening onto the posterior midline and extending internally to the dura through a defect of the vertebral arches. From the published literature and this particular case, we conclude that notomelia is a rare clinical sequela of a neural tube defect (NTD) and is correctly classified as a dysraphic appendage. The recent occurrence of three similar cases in the same ethnic group from Niger, three from consanguineous parents, suggests that genetic factors are likely to contribute significantly to the genesis of this syndrome, consistent with a recent report that mutation of the bovine NHLRC2 gene resulting in a V311A substitution at a highly conserved locus in the NHLRC2 protein is, when homozygous, causally associated with several forms of polymelia including notomelia, with heteropagus conjoined twinning and with other NTD-related embryonic malformations. Detailed genome-wide studies of children with dysraphic appendages are indicated.

  7. Brain tissue aspiration neural tube defect Aspiração de tecido cerebral em casos de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to find out how frequent is brain tissue aspiration and if brain tissue heterotopia could be found in the lung of human neural tube defect cases. Histological sections of each lobe of both lungs of 22 fetuses and newborn with neural tube defect were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. There were 15 (68.2% females and 7 (31.8% males. Age ranged from 18 to 40 weeks of gestation (mean= 31.8. Ten (45.5% were stillborn, the same newborn, and 2 (9.1% were abortuses. Diagnosis were: craniorrhachischisis (9 cases, 40.9%, anencephaly (8 cases, 36,4%, ruptured occipital encephalocele and rachischisis (2 cases, 9.1% each, and early amniotic band disruption sequence (1 case, 4.5%. Only one case (4.5% exhibited GFAP positive cells inside bronchioles and alveoli admixed to epithelial amniotic squames. No heterotopic tissue was observed in the lung interstitium. We concluded that aspiration of brain tissue from the amniotic fluid in neural tube defect cases may happen but it is infrequent and heterotopia was not observed.O objetivo do estudo foi identificar qual a freqüência de aspiração de tecido cerebral e a existência de heterotopia nos pulmões de casos humanos de defeito de fechamento do tubo neural através da reação imuno-histoquímica para proteína fibrilar glial ácida (GFAP em cortes histológicos de todos os lobos de ambos os pulmões de 22 casos de fetos e neonatos com defeito de fechamento do tubo neural. Havia 15 casos femininos (68,2% e 7 masculinos (31,8%, com idade gestacional variando de 18 a 40 semanas (média= 31,8, sendo natimortos e neomortos 10 (45,5% cada e 2 (9,1% abortos. Os diagnósticos foram: Craniorraquisquise (9 casos, 40,9%, anencefalia (8 casos, 36,4%, encefalocele occipital rota e raquisquise (2 casos, 9,1% e 1 (4,5%caso de seqüência de disruptura amniótica precoce. Somente 1 caso (4,5% apresentou células positivas dentro de bronquíolos e alvéolos em meio a células epiteliais

  8. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith S. K. Fong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1, co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse.

  9. 3D Reconstitution of the Patterned Neural Tube from Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meinhardt, Andrea; Eberle, Dominic; Tazaki, Akira; Ranga, Adrian; Niesche, Marco; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Stec, Agnieszka; Schackert, Gabriele; Lutolf, Matthias; Tanaka, Elly M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts c...

  10. Randomized Pilot Trial of Two Modified Endotracheal Tubes To Prevent Ventilator-associated Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Steven; Yanez, David; Sissons-Ross, Laura; Broeckel, Jo Ann Elrod; Daniel, Stephen; Treggiari, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a prevalent and costly nosocomial infection related to instrumentation of the airway with an endotracheal tube (ETT), enabling microaspiration of contaminated secretions. Modification of the ETT design to reduce microaspiration and/or biofilm formation may play an important role in VAP prevention. However, there is insufficient evidence to provide strong recommendations regarding the use of modified ETT and unaddressed safety concerns. We performed a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing two modified ETTs designed specifically to prevent VAP, with the standard ETT, to test the feasibility of and inform planning for a large, pivotal, randomized trial. This study was conducted with institutional review board approval under exception from informed consent. We randomized in a blinded fashion patients undergoing emergency endotracheal intubation both out of and in hospital to receive one of three different ETT types: (1) a polyurethane-cuffed tube (PUC-ETT), (2) a polyurethane-cuffed tube equipped with a port for continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions (PUC-CASS-ETT), or a (3) standard polyvinylchloride-cuffed tube (PVC-ETT). In addition to investigating feasibility and safety, the study coprimary end points were tracheal bacterial colonization reaching a cfu count >10(6) cfu per milliliter and the incidence of invasively diagnosed VAP. A total of 102 subjects were randomized and met the eligibility criteria. Randomization procedures performed well and integrity of blinding at randomization was maintained. The majority of intubations occurred in the hospital setting (n = 77), and the remainder occurred out of hospital (n = 25). Compared with the PVC-ETT, there were no significant differences in tracheal colonization for PUC-ETT (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-3.09) or for PUC-CASS-ETT (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.42-3.76). There were no differences in the risk of invasively diagnosed VAP

  11. MR-based morphometry of the posterior fossa in fetuses with neural tube defects of the spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Woitek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In cases of "spina bifida," a detailed prenatal imaging assessment of the exact morphology of neural tube defects (NTD is often limited. Due to the diverse clinical prognosis and prenatal treatment options, imaging parameters that support the prenatal differentiation between open and closed neural tube defects (ONTDs and CNTDs are required. This fetal MR study aims to evaluate the clivus-supraocciput angle (CSA and the maximum transverse diameter of the posterior fossa (TDPF as morphometric parameters to aid in the reliable diagnosis of either ONTDs or CNTDs. METHODS: The TDPF and the CSA of 238 fetuses (20-37 GW, mean: 28.36 GW with a normal central nervous system, 44 with ONTDS, and 13 with CNTDs (18-37 GW, mean: 24.3 GW were retrospectively measured using T2-weighted 1.5 Tesla MR -sequences. RESULTS: Normal fetuses showed a significant increase in the TDPF (r = .956; p<.001 and CSA (r = .714; p<.001 with gestational age. In ONTDs the CSA was significantly smaller (p<.001 than in normal controls and CNTDs, whereas in CNTDs the CSA was not significantly smaller than in controls (p = .160. In both ONTDs and in CNTDs the TDPF was significantly different from controls (p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: The skull base morphology in fetuses with ONTDs differs significantly from cases with CNTDs and normal controls. This is the first study to show that the CSA changes during gestation and that it is a reliable imaging biomarker to distinguish between ONTDs and CNTDs, independent of the morphology of the spinal defect.

  12. MR-based morphometry of the posterior fossa in fetuses with neural tube defects of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Dvorak, Anton; Weber, Michael; Seidl, Rainer; Bettelheim, Dieter; Schöpf, Veronika; Amann, Gabriele; Brugger, Peter C; Furtner, Julia; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    In cases of "spina bifida," a detailed prenatal imaging assessment of the exact morphology of neural tube defects (NTD) is often limited. Due to the diverse clinical prognosis and prenatal treatment options, imaging parameters that support the prenatal differentiation between open and closed neural tube defects (ONTDs and CNTDs) are required. This fetal MR study aims to evaluate the clivus-supraocciput angle (CSA) and the maximum transverse diameter of the posterior fossa (TDPF) as morphometric parameters to aid in the reliable diagnosis of either ONTDs or CNTDs. The TDPF and the CSA of 238 fetuses (20-37 GW, mean: 28.36 GW) with a normal central nervous system, 44 with ONTDS, and 13 with CNTDs (18-37 GW, mean: 24.3 GW) were retrospectively measured using T2-weighted 1.5 Tesla MR -sequences. Normal fetuses showed a significant increase in the TDPF (r = .956; p<.001) and CSA (r = .714; p<.001) with gestational age. In ONTDs the CSA was significantly smaller (p<.001) than in normal controls and CNTDs, whereas in CNTDs the CSA was not significantly smaller than in controls (p = .160). In both ONTDs and in CNTDs the TDPF was significantly different from controls (p<.001). The skull base morphology in fetuses with ONTDs differs significantly from cases with CNTDs and normal controls. This is the first study to show that the CSA changes during gestation and that it is a reliable imaging biomarker to distinguish between ONTDs and CNTDs, independent of the morphology of the spinal defect.

  13. Expanding the mutational spectrum associated to neural tube defects: literature revision and description of novel VANGL1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merello, E; Mascelli, S; Raso, A; Piatelli, G; Consales, A; Cama, A; Kibar, Z; Capra, V; Marco, Patrizia De

    2015-01-01

    Neural Tube Defects (NTD) are a common class of birth defects that occur in approximately 1 in 1000 live births. Both genetic and nongenetic factors are involved in the etiology of NTD. Planar cell polarity (PCP) genes plays a critical role in neural tube closure in model organisms. Studies in humans have identified nonsynonymous mutations in PCP pathway genes, including the VANGL genes, that may play a role as risk factors for NTD. Here, we present the results of VANGL1 and VANGL2 mutational screening in a series of 53 NTD patients and 27 couples with a previous NTD affected pregnancy. We identified three heterozygous missense variants in VANGL1, p.Ala187Val, p.Asp389His, and p.Arg517His, that are absent in controls and predicted to be detrimental on the protein function and, thus, we expanded the mutational spectrum of VANGL1 in NTD cases. We did not identify any new variants having an evident pathogenic effect on protein function in VANGL2. Moreover, we reviewed all the rare nonsynonymous or synonymous variants of VANGL1 and VANGL2 found in patients and controls so far published and re-evaluated them for their pathogenic role by in silico prediction tools. Association tests were performed to demonstrate the enrichment of deleterious variants in reviewed cases versus controls from Exome Variant Server (EVS). We showed a significant (p = 7.0E-5) association between VANGL1 rare genetic variants, especially missense mutations, and NTDs risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Risk factors, organ weight deviation and associated anomalies in neural tube defects: A prospective fetal and perinatal autopsy series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaranti Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neural tube defects (NTD are a group of serious birth defects occurring due to defective closure of neural tube during embryonic development. It comprises of anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. We conducted this prospective fetal autopsy series to study the rate and distribution of NTD, analyze the reproductive factors and risk factors, note any associated anomalies and evaluate the organ weights and their deviation from normal. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study done over a period of 6 years from August, 2007 to July, 2013. All cases of NTDs delivered as abortion, still born and live born were included. The reproductive and risk factors like age, parity, multiple births, previous miscarriage, obesity, diabetes mellitus, socioeconomic status and use of folic acid during pregnancy were collected.Autopsy was performed according to Virchow′s technique. Detail external and internal examination were carried out to detect any associated anomalies. Gross and microscopic examination of organs were done. Results: Out of 210 cases of fetal and perinatal autopsy done, 72 (34.28% had NTD constituting 49 cases of anencephaly, 16 spina bifida and 7 cases of encephalocele. The mothers in these cases predominantly were within 25-29 years (P = 0.02 and primy (P = 0.01. Female sex was more commonly affected than males (M:F = 25:47, P = 0.0005 There was no history of folate use in majority of cases. Organ weight deviations were >2 standard deviation low in most of the cases. Most common associated anomalies were adrenal hypoplasia and thymic hyperplasia. Conclusion: The authors have made an attempt to study NTD cases in respect to maternal reproductive and risk factors and their association with NTD along with the organ weight deviation and associated anomalies. This so far in our knowledge is an innovative study which was not found in literature even after extensive search.

  15. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms resulting in suboptimal oocyte maturation: a discussion of folate status, neural tube defects, schizophrenia, and vasculopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloet, P.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Heijer, M. den; Roeleveld, N.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Several conditions apparent at birth, e.g., neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiac anomalies, are associated with polymorphisms in folate-related genes, such as the 677C --> T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Similar associations have been established

  16. HETEROGENEITY OF NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS IN EUROPE - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SITE OF DEFECT AND PRESENCE OF OTHER MAJOR ANOMALIES IN RELATION TO GEOGRAPHIC DIFFERENCES IN PREVALENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOLK, H; DEWALS, P; GILLEROT, Y; LECHAT, MF; AYME, S; CORNEL, M; CUSCHIERI, A; GARNE, E; GOUJARD, J; LAURENCE, KM; LILLIS, D; LYS, F; NEVIN, N; OWENS, J; RADIC, A; STOLL, C; STONE, D; TENKATE, L

    1991-01-01

    In the period 1980-1987, neural tube defects were two to three times more prevalent in populations covered by EUROCAT registries in the United Kingdom and Ireland (UKI) than in Continental Europe and Malta (CEM). 1864 NTD cases in a total population of 580,000 births in UKI and 455 cases in a

  17. INCREASED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN IN COMPROMISED PREGNANCIES OTHER THAN FOR NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS OR DOWN-SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLITH, JMM; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    Intrauterine fetal death occurred in four women who were 'screen-positive' in a screening programme for neural tube defects (NTDs) and Down syndrome (DS). These women had very high levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG). Therefore,

  18. 3D Reconstitution of the Patterned Neural Tube from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Andrea; Eberle, Dominic; Tazaki, Akira; Ranga, Adrian; Niesche, Marco; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Stec, Agnieszka; Schackert, Gabriele; Lutolf, Matthias; Tanaka, Elly M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen in 3D. Untreated cysts were uniformly dorsal and could be ventralized to floor plate (FP). Retinoic acid posteriorized cysts to cervical levels and induced localize FP formation yielding full patterning along the dorsal/ventral (DV) axis. Correct spatial organization of motor neurons, interneurons, and dorsal interneurons along the DV axis was observed. This system serves as a valuable tool for studying morphogen action in 3D and as a source of patterned spinal cord tissue. PMID:25454634

  19. 3D Reconstitution of the Patterned Neural Tube from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meinhardt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen in 3D. Untreated cysts were uniformly dorsal and could be ventralized to floor plate (FP. Retinoic acid posteriorized cysts to cervical levels and induced localize FP formation yielding full patterning along the dorsal/ventral (DV axis. Correct spatial organization of motor neurons, interneurons, and dorsal interneurons along the DV axis was observed. This system serves as a valuable tool for studying morphogen action in 3D and as a source of patterned spinal cord tissue.

  20. Efeito da fortificação alimentar com ácido fólico na prevalência de defeitos do tubo neural Efecto de la fortificación alimentaria con ácido fólico en la prevalencia de defectos del tubo neural Effects of folic acid fortification on the prevalence of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmya Silva Pacheco

    2009-08-01

    -month prevalences of neural tube defects were analyzed using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope estimator. RESULTS: Tendency towards reduction in the occurrence of outcome (Mann-Kendall test; p= 0.270; Sen's Slope estimator =-0.008 was not identified in the period studied. The difference between prevalences of neural tube defects in the periods before and after food fortification with folic acid was not statistically significant, according to maternal characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Even though reduction in neural tube defects after the period of mandatory food fortification with folic acid was not observed, results found do not enable its benefit to prevent malformations to be ruled out. Studies assessing longer periods and considering the level of consumption of fortified products by women of fertile age are necessary.

  1. Mortalidad por defectos del tubo neural en México, 1980-1997 Mortality due to neural tube defects in Mexico, 1980-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Ramírez-Espitia

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la mortalidad en México por defectos del tubo neural, durante el periodo 1980-1997. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Las tasas anuales de mortalidad estatales y nacionales, por defectos del tubo neural, se calcularon por 10 000 nacidos vivos. La tendencia temporal fue evaluada por el porcentaje de cambio anual obtenido mediante un modelo de regresión de Poisson. Se calculó la razón de mortalidad, tomando la media nacional como referencia. Las tasas y las razones se representaron gráficamente en mapas. RESULTADOS: Durante el periodo la tasa bruta de mortalidad por defectos del tubo neural fue de 5.8 por 10 000 nacidos vivos. La anencefalia fue el tipo de defecto más frecuente (37.7%, seguida de la espina bífida sin hidrocefalia (31.6%. La tendencia nacional de la mortalidad por defectos del tubo neural fue ascendente entre 1980 y 1990 (porcentaje de cambio anual 7.5 IC 95% 6.5, 8.6 y descendente entre 1990-1997 (porcentaje de cambio anual -2.3 IC 95% -3.6, -0.9. CONCLUSIONES: Las altas tasas de mortalidad por defectos del tubo neural fueron debidas principalmente a la elevada frecuencia de las anencefalias. El incremento observado parece no ser sólo atribuible a cuestiones puramente diagnósticas o de mejora en los registros. La influencia de factores asociados a estos defectos, como determinados polimorfismos genéticos, la deficiencia de ácido fólico, la obesidad materna, la exposición laboral a plaguicidas y la pobreza deberán evaluarse mediante estudios específicos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality due to neural tube defects (NTD in Mexico for the 1980-1997 period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The annual NTD mortality rates per 10000 liveborn infants were calculated by state and for the country. The time trend was evaluated with the annual percent change (APC obtained using a Poisson regression model. The NTD mortality ratio was calculated using the average national rate as reference. NTD mortality rates and ratios were

  2. Disostose espôndilo-costal associada a defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural Spondylocostal dysostosis associated with neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Salientar a relação dos defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural com a disostose espôndilo-costal (DEC por meio da descrição de três pacientes. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: Paciente 1: menina branca, 22 meses, nascida com mielomeningocele lombar. Na avaliação, apresentava hipotonia, baixa estatura, dolicocefalia, fendas palpebrais oblíquas para cima, pregas epicânticas e tronco curto com tórax assimétrico. A avaliação radiográfica revelou hemivértebras múltiplas, vértebras em borboleta e fusão e ausência de algumas costelas. Paciente 2: menina branca, 22 meses, com moderado atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, baixa estatura, olhos profundos, pregas epicânticas, pescoço e tronco curtos com assimetria do tórax, abdome protruso, hemangioma plano na altura da transição lombossacra e fosseta sacral profunda no dorso. A avaliação radiográfica identificou hemivértebras, fusão incompleta de vértebras e vértebras em borboleta, malformações de costelas e espinha bífida oculta em L5/S1. Paciente 3: menina branca, 9 dias de vida, com fendas palpebrais oblíquas para cima, ponte nasal alargada, orelhas baixo implantadas e rotadas posteriormente, tronco curto, tórax assimétrico e meningocele tóraco-lombar. A avaliação radiográfica evidenciou hemivértebras, malformação e ausência de algumas costelas e agenesia diafragmática à esquerda. A tomografia computadorizada de encéfalo mostrou estenose de aqueduto. COMENTÁRIOS: Vários defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural, de espinha bífida oculta a grandes mielomeningoceles, são observados em pacientes com DEC, indicando que tais pacientes devem ser cuidadosamente avaliados quanto à possível presença desses defeitos.OBJECTIVE: To highlight the relationship between neural tube defects and spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD through the description of three patients. CASES DESCRIPTION: Patient 1: white girl, 22 months old, born with a lumbar meningomyelocele. At

  3. Dificultades en los métodos de estudio de exposiciones ambientales y defectos del tubo neural Methodological challenges to assess environmental exposures related to neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Borja-Aburto

    1999-11-01

    susceptibilidad genética.Objective. To discuss the attitudes in the assessment of environmental exposures as risk factors associated with neural tube defects, and to present the main risk factors studied to date. Results. Environmental exposures have been suggested to have a roll in the genesis of birth defects. However, studies conducted in human populations have found difficulties in the design and conduction to show such an association for neural tube defects (anencephaly, espina bifida and encefalocele because of problems raised from: a the frequency measures used to compare time trends and communities, b the classification of heterogeneous malformations, c the inclusion of maternal, paternal and fetal factors as an integrated process and, d the assessment of environmental exposures. Conclusions. Hypothetically both maternal and paternal environmental exposures can produce damage before and after conception by direct action on the embryo and the fetus-placenta complex. Therefore, in the assessment of environmental exposures we need to take into account: a both paternal and maternal exposures; b the critical exposure period, three months before conception for paternal exposures and one month around the conceptional period for maternal exposures; c quantitatively evaluate environmental exposures when possible, avoiding a dichotomous classification; d the use of biological markers of exposure is highly recommended as well as markers of genetic susceptibility.

  4. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ≥4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD.

  5. 3D reconstitution of the patterned neural tube from embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Andrea; Eberle, Dominic; Tazaki, Akira; Ranga, Adrian; Niesche, Marco; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Stec, Agnieszka; Schackert, Gabriele; Lutolf, Matthias; Tanaka, Elly M

    2014-12-09

    Inducing organogenesis in 3D culture is an important aspect of stem cell research. Anterior neural structures have been produced from large embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates, but the steps involved in patterning such complex structures have been ill defined, as embryoid bodies typically contained many cell types. Here we show that single mouse ESCs directly embedded in Matrigel or defined synthetic matrices under neural induction conditions can clonally form neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen in 3D. Untreated cysts were uniformly dorsal and could be ventralized to floor plate (FP). Retinoic acid posteriorized cysts to cervical levels and induced localize FP formation yielding full patterning along the dorsal/ventral (DV) axis. Correct spatial organization of motor neurons, interneurons, and dorsal interneurons along the DV axis was observed. This system serves as a valuable tool for studying morphogen action in 3D and as a source of patterned spinal cord tissue. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A spontaneous and novel Pax3 mutant mouse that models Waardenburg syndrome and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Miura, Ikuo; Ohba, Hisako; Shimamoto, Chie; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2017-04-05

    Genes responsible for reduced pigmentation phenotypes in rodents are associated with human developmental defects, such as Waardenburg syndrome, where patients display congenital deafness along with various abnormalities mostly related to neural crest development deficiency. In this study, we identified a spontaneous mutant mouse line Rwa, which displays variable white spots on mouse bellies and white digits and tail, on a C57BL/6N genetic background. Curly tail and spina bifida were also observed, although at a lower penetrance. These phenotypes were dominantly inherited by offspring. We searched for the genetic mechanism of the observed phenotypes. We harnessed a rapid mouse gene mapping system newly developed in our laboratories to identify a responsible gene. We detected a region within chromosome 1 as a probable locus for the causal mutation. Dense mapping using interval markers narrowed the locus down to a 670-kbp region, containing four genes including Pax3, a gene known to be implicated in the types I and III Waardenburg syndrome. Extensive mutation screening of Pax3 detected an 841-bp deletion, spanning the promoter region and intron 1 of the gene. The defective allele of Pax3, named Pax3 Rwa , lacked the first coding exon and co-segregated perfectly with the phenotypes, confirming its causal nature. The genetic background of Rwa mice is almost identical to that of inbred C57BL/6N. These results highlight Pax3 Rwa mice as a beneficial tool for analyzing biological processes involving Pax3, in particular the development and migration of neural crest cells and melanocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms resulting in suboptimal oocyte maturation: a discussion of folate status, neural tube defects, schizophrenia, and vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloet, Piet Hein; Verbeek, André Lm; den Heijer, Martin; Roeleveld, Nel

    2008-07-10

    Several conditions apparent at birth, e.g., neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiac anomalies, are associated with polymorphisms in folate-related genes, such as the 677C --> T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Similar associations have been established for several constitutional chronic diseases in adulthood, such as schizophrenia, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, and even neoplasias in different organ systems. This spectrum of developmental anomalies and constitutional diseases may be linked to high-risk conceptions related to preovulatory overripeness ovopathy (PrOO). Some developmental anomalies, such as NTDs, are to a large extent prevented by supplementation of folic acid before conception, but supplementation does not seem to prevent cardiovascular disease or cognitive decline. These diverging results can be elucidated by introduction of the PrOO concept, as MTHFR polymorphisms and inherent low folate levels induce both non-optimal maturation of the oocyte and unsuccessful DNA methylation and demethylation, i.e. epigenetic mutations. The PrOO concept is testable and predicts in a random population the following: (1) female carriers of specific genetic MTHFR variants exhibit more ovulatory disturbances and inherent subfecundity traits, (2) descendents from a carrier mother, when compared with those from a wild-type mother, are more frequently conceived in PrOO high-risk conditions and, thus, (3) disadvantaged in life expectancy. If so, some MTHFR polymorphisms represent a novel, genetically determined, PrOO high-risk conception category comparable to those which are environmentally and behaviorly influenced. These high-risk conditions may cause developmental anomalies and defective epigenetic reprogramming in progeny. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors is a plausible mechanism of multifactorial inheritance.

  8. Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethmann, Christin; Scheer, Ianina; Kellenberger, Christian Johannes [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); Meuli, Martin; Mazzone, Luca; Moehrlen, Ueli [University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Level of bony spinal defect was defined with exactness of ± one vertebral body. Of surgically confirmed 18 myelomeningoceles (MMC) and 9 myeloschisis (MS), 3 MMC were misdiagnosed as MS due to non-visualisation of a flat membrane on MRI. Hindbrain herniation was more severe in MS than MMC (p < 0.001). After repair, hindbrain herniation resolved in 25/27 cases at 4 weeks and liquor spaces increased. While posterior fossa remained small (p < 0.001), its configuration normalised. Lateral ventricle diameter indexed to cerebral width decreased in 48% and increased in 12% of cases, implying a low rate of progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. Neonatally evident subependymal heterotopias were detected in 33% at preoperative and 50% at postoperative foetal MRI. MRI demonstrates change of Chiari malformation type II (CM-II) features. (orig.)

