WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent lateral movement

  1. Comparison of custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints and off-the-shelf ankle braces in preventing ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winson C C; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Choy, Barton T S; Leung, Aaron K L

    2012-06-01

    A custom moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints potentially offers a better control over the subtalar joint and the ankle joint during lateral cutting movements, due to total contact design and increase in material strength. To test the above hypothesis by comparing it to three other available orthoses. Repeated measures. Eight subjects with a history of ankle sprains (Grade 2), and 11 subjects without such history performed lateral cutting movements in four test conditions: 1) non-orthotic, 2) custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges, 3) Sport-Stirrup, and 4) elastic ankle sleeve with plastic support. A VICON motion analysis system was used to study the motions at the ankle and subtalar joints. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis significantly lowered the inversion angle at initial contact (p = 0.006) and the peak inversion angle (p = 0.000) during lateral cutting movements in comparison to non-orthotic condition, while the other two orthoses did not. The three orthoses did not affect the plantarflexion motions, which had been suggested by previous studies to be important in shock wave attenuation. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges could better control inversion and thus expected to better prevent ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. Custom-moulded ankle orthoses are not commonly used in preventing ankle sprains. This study raises the awareness of the use of custom-moulded ankle orthoses which are expected to better prevent ankle sprains.

  2. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  3. Fractal analysis of lateral movement in biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2017-11-02

    Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions. The model makes it possible to deduce the molecule step parameters, namely the step length and time, from data concerning confined and unrestricted diffusion coefficients. This is also possible using experimental results for sub-diffusive transport. The transition from normal to anomalous diffusion does not affect the molecule step parameters. The experimental literature data on molecular trajectories recorded at a high time resolution appear to confirm the modeled value of the mean free path length of DOPE for Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Although the step length and time give the proper values of diffusion coefficient, the DOPE speed calculated as their quotient is several orders of magnitude lower than the thermal speed. This is interpreted as a result of intermolecular interactions, as confirmed by lateral diffusion of other molecules in different membranes. The molecule step parameters are then utilized to analyze the problem of multiple visits in small compartments. The modeling of the diffusion exponent results in a smooth transition to normal diffusion on entering a large compartment, as observed in experiments.

  4. Lateral information transfer across saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüttner, M; Röhler, R

    1993-02-01

    Our perception of the visual world remains stable and continuous despite the disruptions caused by retinal image displacements during saccadic eye movements. The problem of visual stability is closely related to the question of whether information is transferred across such eye movements--and if so, what sort of information is transferred. We report experiments carried out to investigate how presaccadic signals at the location of the saccade goal influence the visibility of postsaccadic test signals presented at the fovea. The signals were Landolt rings of different orientations. If the orientations of pre- and postsaccadic Landolt rings were different, the thresholds of the test signals were elevated by about 20%-25% relative to those at the static control condition. When the orientations were identical, no such elevation occurred. This selective threshold elevation effect proved to be a phenomenon different from ordinary saccadic suppression, although it was closely related to the execution of the saccadic eye movement. The consequences for visual stability are discussed.

  5. Modeling of Batter Pile Behavior under Lateral Soil Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Hsu, H. Q.

    2017-06-01

    Pile foundation is frequently used when structures are located on weak sublayers or are at risk from lateral loadings such as earthquakes. The design of pile foundations has recently become crucial to stop slope movement. To understand the behavior of pile foundations subjected to lateral soil movement, the three-dimensional Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC3D) program was used to perform numerical simulations, which can reduce the cost of field testing. Vertical piles and batter piles were combined into 3 × 3 pile groups, and the response of batter piles to soil movement was analyzed. The outer batter piles led to an increased bending moment in the middle, vertical pile row. Increasing the pile spacing and the presence of battered piles reduced the pile group’s displacement. The batter pile group’s maximum bending moment was smaller than the vertical pile group’s in sand soil, but 5-8 times higher in clay soil.

  6. Tongue movements and their acoustic consequences in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R; Greenwood, Lauren; Wang, Jun; Pattee, Gary L; Zinman, Lorne

    2012-01-01

    The relations between acoustic measures and their articulatory bases have rarely been tested in dysarthria but are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. We tested the association between acoustic measures of F2 range and F2 slope with kinematic measures of tongue movement displacement and speed in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls speaking at normal and slow rates. Relations between acoustic and kinematic measures and speech intelligibility were examined. As healthy controls reduced their speaking rate, their F2 slopes and movement speeds decreased. In talkers with ALS, acoustic and kinematic variables were associated with changes in speaking rate, characteristic of disease progression. Participants with slow rate had shallower F2 slopes and slower movement speeds than those with normal rate. Relations between F2 range and tongue displacement were weaker. F2 slope, displacement, and duration were correlated with speech intelligibility most consistently. Findings suggested that F2 slope is a useful marker for tracking disease progression in ALS. F2 slope reflects changes in tongue function with disease progression and is linked to speech intelligibility. Changes in movement speed, however, might be the earliest sign of disease in the tongue. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Defense Mechanisms, Psychosomatic Symptomatology, and Conjugate Lateral Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects were classified into left movers, right movers, and bidirectionals according to the characteristic direction of their eye movements in response to questions. The three groups were compared on their preferential use of defense mechanisms and on the number of psychosomatic complaints. (Author)