  9. Modeling of heating and cooling performance of counter flow type vortex tube by using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocabas, Fikret [Bartin University, Faculty of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Bartin (Turkey); Korkmaz, Murat [Hacettepe University, Vocational High School, Department of Machinery, Polatli, Ankara (Turkey); Sorgucu, Ugur [Bartin University, Faculty of Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Bartin (Turkey); Donmez, Senayi [Karatekin University Technical and Business College, Civil Engineering Department, Cankiri (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, the effect of the nozzle number and the inlet pressures, which vary from 150 to 700 kPa with 50 kPa increments, on the heating and cooling performance of the counter flow type vortex tube has been modeled with an artificial neural network (ANN) and multi-linear regression (MLR) models by using the experimentally obtained data. In the developed system output parameter temperature gradiant between the cold and hot outlets ({delta}T) has been determined using inlet parameters such as the inlet pressure (P{sub inlet}), nozzle number (N), cold mass fraction ({mu}{sub c}) and inlet mass flow rate (m{sub inlet}). The back-propagation learning algorithm with variant which is Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and Sigmoid transfer function have been used in the network. In addition, the statistical validity of the developed model has been determined by using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), the root means square error (RMSE), and the relative absolute errors (RAE). R{sup 2}, RMSE and RAE have been determined for {delta}T as 0.9989, 0.5016, 0.0540 respectively. (author)

  10. PSO/ACO algorithm-based risk assessment of human neural tube defects in Heshun County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi Lan; Wang, Jin Feng; Wu, Ji Lei; Wang, Jiao Jiao; Zheng, Xiao Ying

    2012-10-01

    To develop a new technique for assessing the risk of birth defects, which are a major cause of infant mortality and disability in many parts of the world. The region of interest in this study was Heshun County, the county in China with the highest rate of neural tube defects (NTDs). A hybrid particle swarm optimization/ant colony optimization (PSO/ACO) algorithm was used to quantify the probability of NTDs occurring at villages with no births. The hybrid PSO/ACO algorithm is a form of artificial intelligence adapted for hierarchical classification. It is a powerful technique for modeling complex problems involving impacts of causes. The algorithm was easy to apply, with the accuracy of the results being 69.5%±7.02% at the 95% confidence level. The proposed method is simple to apply, has acceptable fault tolerance, and greatly enhances the accuracy of calculations. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rethmann, Christin; Scheer, Ianina; Kellenberger, Christian Johannes; Meuli, Martin; Mazzone, Luca; Moehrlen, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Level of bony spinal defect was defined with exactness of ± one vertebral body. Of surgically confirmed 18 myelomeningoceles (MMC) and 9 myeloschisis (MS), 3 MMC were misdiagnosed as MS due to non-visualisation of a flat membrane on MRI. Hindbrain herniation was more severe in MS than MMC (p < 0.001). After repair, hindbrain herniation resolved in 25/27 cases at 4 weeks and liquor spaces increased. While posterior fossa remained small (p < 0.001), its configuration normalised. Lateral ventricle diameter indexed to cerebral width decreased in 48% and increased in 12% of cases, implying a low rate of progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. Neonatally evident subependymal heterotopias were detected in 33% at preoperative and 50% at postoperative foetal MRI. MRI demonstrates change of Chiari malformation type II (CM-II) features. (orig.)

  12. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  13. The rationale for preventive treatments for early post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea in persistent otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Roosta, Sareh; Shishegar, Mahmood; Abbasi, Rohollah; Atighechi, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Some studies have shown that post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea (PTTO) is a common complication after tympanostomy tube insertion. There are wide range of controversies about the incidence of PTTO and different methods of preventive treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of early PTTO in persistent otitis media with effusion in our centers. We also investigated the effect of preventive treatments on the incidence of early PTTO in children with persistent otitis media with effusion. This multi-central study comprised 536 ears belonging to children with otitis media and effusion for at least 3 months, referred for complications arising from post-tympanostomy tube insertion. The patients were randomly divided into three treatment and control groups. In the first group of patients, the middle ear cavity was irrigated with isotonic saline after myringotomy. The second group received oral amoxicillin three times a day for 7 days postoperatively. The third group had similar treatment as the second group, in addition to topical ciprofloxacin drop, 4 drops three times a day for 3 days after operation. The control group did not undergo any treatment. Early post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea was detected in 6 ears (1.1 %), including 3 (2.2 %) from the control group and 3 (2.3 %) from the first group. There was no statistically significant difference in early PTTO between integrated treatment groups and control group (P = 0.111). As the total rate of early post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea was very low, there was no significant difference between the 3 treatment groups and control group. Our study did not support the routine use of preventive therapy. A period of at least 3 months watchful waiting before tympanostomy tube insertion may help reduce the incidence of PTTO.

  14. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005–2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Methods Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. Results From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Conclusion Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya. PMID:26113894

  15. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005-2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya.

  16. 5,10 Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphism as a risk factor for neural tube defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, C.Y.; Brown, V.K.; Khoury, M.J. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-28

    Persons with a thermolabile form of the enzyme 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have reduced enzyme activity and increased plasma homocysteine which can be lowered by supplemental folic acid. Thermolability of the enzyme has recently been shown to be caused by a common mutation (677C{sup {r_arrow}}T) in the MTHFR gene. We studied 41 fibroblast cultures from NTD-affected fetuses and compared their genotypes with those of 109 blood specimens from individuals in the general population. 677C{sup {r_arrow}}T homozygosity was associated with a 7.2 fold increased risk for NTDs (95% confidence interval: 1.8-30.3; p value: 0.001). These preliminary data suggest that the 677C{sup {r_arrow}}T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for spina bifida and anencephaly that may provide a partial biologic explanation for why folic acid prevents these types of NTD. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Intracameral air injection during Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in neovascular glaucoma for the prevention of tube obstruction with blood clot: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ha; Yoo, Chungkwon; Kim, Yong Yeon; Lee, Dae Young; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Jong Yeon

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma drainage implant surgery is a treatment option for the management of neovascular glaucoma. However, tube obstruction by blood clot after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation is an unpredictable clinically challenging situation. We report 4 cases using intracameral air injection for the prevention of the tube obstruction of AGV by blood clot. The first case was a 57-year-old female suffering from ocular pain because of a tube obstruction with blood clot after AGV implantation in neovascular glaucoma. Surgical blood clot removal was performed. However, intractable bleeding was noted during the removal of the blood clot, and so intracameral air injection was performed to prevent a recurrent tube obstruction. After the procedure, although blood clots formed around the tube, the tube opening where air could touch remained patent. In 3 cases of neovascular glaucoma with preoperative severe intraocular hemorrhages, intracameral air injection and AGV implantation were performed simultaneously. In all 3 cases, tube openings were patent. It appears that air impeded the blood clots formation in front of the tube opening. Intracameral air injection could be a feasible option to prevent tube obstruction of AGV implant with a blood clot in neovascular glaucoma with high risk of tube obstruction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes regulating glucose metabolism and risk for neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunting; Wang, Lin-lin; Yi, Deqing; Jin, Lei; Liu, Jufen; Zhang, Yali; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-06-01

    Maternal pregestational hyperglycemia, diabetes, and obesity are well-established risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs). As a common underlying mechanism, the imbalance of glucose homeostasis is directly related to the development of NTDs. Polymorphisms in genes regulating glucose metabolism in women may impact their chance of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a two-stage case-control study to investigate the association between maternal genetic variants in genes regulating glucose metabolism and risk for NTDs. The cases were 547 women who gave birth to a child with an NTD (anencephaly, spina bifida, or encephalocele); the controls were 543 women who gave birth to a full-term healthy infant. In the first stage, 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 160 cases and 162 controls. In the second stage, five single nucleotide polymorphisms found in the first stage and potentially associated with NTD risk were genotyped for validation, in an additional 387 cases and 381 controls. Combined analysis of data from the two stages showed an association between maternal AA genotype of GCKR rs780094 and increased risk for total NTDs [odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.59) and spina bifida subtype [odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.88). No association was found between the other four single nucleotide polymorphisms (LEPR rs1137100, HK1 rs748235, HHEX rs5015480, KCNQ1 rs2237892) and NTD risk. The AA genotype in maternal GCKR rs780094 is associated with an increased risk for NTDs and spina bifida in the Chinese population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Maternal Use of Weight Loss Products and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thanh T; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E

    2018-01-15

    Several studies have assessed potential associations between use of weight loss products in the periconceptional period and neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the individual studies are inconclusive and there has not been a systematic review of this literature. We conducted a systematic search, using Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed, to identify studies that evaluated the association between products used for weight loss and the risk of NTDs. Because many studies of birth defects only evaluate a composite birth defect outcome, we evaluated studies that defined the outcome as "any major birth defect" or as NTDs. We abstracted data on study design, exposure definition, outcome definition, covariates and effect size estimates from each article that met our inclusion criteria. For studies that evaluated a composite birth defect outcome, we also abstracted the number of NTD cases included in the composite outcome. We used a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of each article. We screened 865 citations and identified nine articles that met our inclusion criteria. The majority of studies reported positive associations between maternal use of weight loss products and birth defects (overall and NTDs). However, there were few significant associations and there was considerable heterogeneity in the specific exposures assessed across the nine studies. Our systematic review of weight loss products and NTDs indicates that the literature on this topic is sparse. Because several studies reported modest, positive associations between risk and use of weight loss products, additional studies are warranted. Birth Defects Research 110:48-55, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cadmium-induced neural tube defects and fetal growth restriction: Association with disturbance of placental folate transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Hua; Hu, Jun; Guo, Min-Yin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies found that maternal Cd exposure on gestational day (GD)9 caused forelimb ectrodactyly and tail deformity, the characteristic malformations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal Cd exposure on GD8 induces fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl 2 (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) on GD8. Neither forelimb ectrodactyly nor tail deformity was observed in mice injected with CdCl 2 on GD8. Instead, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in the incidence of NTDs. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 resulted in fetal growth restriction. In addition, maternal Cd exposure on GD8 reduced placental weight and diameter. The internal space of maternal and fetal blood vessels in the labyrinth layer was decreased in the placentas of mice treated with CdCl 2 . Additional experiment showed that placental PCFT protein and mRNA, a critical folate transporter, was persistently decreased when dams were injected with CdCl 2 on GD8. Correspondingly, embryonic folate content was markedly decreased in mice injected with CdCl 2 on GD8, whereas Cd had little effect on folate content in maternal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis disturbs transport of folate from maternal circulation to the fetuses through down-regulating placental folate transporters. - Highlights: • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis causes NTDs and FGR. • Maternal Cd exposure during organogenesis impairs placental development. • Cd disturbs transport of folate by down-regulating placental folate transporters.

  1. Association of main folate metabolic pathway gene polymorphisms with neural tube defects in Han population of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulian; Zhang, Ruiping; Zhi, Xiufang; Zhao, Linsheng; Cao, Lirong; Wang, Yizheng; Cai, Chunquan

    2018-04-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most prevalent and the most severe congenital malformations worldwide. Studies have confirmed that folic acid supplementation could effectively reduce NTDs risk, but the genetic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within folate metabolic pathway genes with NTDs in Han population of Northern China. We performed a case-control study to compare genotype and allele distributions of SNPs in 152 patients with NTDs and 169 controls. A total of 16 SNPs within five genes were genotyped by the Sequenom MassARRAY assay. Our results indicated that three SNPs associated significantly with NTDs (P<0.05). For rs2236225 within MTHFD1, children with allele A or genotype AA had a high NTDs risk (OR=1.500, 95%CI=1.061~2.120; OR=2.862, 95%CI=1.022~8.015, respectively). For rs1801133 within MTHFR, NTDs risk markedly increased in patients with allele T or genotype TT (OR=1.552, 95%CI=1.130~2.131; OR=2.344, 95%CI=1.233~4.457, respectively). For rs1801394 within MTRR, children carrying allele G and genotype GG had a higher NTDs risk (OR=1.533, 95%CI=1.102~2.188; OR=2.355, 95%CI=1.044~5.312, respectively). Our results suggest that rs2236225 of MTHFD1 gene, rs1801133 of MTHFR gene and rs1801394 of MTRR gene were associated with NTDs in Han population of Northern China.

  2. [C677T polymorphism of the methylentetrahydrofolate reductase gene in mothers of children affected with neural tube defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de Machín, Alisandra; Méndez, Karile; Solís, Ernesto; Borjas de Borjas, Lisbeth; Bracho, Ana; Hernández, María Luisa; Negrón, Aimara; Delgado, Wilmer; Sánchez, Yanira

    2015-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital anomalies of the central nervous system, with a multifactorial pattern of inheritance, presumably involving the interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene 677C>T polymorphism has been implicated as a risk factor for NTD. The main objective of this research was to investigate the association of the 677C>T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene as a genetic risk factor for NTD. Molecular analysis was performed in DNA samples from 52 mothers with antecedent of NTD offspring and from 119 healthy control mothers. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction, a 198 bases pairs fragment was digested with the restriction enzyme Hinfi. 677T MTHFR allele frequencies for the problem and the control groups were 51.92% and 34.45%, respectively, and 677C MTHFR allele frequencies were 48.08% and 65.55%, respectively. There were significant differences in allele (p: 0.002) and genotype (p: 0.007) frequencies between these two groups. The odds ratio (OR) to the TT genotype vs. the CC genotype was estimated as OR: 4.9 [95% CI: 1,347-6.416] p: 0.002; CT+TT vs. CC: OR: 2.9 [95% CI: 1.347-6.416] p: 0.005; TT vs. CT+CC: OR: 2.675 [95% CI: 1,111-6.441] p: 0.024. The data presented in this study support the relationship between MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and risk in mothers with antecedent of NTD offspring.

  3. [Folate and iron in fertile age women from a Venezuelan community affected by incidence of neural tube defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariela, Montilva; Jham, Papale; Nieves, García-Casal María; Yelitza, Berné; Yudith, Ontiveros; Lourdes, Durán

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this transversal study was to determine folate and iron nutritional status of women in fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, Lara State, Venezuela. The sampling was probabilistic by conglomerates from the urban and rural areas, selecting 15 conglomerates from which women between 12 and 45 years (269), were studied. After signing informed consent, participating were interviewed for personal data, antecedents related to folate and iron, socioeconomic data (Graffar-Mendez Castellano method and unsatisfied basic needs). In blood sample was determined Hemoglobin, and Erythrocytic Folate (FE). Serum was obtained to determine Ferritin and Serum Folate (FS). 53.53% of the sample presented low FS levels, 10.78% were FS deficient. Severe FE deficiency was present in 80.7% of the cases, moderate deficiency affected 5.9%. For both tests, median was higher for women in treatment with Acido Fólico or pregnant (p = 0.000), median for FE was higher for adults (p = 0.001) and in non poor women (p = 0.011). There were no significant differences for coffee, alcohol, anticonceptive consumption, urban or rural resident or socioeconomic strata. The prevalence of anemia was 11.2% being significantly more frequent in adults than in adolescents (p = 0.029) and in urban women (p = 0.042). Low ferritin were found in 37.3% of the sample, the effect of different variables was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of iron and folate deficiencies in women of fertile age from Municipio Jiménez, which could constitute a conditioning factor for the appearance of neural tube defects.

  4. Diagnostic value of CA 19-9 in pregnancies complicated by spinal neural tube defects: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Hakan; Tokmak, Aytekin; Yucel, Aykan; Ali Inal, Hasan; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Sirvan, Levent; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Various physiological and pathological conditions can induce significant variations in plasma concentrations of tumor markers, such as CA 19-9, which is present in the serum and amniotic fluid of pregnant women. Herein, we aimed to determine the clinical importance of maternal serum CA 19-9 levels in the diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs). A total of 100 women were included in this controlled cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients whose pregnancies were complicated by isolated meningocele or meningomyelocele constituted the study group, whereas 33 normal, healthy pregnant women constituted the control group, and 34 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched non-pregnant women were chosen for the validation group. The mean maternal serum CA 19-9 levels were 17.2 ± 17.0 IU/mL, 7.1 ± 5.9 IU/mL, and 4.7 ± 3.6 IU/mL in the study, control, and validation groups, respectively (p < 0.001). ROC analyses showed that elevated CA 19-9 values may predict NTDs (p < 0.001). The cut-off value for CA 19-9 was found to be 9.6 IU/mL at 70% (51%-84%, 95% CI) sensitivity and 84% (74%-92%, 95% CI) specificity. CA 19-9 may be a promising noninvasive marker for NTDs. Further studies are needed to reveal the clinical applicability and diagnostic potential of maternal serum CA 19-9 levels in the identification of NTDs.

  5. Review of current evidence for folate in the prevention of neural tube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the association between folic acid status and NiD, we performed a study in rural and urban communities to determine whether folate or vitamin B12 status and/or abnormal homocyst(e)ine metabolism could explain why the incidence of NTD in rural areas is so high. (Homocyst(e)me (tHcy) refers to the sum of ...

  6. review of current evidence for folate in the prevention of neural tube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abnormal homocyst(e)ine metabolism could explain why the incidence of NTD in rural areas is so high. (Homocyst(e)me. (tHcy) refers to the sum of concentrations of free homocysteine, protein-bound homocysteine, the disulphide homocystine, and the mixed disulphide homocysteine-cysteine.) FOLATE, ABNORMAL ...

  7. Asociación inversa entre asma y defectos del tubo neural: estudio ecológico binacional Inverse association between asthma and neural tube defects: a binational ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario H Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Los donadores de metilo como el ácido fólico previenen defectos del tubo neural (DTN, pero estudios recientes sugieren que también favorecen el desarrollo de asma. En este trabajo exploramos una posible asociación ecológica entre DTN y asma. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se consultaron bases de datos de México y EUA para obtener información sobre distribución geográfica (por estado y tendencia temporal (por año de DTN y asma. RESULTADOS: Los estados con menor frecuencia de DTN tuvieron mayor frecuencia de asma, tanto en México (rS=-0.48, p=0.005 como en EUA (rS=-0.39, p=0.005. Las tendencias temporales también mostraron correlación inversa en México (1997-2007, rS=-0.73, p=0.01 y EUA (1979-1998, rS=-0.91, pOBJECTIVE: Dietary intake of methyl donors such as folic acid prevents neural tube defects (NTD, but recent studies showed that it might also favor the development of asthma. In this work a possible ecological association between NTD and asthma was explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data bases from Mexico and the United States (US were reviewed to obtain information about geographical distribution (by state and temporal trends (by year of NTD and asthma. RESULTS: Those states with the lowest frequency of NTD had the highest frequency of asthma, both in Mexico (rS=-0.48, p=0.005 and US (rS=-0.39, p=0.005. Temporal trends also showed an inverse correlation in Mexico (1997-2007, rS=-0.73, p=0.01 and US (1979-1998, rS=-0.91, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In both countries the frequency of asthma inversely correlated with the frequency of NTD, both in geographical distribution and annual trends, giving support to the possibility that methyl donors intake in diet or supplements is influencing the asthma frequency.

  8. UV-Induced prevention of biofilm formation inside medical tubes and catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Kristian Mølgaard; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation inside medical tubes and catheters may often cause unwanted infections, illness andimpaired wound healing during medical treatment, resulting in extended hospitalization and - in worst case– life threatening conditions of the patients. In fact, it is estimated, that the infectio......-light propagation or by other meansintegrating optical fiber technology into the tube walls, such as to gradually release UV-light into theinterior, efficiently killing off bacteria present inside....

  9. Prevention of Peritendinous Adhesions Using an Electrospun DegraPol Polymer Tube: A Histological, Ultrasonographic, and Biomechanical Study in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Meier Bürgisser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the great challenges in surgical tendon rupture repair is to minimize peritendinous adhesions. In order to reduce adhesion formation, a physical barrier was applied to a sutured rabbit Achilles tendon, with two different immobilization protocols used postoperatively. Methods. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits received a laceration on the Achilles tendon, sutured with a 4-strand Becker suture, and half of the rabbits got a DegraPol tube at the repair site. While fifteen rabbits had their treated hind leg in a 180° stretched position during 6 weeks (adhesion provoking immobilization, the other fifteen rabbits were recasted with a 150° position after 3 weeks (adhesion inhibiting immobilization. Adhesion extent was analysed macroscopically, via ultrasound and histology. Inflammation was determined histologically. Biomechanical properties were analysed. Results. Application of a DegraPol tube reduced adhesion formation by approximately 20%—independently of the immobilization protocol. Biomechanical properties of extracted specimen were not affected by the tube application. There was no serious inflammatory reaction towards the implant material. Conclusions. Implantation of a DegraPol tube tightly set around a sutured tendon acts as a beneficial physical barrier and prevents adhesion formation significantly—without affecting the tendon healing process.

  10. Defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural e fatores associados em recém-nascidos vivos e natimortos Neural tube defects and associated factors among liveborn and stillborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J.B. Aguiar

    2003-04-01

    evaluate the prevalence and factors associated to neural tube defects in liveborn and stillborn infants delivered at the Hospital das Clínicas, UFMG, from January 8, 1999 to July 31, 2000. METHODS: this is a descriptive study, based on a database, according to the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformation (ECLAMC rules. Reports on liveborn and stillborn infants with congenital anomalies were prepared including information about morphological description, necropsy results, complementary exams, family, social and pregnancy histories and other clinical data. Each malformed liveborn infant originated a control of the same sex, without malformations. The liveborn and stillborn infants with neural tube defects delivered during that period were classified according to their defect and the presence or absence of associated defects. The liveborn and stillborn infants with neural tube defects were compared to newborns without neural tube defects according to their weight and sex and their mother's age and parity. Epi-Info 6.0 Program was used for the statistical analysis of the results. RESULTS: the prevalence of neural tube defects was 4.73 to 1,000 deliveries (89:18,807; it was significantly higher among stillborn infants (23.7:1,000 than among liveborn infants (4.16:1,000, p < 0.001. Neural tube defects were more often found among low weight liveborn infants (< 2,500 g, p < 0.001 and less frequently among women who had had more than three gestations, p = 0.007. No association was found regarding newborn's sex or maternal age. There was no association with newborn's sex and weight, maternal parity or age among stillborn infants. The most common neural tube defects were myelomeningocele (47.2%, anencephaly (26.9% and encephalocele (16.9%. The defects were found as isolated anomalies in 71.1% of the liveborn and 38.5% of the stillborn infants; they were part of a syndrome in 9.2% (liveborn and 7.7% (stillborn. CONCLUSIONS: the neural tube defect prevalence found

  11. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than boys to have anencephaly. What is an encephalocele? Encephalocele is a rare NTD that affects the brain ... the upper part of the skull Babies with encephalocele generally need surgery to place parts of the ...

  12. Chemical preventive remedies for steam generators fouling and tube support plate blockages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves Vieira, M.; Mayos, M.; Coquio, N.; Fourcroy, H.; Battesti, P.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, EDF identified on several PWR units broached hole blockage on the upper Steam Generator (SG) Tube Support Plates (TSP). TSP blockage often occurs in association with secondary fouling. The units with copper alloys materials are more affected due the applied low pH 25 o C (9.20) all volatile treatment (AVT). Carbon steels materials are less protected against flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) and therefore more corrosion products enter the SGs through the final feed water (FFW). In parallel of chemical cleanings to remove oxides deposits in SGs, EDF has defined a strategy to improve operating conditions. It mainly relies on the removal of copper alloys materials to implement a high pH AVT (9.60) as a preventive remedy. However for some plants, copper alloys removal is not straightforward due to environmental constraints. EDF must indeed manage the implementation of a biocide treatment needed in closed loop cooling systems (as copper has a bacteriostatic effect on micro-organisms) and more generally must comply with discharge authorisations for chemical conditioning reagents or biocide reagent. An alternative conditioning was tested on the Dampierre 4 unit in 2007/2008 during 6 months to assess if operating at 9.40 was acceptable regarding the impacts on copper alloys materials. The perspective would be to implement it in the units where no biocide treatment can be applied on a short term. In parallel, other chemical conditionings or additives will be implemented or tested. First of all, EDF will carry out a trial test with APA in order to assess its efficiency on the removal of oxides deposits through SG blowdown. On the other hand, AVT with high pH ethanolamine (ETA) will be implemented as an alternative of ammonia and morpholine conditioning on some chosen plants. Ethanolamine is selected as a way to mitigate FAC kinetics in two-phase flow areas (reheaters or moisture heater separator) or to limit liquid releases. This paper provides the lessons of the

  13. Maternal Consumption of Non-Staple Food in the First Trimester and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs in offspring. Data collected from a hospital-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Shandong/Shanxi provinces including 459 mothers with NTDs-affected births and 459 mothers without NTDs-affected births. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of NTDs in offspring. The effects were evaluated by odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs with SAS9.1.3.software. Maternal consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester were protective factors for total NTDs. Compared with consumption frequency of ˂1 meal/week, the ORs for milk consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.28–0.88, 0.56 (0.32–0.99, and 0.59 (0.38–0.90, respectively; the ORs for fresh fruits consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12–0.72, 0.22 (0.09–0.53, and 0.32 (0.14–0.71, respectively; the ORs for nuts consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38–0.94, 0.49 (0.31–0.79, and 0.63 (0.36–1.08, respectively. Different effects of above factors on NTDs were found for subtypes of anencephaly and spina bifida. Maternal non-staple food consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester was associated with reducing NTDs risk in offspring.

  14. Depicting mass flow rate of R134a /LPG refrigerant through straight and helical coiled adiabatic capillary tubes of vapor compression refrigeration system using artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2018-02-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation is carried out with R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture for depicting mass flow rate through straight and helical coil adiabatic capillary tubes in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Various experiments were conducted under steady-state conditions, by changing capillary tube length, inner diameter, coil diameter and degree of subcooling. The results showed that mass flow rate through helical coil capillary tube was found lower than straight capillary tube by about 5-16%. Dimensionless correlation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed to predict mass flow rate. It was found that dimensionless correlation and ANN model predictions agreed well with experimental results and brought out an absolute fraction of variance of 0.961 and 0.988, root mean square error of 0.489 and 0.275 and mean absolute percentage error of 4.75% and 2.31% respectively. The results suggested that ANN model shows better statistical prediction than dimensionless correlation model.

  15. Genome-wide association mapping in dogs enables identification of the homeobox gene, NKX2-8, as a genetic component of neural tube defects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Safra

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs is a general term for central nervous system malformations secondary to a failure of closure or development of the neural tube. The resulting pathologies may involve the brain, spinal cord and/or vertebral column, in addition to associated structures such as soft tissue or skin. The condition is reported among the more common birth defects in humans, leading to significant infant morbidity and mortality. The etiology remains poorly understood but genetic, nutritional, environmental factors, or a combination of these, are known to play a role in the development of NTDs. The variable conditions associated with NTDs occur naturally in dogs, and have been previously reported in the Weimaraner breed. Taking advantage of the strong linkage-disequilibrium within dog breeds we performed genome-wide association analysis and mapped a genomic region for spinal dysraphism, a presumed NTD, using 4 affected and 96 unaffected Weimaraners. The associated region on canine chromosome 8 (pgenome  =3.0 × 10(-5, after 100,000 permutations, encodes 18 genes, including NKX2-8, a homeobox gene which is expressed in the developing neural tube. Sequencing NKX2-8 in affected Weimaraners revealed a G to AA frameshift mutation within exon 2 of the gene, resulting in a premature stop codon that is predicted to produce a truncated protein. The exons of NKX2-8 were sequenced in human patients with spina bifida and rare variants (rs61755040 and rs10135525 were found to be significantly over-represented (p=0.036. This is the first documentation of a potential role for NKX2-8 in the etiology of NTDs, made possible by investigating the molecular basis of naturally occurring mutations in dogs.

  16. Hypergravity prevents seed production in Arabidopsis by disrupting pollen tube growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musgrave, M.E.; Kuang, A.X.; Allen, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    How tightly land plants are adapted to the gravitational force (g) prevailing on Earth has been of interest because unlike many other environmental factors, g presents as a constant force. Ontogeny of mature angiosperms begins with an embryo that is formed after tip growth by a pollen tube delivers

  17. Silver-coated endotracheal tubes for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokmaji, George; Vermeulen, Hester; Müller, Marcella C. A.; Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common nosocomial infections in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) appear to be an independent risk factor for VAP. Silver-coated ETTs slowly release silver cations. It is these silver ions that appear to

  18. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  19. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural network (PNN/GRNN) for early detection and prevention of oral malignancy. The model is built using the oral cancer database which has 35 attributes and 1025 records. All the attributes pertaining to clinical symptoms and history are considered to classify malignant and non-malignant cases. Subsequently, the model attempts to predict particular type of cancer, its stage and extent with the help of attributes pertaining to symptoms, gross examination and investigations. Also, the model envisages anticipating the survivability of a patient on the basis of treatment and follow-up details. Finally, the performance of the PNN/GRNN model is compared with that of other classification models. The classification accuracy of PNN/GRNN model is 80% and hence is better for early detection and prevention of the oral cancer.

  20. YouTube as a source of health information: Analysis of sun protection and skin cancer prevention related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Linda; Køster, Brian; Siegert, Anna Maria; Cop, Christian; Boyers, Lindsay; Karimkhani, Chante; Winston, Helena; Mounessa, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P; Reinau, Daphne; Diepgen, Thomas; Surber, Christian

    2017-01-15

    Although social media ubiquitously supplementstraditional information sources such as newspapers,magazines, radio, and television, investigation of onlinehealth information related to sun protection and skincancer prevention has been scarce and largely limitedto English language sources. Using the search terms"sun protection," "sunscreen," "skin cancer prevention,"tanning bed" and "vitamin D," we investigated 281YouTube videos presented in 6 languages: English,German, French, Spanish, Swedish, and Danish. Foreach video, we used a four-sectioned checklist toassess general information, popularity, expert drivenmeasures, and heuristic driven measures. Differencesbetween languages were detected: English languagevideos were most frequently viewed (median numberof views: 5488 compared to 248 -1591 in otherlanguages). Approximately 60% of videos revealednegative effects of solar ultraviolet (UV)-exposure.The majority of videos (75%) targeted adults. Videoson tanning beds and sunscreen contained false ormisleading information 40% and 20% of the time,respectively. We confirm observations made withrespect to other medical disciplines that the generalquality of YouTube contributions is often inferiorand does not deliver sustainable information. Othersources of information should be included whensearching for health information online.

  1. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  2. Prevalência de defeitos de fechamento de tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo Prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba paulista e identificar possíveis fatores maternos e neonatais associados a tais defeitos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com dados secundários obtidos na Secretaria Estadual da Saúde referentes aos nascimentos ocorridos em 2004 no Vale do Paraíba paulista, que compreende 35 municípios e conta com população de 2 milhões de habitantes. Anencefalia, encefalocele e espina bífida (mielocele e mielomeningocele foram considerados defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural. As variáveis maternas foram: idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, número de consultas no pré-natal, número de filhos vivos e relato de óbito fetal prévio. As variáveis relativas ao recém-nascido foram: peso, idade gestacional e escore de Apgar. Realizou-se comparação das médias por meio do teste t de Student e obtiveram-se os valores das razões de chance com intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 33.653 nascidos vivos. Trinta e oito recém-nascidos com o defeito foram encontrados (1,13/1.000 nascidos vivos, sendo 23 casos de espina bífida. Houve associação com baixo peso ao nascimento, prematuridade e menores escores de Apgar de cinco minutos. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência desta anomalia foi inferior à de outros estudos nacionais e sua presença esteve associada ao baixo peso, à prematuridade e à baixa vitalidade ao nascer.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify possible maternal and neonatal variables associated with these defects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary records of the Health Department of São Paulo State related live births during 2004 in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. This region has 35 cities and 2 million inhabitants. Anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida (myelocele and myelomeningocele were considered as neural tube

  3. The Role of Physical Activities with Rub ber Tubes in Preventing Football Players’ Muscle Injuries

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    E.N. Bezugolov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the results of 120 male football players, aged 16-17 (average age is 16,0±0,4 monitoring. Average sporting experience is 9,4±1,2. Depending on trauma preventive measures 2 groups were singled out. The I group was comprised of 60 football players for 2009–2010 seasons, using standard trauma preventive measures. The II group was comprised of 60 football players for 2010–2011 seasons, using the new trauma preventive program. The offered trauma preventive program proved to be the most efficient in hamstring traumas prevention, which often arise as a result of sprints and jumps, typical for football matches.

  4. Ovarian cancer: the Fallopian tube as the site of origin and opportunities for prevention

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    Sophia HL George, PhD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available High-grade serous carcinoma is the most common and aggressive histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer, and it is the predominant histotype associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for most of the known causes of HBOC, while mutations in mismatch repair genes and several genes of moderate penetrance are responsible for the remaining known hereditary risk. Women with a history of familial ovarian cancer or with known germline mutations in highly penetrant genes are offered the option risk-reducing surgery, which involves the removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy. Growing evidence now supports the fallopian tube epithelia as an etiological site for the development of HGSC and consequently, salpingectomy alone is emerging as a prophylactic option. This review discusses the site of origin of epithelial ovarian cancer, the rationale for risk-reducing salpingectomy in the high-risk population and opportunities for salpingectomy in the low-risk population.

  5. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  6. Epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects in the United States: changing concepts and their importance for screening and prenatal diagnostic programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.; Strassburg, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report considers several major epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects (NTDs). After examining briefly the approaches and goals of epidemiology the traditional epidemiologic concepts of NTDs are reviewed and new interpretations of the epidemiology of these defects is suggested. Three major topics are addressed: (1) that much of our knowledge of the epidemiology of the NTDs comes from areas or periods of high rates of occurrence and that generalizations based on these data may not be applicable to low incidence situations; (2) that the etiology of these defects is multifactorial, involving interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors which may differ in their relative importance between populations; and (3) that anencephalus and spina bifida may be more epidemiologically and etiologically distinct than is usually appreciated. A final consideration deals with some recent contributions of epidemiology to screening and prenatal diagnosis programs.

  7. Preventive Healthcare: A Neural Network Analysis of Behavioral Habits and Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, Viju; Raghupathi, Wullianallur

    2017-02-06

    The research aims to explore the association between behavioral habits and chronic diseases, and to identify a portfolio of risk factors for preventive healthcare. The data is taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for the year 2012. Using SPSS Modeler, we deploy neural networks to identify strong positive and negative associations between certain chronic diseases and behavioral habits. The data for 475,687 records from BRFS database included behavioral habit variables of consumption of soda and fruits/vegetables, alcohol, smoking, weekly working hours, and exercise; chronic disease variables of heart attack, stroke, asthma, and diabetes; and demographic variables of marital status, income, and age. Our findings indicate that with chronic conditions, behavioral habits of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption are negatively associated; soda, alcohol, and smoking are positively associated; and income and age are positively associated. We contribute to individual and national preventive healthcare by offering a portfolio of significant behavioral risk factors that enable individuals to make lifestyle changes and governments to frame campaigns and policies countering chronic conditions and promoting public health.

  8. Preventive Healthcare: A Neural Network Analysis of Behavioral Habits and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viju Raghupathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to explore the association between behavioral habits and chronic diseases, and to identify a portfolio of risk factors for preventive healthcare. The data is taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS database of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for the year 2012. Using SPSS Modeler, we deploy neural networks to identify strong positive and negative associations between certain chronic diseases and behavioral habits. The data for 475,687 records from BRFS database included behavioral habit variables of consumption of soda and fruits/vegetables, alcohol, smoking, weekly working hours, and exercise; chronic disease variables of heart attack, stroke, asthma, and diabetes; and demographic variables of marital status, income, and age. Our findings indicate that with chronic conditions, behavioral habits of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption are negatively associated; soda, alcohol, and smoking are positively associated; and income and age are positively associated. We contribute to individual and national preventive healthcare by offering a portfolio of significant behavioral risk factors that enable individuals to make lifestyle changes and governments to frame campaigns and policies countering chronic conditions and promoting public health.

  9. Strategies to prevent ventilation-associated pneumonia: the effect of cuff pressure monitoring techniques and tracheal tube type on aspiration of subglottic secretions: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eleanor L; Duguid, Alasdair; Ercole, Ari; Matta, Basil; Burnstein, Rowan M; Veenith, Tonny

    2014-03-01

    Ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the commonest nosocomial infection in intensive care. Implementation of a VAP prevention care bundle is a proven method to reduce its incidence. The UK care bundle recommends maintenance of the tracheal tube cuff pressure at 20 to 30  cmH₂O with 4-hourly pressure checks and use of tracheal tubes with subglottic aspiration ports in patients admitted for more than 72  h. To evaluate the effects of tracheal tube type and cuff pressure monitoring technique on leakage of subglottic secretions past the tracheal tube cuff. Bench-top study. Laboratory. A model adult trachea with simulated subglottic secretions was intubated with a tracheal tube with the cuff inflated to 25  cmH₂O. Experiments were conducted using a Portex Profile Soft Seal tracheal tube with three cuff pressure monitoring strategies and using a Portex SACETT tracheal tube with intermittent cuff pressure checks. Rate of simulated secretion leakage past the tracheal tube cuff. Mean ± SD leakage of fluid past the Profile Soft Seal tracheal tube cuff was 2.25 ± 1.49  ml  min⁻¹ with no monitoring of cuff pressure, 2.98 ± 1.63  ml  min⁻¹ with intermittent cuff pressure monitoring and 3.83 ± 2.17  ml  min⁻¹ with continuous cuff pressure monitoring (P aspiration port and aspirating the simulated secretions prior to intermittent cuff pressure checks reduced the leakage rate to 0.50 ± 0.48  ml  min⁻¹ (P aspiration port. Further evaluation of medical device performance is needed in order to design more effective VAP prevention strategies.

  10. Lamin b1 polymorphism influences morphology of the nuclear envelope, cell cycle progression, and risk of neural tube defects in mice.

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    Sandra C P De Castro

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, including spina bifida and anencephaly, are common birth defects whose complex multigenic causation has hampered efforts to delineate their molecular basis. The effect of putative modifier genes in determining NTD susceptibility may be investigated in mouse models, particularly those that display partial penetrance such as curly tail, a strain in which NTDs result from a hypomorphic allele of the grainyhead-like-3 gene. Through proteomic analysis, we found that the curly tail genetic background harbours a polymorphic variant of lamin B1, lacking one of a series of nine glutamic acid residues. Lamins are intermediate filament proteins of the nuclear lamina with multiple functions that influence nuclear structure, cell cycle properties, and transcriptional regulation. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching showed that the variant lamin B1 exhibited reduced stability in the nuclear lamina. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the variant also affects neural tube closure: the frequency of spina bifida and anencephaly was reduced three-fold when wild-type lamin B1 was bred into the curly tail strain background. Cultured fibroblasts expressing variant lamin B1 show significantly increased nuclear dysmorphology and diminished proliferative capacity, as well as premature senescence, associated with reduced expression of cyclins and Smc2, and increased expression of p16. The cellular basis of spinal NTDs in curly tail embryos involves a proliferation defect localised to the hindgut epithelium, and S-phase progression was diminished in the hindgut of embryos expressing variant lamin B1. These observations indicate a mechanistic link between altered lamin B1 function, exacerbation of the Grhl3-mediated cell proliferation defect, and enhanced susceptibility to NTDs. We conclude that lamin B1 is a modifier gene of major effect for NTDs resulting from loss of Grhl3 function, a role that is likely mediated via the key function of lamin B1

  11. ''Risk safety of high frequency fatigue rupture for the vapor generators tubes''; ''Prevention du risque de rupture par fatigue vibratoire des tubes de generateurs de vapeur''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solgadi, E.; Le Duff, J.A. [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defense (France); Bussy, B. [Electricite de France, 75 - Paris (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires

    2001-07-01

    Among the different rupture ways identified since 1975 for the steam generators tubes, the fatigue damage occurred on four cases. Two of them are analyzed in this paper: the NORTH ANNA 1 and the MIHAMA 2. From these analysis, it appears that the fatigue crack happens with aggravating factors as the tube embedding, the anti-vibration bars or fretting corrosion. As a preventive, the number of anti-vibration bars has been increase for the vapor generators 1300 and a new system of damper has been developed and implemented on the vapor generator 900. (A.L.B.)

  12. Are specialized endotracheal tubes and heat-and-moisture exchangers cost-effective in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Michael A; Siobal, Mark S

    2010-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious complication of mechanical ventilation via an artificial airway. As with all nosocomial infections, VAP increases costs, morbidity, and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). VAP prevention is a multifaceted priority of the intensive care team, and can include the use of specialized artificial airways and heat-and-moisture exchangers (HME). Substantial evidence supports the use of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that allow subglottic suctioning; silver-coated and antiseptic-impregnated ETTs; ETTs with thin-walled polyurethane cuffs; and HMEs, but these devices also can have adverse effects. Controversy still exists regarding the evidence, cost-effectiveness, and disadvantages and risks of these devices.

  13. Efficacy of Hi-Lo Evac Endotracheal Tube in Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Poisoned Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani Khorasani, Ahmad; Shadnia, Shahin; Mashayekhian, Mohammad; Rahimi, Mitra; Aghabiklooei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT) is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients) in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT) in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods. In this clinical randomized trial, 91 eligible patients with an expected duration of mechanical ventilation of more than 48 hours were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: (1) subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) group who were intubated by Evac ETT (n = 43) and (2) control group who were intubated by C-ETT (n = 48). Results. Of the 91 eligible patients, 56 (61.5%) were male. VAP was detected in 24 of 43 (55.8%) patients in the case group and 23 of 48 (47.9%) patients in the control group (P = 0.45). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were S. aureus (54.10%) and Acinetobacter spp. (19.68%). The incidence of VAP and ICU length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups, but duration of intubation was statistically different and was longer in the SSD group. Mortality rate was less in SSD group but without a significant difference (P = 0.68). Conclusion. The SSD procedure was performed intermittently with one-hour intervals using 10 mL syringe. Subglottic secretion drainage does not significantly reduce the incidence of VAP in patients receiving MV. This strategy appears to be ineffective in preventing VAP among ICU patients.

  14. Efficacy of Hi-Lo Evac Endotracheal Tube in Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghoochani Khorasani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods. In this clinical randomized trial, 91 eligible patients with an expected duration of mechanical ventilation of more than 48 hours were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: (1 subglottic secretion drainage (SSD group who were intubated by Evac ETT (n=43 and (2 control group who were intubated by C-ETT (n=48. Results. Of the 91 eligible patients, 56 (61.5% were male. VAP was detected in 24 of 43 (55.8% patients in the case group and 23 of 48 (47.9% patients in the control group (P=0.45. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were S. aureus (54.10% and Acinetobacter spp. (19.68%. The incidence of VAP and ICU length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups, but duration of intubation was statistically different and was longer in the SSD group. Mortality rate was less in SSD group but without a significant difference (P=0.68. Conclusion. The SSD procedure was performed intermittently with one-hour intervals using 10 mL syringe. Subglottic secretion drainage does not significantly reduce the incidence of VAP in patients receiving MV. This strategy appears to be ineffective in preventing VAP among ICU patients.

  15. A breath of fresh air: a quality-improvement study comparing an air-circulating technique versus conventional technique to prevent nasogastric tube dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani Hani, Murad; Ihim, Ikenna; Harps, Joyce; Cunningham, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Nasogastric tubes are an important component of care in patients with gastrointestinal obstructions. However, they are prone to malfunction despite conventional flushing techniques, with potentially severe consequences. There is no widely accepted, gold-standard way to ensure that a nasogastric tube succeeds in maintaining an empty stomach following flushing. We have developed a flushing technique to better ensure successful tube function. We compared this technique to conventional flushing both in vitro (using a plastic stomach model) and in vivo (in a pig model), and we provide a didactic video. The mean gastric residual volume following our novel flushing technique is nearly 25-fold lower than following conventional flushing (13 mL vs. 330 mL). Our simple technique is more effective than conventional techniques in maintaining nasogastric tube function and therefore should prevent dangerous vomiting and aspiration pneumonia better than conventional techniques.

  16. Maternal Antiviral Immunoglobulin Accumulates in Neural Tissue of Neonates To Prevent HSV Neurological Disease

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    Yike Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While antibody responses to neurovirulent pathogens are critical for clearance, the extent to which antibodies access the nervous system to ameliorate infection is poorly understood. In this study on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1, we demonstrate that HSV-specific antibodies are present during HSV-1 latency in the nervous systems of both mice and humans. We show that antibody-secreting cells entered the trigeminal ganglion (TG, a key site of HSV infection, and persisted long after the establishment of latent infection. We also demonstrate the ability of passively administered IgG to enter the TG independently of infection, showing that the naive TG is accessible to antibodies. The translational implication of this finding is that human fetal neural tissue could contain HSV-specific maternally derived antibodies. Exploring this possibility, we observed HSV-specific IgG in HSV DNA-negative human fetal TG, suggesting passive transfer of maternal immunity into the prenatal nervous system. To further investigate the role of maternal antibodies in the neonatal nervous system, we established a murine model to demonstrate that maternal IgG can access and persist in neonatal TG. This maternal antibody not only prevented disseminated infection but also completely protected the neonate from neurological disease and death following HSV challenge. Maternal antibodies therefore have a potent protective role in the neonatal nervous system against HSV infection. These findings strongly support the concept that prevention of prenatal and neonatal neurotropic infections can be achieved through maternal immunization.

  17. Spectrum of prenatally detected central nervous system malformations: Neural tube defects continue to be the leading foetal malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjurani Siddesh

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Amongst prenatally detected malformations, CNS malformations were common. NTD, which largely is a preventable anomaly, continued to be the most common group. Moreover, 60 per cent of malformations were diagnosed after 20 weeks, posing legal issues. Chromosomal analysis and foetal autopsy are essential for genetic counselling based on aetiological diagnosis.

  18. Progesterone Prevents High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Inducing Necroptosis of p53-Defective Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na-Yiyuan; Huang, Hsuan-Shun; Chao, Tung Hui; Chou, Hsien Ming; Fang, Chao; Qin, Chong-Zhen; Lin, Chueh-Yu; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Zhou, Hong Hao

    2017-03-14

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) originates mainly from the fallopian tube (FT) epithelium and always carries early TP53 mutations. We previously reported that tumors initiate in the FT fimbria epithelium because of apoptotic failure and the expansion of cells with DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) caused by bathing of the FT epithelial cells in reactive oxygen species (ROSs) and hemoglobin-rich follicular fluid (FF) after ovulation. Because ovulation is frequent and HGSOC is rare, we hypothesized that luteal-phase progesterone (P4) could eliminate p53-defective FT cells. Here we show that P4, via P4 receptors (PRs), induces necroptosis in Trp53 -/- mouse oviduct epithelium and in immortalized human p53-defective fimbrial epithelium through the TNF-α/RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway. Necroptosis occurs specifically at diestrus, recovers at the proestrus phase of the estrus cycle, and can be augmented with P4 supplementation. These results reveal the mechanism of the well-known ability of progesterone to prevent ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Progesterone Prevents High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Inducing Necroptosis of p53-Defective Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Yiyuan Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC originates mainly from the fallopian tube (FT epithelium and always carries early TP53 mutations. We previously reported that tumors initiate in the FT fimbria epithelium because of apoptotic failure and the expansion of cells with DNA double-strand breaks (DSB caused by bathing of the FT epithelial cells in reactive oxygen species (ROSs and hemoglobin-rich follicular fluid (FF after ovulation. Because ovulation is frequent and HGSOC is rare, we hypothesized that luteal-phase progesterone (P4 could eliminate p53-defective FT cells. Here we show that P4, via P4 receptors (PRs, induces necroptosis in Trp53−/− mouse oviduct epithelium and in immortalized human p53-defective fimbrial epithelium through the TNF-α/RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway. Necroptosis occurs specifically at diestrus, recovers at the proestrus phase of the estrus cycle, and can be augmented with P4 supplementation. These results reveal the mechanism of the well-known ability of progesterone to prevent ovarian cancer.

  20. Variants in TNIP1, a regulator of the NF-kB pathway, found in two patients with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, La Carpia; Claudia, Rendeli; Molinario, Clelia; Annamaria, Milillo; Chiara, Farroni; Natalia, Cannelli; Emanuele, Ausili; Valentina, Paolucci; Giovanni, Neri; Costantino, Romagnoli; Eugenio, Sangiorgi; Fiorella, Gurrieri

    2016-06-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in 1:1000 births. The etiology is complex, with the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Environmental factors, such as folate deficiency, diabetes, or hypoxia strongly contribute to the occurrence of NTD. Also, there is a strong genetic contribution to NTD, as highlighted by the number of genes so far identified in several different developmental pathways usually altered in NTD. Each gene identified so far accounts for a small percentage of all NTD cases, indicating a very high heterogeneity. Exome sequencing was performed in seven sporadic patients with severe mielomeningocele. Novel coding variants shared by two or more patients were selected for further analysis. We identified in two unrelated patients two different variants in TNIP1, a gene not previously involved in NTD whose main role is downregulation of the NF-kB pathway. One variant, c.1089T>G (p.Phe363Leu), is de novo, whereas the c.1781C>T (p.Pro594Leu) is absent in the mother, but could not be tested in the father, as he was unavailable. The latter variant is a very rare variant in the ExAC database. These findings suggest that TNIP1 is a new potential predisposing gene to spina bifida (SB) and its pathway needs to be investigated in human NTD in order to confirm its role and to plan appropriate counseling to families.

  1. A pilot study on the association between rare earth elements in maternal hair and the risk of neural tube defects in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenhua; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Zhenjiang; Pang, Yiming; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have many applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine, resulting in occupational and environmental exposure and concerns regarding REE-associated health effects. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the adverse effects of REEs on pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the REE concentrations in maternal hair growing during early pregnancy and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. We included 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women delivering healthy infants (controls). The cases were divided into three subtypes: anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele. Four REEs in maternal hair were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd). A questionnaire was used to collect information about maternal sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits. The median concentrations of Ce and Pr in the NTD group were higher than those in the control group, whereas there were no significant differences for La and Nd. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the four REE concentrations above the median in the case groups were not significantly > 1. An increasing frequency of the consumption of beans or bean products and fresh fruit was negatively correlated with the four REE concentrations. Our results did not suggest that the concentrations of REEs in maternal hair were associated with the risk of NTDs or any subtype of NTDs in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Folic acid awareness and intake among women in areas with high prevalence of neural tube defects in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqian; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Xi; Zhu, Jun

    2011-07-01

    To measure folic acid awareness and intake rates among women of childbearing age in certain areas of China with a high prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD). A cross-sectional survey was carried out utilising a nineteen-item questionnaire enquiring into individual women's knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of folic acid supplementation. A total of 293 low-income counties in six provinces of China. Women aged 19-44 years from six provinces with a high prevalence of NTD recruited from June to August 2008. Among 33 025 participants, 57 % had heard of folic acid but only 15 % knew all of the core information. The intake rate was 12 %; only 8 % took the recommended dose and only 4 % of non-pregnant women took folic acid. Some women did not take folic acid because they did not know that they should take it (49 %) or they had misconceptions about it (24 %). According to logistic regression analysis, rural residence was a risk factor for folic acid awareness. Ethnicity, educational level, average annual income per person and pregnancy were the influencing factors of folic acid awareness and folic acid intake. Although more than half of the respondents had heard of folic acid, the intake rate was still very low in areas with a high prevalence of NTD. Thus, more efforts are needed to increase folic acid awareness and intake among women of reproductive age in these areas.