  8. A Graph-Based Impact Metric for Mitigating Lateral Movement Cyber Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvine, Emilie AH; Johnson, John R.; Lo, Chaomei

    2016-11-04

    Most cyber network attacks begin with an adversary gain- ing a foothold within the network and proceed with lateral movement until a desired goal is achieved. The mechanism by which lateral movement occurs varies but the basic signa- ture of hopping between hosts by exploiting vulnerabilities is the same. Because of the nature of the vulnerabilities typ- ically exploited, lateral movement is very difficult to detect and defend against. In this paper we define a dynamic reach- ability graph model of the network to discover possible paths that an adversary could take using different vulnerabilities, and how those paths evolve over time. We use this reacha- bility graph to develop dynamic machine-level and network- level impact scores. Lateral movement mitigation strategies which make use of our impact scores are also discussed, and we detail an example using a freely available data set.

  9. Tracking a Movement: U.S. Milestones in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Jahn, Danielle R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidology and suicide prevention are relatively new fields of study in the United States, but they have made significant progress since their beginnings. This study aimed to identify the most impactful theories in the history of science and suicidology and the most impactful events in the suicide prevention movement. These theories and events…

  10. Relationships Between Reactive Agility Movement Time and Unilateral Vertical, Horizontal, and Lateral Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Greg J; Dawson, Brian; Lay, Brendan S; Young, Warren B

    2016-09-01

    Henry, GJ, Dawson, B, Lay, BS, and Young, WB. Relationships between reactive agility movement time and unilateral vertical, horizontal, and lateral jumps. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2514-2521, 2016-This study compared reactive agility movement time and unilateral (vertical, horizontal, and lateral) jump performance and kinetics between dominant and nondominant legs in Australian rules footballers (n = 31) to investigate the role of leg strength characteristics in reactive agility performance. Jumps involved jumping forward on 1 leg, then for maximum height or horizontal or lateral distance. Agility and movement time components of reactive agility were assessed using a video-based test. Correlations between each of the jumps were strong (r = -0.62 to -0.77), but between the jumps and agility movement time the relationships were weak (r = -0.25 to -0.33). Dominant leg performance was superior in reactive agility movement time (4.5%; p = 0.04), lateral jump distance (3%; p = 0.008), and lateral reactive strength index (4.4%; p = 0.03) compared with the nondominant leg. However, when the subjects were divided into faster and slower performers (based on their agility movement times) the movement time was significantly quicker in the faster group (n = 15; 12%; p agility performance seems limited, factors involved in producing superior lateral jump performance in the dominant leg may also be associated with advantages in agility performance in that leg. However, because reactive strength as measured by unilateral jumps seems to play a limited role in reactive agility performance and other factors such as skill, balance, and coordination, and also cognitive and decision-making factors, are likely to be more important.

  11. Lateralization of the posterior parietal cortex for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenji; Inui, Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Internal monitoring or state estimation of movements is essential for human motor control to compensate for inherent delays and noise in sensorimotor loops. Two types of internal estimation of movements exist: self-generated movements, and externally generated movements. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate differences in brain activity for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements during visual occlusion. Participants tracked a sinusoidally moving target with a mouse cursor. On some trials, vision of either target (externally generated) or cursor (self-generated) movement was transiently occluded, during which subjects continued tracking by estimating current position of either the invisible target or cursor on screen. Analysis revealed that both occlusion conditions were associated with increased activity in the presupplementary motor area and decreased activity in the right lateral occipital cortex compared to a control condition with no occlusion. Moreover, the right and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed greater activation during occlusion of target and cursor movements, respectively. This study suggests lateralization of the PPC for internal monitoring of internally versus externally generated movements, fully consistent with previously reported clinical findings.

  12. Dissociating effector and movement direction selection during the preparation of manual reaching movements: evidence from lateralized ERP components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherri, Elena; Van Velzen, José; Eimer, Martin

    2007-09-01

    The present study investigated whether lateralized ERP components triggered during covert manual response preparation (ADAN, LDAP) reflect effector selection, the selection of movement direction, or both. Event-related brain potentials were recorded during a response precueing paradigm where visual cues provided either partial (Experiment 1) or full (Experiment 2) information about the response hand and the direction for a subsequent reaching movement. ADAN and LDAP components were elicited even when only partial response information was available, demonstrating that they do not require the presence of a fully specified motor program. The ADAN was elicited in a similar fashion regardless of whether effector or movement direction information was provided, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms are equally sensitive to both types of response-related information. In contrast, the LDAP was larger in response to cues providing effector information, but was also reliably present when movement direction was available. ADAN and LDAP components reflect preparatory activity within anterior and posterior parts of the parieto-premotor sensorimotor network where different parameters for manual reaching movements are programmed independently. These results support the claim of the premotor theory of attention that shared sensorimotor control mechanisms are involved in attention and motor programming.

  13. Speech Movement Measures as Markers of Bulbar Disease in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellikeri, Sanjana; Green, Jordan R.; Kulkarni, Madhura; Rong, Panying; Martino, Rosemary; Zinman, Lorne; Yunusova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify the effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on tongue and jaw control, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The data were examined in the context of their utility as a diagnostic marker of bulbar disease. Method: Tongue and jaw movements were recorded cross-sectionally (n = 33…

  14. On the equivalence of executed and imagined movements: evidence from lateralized motor and nonmotor potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranczioch, Cornelia; Mathews, Simon; Dean, Phil J A; Sterr, Annette

    2009-10-01

    The neural simulation theory assumes that motor imagery and motor execution draw on a shared set of mechanisms underlying motor cognition. Evidence is accumulating that motor imagery and motor execution have many common features. The extent of the similarity and whether it spreads into the preparation phase is however unclear. This study used electroencephalographic recordings to compare the effects of providing advance information about upcoming movements on preparatory processing in a motor imagery and execution paradigm. Event-related potential data were recorded in a priming task where participants were cued to perform simple or complex finger movements. We hypothesized that a high degree of functional similarity of motor imagery and motor execution should be reflected in similar alterations of lateralized preparatory activity. Lateralized preparatory activity was indeed very similar, showing both motor-related (lateralized readiness potential, LRP) and cognitive components (anterior directing-attention negativity or ADAN, late directing-attention positivity or LDAP). Dipole analysis revealed that LRP, ADAN, and LDAP sources were very comparable for motor imagination and execution. Results generally support the idea of common underlying functional networks subserving both the preparation for execution and imagery of movements. They also provide a broader context for this notion by revealing similarities in cognitive components associated with the movement tasks.

  15. Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2008-03-01

    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

  16. The Reasons for Activisation of Separatism Movements in Xinjiang Later in XX and XXI Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Сергеевна Мавлонова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article includes analysis of the main reasons for activization of separatism movements in Xinjiang later in XX and earlier in XXI centuries. The author comes into conclusion that the following reasons caused the process of active politicization of ethnicity in Central Asian region and wide territories of Xinjiang: changes in the territory of former Soviet Union countries; economic recession in former Soviet Union countries which led to activization of radical movements; economic reforms in China leading to liberalization of social and political spheres; influence of external global factors. The mentioned changes resulted in serious activization of separatist tendencies which was not the case in earlier periods.

  17. Laterality of repetitive finger movement performance and clinical features of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Zaman, Andrew; MacKinnon, Colum D; Tillman, Mark D; Hass, Chris J; Okun, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Impairments in acoustically cued repetitive finger movement often emerge at rates near to and above 2Hz in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD) in which some patients move faster (hastening) and others move slower (bradykinetic). The clinical features impacting this differential performance of repetitive finger movement remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare repetitive finger movement performance between the more and less affected side, and the difference in clinical ratings among performance groups. Forty-one participants diagnosed with idiopathic PD completed an acoustically cued repetitive finger movement task while "on" medication. Eighteen participants moved faster, 10 moved slower, and 13 were able to maintain the appropriate rate at rates above 2Hz. Clinical measures of laterality, disease severity, and the UPDRS were obtained. There were no significant differences between the more and less affected sides regardless of performance group. Comparison of disease severity, tremor, and rigidity among performance groups revealed no significant differences. Comparison of posture and postural instability scores revealed that the participants that demonstrated hastening had worse posture and postural instability scores. Consideration of movement rate during the clinical evaluation of repetitive finger movement may provide additional insight into varying disease features in persons with PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of auxin movement from the shoot into the root inhibits lateral root development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. C.; Brady, S. R.; Muday, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by IAA. Together, these results are consistent with auxin transport from the shoot into the root controlling lateral root development.