  3. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  4. Association of maternal homocysteine and vitamins status with the risk of neural tube defects in Tunisia: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Kaouther; Ben Fradj, Mohamed Kacem; Touati, Asma; Aloui, Mariem; Ben Jemaa, Nadia; Masmoudi, Aida; Elmay, Michèle Véronique; Omar, Souhail; Feki, Moncef; Kaabechi, Naziha; Marrakchi, Raja; Gaigi, Soumeya Siala

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether low folate and vitamin B12 levels, as well as high homocysteine levels in pregnant women are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) in Tunisia. A total of 75 NTDs pregnancies and 75 matched controls were included in the study. Their vitamin B12, folate, and red blood cell folate concentrations were measured using a radio-immunoassay kit and total homocysteine concentrations were determined using a fluorescent polarization immunoassay. Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were lower in NTD-affected pregnant women than in controls (respectively, p = 0.009 and p homocysteine concentration was significantly higher in the NTDs group than in controls (p = 0.008). In the case group, the folate levels were positively related with vitamin B12 levels (r = 0.54; p homocysteine levels (r = -0.19; p = 0.04). Besides, red blood cell folate levels were positively correlated with folate levels (r = 0.24; p = 0.02) and negatively correlated with total homocysteine levels (r = -0.37; p = 0.001). Lower concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are related to the increased risk of NTDs. Both folate and vitamin B12 intake insufficiency could contribute to the increased risk of NTDs. A dietary supplement, combining folate and vitamin B12, might be an effective measure to decrease the NTDs incidence in Tunisia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Dennis M; Manlapat, Anna; Roon, Penny; Prasad, Puttur; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Smith, Sylvia B

    2003-07-29

    Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine). Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively. In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.

  6. Reduced-folate carrier (RFC is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Puttur

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine. Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively. Results In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Conclusions Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.

  7. Usage of Probabilistic and General Regression Neural Network for Early Detection and Prevention of Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Neha; Om, Hari

    2015-01-01

    In India, the oral cancers are usually presented in advanced stage of malignancy. It is critical to ascertain the diagnosis in order to initiate most advantageous treatment of the suspicious lesions. The main hurdle in appropriate treatment and control of oral cancer is identification and risk assessment of early disease in the community in a cost-effective fashion. The objective of this research is to design a data mining model using probabilistic neural network and general regression neural...

  8. Tensor tenopexy: a clinical study to assess its effectiveness in improving Eustachian tube function and preventing hearing loss in patients with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Raja; Sharma, Ramesh K; Panda, Naresh K; Munjal, Sanjay; Makkar, Surinder

    2013-09-01

    There is a consensus about the occurrence of otitis media in children with cleft palate before repair. However, controversy continues regarding the recovery of Eustachian tube function and level of hearing loss in the patients after cleft palate repair. Levator sling palatoplasty is an important component of the cleft repair. Most surgeons would routinely transect the tensor tendon (tensor tenotomy) during the course of palatoplasty. However, this procedure may pose a risk to Eustachian tube function. Some authorities feel that addition of tensor tenopexy during palatoplasty would maintain the Eustachian tube in an open conformation, thereby improving middle ear ventilation. The present study assesses the effectiveness of tensor tenopexy in improving Eustachian tube function and preventing hearing loss in cleft palate patients treated with palatoplasty. A prospective randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery at a tertiary care institute in India. A total of 17 children in the age group of 9-24 months were assigned to one of two groups: palatoplasty with either tensor tenotomy (n = 8) or tensor tenotomy with tensor tenopexy (n = 9). All patients were subjected to tympanometry, otoscopy and brainstem evoked response audiometry before surgery and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery. Of these, 52.9% of patients already had hearing loss at the time of presentation. Hearing loss and middle ear effusion persisted even after palatoplasty. There was no significant difference in hearing loss and middle ear effusion between the two groups of patients. Thus, tensor tenopexy was not found to be helpful in maintaining Eustachian tube function or preventing hearing loss in cleft palate patients. However, further long-term studies are needed to confirm this study. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic variants in the folate pathway and the risk of neural tube defects: a meta-analysis of the published literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural Tube Defects (NTDs are among the most prevalent and most severe congenital malformations worldwide. Polymorphisms in key genes involving the folate pathway have been reported to be associated with the risk of NTDs. However, the results from these published studies are conflicting. We surveyed the literature (1996-2011 and performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to provide empirical evidence on the association. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the effects of 5 genetic variants from 47 study populations, for a total of 85 case-control comparisons MTHFR C677T (42 studies; 4374 cases, 7232 controls, MTHFR A1298C (22 studies; 2602 cases, 4070 controls, MTR A2756G (9 studies; 843 cases, 1006 controls, MTRR A66G (8 studies; 703 cases, 1572 controls, and RFC-1 A80G (4 studies; 1107 cases, 1585 controls. We found a convincing evidence of dominant effects of MTHFR C677T (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.07-1.42 and suggestive evidence of RFC-1 A80G (OR 1.55; 95%CI 1.24-1.92. However, we found no significant effects of MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G in risk of NTDs in dominant, recessive or in allelic models. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis strongly suggested a significant association of the variant MTHFR C677T and a suggestive association of RFC-1 A80G with increased risk of NTDs. However, other variants involved in folate pathway do not demonstrate any evidence for a significant marginal association on susceptibility to NTDs.

  10. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  11. The C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in Mexican mestizo neural-tube defect parents, control mestizo and native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, I P; Olivares, N; Castillo, M T; Cantú, J M; Ibarra, B; Sandoval, L; Morán, M C; Gallegos, M P; Chakraborty, R; Rivas, F

    2000-01-01

    The C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, associated with the thermolabile form of the enzyme, has reportedly been found to be increased in neural-tube defects (NTD), though this association is still unclear. A group of 107 mestizo parents of NTD children and five control populations: 101 mestizo (M), 50 Huichol (H), 38 Tarahumara (T), 21 Purepecha (P) and 20 Caucasian (C) individuals were typed for the MTHFR C677T variant by the PCR/RFLP (HinfI) method. Genotype frequencies were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg expectations in all six populations. Allele frequency (%) of the C677T variant was 45 in NTD, 44 in M, 56 in H, 36 in T, 57 in P, 35 in C. Pairwise inter-population comparisons of allele frequency disclosed a very similar distribution between NTD and M groups (exact test, P=0.92). Among controls, differences between M and individual native groups were NS (0.06

  12. DNA methylation aberrations rather than polymorphisms of FZD3 gene increase the risk of spina bifida in a high-risk region for neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Shaofang; Wang, Li; Chang, Shaoyan; Lu, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Lihua; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Xiuwei; Guan, Zhen; Bao, Yihua; Zhao, Huizhi; Zou, Jizhen; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of neural tube defects (NTDs) have indicated roles for the Fzd3 gene and the planar cell polarity signaling pathway in convergent extension. We investigated the involvement of FZD3 in genetic and epigenetic mechanisms associated with human NTDs, especially spina bifida. We explored the effects of variants spanning the FZD3 gene in NTDs and examined the role of aberrant methylation of the FZD3 promoter on gene expression in brain tissue in spina bifida. Six FZD3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped using a MassARRAY system in tissue from 165 NTD fetuses and 152 controls. DNA methylation aberrations in the FZD3 promoter region were detected using a MassARRAY EpiTYPER (17 CpG units from -500 to -2400 bp from the transcription start site) in brain tissue from 77 spina bifida and 74 control fetuses. None of the six single nucleotide polymorphisms evaluated were significantly associated with spina bifida, but the mean methylation level was significantly higher in spina bifida samples (13.70%) compared with control samples (10.91%) (p = 0.001). In terms of specific sites, DNA methylation levels were significantly higher in the spina bifida samples at 14 of the 17 CpG units, which mostly included in R2 region. FZD3 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with methylation of the FZD3 promoter region, especially the R2 region (R = 0.970; p = 0.001) in HeLa cells. The results of this study suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in FZD3 gene expression regulation and may be associated with an increased risk of spina bifida. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nasogastric tube placement into the hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a simple surgical technique for prevention of bile leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bulent; Ozcabi, Yetkin; Tasdelen, Iksan; Onur, Ender; Memisoglu, Kemal

    2016-05-01

    Hepaticojejunostomy is an important part of many surgical procedures including pancreaticoduodenectomy. Biliary leakage from hepaticojejunostomy may be associated with intraabdominal abscess formation, biliary peritonitis, and even mortality. A 72-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with obstructive jaundice. After initial evaluation, she was diagnosed with distal common bile duct obstruction without accurate diagnosis. Before planned pancreaticoduodenectomy, biliary drainage with a T-tube was performed due to the presence of cholangitis. After the first operation, pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Postinflammatory changes around the hilar region made the hepaticojejunostomy risky. A bilio-digestive anastomosis was performed using a new technique. A nasogastric tube was placed into the common bile duct proximal to the anastomosis. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful. The use of a nasogastric tube as a stent in risky hepaticojejunostomies is a simple technique that can be beneficial.

  14. Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 6: Protecting the Auditory System and Prevention of Hearing Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    ...: Species, Guinea Pig, Number Allowed, 276, Number Used, 83, LSU IACUC# 1061. ANIMAL PROJECT: The SPECIFIC MMS of this study are to demonstrate and explore mechanisms for preventing the effects of intense sound...

  15. Prevalência e distribuição espacial de defeitos do tubo neural no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, antes e após a fortificação de farinhas com ácido fólico Prevalencia y distribución espacial de defectos del tubo neural en el Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, antes y después del enriquecimiento de harinas con ácido fólico Prevalence and spatial distribution of neural tube defects in São Paulo State, Brazil, before and after folic acid flour fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fujimori

    2013-01-01

    defects decreased by 35%, from 0.57/1,000 to 0.37/1,000 live births after fortification (OR = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.59-0.72. There was a reduction among newborns of mothers with the following characteristics: all age groups (except < 15 years, more than three years of schooling, and seven or more prenatal visits. There was a reduction over time and in most of São Paulo State, except in a few municipalities (counties located in the western region of the State. Other factors may have contributed to the observed decline, but the results corroborate flour fortification as an important measure to prevent neural tube defects. Further research is needed to elucidate the lack of a decline in neural tube defects in the western part of São Paulo State.

  16. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stillborn or die soon after birth. 4 , 5 Encephalocele Encephalocele (pronounced ehn-SEF-o-low-seel ), another rare ... Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2007). NINDS encephaloceles information page . Retrieved on July 23, 2012, from ...

  17. Ageing studies for the ATLAS MDT muonchambers and development of a gas filter to prevent drift tube ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, S.

    2008-01-15

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector, which is currently assembled at the LHC accelerator at CERN, uses drift tubes as basic detection elements over most of the solid angle. The performance of these monitored drift tubes (MDTs), in particular their spatial resolution of 80 {mu}m, determines the precision of the spectrometer. If ageing effects occur, the precision of the drift tubes will be degraded. Hence ageing effects have to be minimized or avoided altogether if possible. Even with a gas mixture of Ar:CO{sub 2}=93:7, which was selected for its good ageing properties, ageing effects were observed in test systems. They were caused by small amounts of impurities, in particular volatile silicon compounds. Systematic studies revealed the required impurity levels deteriorating the drift tubes to be well below 1 ppm. Many components of the ATLAS MDT gas system are supplied by industry. In a newly designed ageing experiment in Freiburg these components were validated for their use in ATLAS. With a fully assembled ATLAS gas distribution rack as test component ageing effects were observed. It was therefore decided to install gas filters in the gas distribution lines to remove volatile silicon compounds efficiently from the gas mixture. Finally a filter was designed that can adsorb up to 5.5 g of volatile silicon compounds, hereby reducing the impurities in the outlet gas mixture to less than 30 ppb. (orig.)

  18. Massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) for reduction of false positives in computer-aided detection of polyps: Suppression of rectal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Naeppi, Janne; Dachman, Abraham H.

    2006-01-01

    One of the limitations of the current computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) is a relatively large number of false-positive (FP) detections. Rectal tubes (RTs) are one of the typical sources of FPs because a portion of a RT, especially a portion of a bulbous tip, often exhibits a cap-like shape that closely mimics the appearance of a small polyp. Radiologists can easily recognize and dismiss RT-induced FPs; thus, they may lose their confidence in CAD as an effective tool if the CAD scheme generates such ''obvious'' FPs due to RTs consistently. In addition, RT-induced FPs may distract radiologists from less common true positives in the rectum. Therefore, removal RT-induced FPs as well as other types of FPs is desirable while maintaining a high sensitivity in the detection of polyps. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) for distinction between polyps and RTs in 3D CTC volumetric data. The 3D MTANN is a supervised volume-processing technique which is trained with input CTC volumes and the corresponding ''teaching'' volumes. The teaching volume for a polyp contains a 3D Gaussian distribution, and that for a RT contains zeros for enhancement of polyps and suppression of RTs, respectively. For distinction between polyps and nonpolyps including RTs, a 3D scoring method based on a 3D Gaussian weighting function is applied to the output of the trained 3D MTANN. Our database consisted of CTC examinations of 73 patients, scanned in both supine and prone positions (146 CTC data sets in total), with optical colonoscopy as a reference standard for the presence of polyps. Fifteen patients had 28 polyps, 15 of which were 5-9 mm and 13 were 10-25 mm in size. These CTC cases were subjected to our previously reported CAD scheme that included centerline-based segmentation of the colon, shape-based detection of polyps, and reduction of FPs by use of a Bayesian neural network based on geometric and texture

  19. Levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of fetal neural tube defects in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Deqing; Yuan, Yue; Jin, Lei; Zhou, Guodong; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). In the human body, PAHs are bioactivated and the resultant reactive epoxides can covalently bind to DNA to form PAH-DNA adducts, which may, in turn, cause transcription errors, changes in gene expression or altered patterns of apoptosis. During critical developmental phases, these changes can result in abnormal morphogenesis. We aimed to examine the relationship between the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and cord tissue and the risk of NTDs. From 2010 to 2012, 60 NTD cases and 60 healthy controls were recruited from a population-based birth defects surveillance system in five counties of Shanxi Province in Northern China, where the emission of PAHs remains one of the highest in the country and PAHs exposure is highly prevalent. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of 15 NTD cases and 15 control infants, and in cord tissue of 60 NTD cases and 60 control infants were measured using the (32)P-postlabeling method. PAH-DNA adduct levels in cord blood tend to be higher in the NTD group (28.5 per 10(8) nucleotides) compared with controls (19.7 per 10(8) nucleotides), although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.377). PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue were significantly higher in the NTD group (24.6 per 10(6) nucleotides) than in the control group (15.3 per 10(6) nucleotides), P=0.010. A positive dose-response relationship was found between levels of PAH-DNA adducts in cord tissue and the risk of NTDs (P=0.009). When the lowest tertile was used as the referent and potential confounding factors were adjusted for, a 1.03-fold (95% CI, 0.37-2.89) and 2.96-fold (95% CI, 1.16-7.58) increase in the risk of NTDs was observed for fetuses whose cord tissue PAH-DNA adduct levels were in the second and highest tertile, respectively. High levels of PAH-DNA adducts in fetal tissues were associated with increased risks of

  20. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via the nose, ... portion of the small intestine Naso – nose NG – Nasogastric Tube -ostomy – new opening Percutaneous – through the skin PEJ – ...

  1. Peru's national folic acid fortification program and its effect on neural tube defects in Lima Programa nacional del Perú de fortificación con ácido fólico y su efecto sobre los defectos del tubo neural en Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Ricks

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Peru's national folic acid fortification program on folic acid content in wheat flour, and the effect on birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs in Lima, and to compare the program's legislative requirements with international standards. METHODS: Bread was sampled from six sites across Peru and tested for folic acid. Data were obtained from the largest obstetric hospital in Lima on the prevalence of births (live and still with NTDs during both the pre-fortification period (2004-2005 and post-fortification years (2007-2008. RESULTS: Folic acid content in the sampled bread met national legislative requirements but was less than one-half of the level recommended for Peru by the World Health Organization (WHO (2.6 mg/kg wheat flour. Birth prevalence of NTDs was 18.4/10 000 in the pre-fortification period and 20.0/10 000 during post-fortification years. Relative risk for NTDs after fortification was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.77-1.35, P = 0.90. CONCLUSIONS: Peruvian legislative requirements for folic acid fortification are below international (WHO recommendations; birth prevalence of NTDs in Lima is higher than international benchmarks; and no decrease in NTDs following fortification of flour with folic acid (according to Peruvian national standards was observed. As increasing the level of folic acid in flour remains the most sustainable way of preventing NTDs, it is recommended that Peru increase its folic acid fortification requirements to meet those recommended by WHO (2.6 mg/kg.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la repercusión que el programa nacional del Perú de fortificación con ácido fólico tiene en el contenido de ácido fólico de la harina de trigo y en la prevalencia de nacimientos de niños con defectos del tubo neural en Lima, así como comparar los requisitos legislativos del programa con las normas internacionales. MÉTODOS: Se hizo un muestreo del pan en seis zonas de Perú y se analizó su

  2. The craving stops before you feel it: neural correlates of chocolate craving during cue exposure with response prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankort, Astrid; Roefs, Anne; Siep, Nicolette; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2014-06-01

    Cue reactivity and craving can be influenced by cue exposure with response prevention (CERP). This study investigated the neural correlates of CERP using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while participants smelled chocolate (17 participants) or a control object (17 participants). CERP was interrupted by 7 scanning sequences measuring the brain response to neutral and chocolate pictures. Chocolate craving was hypothesized to be mirrored by activation in brain reward regions. As expected, control group craving remained similar throughout the session. A short exposure (30 min) increased chocolate craving in the experimental group, which was mirrored by significant group differences in activation in brain reward regions. Unexpectedly, a long exposure (60 min) did not lead to craving extinction in the experimental group, although craving started to decrease at this point. On a neural level, however, activation in regions of interest in the experimental group seemed to have extinguished after the long exposure, as activation levels returned to or fell below control group levels. These results indicate that brain reward activation during CERP is linked to craving, at least for a short exposure. Regarding a longer exposure, the decline in brain reward activation in the experimental group may be a precursor of a decrease in craving.

  3. Folic acid and homocysteine affect neural crest and neuroepithelial cell outgrowth and differentiation in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Poelmann, R.E.; Iperen, L. van; Lindemans, J.; Groot, A. de

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of additional folic acid in the periconceptional period to prevent neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and conotruncal heart defects in the offspring has been shown. Folate shortage results in homocysteine accumulation. Elevated levels of homocysteine have been related to

  4. Pure neural leprosy: steroids prevent neuropathy progression Corticosteróides previnem a neuropatia na hanseníase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia R. Jardim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug therapy (MDT, with rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine, treats leprosy infection but is insufficient in arresting or preventing the nerve damage that causes impairments and disabilities. This case-series study evaluates the benefits of the combined use of steroids and MDT in preventing nerve damage in patients with pure neural leprosy (PNL. In addition to MDT, 24 patients (88% male aged 20-79 years, median=41 received a daily morning dose of 60 mg prednisone (PDN that was gradually reduced by 10 mg during each of the following 5 months. PNL was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by nerve histopathology or PCR. A low prevalence (8.3% of reaction was observed after release from treatment. However, most of the clinical parameters showed significant improvement; and a reduction of nerve conduction block was observed in 42% of the patients. The administration of full-dose PDN improved the clinical and electrophysiological condition of the PNL patients, contributing to the prevention of further neurological damage.A poliquimioterapia (PQT, com rifampicina, dapsona, e clofazimina, trata a infecção na hanseníase, mas é insuficiente para interromper ou prevenir o comprometimento neurológico que causa as incapacidades e desabilidades, nesta enfermidade. Este estudo de série de casos avalia o benefício do uso combinado de prednisona e PQT na prevenção do dano neurológico em pacientes com a forma neural pura da hanseníase (FNP. Além do PQT, 24 pacientes (88% homens, com idade variando entre 20-79, mediana=41 receberam uma dose diária de 60 mg prednisona que foi reduzida gradualmente na dose de 10 mg durante cada um dos 5 meses subseqüentes. FNP foi diagnosticada clinicamente e confirmada através do estudo histopatológico ou PCR. Baixa prevalência de reação (8,3% foi observada apenas após o final do tratamento. A maioria dos parâmetros clínicos mostrou melhora significativa e redução do bloqueio de condução foi observada

  5. Survey of prenatal screening policies in Europe for structural malformations and chromosome anomalies, and their impact on detection and termination rates for neural tube defects and Down's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, P A; Devigan, C; Khoshnood, B

    2008-01-01

    tube defects (NTDs) using the EUROCAT database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Existence of national prenatal screening policies, legal gestation limit for TOPFA, prenatal detection and termination rates for Down's syndrome and NTD. RESULTS: Ten of the 18 countries had a national country-wide policy for Down...... cases. Six of the 18 countries had a legal gestational age limit for TOPFA, and in two countries, termination of pregnancy was illegal at any gestation. CONCLUSIONS: There are large differences in screening policies between countries in Europe. These, as well as organisational and cultural factors...

  6. Dosagem de folatos maternos e fetais, séricos e eritrocitários em malformações por defeito de fechamento do tubo neural no feto Maternal and fetal serum and red blood cell folate levels in pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunduki

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar os níveis de folatos maternos e fetais gestações com malformações por defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural (DFTN. Métodos: o estudo foi do tipo caso-controle, no qual 14 casos de fetos com DFTN (grupo estudo e 14 casos de fetos com outras malformações (grupo controle foram estudados em gestantes de baixo risco para DFTN. Propusemo-nos a dosar o ácido fólico, na sua forma total e metilada, nos compartimentos fetal e materno, utilizando dosagens séricas e tissulares (eritrocitárias, assim como o volume corpuscular médio, o hematócrito e a hemoglobina. As coletas foram realizadas imediatamente antes da interrupção da gestação. Os resultados nos dois grupos foram comparados pelo teste t de Student, método de amostras pareados pela idade gestacional. Resultados: não se encontrou diferença nas taxas de folatos fetais e nos parâmetros hematológicos dos fetos, entre os dois grupos. Por outro lado, taxas anormalmente baixas de folatos foram encontradas nos eritrócitos das mães portadoras de fetos com DFTN, tanto para as formas totais(293,9 ng/mL contra 399,1 ng/mL no grupo controle, p=0,01 quanto para as formas metiladas (201,9 ng/mL contra 314,0 ng/mL para o grupo controle, p=0,02. Os folatos séricos maternos não se mostraram diferentes nos grupos estudo e controle. Conclusão: este estudo demonstrou que há uma menor taxa de folatos intratissulares, nas mães de fetos acometidos por DFTN, porém com taxas de folatos séricos semelhantes em relação ao grupo controle.Objective: to analyze maternal and fetal folate status in cases of neural tube defects (NTD. Methods: a case-control study was designed with 14 cases of fetuses with neural tube defects (study group and 14 cases of fetuses with other unrelated malformations (control group gestational age matched, in low-risk pregnant women. Both total and methylated folic acid levels in fetal and maternal compartments using serum and tissular (red blood cells

  7. High-Throughput Screening of Therapeutic Neural Stimulation Targets: Toward Principles of Preventing and Treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    within small neural networks, selecting stimuli for attention, and performing pattern recognition (e.g., Hopfi eld and Brody, 2001; Friedrich et al...geted optical control of neural activity. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263–1268. Bragin, A., Wilson, C. L., Staba, R. J., Reddick, M., Fried, I., and Engel , J...pharaonis. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1261–1267. Friedrich , R. W., Habermann, C. J., and Laurent, G. (2004). Multiplexing using synchrony in the zebrafi

  8. Neural substrates underlying reconcentration for the preparation of an appropriate cognitive state to prevent future mistakes: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Nozawa, Takayuki; Takahashi, Makoto; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Sasaki, Yukako; Sakaki, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    The ability to reconcentrate on the present situation by recognizing one’s own recent errors is a cognitive mechanism that is crucial for safe and appropriate behavior in a particular situation. However, an individual may not be able to adequately perform a subsequent task even if he/she recognize his/her own error; thus, it is hypothesized that the neural mechanisms underlying the reconcentration process are different from the neural substrates supporting error recognition. The present study performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis to explore the neural substrates associated with reconcentration related to achieving an appropriate cognitive state, and to dissociate these brain regions from the neural substrates involved in recognizing one’s own mistake. This study included 44 healthy volunteers who completed an experimental procedure that was based on the Eriksen flanker task and included feedback regarding the results of the current trial. The hemodynamic response induced by each instance of feedback was modeled using a combination of the successes and failures of the current and subsequent trials in order to identify the neural substrates underlying the ability to reconcentrate for the next situation and to dissociate them from those involved in recognizing current errors. The fMRI findings revealed significant and specific activation in the dorsal aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex (MFC) when participants successfully reconcentrated on the task after recognizing their own error based on feedback. Additionally, this specific activation was clearly dissociated from the activation foci that occurred during error recognition. These findings indicate that the dorsal aspect of the MFC may be a distinct functional region that specifically supports the reconcentration process and that is associated with the prevention of successive errors when a human subject recognizes his/her own mistake. Furthermore, it is likely that this

  9. Acute complications associated with bedside placement of feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, William N

    2006-02-01

    Several types of feeding tubes can be placed at a patient's bedside; examples include nasogastric, nasointestinal, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes. Nasoenteral tubes can be placed blindly at bedside or with the assistance of placement devices. Nasoenteric tubes can also be placed via fluoroscopy and endoscopy. Gastrostomy and jejunostomy tubes can be placed using endoscopic techniques. This paper will describe the indications and contraindications for different types of tubes that can be placed at the bedside and complications associated with tube placement. Complications associated with nasoenteral tubes include inadvertent malpositioning of the tube, epistaxis, sinusitis, inadvertent tube removal, tube clogging, tube-feeding-associated diarrhea, and aspiration pneumonia. Complications from percutaneous gastrostomy and jejunostomy tube placements include procedure-related mishaps, site infection, leakage, buried bumper syndrome, tube malfunction, and inadvertent removal. These complications will be reviewed, along with a discussion of incidence, cause, treatment, and prevention approaches.