  19. The effect of lateral banking on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during lateral cutting movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Graf, Eveline S; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2014-02-01

    There are many aspects of cutting movements that can limit performance, however, the implementation of lateral banking may reduce some of these limitations. Banking could provide a protective mechanism, placing the foot and ankle in orientations that keep them out of dangerous positions. This study sought to determine the effect of two banking angles on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during two athletic maneuvers. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected on 10 recreational athletes performing v-cuts and side shuffle movements on different banked surfaces (0°, 10°, 20°). Each sample surface was rigidly attached to the force platform. Joint moments were calculated and compared between conditions using a repeated measures ANOVA. Banking had a pronounced effect on the ankle joint. As banking increased, the amount of joint loading in the transverse and frontal planes decreased likely leading to a reduction in injury risk. Also an increase in knee joint loading in the frontal plane was seen during the 20° bank during the v-cut. Conversely loading in the sagittal plane at the ankle joint increased with banking and coupled with a reorientation of the ground reaction vector may facilitate a performance increase. The current study indicates that the 10° bank may be the optimal bank, in that it decreases ankle joint loading, as well as increases specific performance variables while not increasing frontal plane knee joint loading. If banking could be incorporated in footwear it may be able to provide a protective mechanism for athletes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of gender on trunk and pelvis control during lateral movements with perturbed landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltin, Elmar; Gollhofer, Albert; Mornieux, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    In lateral reactive movements, core stability may influence knee and hip joint kinematics and kinetics. Insufficient core stabilisation is discussed as a major risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Due to the higher probability of ACL injuries in women, this study concentrates on how gender influences trunk, pelvis and leg kinematics during lateral reactive jumps (LRJs). Perturbations were investigated in 12 men and 12 women performing LRJs under three different landing conditions: a movable landing platform was programmed to slide, resist or counteract upon landing. Potential group effects on three-dimensional trunk, pelvic, hip and knee kinematics were analysed for initial contact (IC) and the time of peak pelvic medial tilt (PPT). Regardless of landing conditions, the joint excursions in the entire lower limb joints were gender-specific. Women exhibited higher trunk left axial rotation at PPT (women: 4.0 ± 7.5°, men: -3.1 ± 8.2°; p = 0.011) and higher hip external rotation at both IC and PPT (p pelvic tilt at IC and especially PPT (men: -5.8 ± 4.9°, women: 0.3 ± 6.3°; p = 0.015). Strategies for maintaining trunk, pelvis and lower limb alignment during lateral reactive movements were gender-specific; the trunk and hip rotations displayed by the women were associated with the higher knee abduction amplitudes and therefore might reflect a movement strategy which is associated with higher injury risk. However, training interventions are needed to fully understand how gender-specific core stability strategies are related to performance and knee injury.

  1. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    prevented sediment sampling. Movement of these materials might require higher critical shear stresses than estimated in this report. Characterization of sediment sizes in the center of the stream and observation of bed-material movement for a range of streamflows could provide information to help refine the Shields parameter and critical-shear stress estimates for bed materials in the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake. Furthermore, resurveying cross sections and water-surface elevations more frequently (either annually or after high streamflows) could better define the relation between streamflow and lateral and vertical channel movement.

  2. Numerical calculation on a two-step subdiffusion behavior of lateral protein movement in plasma membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Tomonari; Okumoto, Atsushi; Goto, Hitoshi; Sekino, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    A two-step subdiffusion behavior of lateral movement of transmembrane proteins in plasma membranes has been observed by using single-molecule experiments. A nested double-compartment model where large compartments are divided into several smaller ones has been proposed in order to explain this observation. These compartments are considered to be delimited by membrane-skeleton "fences" and membrane-protein "pickets" bound to the fences. We perform numerical simulations of a master equation using a simple two-dimensional lattice model to investigate the heterogeneous diffusion dynamics behavior of transmembrane proteins within plasma membranes. We show that the experimentally observed two-step subdiffusion process can be described using fence and picket models combined with decreased local diffusivity of transmembrane proteins in the vicinity of the pickets. This allows us to explain the two-step subdiffusion behavior without explicitly introducing nested double compartments.

  3. Medio-lateral knee fluency in anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes during dynamic movement trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, Joseph A; Hoffman, Joshua T; Wordeman, Samuel C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    Correction of neuromuscular impairments after anterior cruciate ligament injury is vital to successful return to sport. Frontal plane knee control during landing is a common measure of lower-extremity neuromuscular control and asymmetries in neuromuscular control of the knee can predispose injured athletes to additional injury and associated morbidities. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on knee biomechanics during landing. Two-dimensional frontal plane video of single leg drop, cross over drop, and drop vertical jump dynamic movement trials was analyzed for twenty injured and reconstructed athletes. The position of the knee joint center was tracked in ImageJ software for 500 milliseconds after landing to calculate medio-lateral knee motion velocities and determine normal fluency, the number of times per second knee velocity changed direction. The inverse of this calculation, analytical fluency, was used to associate larger numerical values with fluent movement. Analytical fluency was decreased in involved limbs for single leg drop trials (P=0.0018). Importantly, analytical fluency for single leg drop differed compared to cross over drop trials for involved (Pinjury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Objective Functional Characterisation of Head Movement Impairment in Individuals with Neck Muscle Weakness Due to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pancani