  10. Low maternal folate concentrations and maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism are associated with an increased risk for neural tube defects in offspring: a case-control study among Pakistani case and control mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Nuzhat; Jalali, Samina; Shami, Sajjad; Rafiq, Shireen; Große, Greta; Hilger, Alina C; Zhang, Rhong; Mansoor, Saira; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko

    2018-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that periconceptional maternal folate deficiency and coding variants in maternal genes coding for critical enzymes in the folate pathway are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. In a case-control study we investigated C677T polymorphism in the 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in case and control mothers of Pakistani origin, and compared these with the respective maternal folate concentrations measured at the time of delivery. A case-control study was conducted among 109 case and 100 control mothers identified through the Holy Family Hospital Rawalpindi, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate concentrations and MTHFRC677T polymorphism were compared between case and control mothers. Mean RBC folate and serum folate concentrations were significantly lower in cases compared with control mothers (pcases compared with control mothers (CC vs TT pcases compared with control mothers (C vs T pCase mothers with 677CT or 677TT genotypes had significantly lower serum (pstudy provides further evidence that maternal folate deficiency and MTHFRC677T polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk for NTDs in offspring. Our results are limited by the fact that maternal folate concentrations were not obtained during the periconceptional period, but at delivery. Further analyses, including maternal folate levels during the periconceptional period, are warranted.

  11. Evaluation of maternal serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels andfactor V Leiden, factor II g.20210G>A, and MTHFR variations in prenatallydiagnosed neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Hatip; Arisoy, Resul; Karaman, Ali; Erdoğdu, Emre; Çetinkaya, Arda; B Geçkinli, Bilge; Şimşek, Hasan; Demirci, Oya

    2016-02-17

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common congenital malformations that develop as a result of interactions between several genes and environmental factors. Many factors have been investigated in order to understand the etiology of NTDs, and many studies have identified folate intake as a common contributing factor. The exact etiology of the disease is still unknown. In this study, we compared serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels, along with common thrombophilia-related genetic variations, including factor V Leiden, factor II g.20210G>A, MTHFR c.677C>T, and MTHFR c.1298A>C, in 35 pregnant women with fetal NTDs and 38 pregnant women with healthy fetuses. A significant difference in serum vitamin B12 level and factor V Leiden frequency was detected between the two groups. On the other hand, serum folate, homocysteine levels, and factor II g.20210G>A, MTHFR c.677C>T, and MTHFR c.1298A>C were not significantly different in the NTD group compared to the controls. These results indicate that vitamin B12 supplementation along with folate may help in lowering NTD frequency. In addition, this is the first study that provides evidence for a possible relationship between increased NTD risk and factor V Leiden.

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Rank Nutrition Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver...... an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects. The Panel considers that the food constituent, supplemental folate, which is the subject of the claim, is sufficiently...... characterised. Increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake is a beneficial physiological effect in the context of reducing the risk of neural tube defects. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the association between low maternal folate intakes and an increased risk...

  13. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  14. Bacterial Biofilms in Jones Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eric S; Hauck, Matthew J; Kirk Harris, Jonathan; Robertson, Charles E; Dailey, Roger A

    To investigate the presence and microbiology of bacterial biofilms on Jones tubes (JTs) by direct visualization with scanning electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of representative JTs, and to correlate these findings with inflammation and/or infection related to the JT. In this study, prospective case series were performed. JTs were recovered from consecutive patients presenting to clinic for routine cleaning or recurrent irritation/infection. Four tubes were processed for scanning electron microscopy alone to visualize evidence of biofilms. Two tubes underwent PCR alone for bacterial quantification. One tube was divided in half and sent for scanning electron microscopy and PCR. Symptoms related to the JTs were recorded at the time of recovery. Seven tubes were obtained. Five underwent SEM, and 3 out of 5 showed evidence of biofilms (60%). Two of the 3 biofilms demonstrated cocci and the third revealed rods. Three tubes underwent PCR. The predominant bacteria identified were Pseudomonadales (39%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Staphylococcus (14%). Three of the 7 patients (43%) reported irritation and discharge at presentation. Two symptomatic patients, whose tubes were imaged only, revealed biofilms. The third symptomatic patient's tube underwent PCR only, showing predominantly Staphylococcus (56%) and Haemophilus (36%) species. Two of the 4 asymptomatic patients also showed biofilms. All symptomatic patients improved rapidly after tube exchange and steroid antibiotic drops. Bacterial biofilms were variably present on JTs, and did not always correlate with patients' symptoms. Nevertheless, routine JT cleaning is recommended to treat and possibly prevent inflammation caused by biofilms.

  15. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  16. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Michihira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To equalize heavy water flow distribution by providing a nozzle for externally injecting heavy water from a vibration preventive plate to the upper portion to feed the heavy water in a pressure tube reactor and swallowing up heavy water in a calandria tank to supply the heavy water to the reactor core above the vibration preventive plate. Constitution: A moderator injection nozzle is mounted on the inner wall of a calandria tank. Heavy water is externally injected above the vibration preventive plate, and heavy water in the calandria tank is swallowed up to supply the heavy water to the core reactor above the vibration preventive plate. Therefore, the heavy water flow distribution can be equalized over the entire reactor core, and the distribution of neutron absorber dissolved in the heavy water is equalized. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Impacto de la fortificación de alimentos con ácido fólico en los defectos del tubo neural en Costa Rica Impact of the fortification of food with folic acid on neural tube defects in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Paz Barboza Argüello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto de la fortificación de alimentos con ácido fólico en las tendencias de las prevalencias de los defectos del tubo neural (DTN y la tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI por este trastorno en Costa Rica. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de vigilancia del Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas y el Centro Centroamericano de Población. Se consideraron defectos del tubo neural la anencefalia, la espina bífida y el encefalocele. Se examinaron las tendencias durante 1987-2009, así como las diferencias de tasas (intervalo de confianza [IC] 95% de prevalencia y mortalidad antes de la fortificación de alimentos con ácido fólico y hasta 12 años después de su implementación. Se determinó el aporte de la fortificación al descenso en la TMI general. RESULTADOS: En 1987-1997, previo al período de fortificación de alimentos con ácido fólico, la prevalencia de DTN fue de 12/10 000 nacidos (IC95%: 11,1-12,8, mientras que en 2009 fue de 5,1/10 000 nacidos (3,3-6,5. La TMI por DTN en 1997 fue de 0,64/1 000 nacimientos (46-0,82 y en 2009 de 0,19/1 000 (0,09-0,3. La TMI por DTN y su prevalencia disminuyeron en forma significativa, 71% y 58% respectivamente (P OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of the fortification of food with folic acid on prevalence trends for neural tube defects (NTD and the infant mortality rate (IMR associated with this disorder in Costa Rica. METHODS: The surveillance data from the Congenital Disease Registry Center and the Central American Population Center were analyzed. The neural tube defects considered were anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele. The trends from 1987-2009, as well as the differences in prevalence and mortality rates prior to and up to 12 years after food fortification with folic acid, were examined (95% confidence interval [CI]. The contribution of fortification to the decrease in the overall IMR was determined. RESULTS: During 1987-1997, prior to the period of food

  18. Neutron tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Lou, Tak Pui [Berkeley, CA; Reijonen, Jani [Oakland, CA

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  19. Real-Time Smart Grids Control for Preventing Cascading Failures and Blackout using Neural Networks: Experimental Approach for N-1-1 Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabian, Sina; Belkacemi, Rabie; Babalola, Adeniyi A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel intelligent control is proposed based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to mitigate cascading failure (CF) and prevent blackout in smart grid systems after N-1-1 contingency condition in real-time. The fundamental contribution of this research is to deploy the machine learning concept for preventing blackout at early stages of its occurrence and to make smart grids more resilient, reliable, and robust. The proposed method provides the best action selection strategy for adaptive adjustment of generators' output power through frequency control. This method is able to relieve congestion of transmission lines and prevent consecutive transmission line outage after N-1-1 contingency condition. The proposed ANN-based control approach is tested on an experimental 100 kW test system developed by the authors to test intelligent systems. Additionally, the proposed approach is validated on the large-scale IEEE 118-bus power system by simulation studies. Experimental results show that the ANN approach is very promising and provides accurate and robust control by preventing blackout. The technique is compared to a heuristic multi-agent system (MAS) approach based on communication interchanges. The ANN approach showed more accurate and robust response than the MAS algorithm.

  20. A case of a 'lost' nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, V; Shakeel, M; Keh, S; Ah-See, K W

    2012-12-01

    To present the case of a 'lost' nasogastric tube and to highlight the importance of imaging and/or chest X-ray after nasogastric tube insertion, especially in unreliable patients. A 50-year-old man, undergoing radiotherapy treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base, was admitted for pain control and nasogastric tube feeding. This patient required multiple nasogastric tubes over a two-week period. The patient repeatedly denied pulling the nasogastric tube out and we were unable to establish the exact mode of nasogastric tube removal. On one such occasion another tube was inserted and a check X-ray showed two feeding tubes; the latest one was lying in the left main bronchus and the old nasogastric tube was observed in the oesophagus, with its upper end jutting above the hypopharynx. It was apparent that the patient had somehow cut the tube and swallowed it. This case not only illustrates the importance of flexible nasendoscopy and/or chest X-ray for checking the position of the nasogastric tube, but also highlights that some patients are not tolerant of nasogastric tubes. The use of nasogastric tubes should be avoided in these patients to prevent any self-inflicted injury.

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  2. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  3. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  4. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... over the spinal cord, leaving the cord unprotected by the bony ... population of Bursa revealed a high prevalence of Spina bifida ... tible population. During the last six months of 1987, the inci- dence of NTD decreased to 12.6 and that of anencephaly to 6.3 per 1000. During the first 6 months of 1988, the ...

  5. Neural Tube Defects: Epidemiologic Factors, Clinical Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 103 babies, 87 (84.5%) had spina bifida cystica, 15 (14.6%) had occipital encephalocele, while 1 (0.9%) had anencephaly and died within 8 hours of delivery. All the 87 patients with spina bifida cystica were ruptured and infected at presentation, with seven of them dying from overwhelming sepsis. Most of the babies ...

  6. Opioid Use and Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  7. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  8. Training the brain: practical applications of neural plasticity from the intersection of cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryck, Richard L; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    Prior researchers have shown that the brain has a remarkable ability for adapting to environmental changes. The positive effects of such neural plasticity include enhanced functioning in specific cognitive domains and shifts in cortical representation following naturally occurring cases of sensory deprivation; however, maladaptive changes in brain function and development owing to early developmental adversity and stress have also been well documented. Researchers examining enriched rearing environments in animals have revealed the potential for inducing positive brain plasticity effects and have helped to popularize methods for training the brain to reverse early brain deficits or to boost normal cognitive functioning. In this article, two classes of empirically based methods of brain training in children are reviewed and critiqued: laboratory-based, mental process training paradigms and ecological interventions based upon neurocognitive conceptual models. Given the susceptibility of executive function disruption, special attention is paid to training programs that emphasize executive function enhancement. In addition, a third approach to brain training, aimed at tapping into compensatory processes, is postulated. Study results showing the effectiveness of this strategy in the field of neurorehabilitation and in terms of naturally occurring compensatory processing in human aging lend credence to the potential of this approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Pharmacological blockade of aquaporin-1 water channel by AqB013 restricts migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells and prevents endothelial tube formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, Hilary S; Du, Alice; Bruhn, Maressa A; Wrin, Joseph; Pei, Jinxin V; Evdokiou, Andreas; Price, Timothy J; Yool, Andrea J; Hardingham, Jennifer E

    2016-02-24

    Aquaporins (AQP) are water channel proteins that enable fluid fluxes across cell membranes, important for homeostasis of the tissue environment and for cell migration. AQP1 knockout mouse models of human cancers showed marked inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, and in pre-clinical studies of colon adenocarcinomas, forced over-expression of AQP1 was shown to increase angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. We have synthesized small molecule antagonists of AQP1. Our hypothesis is that inhibition of AQP1 will reduce migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells, and the migration and tube-forming capacity of endothelial cells in vitro. Expression of AQP1 in cell lines was assessed by quantitative (q) PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence, while expression of AQP1 in human colon tumour tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of varying concentrations of the AQP1 inhibitor AqB013 was tested on human colon cancer cell lines expressing high versus low levels of AQP1, using wound closure (migration) assays, matrigel invasion assays, and proliferation assays. The effect of AqB013 on angiogenesis was tested using an endothelial cell tube-formation assay. HT29 colon cancer cells with high AQP1 levels showed significant inhibition of migration compared to vehicle control of 27.9% ± 2.6% (p colon cancer.

  10. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on ... when you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or ...

  11. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  12. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  13. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  14. Chicken trunk neural crest migration visualized with HNK1

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannone, Dion; Ortega, Blanca; Reyes, Michelle; El-Ghali, Nancy; Rabadi, Maes; Sao, Sothy; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    The development of the nervous system involves cells remaining within the neural tube (CNS) and a group of cells that delaminate from the dorsal neural tube and migrate extensively throughout the developing embryo called neural crest cells (NCC). These cells are a mesenchymal highly migratory group of cells that give rise to a wide variety of cell derivatives: melanocytes, sensory neurons, bone, Schwann cells, etc. But not all NCC can give rise to all derivatives, they have fate restrictions ...

  15. Effect of Tube Pitch on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Vertical Tube Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2016-01-01

    Summarizing the previous results it can be stated that heat transfer coefficients are highly dependent on the tube pitch and the heat flux of the relevant tube. The published results are mostly about the horizontal tubes. However, there are many heat exchangers consisting of vertical tubes like AP600. Therefore, the focus of the present study is an identification of the effects of a tube pitch as well as the heat flux of a relevant tube on the heat transfer of a tube bundle installed vertically. When the heat flux is increased many bubbles are generating due to the increase of the nucleation sites. The bubbles become coalescing with the nearby bubbles and generates big bunches of bubbles on the tube surface. This prevents the access of the liquid to the surface and deteriorates heat transfer. The bubble coalescence is competing with the mechanisms enhancing heat transfer. The pitch was varied from 28.5 mm to 95 mm and the heat flux of the nearby tube was changed from 0 to 90kW/m 2 . The enhancement of the heat transfer is clearly observed when the heat flux of the nearby tube becomes larger and the heat flux of the upper tube is less than 40kW/m 2 . The effect of the tube pitch on heat transfer is negligible as the value of DP/ is increased more than 4.

  16. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a...

  17. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a) Restriction...

  18. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent......Venous blood sampling (phlebotomy) is the most common invasive procedure performed in patient care. Guidelines on the correct practice of phlebotomy are available, including the H3-A6 guideline issued by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). As the quality of practices and procedures...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...

  19. The Choking Game on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defenderfer, Ellen K.; Austin, Jillian E.; Davies, W. Hobart

    2016-01-01

    The choking game (TCG) is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a “high,” occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants. TCG videos were less likely to be commented on or rated positively than non–choking game videos. TCG prevention videos differed significantly from actual TCG videos in the way they depicted the social context of TCG. Thus, TCG videos are accessible through YouTube, but the prevention materials available on YouTube are not accurate or representative. Accurate and educational online prevention materials should be created to decrease the occurrence of TCG. PMID:27335992

  20. The Choking Game on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen K. Defenderfer MS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The choking game (TCG is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a “high,” occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants. TCG videos were less likely to be commented on or rated positively than non–choking game videos. TCG prevention videos differed significantly from actual TCG videos in the way they depicted the social context of TCG. Thus, TCG videos are accessible through YouTube, but the prevention materials available on YouTube are not accurate or representative. Accurate and educational online prevention materials should be created to decrease the occurrence of TCG.

  1. Samba, a Xenopus hnRNP expressed in neural and neural crest tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao Yun Irene; Skourides, Paris; Chang, Chenbei; Brivanlou, Ali

    2009-01-01

    RNA binding proteins regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play important roles in embryonic development. Here, we report the cloning and expression of Samba, a Xenopus hnRNP that is maternally expressed and persists at least until tail bud stages. During gastrula stages, Samba is enriched in the dorsal regions. Subsequently, its expression is elevated only in neural and neural crest tissues. In the latter, Samba expression overlaps with that of Slug in migratory neural crest cells. Thereafter, Samba is maintained in the neural crest derivatives, as well as other neural tissues, including the anterior and posterior neural tube and the eyes. Overexpression of Samba in the animal pole leads to defects in neural crest migration and cranial cartilage development. Thus, Samba encodes a Xenopus hnRNP that is expressed early in neural and neural crest derivatives and may regulate crest cells migratory behavior. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Dynamic transcriptional signature and cell fate analysis reveals plasticity of individual neural plate border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Daniela; Tan-Cabugao, Johanna; Esaian, Sevan; Bronner, Marianne E

    2017-03-29

    The 'neural plate border' of vertebrate embryos contains precursors of neural crest and placode cells, both defining vertebrate characteristics. How these lineages segregate from neural and epidermal fates has been a matter of debate. We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. Cell fate analysis using a Sox2 (neural) enhancer reveals that cells that are initially Sox2+ cells can contribute not only to neural tube but also to neural crest and epidermis. Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure.

  3. Chemical milling of zircaloy tubing to produce integral OD spiral finned tubes. AWBA development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, W. A.

    1982-02-01

    A detailed process description is provided for producing integral spiral fins on the outside surface of Zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tubes by masking with pressure sensitive tape strips and then chemical milling (pickling) the tube wall between the tape strips to leave the fins in relief. Fins up to 0.020 inch high by 0.05 to 0.12 inch wide were consistently produced on tubes having wall thickness of 0.008 inch or greater after fin pickling. Wall thickness uniformity was excellent. Information is provided on tube surface preparation to maximize tape mask adhesion time during pickling, acid chemistry control to prevent local tube wall thinning near the fin, and pickling techniques to promote uniform material removal. Simple fixture designs are described for quickly and conveniently applying the tape strips to the tube wall in an accurate spiral.

  4. Cases of fallopian tube prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Chawla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fallopian tube prolapse post hysterectomy is rarely reported complication which can lead to doubts in the mind of young and experienced surgeons alike. This leads to patient morbidity and gets different medical treatments ranging from antibiotics to local applications of copper sulphate, without relief. The use of proper surgical technique, prevention of post operative hematoma and infection go a long way in its prevention.We hereby present two cases, which were manged successfully to relieve the patients of their agony.

  5. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  6. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  7. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may replace the tube every now and then. Cleaning the Skin Around the J-tube To clean ... this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial ...

  8. Accidental Decannulation OF TRACHEOSTOMY TUBES - Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokanye, H K; Dunmade, A D; Segun-Busari, S; Afolabi, O A; Habeeb, O G; Adegboye, M B; Alabi, B S

    2016-01-01

    Tracheostomy tube (TT) is usually removed in a planned manner once the patient ceases to have the condition that necessitated the procedure. Accidental decannulation or extubation refers to inadvertent removal of tracheostomy tube out of the stoma. It could prove fatal in an otherwise stable patient. We review a variety of unexpected and often-overlooked causes of accidental decannulation with suggestions on preventive measures. We therefore present three cases of accidental decannulation of tracheostomy tubes in order to report our experiences in the management of the condition. Accidental decannulation occurs both in hospitalized and patient on home care of their tracheostomy tubes. Reduction in neck circumference due to weight loss predisposes to accidental decannulation, which could be prevented by suturing the flange to the skin.

  9. Nasogastric and feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Ahmed M; Stern, Eric J; Sherbin, Vandy L; Rohrmann, Charles A

    1996-05-01

    Preview The authors' experience in a radiology department suggested to them that there is a wide range of beliefs among practitioners regarding proper placement of nasogastric and feeding tubes. Improper positioning can cause serious problems, as they explain. Indications for different tube positions, complications of incorrect tube placement, and directions for proper positioning are discussed and illustrated.

  10. Accidental Decannulation OF TRACHEOSTOMY TUBES - Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Omokanye, HK; Dunmade, AD; Segun-Busari, S; Afolabi, OA; Habeeb, OG; Adegboye, MB; Alabi, BS

    2016-01-01

    Tracheostomy tube (TT) is usually removed in a planned manner once the patient ceases to have the condition that necessitated the procedure. Accidental decannulation or extubation refers to inadvertent removal of tracheostomy tube out of the stoma. It could prove fatal in an otherwise stable patient. We review a variety of unexpected and often-overlooked causes of accidental decannulation with suggestions on preventive measures. We therefore present three cases of accidental decannulation of ...

  11. Development of Zirconium alloys (for pressure tubes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kwon, Sang Chul; Choo, Ki Nam; Jung, Chung Hwan; Yim, Kyong Soo; Kim, Sung Soo; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyong Ho; Cho, Hae Dong; Hwang, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Kwon, S. I; Kim, I. S.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this research is to set up the basic technologies for the evaluation of pressure tube integrity and to develop improved zirconium alloys to prevent pressure tube failures due to DHC and hydride blister caused by excessive creep-down of pressure tubes. The experimental procedure and facilities for characterization of pressure tubes were developed. The basic research related to a better understanding of the in-reactor performances of pressure tubes leads to noticeable findings for the first time : the microstructural effect on corrosion and hydrogen pick-up behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes, texture effect on strength and DHC resistance and enhanced recrystallization by Fe in zirconium alloys and etc. Analytical methodology for the assessment of pressure tubes with surface flaws was set up. A joint research is being under way with AECL to determine the fracture toughness of O-8 at the EOL (End of Life) that had been quadruple melted and was taken out of the Wolsung Unit-1 after 10 year operation. In addition, pressure tube with texture controlled is being made along with VNINM in Russia as a joint project between KAERI and Russia. Finally, we succeeded in developing 4 different kinds of zirconium alloys with better corrosion resistance, low hydrogen pickup fraction and higher creep strength. (author). 121 refs., 65 tabs., 260 figs

  12. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a...

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos >> NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  14. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia ...

  15. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  16. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  17. Rejection index for pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.B.; Meneley, D.

    1989-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a set of criteria (or Rejection Index) which could be used to decide whether a zirconium-2 1/2 w/o niobium pressure tube in a CANDU reactor should be removed from service due to in-service degradation. A critique of key issues associated with establishing a realistic rejection index was prepared. Areas of uncertainty in available information were identified and recommendations for further analysis and laboratory testing made. A Rejection Index based on the following limits has been recommended: 1) Limits related to design intent and normal operation: any garter spring must remain within the tolerance band specified for its design location; the annulus gas system must normally be operated in a circulating mode with a procedure in place for purging to prevent accumulation of deuterium. It must remain sensitive to leaks into any part of the systems; and pressure tube dimensions and distortions must be limited to maintain the fuel channels within the original design intent; 2) Limits related to defect tolerance: adequate time margins between occurrence of a leaking crack and unstable failure must be demonstrated for all fuel channels; long lap-type flaws are unacceptable; crack-like defects of any size are unacceptable; and score marks, frat marks and other defects with contoured profiles must fall below certain depth, length and stress intensity limits; and 3) Limits related to property degradation: at operating temperature each pressure tube must be demonstrated to have a critical length in excess of a stipulated value; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any pressure tube should not exceed a limit which should be defined taking into account the known history of that tube; the maximum equivalent hydrogen level in any rolled joint should not exceed a limit which is presently recommended as 200 ppm equivalent hydrogen; and the maximum diametral creep strain should be limited to less than 5%

  18. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  19. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  20. Neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, Bruce; Lindsey, Clark; Lyons, Louis

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s saw a tremendous renewal of interest in 'neural' information processing systems, or 'artificial neural networks', among computer scientists and computational biologists studying cognition. Since then, the growth of interest in neural networks in high energy physics, fueled by the need for new information processing technologies for the next generation of high energy proton colliders, can only be described as explosive

  1. Early Experience with the StopLoss Jones Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Laura; Pearson, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Extrusion is the most common reason for failure after Jones tube placement. The StopLoss Jones tube (SLJT) is a new innovation in Jones tubes that incorporates a flexible silicone internal flange to resist extrusion. We present our early experience of using this new tube and associated introducer system. We retrospectively analysed the case notes of a single surgeon consecutive series of patients having SLJT placement from November 2011 to November 2013. 29 SLJTs were placed in 25 eyes of 19 patients. Tube follow-up ranged from 1-25 months (mean 10 months) with a total of 291 tube-months. The indications for SLJT placement were: previous LJT complications (52%), failed canalicular-DCR surgery (31%), primary placement for inoperable canalicular occlusion (14%) and patent non-functioning DCR (3%). Tube length ranged from 10-16 mm. The tube introducer system was simple and effective and there were no intra-operative complications. The tube extrusion rate was 0%. Complications occurred in 5 tubes: 1 was too long, and 4 others (14%) developed conjunctival overgrowth/medial tube migration. Patient satisfaction with the tube was: 86% fully satisfied, 10% was moderately satisfied, 3% not satisfied. The overall final surgical success rate at last follow-up was 92%. In this short follow-up initial study the SLJT is simple to use and has a high rate of success and patient satisfaction. The addition of the internal silicone flange appears to prevent the previously common problem of extrusion.

  2. Manual tube welding torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.H.; Smith, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a welding torch which fits over a tube intermediate the ends thereof for welding the juncture between the tube and a boss on the back side of a tube plate, a split housing encloses a tungsten electrode, a filler wire duct and a fiber optic bundle arranged to observe the welding process. A shielding gas duct is provided in the housing. A screw is provided for setting electrode/work distance. Difficult remote tube welding operations can be performed with the apparatus. (author)

  3. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  4. Wound tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  5. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  6. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2017-02-28

    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  7. Lack of beta1 integrins in enteric neural crest cells leads to a Hirschsprung-like phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breau, Marie A; Pietri, Thomas; Eder, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    The enteric nervous system arises mainly from vagal and sacral neural crest cells that colonise the gut between 9.5 and 14 days of development in mice. Using the Cre-LoxP system, we removed beta1 integrins in the neural crest cells when they emerge from the neural tube. beta1-null enteric neural...

  8. Chronic stress in adulthood followed by intermittent stress impairs spatial memory and the survival of newborn hippocampal cells in aging animals: prevention by FGL, a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borcel, Erika; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; Herrero, Ana Isabel

    2008-01-01

    , a peptide mimetic of neural cell adhesion molecule, during the 4 weeks of continuous stress not only prevented the deleterious effects of chronic stress on spatial memory, but also reduced the survival of the newly generated hippocampal cells in aging animals. FGL treatment did not, however, prevent......In this study, we examined whether chronic stress in adulthood can exert long-term effects on spatial-cognitive abilities and on the survival of newborn hippocampal cells in aging animals. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress at midlife (12 months old) and then reexposed...... each week to a stress stimulus. When evaluated in the water maze at the early stages of aging (18 months old), chronic unpredictable stress accelerated spatial-cognitive decline, an effect that was accompanied by a reduction in the survival of newborn cells and in the number of adult granular cells...

  9. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  10. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  11. Chest Tube Thoracostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the space around the lungs (called a pleural effusion) . A chest tube may also be needed when a patient has ... or chest CT are also done to evaluate pleural fluid. If the X-ray shows a need for a chest tube to drain fluid or air, the procedure is ...

  12. Ventricular tachycardia following tube thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Benjamin; Lim, Toon Wei; Hibbert, Rebecca; Green, Martin; Gollob, Michael H; Davis, Darryl R

    2010-10-01

    Arrhythmias provoked by tube thoracotomy are a rare complication. We report a ventricular tachycardia after chest tube insertion for a device-related pneumothorax. Sinus rhythm was restored only by removal of the chest tube and insertion of a pliable pleural drain. Identification of the chest tube as an arrhythmic trigger following tube thoracotomy is essential in definitive management of refractory arrhythmias.

  13. Airway support using a pediatric intubation tube in adult patients with atrial fibrillation: A simple and unique method to prevent heart movement during catheter ablation under continuous deep sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Takigawa, MD

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: This unique airway management technique using a pediatric intubation tube for CA procedures performed in adult patients with AF under continuous deep sedation was easy, safe, and effective.

  14. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  15. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s...... technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  16. Pneumothorax Following Feeding Tube Placement: Precaution and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Zahmatkesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nasojejunal feeding tubes are being used at an increased frequency, but it is not without complications that could be life-threatening. We report two cases of pneumothorax following small-bore feeding tube insertion into the pleural cavity, resulting in pneumothorax. We further discuss the potential measures that can be taken to prevent and treat this serious complication.

  17. Signalling and the cytoskeleton of pollen tubes of Papaver rhoeas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snowman, B.N.; Geitmann, A.; Clarke, S.R.; Staiger, C.J.; Franklin, F.C.H.; Emons, A.M.C.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.

    2000-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetically controlled system used by many flowering plants to prevent self-pollination, often by the inhibition of pollen tube growth. The importance of cytosolic free calcium, [Ca2+]i, for the regulation of pollen tube growth is well known. We have established, using

  18. Cuffed endotracheal tubes in paediatrics | Motiang | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic function of a tracheal tube is to provide a reliable connection between the patient's airway and the anaesthetic circuit (bag or ventilator). Ideally, this connection should allow a leak at 15-20 cmH2 O to prevent pressure-related mucosal perfusion, which varies with age. The anatomy of the paediatric airway differs ...

  19. Complications of nasogastric tube placement--don't blow it.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, S

    2012-04-01

    Preventable complications maybe associated with the placement of nasogastric tubes. Our report raises awareness of the potentially fatal complications that can occur. We also recommend an approach for clinicians which maybe used to avoid significant patient morbidity.

  20. Evaporator line for special electron tubes, in particular electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention has been aimed at reducing the effort for preventing short circuits in achieving certain material-dependent effects e.g. secondary emission, by deposition through evaporation in the production of electron tubes, in particular electron multipliers

  1. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  2. Residual strain distribution in bent composite boiler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fei; Hubbard, Camden R.; Sarma, Gorti; Keiser, James

    2006-01-01

    Kraft recovery boilers are typically constructed of carbon steel boiler tubes clad with a corrosion resistant layer, and these composite tubes are bent and welded together to form air port panels which enable the combustion air to enter the boiler. In this paper, the through-thickness residual strain in the carbon steel layer of non-heat-treated and heat-treated composite bent tubes were measured by neutron diffraction techniques and modeled by finite element modeling. The results can be used to optimize material selection and manufacturing processes to prevent stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking in the boiler tubes

  3. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  4. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  5. Tube Alinement for Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  6. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of steam generator tubes in water-cooled nuclear power reactors has been reviewed for 1980. Tube defects occurred at 38% of the 97 reactors surveyed. This is a marginal improvement over 1979 when defects occurred at 41% of the reactors. The number of failed tubes was also lower, 0.14% of the tubes in service in 1980 compared with 0.20% of those in service in 1979. Analysis of the causes of these failures indicates that stress corrosion cracking was the leading failure mechanism. Reactors that used all-volatile treatment of secondary water, with or without full-flow condensate demineralization since start-up showed the lowest incidence of corrosion-related defects

  7. Ear tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mastoiditis) or the brain, or that damages nearby nerves Injury to the ear after sudden changes in ... does not heal after the tube falls out. Most of the time, these problems DO NOT last long. They also ...

  8. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the diameter is measured in units known as French sizes, or “Fr”; a low profile tube also ... your quality of life. You are encouraged to speak with your physician, dietitian, home care company, or ...

  9. Neural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Neural Engineering, 2nd Edition, contains reviews and discussions of contemporary and relevant topics by leading investigators in the field. It is intended to serve as a textbook at the graduate and advanced undergraduate level in a bioengineering curriculum. This principles and applications approach to neural engineering is essential reading for all academics, biomedical engineers, neuroscientists, neurophysiologists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in this emerging field.

  10. Magnesium tube hydroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liewald, M.; Pop, R. [Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium alloys reveal a good strength-to-weight ratio in the family of lightweight metals and gains potential to provide up to 30% mass savings compared to aluminium and up to 75 % compared to steel. The use of sheet magnesium alloys for auto body applications is however limited due to the relatively low formability at room temperature. Within the scope of this paper, extruded magnesium tubes, which are suitable for hydroforming applications, have been investigated. Results obtained at room temperature using magnesium AZ31 tubes show that circumferential strains are limited to a maximal value of 4%. In order to examine the influence of the forming temperature on tube formability, investigations have been carried out with a new die set for hot internal high pressure (IHP) forming at temperatures up to 400 C. Earlier investigations with magnesium AZ31 tubes have shown that fractures occur along the welding line at tubes extruded over a spider die, whereby a non-uniform expansion at bursting with an elongation value of 24% can be observed. A maximum circumferential strain of approx. 60% could be attained when seamless, mechanically pre-expanded and annealed tubes of the same alloy have been used. The effect of annealing time on materials forming properties shows a fine grained structure for sufficient annealing times as well as deterioration with a large increase at same time. Hence, seamless ZM21 tubes have been used in the current investigations. With these tubes, an increased tensile fracture strain of 116% at 350 C is observed as against 19% at 20 C, obtained by tensile testing of milled specimens from the extruded tubes. This behaviour is also seen under the condition of tool contact during the IHP forming process. To determine the maximum circumferential strain at different forming temperatures and strain rates, the tubes are initially bulged in a die with square cross-section under plane stress conditions. Thereafter, the tubes are calibrated by using an

  11. Beware of the malformed nasogastric tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh; Khanna, Puneet; S, Siva Kumaran; Sonny, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Untoward events with faulty instruments and apparatus are well known and if not recognised can be disastrous. We present a case of a faulty nasogastric tube having both ends sharp-edged and closed with a detachable blocker. In our case, had we inserted the faulty nasogastric tube, the impact of the blocker, although small, in the tract could have eroded the nasal/oesophageal/gastric mucosa causing its sequalae. Thus, we would like to emphasise the need to check all instruments before using them to prevent any catastrophic complication. PMID:21686494

  12. Nitrous oxide use and endotracheal tube rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, E L; Schelkun, P M; Vincent, S K

    1988-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important and widely used anesthetic agent. However, during lengthy surgical procedures, significant amounts of nitrous oxide diffuse into the endotracheal tube cuff, causing sequelae that may include increased cuff pressures, tracheal trauma, increased postoperative discomfort, and cuff rupture. In this paper, two cases are presented in which the endotracheal tube cuff used to deliver this anesthetic agent ruptured after more than four hours of surgery. Two simple means of limiting the diffusion of nitrous oxide into the cuff and thus preventing this occurrence are described.

  13. Power vacuum tubes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Providing examples of applications, Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook, Third Edition examines the underlying technology of each type of power vacuum tube device in common use today. The author presents basic principles, reports on new development efforts, and discusses implementation and maintenance considerations. Supporting mathematical equations and extensive technical illustrations and schematic diagrams help readers understand the material. Translate Principles into Specific Applications This one-stop reference is a hands-on guide for engineering personnel involved in the design, specification,

  14. Dynamics of tubes in fluid with tube-baffle interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1983-09-01

    Three series of tests are performed to evaluate the effects of tube to tube-support-plate (TSP) clearance on tube dynamic characteristics and instability phenomena for tube arrays in crossflow. Test results show that, for relatively large clearances, tubes may possess TSP-inactive modes in which the tubes rattle inside some of the tube-support-plate holes, and that the natural frequencies of TSP-inactive modes are lower than those of TSP-active modes, in which the support plates provide knife-edge type support. Tube response characteristics associated with TSP-inactive modes are sensitive to tube-to-TSP clearance, TSP thickness, excitation amplitude, tube alignment, and the fluid inside the clearance. In addition, tube response is intrinsically nonlinear, with the dominance of TSP-inactive or TSP-active modes depending on the magnitudes of different system parameters. In general, such a system is difficult to model; only a full-scale test can provide all the necessary characteristics. A tube array supported by TSPs with relatively large clearances may be subjected to dynamic instability in some of the TSP-inactive modes; tube response characteristics and impact forces on TSPs for a tube row are studied in detail in this report. Tube displacements associated with the instability of a TSP-inactive mode are small; however, impacts of the tube against TSPs may result in significant damage in a relatively short time. 52 figures

  15. Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Patrick I.

    2003-01-01

    Physicists use large detectors to measure particles created in high-energy collisions at particle accelerators. These detectors typically produce signals indicating either where ionization occurs along the path of the particle, or where energy is deposited by the particle. The data produced by these signals is fed into pattern recognition programs to try to identify what particles were produced, and to measure the energy and direction of these particles. Ideally, there are many techniques used in this pattern recognition software. One technique, neural networks, is particularly suitable for identifying what type of particle caused by a set of energy deposits. Neural networks can derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, extract patterns, and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer related processes. To assist in the advancement of this technology, Physicists use a tool kit to experiment with several neural network techniques. The goal of this research is interface a neural network tool kit into Java Analysis Studio (JAS3), an application that allows data to be analyzed from any experiment. As the final result, a physicist will have the ability to train, test, and implement a neural network with the desired output while using JAS3 to analyze the results or output. Before an implementation of a neural network can take place, a firm understanding of what a neural network is and how it works is beneficial. A neural network is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate the learning process [5]. It is also important to think of the word artificial in that definition as computer programs that use calculations during the learning process. In short, a neural network learns by representative examples. Perhaps the easiest way to describe the way neural networks learn is to explain how the human brain functions. The human brain contains billions of neural cells that are responsible for processing

  16. Neural Responses to Injury: Prevention, Protection and Repair; Volume 7: Role Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bazan, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    ...: Prevention, Protection, and Repair, Subproject: Role of Growth Factors and Cell Signaling in the Response of Brain and Retina to Injury, are as follows: Species Rat(Albino Wistar), Number Allowed...

  17. Process technology development of Ni electroplating in steam generator tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, H. P.; Lim, Y. S.; Kim, S. S.; Hwang, S. S.; Yi, Y. S.; Kim, D. J.; Jeong, M. K

    2006-07-15

    Alloy 600 having superior resistance to corrosion is used as a steam generator tubing in Nuclear Power Plants. In spite of its high corrosion resistance, there are many tubes which have experienced the corrosion problems such as SCC, pitting under high temperature and high pressure environments of NPP, leading to a menace to the safety of NPPs as well as economical loss. A commonly applied approach to rehabilitation has been to repair the damaged areas of the tubes via the insertion of tubular sleeves which are either welded or mechanically bonded at their extremities to the host tube. Such intrusive sleeves have weak points, such as the crevices, the tube deformation and an introduction of stress onto the host tube which then usually requires stress relief to improve the in-service life. However a lot of problems including these during and after repairing can be solved by Ni electroplating having excellent corrosion resistance to such as SCC. This work is related to optimum process development for Ni electrodeposition inside damaged steam generator tubing for repairing and the damage prevention. The optimum electroplating process for planar specimens was developed and the electrodeposition was performed successfully inside tube specimens by using the modified and improved anode probe. The Ni-electrodeposit plated on the inner surfaces of the tube specimens was confirmed to show excellent SCC resistance. A multiple electrodeposition facility for simultaneous electroplating inside three tubes at the same time was built and proved to work properly.

  18. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  19. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract ...

  20. The Choking Game on YouTube: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defenderfer, Ellen K; Austin, Jillian E; Davies, W Hobart

    2016-01-01

    The choking game (TCG) is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a "high," occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants. TCG videos were less likely to be commented on or rated positively than non-choking game videos. TCG prevention videos differed significantly from actual TCG videos in the way they depicted the social context of TCG. Thus, TCG videos are accessible through YouTube, but the prevention materials available on YouTube are not accurate or representative. Accurate and educational online prevention materials should be created to decrease the occurrence of TCG.

  1. [Neural crest and vertebrate evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Douarin, Nicole M; Creuzet, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a remarkable structure of the Vertebrate embryo, which forms from the lateral borders of the neural plate (designated as neural folds) during neural tube closure. As soon as the NC is formed, its constitutive cells detach and migrate away from the neural primordium along definite pathways and at precise periods of time according to a rostro-caudal progression. The NC cells aggregate in definite places in the developing embryo, where they differentiate into a large variety of cell types including the neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, the pigment cells dispersed throughout the body and endocrine cells such as the adrenal medulla and the calcitonin producing cells. At the cephalic level only, in higher Vertebrates (but along the whole neural axis in Fishes and Amphibians), the NC is also at the origin of mesenchymal cells differentiating into connective tissue chondrogenic and osteogenic cells. Vertebrates belong to the larger group of Cordates which includes also the Protocordates (Cephalocordates and the Urocordates). All Cordates are characterized by the same body plan with a dorsal neural tube and a notochord which, in Vertebrates, exists only at embryonic stages. The main difference between Protocordates and Vertebrates is the very rudimentary development of cephalic structures in the former. As a result, the process of cephalization is one of the most obvious characteristics of Vertebrates. It was accompanied by the apparition of the NC which can therefore be considered as an innovation of Vertebrates during evolution. The application of a cell marking technique which consists in constructing chimeric embryos between two species of birds, the quail and the chicken, has led to show that the vertebrate head is mainly formed by cells originating from the NC, meaning that this structure was an important asset in Vertebrate evolution. Recent studies, described in this article, have strengthened this view by showing

  2. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  3. Supplémentation préconceptionnelle en acide folique / multivitamines pour la prévention primaire et secondaire des anomalies du tube neural et d'autres anomalies congénitales sensibles à l'acide folique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Offrir des renseignements à jour sur l'utilisation pré et postconceptionnelle d'acide folique par voie orale, avec ou sans supplément de multivitamines / micronutriments, aux fins de la prévention des anomalies du tube neural et d'autres anomalies congénitales. Ces renseignements aideront les médecins, les sages-femmes, les infirmières et les autres professionnels de la santé à contribuer aux efforts de sensibilisation des femmes quant à l'utilisation et aux posologies adéquates de la supplémentation en acide folique / multivitamines, avant et pendant la grossesse. RéSULTATS: La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l'intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, Medline, CINAHL et la Cochrane Library en janvier 2011 au moyen d'un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « folic acid », « prenatal multivitamins », « folate sensitive birth defects », « congenital anomaly risk reduction », « pre-conception counselling »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs publiés en anglais entre 1985 et juin 2014. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu'en juin 2014. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l'intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d'organismes s'intéressant à l'évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d'organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d'essais cliniques, et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. COûTS, RISQUES ET AVANTAGES: Les coûts financiers sont ceux de la supplémentation quotidienne en vitamines et de la consommation d'un régime alimentaire santé enrichi en folate. Les risques sont ceux qui sont liés à une association signalée entre la suppl

  4. Fill tube fitted spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature diffusion technique for fuel filling of some future direct drive cryogenic ICF targets may be unacceptable. The following describes a technique of fitting a 1 mm diameter x 6 μm thick glass microsphere with an approx. 50 μm O.D. glass fill tube. The process of laser drilling a 50 μm diameter hole in the microsphere wall, technique for making the epoxy joint between the sphere and fill tube, as well as the assembly procedure are also discussed

  5. Steam generator tube vibration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderlin, W.I.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical cleaning has been proposed to remove magnetite buildup in some pressurized water reactor steam generators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed concern that such cleaning would combine with the tube denting caused by magnetite formation to enlarge tube/tube support plate clearances, increasing the level of flow-induced vibrations that could lead to unacceptably high tube wear and failure rates. In support of NRC, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory investigated whether such increased clearances would exacerbate tube fretting wear. Using a full-length scale model of a steam generator tube bundle, flow tests were conducted at an instrumented location through clearances representing as-built and post-cleaned tube conditions. Test results indicated little potential for increased tube wear as a result of chemical cleaning, under normal operating conditions at tube support locations similar to that tested

  6. Limiting the Accidental Pressure Drop in NIF Beam Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the use of a one-dimensional model of a time-dependent compressible flow condition to validate the results from a more sophisticated three-dimensional model. The flow conditions consist of the sudden decompression of a pressurized tube joined to an evacuated sphere, where the tube also has a leak to external atmosphere that is triggered open at a given pressure difference below sea-level pressure. This flow model is used to calculate conditions in a NIF beam tube if an internal vacuum barrier fails, and to calculate how the size and timing of an opening to external atmosphere changes tube pressure. Decompression of a NIF beam tube is a potential safety hazard since the tube could collapse if the tube pressure is reduced below the buckling limit. To prevent this from occurring, each pressurized section includes a rupture panel which is designed to open to external atmosphere at a given pressure difference. The inrush of external atmosphere through the rupture panel fills both the tube and the vacuum drawing on it, and in this way the pressure drop in the tube is quickly limited and reversed. In summary, the results from the 1D model indicate that the 3-D calculations are accurate and reasonable

  7. Postoperative antibacterial prophylaxis for the prevention of infectious complications associated with tube thoracostomy in patients undergoing elective general thoracic surgery: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, David A; Issa, Nicolas C; Marty, Francisco M; Patel, Alka; Panizales, Christia Z; Johnson, Nathaniel N; Licona, J Humberto; McKenna, Shannon S; Frendl, Gyorgy; Mentzer, Steven J; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Bueno, Raphael; Colson, Yolonda; Swanson, Scott J; Sugarbaker, David J; Baden, Lindsey R

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether extended postoperative antibacterial prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery with tube thoracostomy reduces the risk of infectious complications compared with preoperative prophylaxis only. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Brigham and Women's Hospital, an 800-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. A total of 251 adult patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery requiring tube thoracostomy between April 2008 and April 2011. Patients received preoperative antibacterial prophylaxis with cefazolin sodium (or other drug if the patient was allergic to cefazolin). Postoperatively, patients were randomly assigned (at a 1:1 ratio) using a computer-generated randomization sequence to receive extended antibacterial prophylaxis (n = 125) or placebo (n = 126) for 48 hours or until all thoracostomy tubes were removed, whichever came first. The combined occurrence of surgical site infection, empyema, pneumonia, and Clostridium difficile colitis by postoperative day 28. A total of 245 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (121 in the intervention group and 124 in the placebo group). Thirteen patients (10.7%) in the intervention group and 8 patients (6.5%) in the placebo group had a primary end point (risk difference, -4.3% [95% CI, -11.3% to 2.7%]; P = .26). Six patients (5.0%) in the intervention group and 5 patients (4.0%) in the placebo group developed surgical site infections (risk difference, -0.93% [95% CI, -6.1% to 4.3%]; P = .77). Seven patients (5.8%) in the intervention group and 3 patients (2.4%) in the placebo group developed pneumonia (risk difference, -3.4% [95% CI, -8.3% to 1.6%]; P = .21). One patient in the intervention group developed empyema. No patients experienced C difficile colitis. Extended postoperative antibacterial prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery requiring tube thoracostomy did not reduce the

  8. Changes in pediatric tracheostomy tubes exposed to home dishwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolar, David E; Ho, Brian; Kent, Steven M; Hughes, C Anthony; Mettenburg, Donald; Rueggeberg, Fredrick A; Groves, Michael W

    2017-09-01

    Determine the effects of household dishwashing on Tracheostomy Tube safety. Tracheostomy tubes accumulate biofilms, which may limit their lifespan. Frequent cleaning of the tubes is a method for biofilm prevention. Cleaning practices vary widely. Some families prefer dishwashing of tubes, but its effects are currently unknown. We hypothesize that dishwashing has no significant effect on the physical properties of tracheostomy tubes and can be recommended as a safe way to clean tracheostomy tubes. Twenty 4.0 Shiley™ pediatric tracheostomy tubes were randomly assigned into dishwashed (DW) and non-dishwashed (NDW) groups, 10/group. DW tubes were subjected to 12 wash cycles. Each tube's hardness along with the surface spectra were analyzed to assess for chemical composition changes. Three cannula samples from each group were also randomly assessed with scanning-electron microscopy and scored by blinded examiners to assess for changes in surface heterogeneity. Hardness testing revealed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0009) between the NDW and the DW group indicating increased fragility in the dishwashed tubes. Spectral analysis revealed loss of plasticizers, indicating decreased flexibility. Blinded electron microscopy scoring revealed increased surface heterogeneity in the DW group (p = 0.00007). A significant decrease in tube hardness and increased surface heterogeneity were found with dishwashing. The spectral analysis demonstrated increasing fragility. We believe these effects could potentially lead to decreased mechanical safety. With increased surface heterogeneity there is a greater potential for biofilm formation. At this time, dishwashing cannot be recommended as a tracheostomy tube cleaning method. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Misdirected minitracheostomy tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmer Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient who after an uneventful coronary artery bypass graft surgery and left ventricular aneurysmorrhaphy developed intracerebral hemorrhage and subsequently required minitracheostomy. Chest X-ray showed misdirected minitracheostomy tube facing upward toward the laryngeal opening which was repositioned using bronchoscope.

  10. A New Resonance Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at…

  11. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  12. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, J D

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators.

  13. Eustachian Tube Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When it is inflated, the balloon opens a pathway for mucus and air to flow through the tube. This can help it function properly. FDA warning The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises against the use of ear candles. ...

  14. Tube-dwelling invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hölker, Franz; Vanni, Michael J.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Meile, Christof; Grossart, Hans Peter; Stief, Peter; Adrian, Rita; Lorke, Andreas; Dellwig, Olaf; Brand, Andreas; Hupfer, Michael; Mooij, Wolf M.; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that tube-dwelling invertebrates such as chironomids significantly alter multiple important ecosystem functions, particularly in shallow lakes. Chironomids pump large water volumes, and associated suspended and dissolved substances, through the sediment and thereby compete

  15. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your chest cavity. This is called the pleural space. It is done to allow your lungs to fully expand. ... pneumothorax ) Fluid buildup in the chest (called a pleural ... in the esophagus (the tube that allows food to go from the mouth ...