    Full Text Available Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls.We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively. We quantified the differences between the two groups from the sensor data using indices of velocity, smoothness and movement coupling (intended as a measure of undesired out of plane movements.Results confirmed a general limitation in the ability of the ALS patients to perform and control head movements. High inter-patient variability was observed due to a wide range of observed functional impairment levels. The ability to extend the head backward and flex it laterally were the most compromised, with significantly lower angular velocity (P 0.8, reduced smoothness and greater presence of coupled movements with respect to the controls. A significant reduction of angular velocity (P 0.8 in extension, axial rotation and lateral flexion was observed when patients were asked to perform the movements as fast as possible.This pilot study is the first study providing a functional objective quantification of head movements in ALS. Further work involving different body areas and correlation with existing methods of evaluating neuromuscular function, such as dynamometry and EMG, is needed to explore the use of this approach as a marker of disease progression in ALS.

  5. Passive movements for the treatment and prevention of contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Rama K R; Swaminathan, Narasimman; Harvey, Lisa A

    2013-12-28

    Contractures, a common complication following immobility, lead to restricted joint range of motion. Passive movements (PMs) are widely used for the treatment and prevention of contractures; however, it is not clear whether they are effective. The aim of this review was to determine the effects of PMs on persons with contractures or at risk of developing contractures. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether PMs increase joint mobility. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid SP), EMBASE (Ovid SP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED; SSCI; CPCI-S; CPCI-SSH), PEDro and PsycINFO (Ovid SP). The search was run on 21 November 2013. Randomised controlled trials of PMs administered for the treatment or prevention of contractures were included. Studies were included if they compared the effectiveness of PMs versus no intervention, sham intervention or placebo in people with or at risk of contracture. Studies that involved other co-interventions were included, provided the co-interventions were administered in the same way to all groups. Interventions administered through mechanical devices and interventions that involved sustained stretch were excluded. Three independent review authors screened studies for inclusion. Two review authors then extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes were joint mobility and occurrence of adverse events such as joint subluxations or dislocations, heterotopic ossification, autonomic dysreflexia and fractures or muscle tears. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, pain, spasticity, activity limitations and participation restrictions. We used standard methodological procedures as advocated by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two identified studies randomly assigned a total of 122 participants with neurological conditions comparing PMs versus no PMs. Data from 121 participants were available for

  6. Assessment of errors associated with plot size and lateral movement of nitrogen-15 when studying fertilizer recovery under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.A.; Blackmer, A.M.; Horton, R.; Timmons, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The high cost of 15 N-labeled fertilizers encourages the use of field plots having minimum size. If plot size is reduced too much, however, lateral movement of N near the plots by mass flow or diffusion within the soil or by translocation through plant roots can become a significant source of error in determinations of fertilizer N recovery. This study was initiated to assess the importance of lateral movement of labeled fertilizer when unconfined plots are used to determine recovery of fertilizer. Corn grain samples were collected at various positions inside and outside 15 N plots, and the 15 N contents of these samples were determined. The data were fit to mathematical models to estimate the extent to which lateral movement of fertilizer N caused errors in determined values of fertilizer recovery for the first, second, and third crops following fertilization. These models also were used to predict the plot size needed for similar 15 N-tracer studies in the future. The results of these studies indicate that 15 N plots having a size of 2 by 2 m are sufficiently large for determining recovery of fertilizer N for corn crops under most conditions. Where lateral movement of fertilizer N in soils is suspected to be a problem, we recommend collection of a few plant samples outside the 15 N plots as insurance against misleading conclusions concerning fertilizer N recovery

  7. Suicidal behaviour and suicide prevention in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Brian M

    2014-10-01

    Despite a general decline in late life suicide rates over the last 30 years, older people have the highest rates of suicide in most countries. In contrast, non-fatal suicidal behaviour declines with age and more closely resembles suicide than in younger age groups. There are difficulties in the detection and determination of pathological suicidal ideation in older people. Multiple factors increase suicide risk ranging from distal early and mid-life issues such as child abuse, parental death, substance misuse and traumatic life experiences to proximal precipitants in late life such as social isolation and health-related concerns. Clinical depression is the most frequently identified proximal mental health concern and in many cases is a first episode of major depression. Recent studies have identified changes on neuroimaging and neurocognitive factors that might distinguish suicidal from non-suicidal depression in older people. Strategies for suicide prevention need to be 'whole of life' and, as no single prevention strategy is likely to be successful alone, a multi-faceted, multi-layered approach is required. This should include optimal detection and management of depression and of high risk individuals as available evidence indicates that this can reduce suicidal behaviour. How best to improve the quality of depression management in primary and secondary care requires further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Can Chronic Ankle Instability be Prevented? Rethinking Management of Lateral Ankle Sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegar, Craig R.; Miller, Sayers J., III

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether chronic ankle instability can be prevented, discussing: the relationship between mechanical and functional instability; normal ankle mechanics, sequelae to lateral ankle sprains, and abnormal ankle mechanics; and tissue healing, joint dysfunction, and acute lateral ankle sprain management. The paper describes a treatment model…

  9. Measurement of movement patterns to enhance ACL injury prevention – A dead end?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Ming Mok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical drop jump has been suggested to be an effective movement screening task for ACL injury risk, but recent studies have questioned the ability of such tasks to accurately identify players with increased risk of injury. In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of movement screening tests from an injury prevention perspective.

  10. Coordinated movements prevent jamming in an Emperor penguin huddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitterbart, Daniel P; Wienecke, Barbara; Butler, James P; Fabry, Ben

    2011-01-01

    For Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), huddling is the key to survival during the Antarctic winter. Penguins in a huddle are packed so tightly that individual movements become impossible, reminiscent of a jamming transition in compacted colloids. It is crucial, however, that the huddle structure is continuously reorganized to give each penguin a chance to spend sufficient time inside the huddle, compared with time spent on the periphery. Here we show that Emperor penguins move collectively in a highly coordinated manner to ensure mobility while at the same time keeping the huddle packed. Every 30-60 seconds, all penguins make small steps that travel as a wave through the entire huddle. Over time, these small movements lead to large-scale reorganization of the huddle. Our data show that the dynamics of penguin huddling is governed by intermittency and approach to kinetic arrest in striking analogy with inert non-equilibrium systems, including soft glasses and colloids.

  11. Coordinated movements prevent jamming in an Emperor penguin huddle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Zitterbart

    Full Text Available For Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri, huddling is the key to survival during the Antarctic winter. Penguins in a huddle are packed so tightly that individual movements become impossible, reminiscent of a jamming transition in compacted colloids. It is crucial, however, that the huddle structure is continuously reorganized to give each penguin a chance to spend sufficient time inside the huddle, compared with time spent on the periphery. Here we show that Emperor penguins move collectively in a highly coordinated manner to ensure mobility while at the same time keeping the huddle packed. Every 30-60 seconds, all penguins make small steps that travel as a wave through the entire huddle. Over time, these small movements lead to large-scale reorganization of the huddle. Our data show that the dynamics of penguin huddling is governed by intermittency and approach to kinetic arrest in striking analogy with inert non-equilibrium systems, including soft glasses and colloids.

  12. Body movement imitation and early language as predictors of later social communication and language outcomes: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, A.; Bishop, D.V.; Chiat, S.; Roy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Over recent decades much research has focused on detecting predictors of different language trajectories in children with early language delay but there has been very little exploration of social communication trajectories in these children. We report a longitudinal study that investigated the predictive value and clinical significance of elicited body movement imitation and language for later social communication and language outcome in Late Talkers.\\ud \\ud Methods: Part...

  13. A legal primer for the obesity prevention movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, Seth E; Graff, Samantha K

    2009-10-01

    Public health advocates and scientists working on obesity prevention policy face challenges in balancing legal rights, individual freedom, and societal health goals. In particular, the US Constitution and the 50 state constitutions place limits on the ability of government to act, even in the best interests of the public. To help policymakers avoid crossing constitutional boundaries, we distilled the legal concepts most relevant to formulating policies aimed at preventing obesity: police power; allocation of power among federal, state, and local governments; freedom of speech; property rights; privacy; equal protection; and contract rights. The goal is to allow policymakers to avoid potential constitutional problems in the formation of obesity prevention policy.

  14. Lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) activity is greatest while viewing dance compared to visualization and movement: learning and expertise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nota, Paula M; Levkov, Gabriella; Bar, Rachel; DeSouza, Joseph F X

    2016-07-01

    The lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC) is comprised of subregions selectively activated by images of human bodies (extrastriate body area, EBA), objects (lateral occipital complex, LO), and motion (MT+). However, their role in motor imagery and movement processing is unclear, as are the influences of learning and expertise on its recruitment. The purpose of our study was to examine putative changes in LOTC activation during action processing following motor learning of novel choreography in professional ballet dancers. Subjects were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging up to four times over 34 weeks and performed four tasks: viewing and visualizing a newly learned ballet dance, visualizing a dance that was not being learned, and movement of the foot. EBA, LO, and MT+ were activated most while viewing dance compared to visualization and movement. Significant increases in activation were observed over time in left LO only during visualization of the unlearned dance, and all subregions were activated bilaterally during the viewing task after 34 weeks of performance, suggesting learning-induced plasticity. Finally, we provide novel evidence for modulation of EBA with dance experience during the motor task, with significant activation elicited in a comparison group of novice dancers only. These results provide a composite of LOTC activation during action processing of newly learned ballet choreography and movement of the foot. The role of these areas is confirmed as primarily subserving observation of complex sequences of whole-body movement, with new evidence for modification by experience and over the course of real world ballet learning.