  16. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and related phenol compounds redirect the amyloidogenic aggregation pathway of ataxin-3 towards non-toxic aggregates and prevent toxicity in neural cells and Caenorhabditis elegans animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Cristina; Pellistri, Francesca; Natalello, Antonino; Vertemara, Jacopo; Bonanomi, Marcella; Gatta, Elena; Penco, Amanda; Relini, Annalisa; De Gioia, Luca; Airoldi, Cristina; Regonesi, Maria E; Tortora, Paolo

    2017-09-01

    The protein ataxin-3 (ATX3) triggers an amyloid-related neurodegenerative disease when its polyglutamine stretch is expanded beyond a critical threshold. We formerly demonstrated that the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could redirect amyloid aggregation of a full-length, expanded ATX3 (ATX3-Q55) towards non-toxic, soluble, SDS-resistant aggregates. Here, we have characterized other related phenol compounds, although smaller in size, i.e. (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGC), and gallic acid (GA). We analysed the aggregation pattern of ATX3-Q55 and of the N-terminal globular Josephin domain (JD) by assessing the time course of the soluble protein, as well its structural features by FTIR and AFM, in the presence and the absence of the mentioned compounds. All of them redirected the aggregation pattern towards soluble, SDS-resistant aggregates. They also prevented the appearance of ordered side-chain hydrogen bonding in ATX3-Q55, which is the hallmark of polyQ-related amyloids. Molecular docking analyses on the JD highlighted three interacting regions, including the central, aggregation-prone one. All three compounds bound to each of them, although with different patterns. This might account for their capability to prevent amyloidogenesis. Saturation transfer difference NMR experiments also confirmed EGCG and EGC binding to monomeric JD. ATX3-Q55 pre-incubation with any of the three compounds prevented its calcium-influx-mediated cytotoxicity towards neural cells. Finally, all the phenols significantly reduced toxicity in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain expressing an expanded ATX3. Overall, our results show that the three polyphenols act in a substantially similar manner. GA, however, might be more suitable for antiamyloid treatments due to its simpler structure and higher chemical stability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Expressly Fabricated Molar Tube Bases: Enhanced Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phull, Tarun Singh; Rana, Tarun; Kumar, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians, Orthodontists and their patients’ parents often expect the best results in the shortest time span possible. Orthodontic bonding of molar tubes has been an acceptable risk in a modern era of refined biomaterials and instrumentation. Although many orthodontists still prefer banding to bonding, it is the failure rate of the tubes on molars which accounts to an impedance in molar bonding. One of the reasons for molar attachment failures is attributed to improper adaptation of the buccal tube base with or without increased thickness of composite. Merits of banding the second molars especially when these are the terminal teeth for anchorage have been overemphasized in the literature. The present article presents a simple and relatively less time consuming technique of preparing molar tubes to be bonded on tooth surfaces which may be quite difficult to isolate especially for bonding, for example, mandibular second molars. The increased surface area of the composite scaffold helps not only in enhanced bond strength but also serves to reduce the incidence of plaque accumulation given the dexterity of invitro preparation. The removal of the occlusal part of the molar tube scaffold helps in prevention of open / raised bite tendencies. The present innovation, therefore, is not merely serendipity but a structured technique to overcome a common dilemma for the clinical orthodontist. The present dictum of banding being superior to molar tube bonding may prove to be futile with trendsetting molar attachments. It is also an established fact that bonding proves to be a lesser expensive modality when compared to banding procedures. PMID:25121070

  18. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1977-01-01

    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  19. Rubens Flame-Tube Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficken, George W.; Stephenson, Francis C.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates and explains the phenomenon associated with Rubens flame-tube demonstration, specifically the persistance of flames at regular intervals along the tube for few minutes after the gas is turned off. (GA)

  20. Prospects for stronger calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ells, C.E.; Coleman, C.E.; Hosbons, R.R.; Ibrahim, E.F.; Doubt, G.L.

    1990-12-01

    The CANDU calandria tubes, made of seam welded and annealed Zircaloy-2, have given exemplary service in-reactor. Although not designed as a system pressure containment, calandria tubes may remain intact even in the face of pressure tube rupture. One such incident at Pickering Unit 2 demonstrated the economic advantage of such an outcome, and a case can be made for increasing the probability that other calandria tubes would perform in a similar fashion. Various methods of obtaining stronger calandria tubes are available, and reviewed here. When the tubes are internally pressurized, the weld is the weak section of the tube. Increasing the oxygen concentration in the starting sheet, and thickening the weld, are promising routes to a stronger tube

  1. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  2. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  3. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low ...

  4. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low ...

  5. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  6. Spinal Neural Tube Defects in Lagos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: We studied all patients with congenital midline back swellings presenting to one of two neurosurgical services in the state over a 5-year period to establish the incidence of spina bifida and develop demographic data. Data collected included the age at presentation, maternal age, education and parity, presence of ...

  7. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction. 10 refs.

  8. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  9. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  10. Shape optimization of draft tubes for Agnew microhydro turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaeefard, Mohammad Hasan; Mirzaei, Ammar; Babaei, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The draft tube of Agnew microhydro turbine was optimized. • Pareto optimal solutions were determined by neural networks and NSGA-II algorithm. • The pressure recovery factor increases with height and angle over design ranges. • The loss coefficient reaches the minimum values at angles about 2 o . • Swirl of the incoming flow has great influence on the optimization results. - Abstract: In this study, the shape optimization of draft tubes utilized in Agnew type microhydro turbines has been discussed. The design parameters of the draft tube such as the cone angle and the height above the tailrace are considered in defining an optimization problem whose goal is to maximize the pressure recovery factor and minimize the energy loss coefficient of flow. The design space is determined by considering the experimental constraints and parameterized by the method of face-centered uniform ascertain distribution. The numerical simulations are performed using the boundary conditions found from laboratory tests and the obtained results are analyzed to create and validate a feed-forward neural network model, which is implemented as a surrogate model. The optimal Pareto solutions are finally determined using the NSGA-II evolutionary algorithm and compared for different inlet conditions. The results predict that the high swirl of the incoming flow drastically reduces the performance of the draft tube

  11. FGF Signaling Transforms Non-neural Ectoderm into Neural Crest

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, Nathan; García-Castro, Martín I.

    2012-01-01

    The neural crest arises at the border between the neural plate and the adjacent non-neural ectoderm. It has been suggested that both neural and non-neural ectoderm can contribute to the neural crest. Several studies have examined the molecular mechanisms that regulate neural crest induction in neuralized tissues or the neural plate border. Here, using the chick as a model system, we address the molecular mechanisms by which non-neural ectoderm generates neural crest. We report that in respons...

  12. Systematic analysis of time-dependent neural effects of soluble amyloid β oligomers in culture and in vivo: prevention by scyllo-inositol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ming; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently being addressed by intensive investment in pre-clinical and clinical research on the amyloid hypothesis, but concern remains about the validity of the concept that soluble Aβ oligomers are principally responsible for initiating AD phenotypes. Here, we apply well-defined Aβ oligomers isolated from AD brains or made synthetically to document a systematic accrual of first subtle and then more profound changes in certain synaptic proteins in both primary neuronal cultures and behaving adult mice. Among the first (within hours) synaptic changes are selective decreases in surface levels of certain (e.g., GluA1) but not other (e.g., GluN2B) glutamate receptors and subtle microglial activation. After 4 days, numerous additional synaptic proteins are altered. Moreover, Aβ oligomers induce hyperphosphorylation of tau and subsequent neuritic dystrophy. All changes are prevented by scyllo-inositol in a dose-and stereoisomer-specific manner. Mechanistically, scyllo-inositol interferes quantitatively with the binding of Aβ oligomers to plasma membranes. These comprehensive analyses in culture and in vivo provide direct evidence that diffusible oligomers of human Aβ (without plaques) induce multiple phenotypic changes in healthy neurons, indicating their role as principal endogenous cytotoxins in AD. Our data recommend a re-examination of scyllo-inositol as an anti-oligomer therapeutic in humans with early AD. PMID:26054438

  13. The effect of caffeine citrate on neural breathing pattern in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, Vilhelmiina; Beck, Jennifer; Zhai, Qian; Leppäsalo, Juha; Lehtonen, Liisa; Soukka, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Caffeine citrate is widely used to prevent and treat prematurity-associated apnea. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of caffeine citrate on the neural control of breathing, especially central apnea, in premature infants. Preterm infants were evaluated for 30min before and 30min after caffeine citrate loading (20mg/kg). A feeding tube including miniaturized sensors was used to measure the diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) waveform. Central apnea was defined as any period where the Edi waveform was flat for >5s. Seventeen preterm infants with a mean age of three days and mean birth weight of 900 grams were evaluated. In addition to central apnea, several parameters including neural inspiratory time, neural respiratory rate, peak Edi, delta inspiratory change in Edi (phasic Edi) and minimum Edi on exhalation were measured. The majority of the apnea were short (5 to 10s) and the number of apnea correlated with birth weight (p=0.039). Caffeine citrate reduced significantly the number of 5-to-10-second-long central apnea during the 30-minute periods (12±11 to 7±7; p=0.02). Caffeine citrate increased both peak and phasic Edi leading to a significant increase in the diaphragm energy expenditure. Edi signal can be reliably measured and processed to study changes in premature infants' neural breathing. The beneficial effect of caffeine citrate on the reduction of the number of apnea is mediated through stimulated neural breathing increasing the diaphragm energy expenditure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using neural networks to predict the functionality of reconfigurable nano-material networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greff, Klaus; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.; Koutnik, Jan; Broersma, Haitze J.; Mikhal, Julia Olegivna; Lawrence, Celestine Preetham; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how neural networks can be applied to model and predict the functional behaviour of disordered nano-particle and nano-tube networks. In recently published experimental work, nano-particle and nano-tube networks show promising functionality for future reconfigurable devices,

  15. An exclusively mesodermal origin of fin mesenchyme demonstrates that zebrafish trunk neural crest does not generate ectomesenchyme

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Raymond Teck Ho; Knapik, Ela W.; Thiery, Jean Paul; Carney, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest is a multipotent stem cell population that arises from the dorsal aspect of the neural tube and generates both non-ectomesenchymal (melanocytes, peripheral neurons and glia) and ectomesenchymal (skeletogenic, odontogenic, cartilaginous and connective tissue) derivatives. In amniotes, only cranial neural crest generates both classes, with trunk neural crest restricted to non-ectomesenchyme. By contrast, it has been suggested that anamniotes might generate derivatives of both c...

  16. Arsenic is associated with reduced effect of folic acid in myelomeningocele prevention: a case control study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Arsenic induces neural tube defects in several animal models, but its potential to cause neural tube defects in humans is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the associations between maternal arsenic exposure, periconceptional folic acid supplementation, and risk of posterior neura...

  17. Free compression tube. Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Ioan

    2012-11-01

    During the flight of vehicles, their propulsion energy must overcome gravity, to ensure the displacement of air masses on vehicle trajectory, to cover both energy losses from the friction between a solid surface and the air and also the kinetic energy of reflected air masses due to the impact with the flying vehicle. The flight optimization by increasing speed and reducing fuel consumption has directed research in the aerodynamics field. The flying vehicles shapes obtained through studies in the wind tunnel provide the optimization of the impact with the air masses and the airflow along the vehicle. By energy balance studies for vehicles in flight, the author Ioan Rusu directed his research in reducing the energy lost at vehicle impact with air masses. In this respect as compared to classical solutions for building flight vehicles aerodynamic surfaces which reduce the impact and friction with air masses, Ioan Rusu has invented a device which he named free compression tube for rockets, registered with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks of Romania, OSIM, deposit f 2011 0352. Mounted in front of flight vehicles it eliminates significantly the impact and friction of air masses with the vehicle solid. The air masses come into contact with the air inside the free compression tube and the air-solid friction is eliminated and replaced by air to air friction.

  18. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  19. Flow-induced decentering and tube support interaction for steam generator tubes: experiment and physical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, N.; Granger, S.

    1992-11-01

    Maintaining PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes including flow-induced vibration and wear mechanisms. To improve the prediction of tube/support interaction and wear in PWR components, EDF has undertaken a comprehensive program oriented to both experimental and computational studies. The present paper illustrates one aspect of this program, related to the determination of contact forces between steam generator tubes and anti-vibration bars (AVBs). The dynamic, nonlinear behavior of a U-tube excited by an air cross-flow is investigated on the CLAVECIN experiment. Interesting and rather unexpected results have been obtained, by varying clearances and flow velocities. The paper is focused on four main points: (i) the originality of the experiment with a force measurement device located in flow; (ii) the importance of a refined data processing for accurately measuring contact forces; (iii) the presentation of the unexpected phenomena revealed in the CLAVECIN experiment, i.e. a flow-induced decentering of the tube which changed the initial tube/AVB clearance, and the consequences on tube/support interaction; (iv) the influence of the actual tube/support clearance in flow on wear mechanisms. The work, presented in the second part of this paper, concentrates exclusively on the physical interpretation of the flow-induced decentering phenomenon and on the theoretical analysis of its consequences on dynamic tube/support interaction. We show that the flow-induced decentering phenomenon can be generated by an unstable quasi-static coupling between the flexible tube and the confined flow, in the vicinity of the support system. This phenomenon is not specific to the CLAVECIN tests and it can be expected every time that a movable obstacle is subjected to confined flow. Moreover, in single-sided impacting conditions, the theoretical analysis confirms the linear relation, found in the CLAVECIN tests

  20. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffley, Lara A., E-mail: muffley@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Pan, Shin-Chen, E-mail: pansc@mail.ncku.edu.tw [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Smith, Andria N., E-mail: gnaunderwater@gmail.com [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Ga, Maricar, E-mail: marga16@uw.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Hocking, Anne M., E-mail: ahocking@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Gibran, Nicole S., E-mail: nicoleg@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate

  1. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  2. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  3. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  4. The protective effect of adenoidectomy on pediatric tympanostomy tube re-insertions: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    Full Text Available Adenoidectomy in conjunction with tympanostomy tube insertion for treating pediatric otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media has been debated for decades. Practice differed surgeon from surgeon. This study used population-based data to determine the protective effect of adenoidectomy in preventing tympanostomy tube re-insertion and tried to provide more evidence based information for surgeons when they do decision making.Retrospective birth cohort study.This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000-2009 in Taiwan. The tube reinsertion rate and time to tube re-insertion among children who received tympanostomy tubes with or without adenoidectomy were compared. Age stratification analysis was also done to explore the effects of age.Adenoidectomy showed protective effects on preventing tube re-insertion compared to tympanostomy tubes alone in children who needed tubes for the first time (tube re-insertion rate 9% versus 5.1%, p = 0.002 and longer time to re-insertions, p = 0.01, especially those aged over 4 years when they had their first tube surgery. After controlling the effect of age, adenoidectomy reduced the rate of re-insertion by 40% compared to tympanostomy tubes alone (aHR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41-0.89. However, the protective effect of conjunction adenoidectomy was not obvious among children with a second tympanostomy tube insertion. Children who needed their first tube surgery at the age 2-4 years were most prone to have tube re-insertions, followed by the age group of 4-6 years.Adenoidectomy has protective effect in preventing tympanostomy tube re-insertions compared to tympanostomy tubes alone, especially for children older than 4 years old and who needed tubes for the first time. Nonetheless, clinicians should still weigh the pros and cons of the procedure for their pediatric patients.

  5. Nickel electroplating as a remedy to steam generator tubing PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, B.; Steltzlen, F.; Sala, B.; Laire, Ch.; Stubbe, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nickel plating appears to be a versatile process, as the application field, even if always used against PWSCC, is different from plant-to-plant. Its usage has been from a purely preventive action on tubes without defects, to a corrective action on through-wall cracked and leaking tubes. As a background for the large scale on-site operations of Doel 2 in 1990 (345 tubes) and Tihange 2 in 1992 (600 tubes), studies on four points are outlined, i.e. corrosion tests, stress measurements, sulfamate bath quality control, and in-service inspection. In conclusion, it appears that the nickel plating technique, following a case-by-case study, can often be a convenient remedy against Alloy 600 stress corrosion problems. New applications, in locations other than the steam generator field are under consideration

  6. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  7. PWR steam generators tube integrity: plugging criteria for PWSCC in roll transition zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel; Cruz, Julio R.B.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most important causes for tube plugging in PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) steam generators is the degradation mechanism called Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) in roll transition zone (RTZ) near the tubesheet, mainly for Alloy 600 tubes. To avoid an excessive tube plugging, alternative criteria have been developed based on an approach that consists in withdrawing from service any tube containing a defect for which there is a high probability of a critical size under accident conditions to be reached during next operation cycle. Predictions of the number of tubes to be plugged can be done aiming at preventive maintenance and tube repair, and even a steam generator replacement, without a large and non-planned plant outage. This work presents important aspects related to tube plugging criteria for PWSCC in RTZ based on the risk of break after a leak detection. Calculations of allowable crack length and allowable leak rate for a particular situation are also shown. (author)

  8. Tube to tube excursive instability - sensitivities and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.; Layland, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    A simple basic analysis of excursive instability in a boiler tube shows how it depends upon operating conditions and physical properties. A detailed mathematical model of an AGR boiler is used to conduct a steady state parameter sensitivity survey. It is possible from this basis to anticipate the effects of changes in operating conditions and changes in design parameters upon tube to tube stability. Dynamic responses of tubes operating near the stability threshold are examined using a mathematical model. Simulated excursions are triggered by imparting small abrupt pressure changes on the boiler inlet pressure. The influences of the magnitude of the pressure change, waterside friction factor and gas side coupling between tubes are examined. (author)

  9. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  10. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  11. A New Resonance Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at the point where sound is perceived to have maximum loudness, or at the point where the amplitude of the standing wave has maximum value, namely an antinode. An antinode coincides with the position of the tuning fork, beyond the end of the air column, which consequently introduces an end correction. One way to minimize this end correction is to measure the distance between consecutive antinodes.

  12. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  13. Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad K Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma (PFTC is rare and accounts for about 0.3% of all gynecologic cancers. Less than 1500 cases have been reported in the literature. It arises in postmenopausal women and typically presents with abdominal pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding and watery discharge. However, a correct diagnosis is rarely achieved preoperative, and in many cases, the diagnosis is made after incidental surgery for unrelated conditions commonly being ovarian carcinoma . Compared with ovarian carcinoma, PFTC more often presents at early stages, but it has a worse prognosis. PFTC is usually managed in the same manner as ovarian cancer. We report a case of Left PFTC that presented as Left ovarian mass, and we briefly review the literature.

  14. Brunam: a development centered on the tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In more than 20 years, the Brunam company has become a leader in the domain of tube intervention operations of three different kinds: prevention and analysis, onload operations, exploitation materials. The 1996 overturn of the company has improved with respect to 1995 and reached 40 millions of French Francs. Today's activity of the company is devoted to natural gas industry (50%), to petroleum and petrochemistry industry (40%), and to nuclear industry (10%). This short paper describes the three aspects of the company intervention operations and the research and development services provided to Gaz de France (GdF) company for the renovation of the French natural gas network. (J.S.)

  15. Artificial-neural-network-based failure detection and isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Mokhtar; Gharsalli, Imed; Alouani, Ali T.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents the design of a systematic failure detection and isolation system that uses the concept of failure sensitive variables (FSV) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The proposed approach was applied to tube leak detection in a utility boiler system. Results of the experimental testing are presented in the paper.

  16. Realistic Chest Tube Simulator Using Pork Belly with Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Patrick Mebust

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The pork belly chest tube simulator is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents and Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Chest tube insertion is an essential procedural skill that must be mastered by practicing emergency and surgical providers. It is a lifesaving procedure indicated in cases of pneumothorax, hemothorax, chylothorax, empyema, esophageal/gastric rupture into the pleural space, and traumatic arrest.1,2 These critical patients require immediate decompression and evacuation of pleural space pathology. Therefore, chest tube insertion must be performed competently and expeditiously to prevent further morbidity and mortality. Performed improperly, chest tube placement can lead to ineffective decompression as well as life threatening visceral and vascular injury. Overall complications rates have been quoted up to 37%.3,4 Simulation offers a safe and effective method to master such procedural techniques. Unfortunately, many chest tube simulators are expensive5 or do not offer a realistic simulation experience. Therefore, we have designed an economical device that has a life-like feel, very similar to human skin and tissue. Objective: The purpose of this model is to teach residents and students how to competently perform and properly secure a surgical chest tube. Methods: This chest tube simulator uses a piece of pork belly that includes skin with underlying muscle and fascia. This tissue is placed over wooden strips and foam tape which are a proxy for human ribs and pleura. This chest wall anatomy allows the learner to locate landmarks, palpate intercostal spaces on real skin, and perform blunt dissection with a realistic “pop” of pleural tissue. Finally, since chest tube dislodgment is a common and unfortunate cause of morbidity and mortality, this chest wall design allows the learner to practice the essential and various techniques of securing the chest tube to real skin.

  17. Characterization of tube support alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaia, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The involvement and relationship of carbon steel corrosion products in the tube denting phenomenon promoted an intensive research effort to: 1) understand, reproduce, and arrest the denting process, and 2) evaluate alternative tube support materials to provide additional corrosion resistance. The paper summarizes a corrosion testing program for the verification of type 405 stainless steel under acid or all volatile treatment conditions

  18. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, A.; Verleur, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  19. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  20. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes...

  1. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  2. Vitamin E in neural and visual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, S M; Muller, D P R

    2004-12-01

    A rat model of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) deficiency with similar "clinical," electrophysiological, and neuropathological abnormalities to those seen in man was used to investigate the effects of various amounts and forms of alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alphaTA) on neural and visual function. Electrophysiological techniques provide an objective, non-invasive measure of neural and visual function. These techniques were used in the animal model to determine the minimum dietary requirement of vitamin E necessary to prevent neural and visual abnormalities. They were also used to compare the biological activities of the natural (RRR-) and synthetic (all-rac-) forms of alpha-tocopherol in neural tissues. The results were as follows: (1) Significant differences in neural and visual function were observed between deficient and control rats after approximately 8 months. (2) An intake of 1.0 mg/kg all-rac- or 0.75 mg/kg RRR-alphaTA was observed to marginally protect nerves from vitamin E deficiency. (3) The biological activity of all-rac-alpha-tocopherol in neural tissues was approximately 75% of RRR-alpha-tocopherol. (4) The concentration of free malondialdehyde (an indicator of lipid peroxidation) was significantly increased in tissues from the deficient compared to the control animals. These results are consistent with a deficiency of alpha-tocopherol causing increased lipid peroxidation leading to abnormal neural electrophysiology. They could also be explained by more specific but as yet undefined function(s) of alpha-tocopherol in neural tissues.

  3. Use and care of an endotracheal/ tracheostomy tube cuff — are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tion of the tracheal wall. The careful monitoring of cuff pres- sures, tube stability and hygiene of an endotracheal or tracheostomy (ET/TT) tube could play an important role in the prevention of tracheal stenosis.3,4. During the past few years an alarming number of patients have presented with acquired tracheal stenosis in the.

  4. Systematic review on bedside electromagnetic-guided, endoscopic, and fluoroscopic placement of nasoenteral feeding tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Arja; Van Der Poel, Marcel J.; De Rooij, Thijs; Molenaar, IQ; Bergman, Jacques J.; Busch, Olivier R.; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M.; Besselink, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nasoenteral tube feeding is frequently required in hospitalized patients to either prevent or treat malnutrition, but data on the optimal strategy of tube placement are lacking. Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of bedside electromagnetic (EM)-guided, endoscopic, and

  5. Early versus On-Demand Nasoenteric Tube Feeding in Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Olaf J.; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bollen, Thomas L.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Dejong, Cornelis H.; van Goor, Harry; Bosscha, Koop; Ahmed Ali, Usama; Bouwense, Stefan; van Grevenstein, Wilhelmina M.; Heisterkamp, Joos; Houdijk, Alexander P.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Karsten, Thom M.; Manusama, Eric R.; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; van der Schelling, George P.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Spanier, B. W. Marcel; Tan, Adriaan; Vecht, Juda; Weusten, Bas L.; Witteman, Ben J.; Akkermans, Louis M.; Bruno, Marco J.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; van Ramshorst, Bert; Gooszen, Hein G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early enteral feeding through a nasoenteric feeding tube is often used in patients with severe acute pancreatitis to prevent gut-derived infections, but evidence to support this strategy is limited. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial comparing early nasoenteric tube feeding with

  6. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, Th.

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  7. Nasogastric Tube Use in Children after Abdominal Surgery – How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Traditionally, the use of a nasogastric tube (NGT) after a laparotomy is said to prevent vomiting, aspiration, abdominal distension and paralytic ileus, which are likely to complicate the postoperative course. OBJECTIVE: To determine if discontinuation of NGT within 24 hours of abdominal surgical procedures ...

  8. Pulsed Drift Tube Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.

    2004-01-01

    The pulsed drift-tube accelerator (DTA) concept was revived by Joe Kwan and John Staples and is being considered for the HEDP/WDM application. It could be used to reach the full energy or as an intermediate accelerator between the diode and a high gradient accelerator such as multi-beam r.f. In the earliest LBNL HIF proposals and conceptual drivers it was used as an extended injector to reach energies where an induction linac with magnetic quadrupoles is the best choice. For HEDP, because of the very short pulse duration, the DTA could provide an acceleration rate of about 1MV/m. This note is divided into two parts: the first, a design based on existing experience; the second, an optimistic extrapolation. The first accelerates 16 parallel K + beams at a constant line charge density of 0.25(micro) C/m per beam to 10 MeV; the second uses a stripper and charge selector at around 4MeV followed by further acceleration to reach 40 MeV. Both benefit from more compact sources than the present 2MV injector source, although that beam is the basis of the first design and is a viable option. A pulsed drift-tube accelerator was the first major HIF experiment at LBNL. It was designed to produce a 2(micro)s rectangular 1 Ampere C s + beam at 2MeV. It ran comfortably at 1.6MeV for several years, then at lower voltages and currents for other experiments, and remnants of that experiment are in use in present experiments, still running 25 years later. The 1A current, completely equivalent to 1.8A K + , was chosen to be intermediate between the beamlets appropriate for a multi-beam accelerator, and a single beam of, say, 10A, at injection energies. The original driver scenarios using one large beam on each side of the reactor rapidly fell out of favor because of the very high transverse and longitudinal fields from the beam space charge, circa 1MV/cm and 250 kV/cm respectively, near the chamber and because of aberrations in focusing a large diameter beam down to a 1mm radius spot at a

  9. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube?related injuries.

  10. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-08-01

    Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube-related injuries.

  11. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  12. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorka, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  13. Eddy current signal comparison for tube identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Vojvodic, R.