  15. Effectiveness of muscle energy technique and Mulligan′s movement with mobilization in the management of lateral epicondylalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Hariharasudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of muscle energy technique (MET and mobilization with the movement of elbow in subjects with lateral epicondylalgia (LE. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in Global Hospitals and Health City, Chennai 100. Subjects were allocated into group A and B through simple randomization method and double-blinded randomized controlled trial was performed. Materials and Methods: An interventional comparative study was conducted on 30 patients having LE. They were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. Group A (n = 15 was treated using movement with mobilization, group B (n = 15 was treated with MET. Both groups received conventional treatment of therapeutic ultrasound, after corresponding interventions. Visual analog scale (VAS and elbow functional assessment (EFA scales were the outcome measures, respectively. Measurements were performed before the beginning of treatment, after 10 days and 3 weeks afterward. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post-hoc analysis Bonferroni method were used to analyze measurements taken at baseline and follow-up at 10 th day and 3 rd week. Results: Subjects who received mobilization with movement showed a significant improvement in both VAS and EFA than the other group which received MET. Conclusion: We conclude that mobilization with the movement of elbow appears to be more effective manual technique in treating LE in comparison with MET.

  16. The Relationship between Reduplicated Babble Onset and Laterality Biases in Infant Rhythmic Arm Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Jana M.; Hall, Amanda J.; Nickel, Lindsay; Wozniak, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined changes in rhythmic arm shaking and laterality biases in infants observed longitudinally at three points: just prior to, at, and just following reduplicated babble onset. Infants (ranging in age from 4 to 9 months at babble onset) were videotaped at home as they played with two visually identical audible and silent rattles…

  17. Lateral spread as a special form of soil movement in Dolina area in municipality Puconci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Čarman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a particular form of soil instability, which is rarely observed in Slovenia. This is a lateral spread of the soil, which appeared some years ago in the central part of Dolina area in the municipality of Puconci. The area is mainly build up from clay and sandy sediments of the Pannonian Sea, predominantly Pliocene age. A significant damage of building has begun several years ago. According to data from research carried out, we suggest that the flat area is disintegrated into individual blocks, moving in different directions. These led to such extensive damage to buildings. Possible cause could be erosion of Dolinski stream at the eastern edge of the area or seismic survey (blasting, vibrations, which were carried out here about 20 years ago. Determination the exact cause of the formation of the soil lateral spread, its extent and dynamics, remain a challenge for the future.

  18. A lateral belt of cortical LGN and NuMA guides mitotic spindle movements and planar division in neuroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Elise; Jaouen, Florence; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Haren, Laurence; Merdes, Andreas; Durbec, Pascale; Morin, Xavier

    2011-04-04

    To maintain tissue architecture, epithelial cells divide in a planar fashion, perpendicular to their main polarity axis. As the centrosome resumes an apical localization in interphase, planar spindle orientation is reset at each cell cycle. We used three-dimensional live imaging of GFP-labeled centrosomes to investigate the dynamics of spindle orientation in chick neuroepithelial cells. The mitotic spindle displays stereotypic movements during metaphase, with an active phase of planar orientation and a subsequent phase of planar maintenance before anaphase. We describe the localization of the NuMA and LGN proteins in a belt at the lateral cell cortex during spindle orientation. Finally, we show that the complex formed of LGN, NuMA, and of cortically located Gαi subunits is necessary for spindle movements and regulates the dynamics of spindle orientation. The restricted localization of LGN and NuMA in the lateral belt is instructive for the planar alignment of the mitotic spindle, and required for its planar maintenance.

  19. Focal junctions retard lateral movement and disrupt fluid phase connectivity in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, D.; Wojewodzka, U.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    -p-cyclodextrin further decreased the recovery of DiI-C-18:0. We propose a model in which focal junctions impose lateral heterogeneity in the plasma membrane by entrapment of lipid microdomains between dense arrays of immobilized transmembrane molecules which can enmesh otherwise freely percolating L-d phase lipids. (c...... containing liquid-ordered (L-o) lipids. Indeed, values of maximal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the long-range mobility of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, marker of L-o) was similar to 1.5-fold retarded within the focal junctions compared to the surrounding membrane. However, 1...

  20. Focal junctions retard lateral movement and disrupt fluid phase connectivity in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, D.; Wojewodzka, U.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    ,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI-C-18:0), which specifically partitions to the liquid-disordered (L-d), non-raft phase, was also enriched in focal junctions and its mobility was slightly retarded. Cross-linking of GM(1) by CTB or raft aggregation by methyl......-p-cyclodextrin further decreased the recovery of DiI-C-18:0. We propose a model in which focal junctions impose lateral heterogeneity in the plasma membrane by entrapment of lipid microdomains between dense arrays of immobilized transmembrane molecules which can enmesh otherwise freely percolating L-d phase lipids. (c...