    2015-03-01

    Inspection of nuclear power plant steam generator tubes is required to justify continued safe plant operation. The steam generators consist of thousands of tubes with nominal diameters of 15 to 22mm, approximately 1mm wall thickness, and 20 to 30m in length. The tubes are inspected by passing an eddy current probe through the tubes from tube end to tube end. It is critical to know exactly which tube identification (row and column) is associated with each tube's data. This is controlled by a precision manipulator that provides the tube ID to the eddy current system. Historically there have been some instances where the manipulator incorrectly reported the tube ID. This can have serious consequences including lack of inspection of a tube, or if a pluggable indication is detected, the tube is likely to be mis-plugged thereby risking a primary to secondary leak.

  14. WWER steam generator tube structural and leakage integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Krhounek, Vl.; Otruba, J.; Ruscak, M.

    1998-01-01

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the lifetime of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirements are to assure very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evaluation and heat exchange tubes plugging. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damages of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through wall cracks, oriented preferentially in the axial direction. The paper presents the leakage and plugging limits for WWER steam generators, which have been determined from leak tests and burst tests. The tubes with axial part-through and through-wall defects have been used. The permissible value of primary to secondary leak rate was evaluated with respect to permissible axial through-wall defect size of WWER 440 and 1000 steam generator tubes. Blocking of the tube cracks by corrosion product particles and other compounds reduces the primary to secondary leak rate. The plugging limits involve the following factors: permissible tube wall thickness which determine further operation of the tubes with defects and assures their integrity under operating conditions and permissible size of a through-wall crack which is sufficiently stable under normal and accident conditions in relation to the critical crack length. For the evaluation of burst test of heat exchange tubes with longitudinal through-wall defects the instability criterion has been used and the dependence of the normalised burst pressure on the normalised length of an axial through-wall defect has been determined. The validity of the criterion of instability for WWER tubes with through

  15. mouseTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquet, Nicolas; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube , an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1) the acquisition procedure, e.g ., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2) the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3) the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations ( e.g. , strain, sex, age). To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    An x-ray tube in which the x-ray origin is scanned on a circle around the patient, comprises a ring-shaped anode, an electron beam travelling along a circular path being deflected onto the anode at the desired positions. The electron beam path may be in a plane parallel to the anode and perhaps at the same radius. It may be in the same plane as a transmission target/anode and at a greater radius. The anode should extend over at least 180 0 although it may extend to 360 0 . Electrostatic means may be provided to constrain the beam to the circular path and further electrostatic means deflect it to the anode of the beam and ensure it is focused at the point of incidence. Collimators provide a planar fan-shaped beam and the anode may be shaped to attenuate side lobes of the radiation. Electrode collects electrons not deflected. The focal regions may be adjacent or otherwise. Coils may provide periodic focusing to overcome space charge dispersion and dynamic adjustment of the focusing before deflection ensures focusing at target incidence. Focusing may be absent near the deflection region, and current in the coil section near the focal region should be zero. (author)

  17. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria & INFN-Cosenza,Ponte Bucci, cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2016-06-07

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU(3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm ≃1.6/√σ and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T{sub c}, the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube “evaporation” above T{sub c} has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  18. Minimize corrosion degradation of steam generator tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a coordinated program, AECL is developing a set of tools to aid with the prediction and management of steam generator performance. Although stress corrosion cracking (of Alloy 800) has not been detected in any operating steam generator, for life management it is necessary to develop mechanistic models to predict the conditions under which stress corrosion cracking is plausible. Experimental data suggest that all steam generator tube materials are susceptible to corrosion degradation under some specific off-specification conditions. The tolerance to the chemistry upset for each steam generator tube alloy is different. Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of major steam generator tube alloys were studied under the plausible aggressive crevice chemistry conditions. The potential hazardous conditions leading to steam generator tube degradation and the conditions, which can minimize steam generator tube degradation have been determined. Recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zones were defined for all major steam generator tube materials, including Alloys 600, 800, 690 and 400, under CANDU steam generator operating and startup conditions. Stress corrosion cracking tests and accelerated corrosion tests were carried out to verify and revise the recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zones. Based on this information, utilities can prevent steam generator material degradation surprises by appropriate steam generator water chemistry management and increase the reliability of nuclear power generating stations. (author)

  19. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure: need for precise measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: High compliance endotracheal tubes cuffs are used to prevent gas leak and also pulmonary aspiration in mechanically ventilated patients. However, the use of the usual cuff inflation volumes may cause tracheal damage. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that endotracheal tube cuff pressures are routinely high (above 40 cmH2O in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU or Intensive Care Units (ICU. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Post anesthesia care unit and intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS: We measured endotracheal tubes cuff pressure in 85 adult patients, as follows: G1 (n = 31 patients from the ICU; G2 (n = 32 patients from the PACU, after anesthesia with nitrous oxide; G3 (n = 22 patients from the PACU, after anesthesia without nitrous oxide. Intracuff pressure was measured using a manometer (Mallinckrodt, USA. Gas was removed as necessary to adjust cuff pressure to 30 cmH2O. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Endotracheal tube cuff pressure. RESULTS: High cuff pressure (> 40 cmH2O was observed in 90.6% patients of G2, 54.8% of G1 and 45.4% of G3 (P < 0.001. The volume removed from the cuff in G2 was higher than G3 (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Endotracheal tubes cuff pressures in ICU and PACU are routinely high and significant higher when nitrous oxide is used. Endotracheal tubes cuff pressure should be routinely measured to minimize tracheal trauma.

  20. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  1. Rigid inflatable gastrostomy tube malposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. Murray, MB, MCh, MRCS, FFR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rigid inflatable gastrostomy (RIG tubes are widely used in contemporary clinical practice for a variety of indications. Insertion of RIG tubes is associated with a high technical success rate and low incidence of mortality. In this case report, a procedural pitfall associated with intraperitoneal-extragastric malposition is described. Rigorous assessment of abdominal radiographs, as well as awareness of the expected appearance of the RIG tube and gastropexy T-fasteners, allows the abdominal radiologist to detect early RIG position in the early postprocedural period. Abdominal radiography is a widely available and inexpensive technique. The high spatial resolution it provides makes it a valuable tool in determining hardware position.

  2. Expansion tube test time predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Christopher M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

  3. An improved model to predict nonuniform deformation of Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Q.M.; Fan, H.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Present circular pressure-tube ballooning models in most fuel channel codes assume that the pressure tube remains circular during ballooning. This model provides adequate predictions of pressure-tube ballooning behaviour when the pressure tube (PT) and the calandria tube (CT) are concentric and when a small (<100 degrees C) top-to-bottom circumferential temperature gradient is present on the pressure tube. However, nonconcentric ballooning is expected to occur under certain postulated CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) accident conditions. This circular geometry assumption prevents the model from accurately predicting nonuniform pressure-tube straining and local PT/CT contact when the pressure tube is subjected to a large circumferential temperature gradient and consequently deforms in a noncircular pattern. This paper describes an improved model that predicts noncircular pressure-tube deformation. Use of this model (once fully validated) will reduce uncertainties in the prediction of pressure-tube ballooning during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a CANDU reactor. The noncircular deformation model considers a ring or cross-section of a pressure tube with unit axial length to calculate deformation in the radial and circumferential directions. The model keeps track of the thinning of the pressure-tube wall as well as the shape deviation from a reference circle. Such deviation is expressed in a cosine Fourier series for the lateral symmetry case. The coefficients of the series for the first m terms are calculated by solving a set of algebraic equations at each time step. The model also takes into account the effects of pressure-tube sag or bow on ballooning, using an input value of the offset distance between the centre of the calandria tube and the initial centre of the pressure tube for determining the position radius of the pressure tube. One significant improvement realized in using the noncircular deformation model is a more accurate prediction in

  4. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision ... DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI YouTube Videos >> ...

  5. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA

    2009-05-05

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  6. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision ... DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI YouTube Videos > ...

  7. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  8. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  9. Conditioning of NEC accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yntema, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The conditioning process of NEC tubes was investigated by recording the fluctuations observed with a residual gas analyzer for a fixed mass and a simultaneous recording of the current fluctuations in background pressure

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino ... To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI YouTube ...

  11. Eddy current tube testing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Duret, G.

    1975-01-01

    The unit described can check a wide variety of tubes in quick succession and its modular design gives it a high degree of versability. Suitably defined working conditions and specific fittings enable most of the faults encountered in the manufacture of a tube to be detected. By appropriate means of selection based on signal amplitude, phase and frequency analyses it is possible to adapt selection criteria to the seriousness of the different categories of defect [fr

  12. Electronics for proportional drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)

  13. The YouTube reader

    OpenAIRE

    Snickars, Pelle; Vonderau, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    YouTube has come to epitomize the possibilities of digital culture. With more than seventy million unique users a month and approximately eighty million videos online, this brand-name video distribution platform holds the richest repository of popular culture on the Internet. As the fastest growing site in the history of the Web, YouTube promises endless new opportunities for amateur video, political campaigning, entertainment formats, and viral marketing—a clip culture that has seemed to out...

  14. Introduction to neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    James, Frederick E

    1994-02-02

    1. Introduction and overview of Artificial Neural Networks. 2,3. The Feed-forward Network as an inverse Problem, and results on the computational complexity of network training. 4.Physics applications of neural networks.

  15. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  16. Dermatology on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-06-15

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  17. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  18. artificial neural network (ann)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-18

    Aug 18, 2004 ... forecasting models and artificial intelligence techniques and have become one of the major research fields (Kher and Joshin, 2003). (a) Artificial Neural Network and Electrical Load. Prediction. Neural network analysis is an Artificial Intelligence. (AI) approach to mathematical modeling. Neural. Networks ...

  19. Nasogastric tube position and intragastric air collection in a neonatal intensive care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jacoba Coby; Smit, Bert J; Mainous, Rosalie O

    2009-12-01

    For neonates receiving intensive care, nasogastric tube feeding is essential. Since nasogastric tube placement techniques are not well standardized and common verification methods can be unreliable, placement errors may lead to unsafe situations. In mechanically ventilated neonates and neonates on continuous positive airway pressure, malpositioning of the nasogastric tube may prevent excess air within the stomach to escape. In this study, we aimed to relate tube position to amount of air. The hypothesis was: the better the position of the tube, the smaller the amount of air in the stomach. A 1-year cohort of neonates in a level IIIc neonatal intensive care unit with a nasogastric tube. We retrospectively reviewed 326 radiographs and classified nasogastric tube position and gastric air. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic data. Kendal's tau statistic was applied to explore the relationship between nasogastric tube position and amount of gastric air. A Mann-Whitney U test was performed to confirm the differences in gastric air in neonates with Ch5 and Ch6 gastric tubes and neonates with Ch8 gastric tubes. One or both orifices of nasogastric tubes were in the esophagus in 7.1% of cases, tubes were curled up in the stomach in 35.3% of cases, and tube tips were beyond the pyloric sphincter in 5.5% of cases. Substantial or excessive air was found in 37.7% of cases. Kendal's tau value indicated that there was no significant correlation between nasogastric tube position and gastric air. The Mann-Whitney U value indicated that children with Ch5 and Ch6 gastric tubes had significantly more gastric air than children with Ch8 gastric tubes. Nasogastric tubes were malpositioned in nearly half of cases, and substantial or excessive air was found in more than one-third of cases. The hypothesis-the better the position of the tube, the smaller the amount of gastric air-was not confirmed by the data. However, a significant relationship was found between tube

  20. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  1. 21 CFR 872.6570 - Impression tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6570 Impression tube. (a) Identification. An impression tube is a device consisting of a hollow copper tube intended to take an impression of a single tooth... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Impression tube. 872.6570 Section 872.6570 Food...

  2. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following rates...

  3. Tubing vs. buckets: a cost comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler

    1975-01-01

    Equipment investment for tubing-vacuum systems was significantly less than that for bucket systems. Tubing-vacuum systems required about 22 percent less labor input, the major labor input being completed before sap-flow periods. Annual cost of operation was less for tubing-vacuum than the bucket system. Small tubing-vacuum operations showed more profit potential than...

  4. High grade serous ovarian carcinomas originate in the fallopian tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi-Galy, S Intidhar; Papp, Eniko; Hallberg, Dorothy; Niknafs, Noushin; Adleff, Vilmos; Noe, Michael; Bhattacharya, Rohit; Novak, Marian; Jones, Siân; Phallen, Jillian; Hruban, Carolyn A; Hirsch, Michelle S; Lin, Douglas I; Schwartz, Lauren; Maire, Cecile L; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Bowden, Michaela; Ayhan, Ayse; Wood, Laura D; Scharpf, Robert B; Kurman, Robert; Wang, Tian-Li; Shih, Ie-Ming; Karchin, Rachel; Drapkin, Ronny; Velculescu, Victor E

    2017-10-23

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most frequent type of ovarian cancer and has a poor outcome. It has been proposed that fallopian tube cancers may be precursors of HGSOC but evolutionary evidence for this hypothesis has been limited. Here, we perform whole-exome sequence and copy number analyses of laser capture microdissected fallopian tube lesions (p53 signatures, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), and fallopian tube carcinomas), ovarian cancers, and metastases from nine patients. The majority of tumor-specific alterations in ovarian cancers were present in STICs, including those affecting TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2 or PTEN. Evolutionary analyses reveal that p53 signatures and STICs are precursors of ovarian carcinoma and identify a window of 7 years between development of a STIC and initiation of ovarian carcinoma, with metastases following rapidly thereafter. Our results provide insights into the etiology of ovarian cancer and have implications for prevention, early detection and therapeutic intervention of this disease.

  5. Burst pressure and leak rate from fretted SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Jung, Man Kyo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Joung Soo

    2005-01-01

    Steam generator(SG) tubes of a pressurized water reactor(PWR) have suffered from various types of corrosion, such as pitting, wastage and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on both the primary and secondary side. Recently, fretting/wear degradation at the tube support region has been reported in some Korean nuclear power plants. In order to prevent the primary coolant from leaking to the secondary side, the tubes are repaired by a sleeving or plugging. It is important to establish the repair criteria to assure a reactor integrity and yet maintain the plugging ratio within the limits needed for an efficient operation. The objective of the burst test is to obtain a relationship between the burst/leak rate and the shape of the fretted flaws machined with an electro discharge machining (EDM)

  6. Neural electrical activity and neural network growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafarov, F M

    2018-02-09

    The development of central and peripheral neural system depends in part on the emergence of the correct functional connectivity in its input and output pathways. Now it is generally accepted that molecular factors guide neurons to establish a primary scaffold that undergoes activity-dependent refinement for building a fully functional circuit. However, a number of experimental results obtained recently shows that the neuronal electrical activity plays an important role in the establishing of initial interneuronal connections. Nevertheless, these processes are rather difficult to study experimentally, due to the absence of theoretical description and quantitative parameters for estimation of the neuronal activity influence on growth in neural networks. In this work we propose a general framework for a theoretical description of the activity-dependent neural network growth. The theoretical description incorporates a closed-loop growth model in which the neural activity can affect neurite outgrowth, which in turn can affect neural activity. We carried out the detailed quantitative analysis of spatiotemporal activity patterns and studied the relationship between individual cells and the network as a whole to explore the relationship between developing connectivity and activity patterns. The model, developed in this work will allow us to develop new experimental techniques for studying and quantifying the influence of the neuronal activity on growth processes in neural networks and may lead to a novel techniques for constructing large-scale neural networks by self-organization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of forming limit in tube hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Hang; Kim, Young Suk

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry has shown increasing interest in tube hydroforming. Despite many automobile structural parts being produced from cylindrical tubes, failures frequently occur during tube hydroforming under improper forming conditions. These problems include wrinkling, buckling, folding back, and bursting. We perform analytical studies to determine forming limits in tube hydroforming and demonstrate how these forming limits are influenced by the loading path. Theoretical results for the forming limits of wrinkling and bursting are compared with experimental results for an aluminum tube.

  8. Enhanced expression of FNDC5 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells along with relevant embryonic neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahrizjani, Fatemeh Ahmadi; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salamian, Ahmad; Tanhaei, Somayeh; Nejati, Alireza Shoaraye; Salehi, Hossein; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-25

    Availability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has enhanced the capability of basic and clinical research in the context of human neural differentiation. Derivation of neural progenitor (NP) cells from hESCs facilitates the process of human embryonic development through the generation of neuronal subtypes. We have recently indicated that fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5) expression is required for appropriate neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Bioinformatics analyses have shown the presence of three isoforms for human FNDC5 mRNA. To differentiate which isoform of FNDC5 is involved in the process of human neural differentiation, we have used hESCs as an in vitro model for neural differentiation by retinoic acid (RA) induction. The hESC line, Royan H5, was differentiated into a neural lineage in defined adherent culture treated by RA and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). We collected all cell types that included hESCs, rosette structures, and neural cells in an attempt to assess the expression of FNDC5 isoforms. There was a contiguous increase in all three FNDC5 isoforms during the neural differentiation process. Furthermore, the highest level of expression of the isoforms was significantly observed in neural cells compared to hESCs and the rosette structures known as neural precursor cells (NPCs). High expression levels of FNDC5 in human fetal brain and spinal cord tissues have suggested the involvement of this gene in neural tube development. Additional research is necessary to determine the major function of FDNC5 in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  10. Rodent Zic Genes in Neural Network Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Eloísa

    2018-01-01

    The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits. During the last decade, it has become evident that Zic genes, in addition to playing important roles in early development (e.g., gastrulation and neural tube closure), are involved in different processes of late brain development, such as neuronal migration, axon guidance, and refinement of axon terminals. ZIC proteins are therefore essential for the proper wiring and connectivity of the brain. In this chapter, we review our current knowledge of the role of Zic genes in the late stages of neural circuit formation.

  11. Nasogastric tube feeding: a safe option for patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trish

    2016-01-01

    This article will show that fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding can be facilitated for patients when long term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) options are not suitable. How the safe replacement of these tubes is facilitated, and what instructions the patient and the nursing home are given to support patient care and safety are also discussed. The decision to support this type of feeding must be completely individualised, considering home and external support agencies available to each patient. The risk assessment completed to facilitate this has been based on the patients' individual circumstances, and a nasogastric tube home passport developed to help in the assessment and decision-making process. For fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding to be safe, it does have to be supported once the patient is discharged from the hospital. A good knowledge of the home support and carer support agencies, and what is available, should be discussed. Multidisciplinary team support is essential in ensuring a safe discharge can be planned and managed. Good patient risk assessment and nursing considerations are discussed to show how the challenges that may prevent a patient discharge with this type of feed are managed. This article will show how two very different patients discharges were facilitated by safe fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding in the community. Patient assessment and nursing considerations are discussed, as well as the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to show how this was successfully achieved in a local district hospital.

  12. Recurrent white thrombi formation in hemodialysis tubing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Kiran P; Yeo, Wee-Song; Liu, Isaac Desheng; Ekambaram, Sudha; Azar, Mohammed; Yap, Hui-Kim; Ng, Kar-Hui

    2015-01-15

    While the appearance of red clots in the dialyzer is a common phenomenon in every hemodialysis unit, the occurrence of white thrombi in the tubing is relatively rare. We describe an adolescent male with recurrent white thrombi formation in the hemodialysis tubing. This patient had chronic renal failure from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but was no longer nephrotic at the time of the thrombi formation. He had a history of recurrent thrombosis of his vascular access. However, no pro-thrombotic risk factors could be identified. White particulate matter, measuring 1 to 3mm in size, and adherent to the arterial and venous blood tubing lines was found during the rinse back of a hemodialysis session. This was associated with a 60% decrease in his platelet count. Light microscopic examination of the deposits revealed the presence of platelet aggregates. He subsequently developed thrombosis of his arteriovenous graft six hours later. The white thrombi recurred at the next dialysis session, as well as six months later. These episodes occurred regardless of the type of dialysis machine or tubing, and appeared to resolve with an increase in heparin dose. Recurrent white thrombi formation can occur in the hemodialysis tubing of a patient with no identifiable pro-thrombotic factors. The white thrombi may be a harbinger of arteriovenous graft thrombosis and may be prevented by an increase in heparin dose.

  13. Critical heat flux in CANDU moderator following a pressure tube to calandria tube contact - part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behdadi, A.; Luxat, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy water moderator surrounding each fuel channel is one of the important features in CANDU reactors that act as a heat sink for the fuel in the situations where other means of heat removal fail. In the critical break LOCA scenario, fuel cooling becomes severely degraded due to rapid flow reduction in the affected flow pass of the heat transport system. This can result in pressure tubes experiencing significant heat-up while coolant pressure is still high, thereby causing uniform thermal creep strain (ballooning) of the pressure tube (PT) into contact with its calandria tube (CT). The contact of the hot PT with the CT causes rapid redistribution of stored heat from the PT to CT and a large spike in heat flux from the CT to the moderator fluid. For lower subcooling conditions of the moderator, this heat flux spike can cause dryout of the CT. This can detrimentally affect channel integrity if the CT post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high to result in thermal creep strain deformation. The focus of this research is to develop a mechanistic model to predict Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on the CT surface following a contact with its pressure tube. A COMSOL multi-physics model using a two-dimensional transient fluid-thermal analysis of the CT surface undergoing heat up is used to predict flow and temperature profile on the CT surface. A mechanistic CHF model is to be proposed based on a concept of wall dry patch formation, prevention of rewetting and subsequent dry patch spreading. (author)

  14. [Mechanism of neural plasticity of acupuncture on chronic migraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobai; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Luopeng; Qu, Zhengyang; Zhu, Yupu; Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Linpeng

    2017-10-12

    Chronic migraine is one of neurological disorders with high rate of disability, but sufficient attention has not been paid in this field. A large number of clinical studies have shown traditional Chinese acupuncture is a kind of effective treatment with less side effects. Through the analysis of literature regarding acupuncture and migraine published from 1981 to 2017 in CNKI and PubMed databases, the mechanism of neural plasticity of acupuncture on chronic migraine was explored. It was believed the progress of chronic migraine involved the changes of neural plasticity in neural structure and function, and the neural plasticity related with neural sensitization during the process of chronic migraine was discussed from three aspects of electrophysiology, molecular chemistry and radiography. Acupuncture could treat and prevent chronic migraine via the mechanism of neural plasticity, but there was no related literature, hindering the further spreading and development of acupuncture for chronic migraine.

  15. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  16. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  17. Chicken trunk neural crest migration visualized with HNK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannone, Dion; Ortega, Blanca; Reyes, Michelle; El-Ghali, Nancy; Rabadi, Maes; Sao, Sothy; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2015-04-01

    The development of the nervous system involves cells remaining within the neural tube (CNS) and a group of cells that delaminate from the dorsal neural tube and migrate extensively throughout the developing embryo called neural crest cells (NCC). These cells are a mesenchymal highly migratory group of cells that give rise to a wide variety of cell derivatives: melanocytes, sensory neurons, bone, Schwann cells, etc. But not all NCC can give rise to all derivatives, they have fate restrictions based on their axial level of origin: cranial, vagal, trunk and sacral. Our aim was to provide a thorough presentation on how does trunk neural crest cell migration looks in the chicken embryo, in wholemount and in sections using the unique chicken marker HNK1. The description presented here makes a good guideline for those interested in viewing trunk NCC migration patterns. We show how before HH14 there are few trunk NCC delaminating and migrating, but between HH15 through HH19 trunk NCC delaminate in large numbers. Melanocytes precursors begin to enter the dorsolateral pathway by HH17. We found that by HH20 HNK1 is not a valid good marker for NCC and that HNK1 is a better marker than Sox10 when looking at neural crest cells morphology and migration details. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  18. Chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel neural network based on a diagonal recurrent neural network and chaos, and its structure and learning algorithm are designed. The multilayer feedforward neural network, diagonal recurrent neural network, and chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network are used to approach the cubic symmetry map. The simulation results show that the approximation capability of the chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network is better than the other two neural networks. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  19. Neural correlates of experimental trauma memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdanovic, Geraldine A; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Rasch, Björn

    2017-04-17

    Traumatic memories such as intrusions and flashbacks play a major role in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A thorough understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying traumatic memories is indispensable for precise diagnosis, for personalized treatment and prevention. In particular, the identification of early neural predictor variables for intrusion development shortly after trauma exposure requires detailed investigation. Here, we examined the neural correlates of early experimental trauma memory retrieval in a traumatic film paradigm in 42 young healthy females, using both implicit and explicit retrieval tasks. We show that implicit experimental trauma retrieval specifically involved the retrosplenial cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while both retrieval tasks resulted in trauma-related activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the precuneus. Importantly, neural activity early after experimental trauma exposure predicted later intrusion development, with independent contributions from activity in the retrosplenial cortex (implicit retrieval) and the PCC (explicit retrieval). Additional analyses revealed a stronger connectivity between the bilateral amygdala and the supplementary motor area, precentral and paracentral lobule for the control group compared to the experimental trauma group. Our study gives new insights in the neural correlates of experimental trauma memory retrieval and their predictive value for subsequent symptom development. Our results could provide the basis for personalized early treatment and prevention of PTSD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Miniature X-Ray Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory H.

    1995-01-01

    Miniature x-ray tubes proposed for use in portable instruments used to analyze minerals. Electrons from field emitter (instead of thermionic emitter) accelerated to target to generate x-rays. Fabricated from silicon wafers, micromachined field emitters (MFEs) not subject to breakage or restrictions on lifetimes, and tolerate vacuums that filaments cannot. Miniature x-ray tubes very robust, immune to shock and vibration, and permanently sealed with getter for continued pumping. Combined with solid-state x-ray detectors for analysis of x-ray fluorescence.