  1. Dynamics of Passive Lateral Pressure in Granular Mass during Discontinual Movement of Retaining Structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, Petr; Valach, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 10, I (2006), s. 271-276 ISSN 1335-2393. [ICE Experimental stress analysis 2006. Červený Kláštor, xx.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2130; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2071302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913; CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : dynamics of passive lateral (earth) pressure * rotation about the top * retaining structure * history of both pressure component Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  2. The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Procedure Prevents Defensive Processing in Health Persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a

  3. Retention of movement technique : Implications for primary prevention of ACL injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, Wouter; Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Otten, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Retention of movement technique is crucial in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs. It is unknown if specific instructions or video instructions result in changes in kinematic and kinetic measures during a relatively short training session, and in a retention test

  4. Eye Movement Deficits Are Consistent with a Staging Model of pTDP-43 Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gorges

    Full Text Available The neuropathological process underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS can be traced as a four-stage progression scheme of sequential corticofugal axonal spread. The examination of eye movement control gains deep insights into brain network pathology and provides the opportunity to detect both disturbance of the brainstem oculomotor circuitry as well as executive deficits of oculomotor function associated with higher brain networks.To study systematically oculomotor characteristics in ALS and its underlying network pathology in order to determine whether eye movement deterioration can be categorized within a staging system of oculomotor decline that corresponds to the neuropathological model.Sixty-eight ALS patients and 31 controls underwent video-oculographic, clinical and neuropsychological assessments.Oculomotor examinations revealed increased anti- and delayed saccades' errors, gaze-palsy and a cerebellary type of smooth pursuit disturbance. The oculomotor disturbances occurred in a sequential manner: Stage 1, only executive control of eye movements was affected. Stage 2 indicates disturbed executive control plus 'genuine' oculomotor dysfunctions such as gaze-paly. We found high correlations (p<0.001 between the oculomotor stages and both, the clinical presentation as assessed by the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS score, and cognitive scores from the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS.Dysfunction of eye movement control in ALS can be characterized by a two-staged sequential pattern comprising executive deficits in Stage 1 and additional impaired infratentorial oculomotor control pathways in Stage 2. This pattern parallels the neuropathological staging of ALS and may serve as a technical marker of the neuropathological spreading.

  5. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  6. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  7. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  8. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  9. Lateralization of visually guided detour behaviour in the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon, a reptile with highly independent eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Avichai; Ketter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi

    2013-11-01

    Chameleons (Chamaeleonidae, reptilia), in common with most ectotherms, show full optic nerve decussation and sparse inter-hemispheric commissures. Chameleons are unique in their capacity for highly independent, large-amplitude eye movements. We address the question: Do common chameleons, Chamaeleo chameleon, during detour, show patterns of lateralization of motion and of eye use that differ from those shown by other ectotherms? To reach a target (prey) in passing an obstacle in a Y-maze, chameleons were required to make a left or a right detour. We analyzed the direction of detours and eye use and found that: (i) individuals differed in their preferred detour direction, (ii) eye use was lateralized at the group level, with significantly longer durations of viewing the target with the right eye, compared with the left eye, (iii) during left side, but not during right side, detours the durations of viewing the target with the right eye were significantly longer than the durations with the left eye. Thus, despite the uniqueness of chameleons' visual system, they display patterns of lateralization of motion and of eye use, typical of other ectotherms. These findings are discussed in relation to hemispheric functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Slovenian National Landslide DataBase – A promising approach to slope mass movement prevention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ribičič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian territory is, geologically speaking, very diverse and mainly composed of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Slope mass movements occur almost in all parts of the country. In the Alpine carbonate areas of the northern part of Slovenia rock falls, rock slides and even debris flows can be triggered.In the mountainous regions of central Slovenia composed from different clastic rocks, large soil landslides are quite usual, and in the young soil sediments of eastern part of Slovenia there is a large density of small soil landslides.The damage caused by slope mass movements is high, but still no common strategy and regulations to tackle this unwanted event, especially from the aspect of prevention, have been developed. One of the first steps towards an effective strategy of struggling against landslides and other slope mass movements is a central landslide database, where (ideally all known landslide occurrences would be reported, and described in as much detail as possible. At the end of the project of National Landslide Database construction which ended in May 2005 there were more than 6600 registered landslides, of which almost half occurred at a known location and were accompanied with the main characteristic descriptions.The erected database is a chance for Slovenia to once and for all start a solid slope mass movement prevention plan. The only part which is missing and which is the most important one is adopting a legal act that will legalise the obligation of reporting slope mass movement events to the database.

  11. Electrical stimulation of the primate lateral habenula suppresses saccadic eye movement through a learning mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure which represents negative motivational value. Neurons in the LHb are excited by unpleasant events such as reward omission and aversive stimuli, and transmit these signals to midbrain dopamine neurons which are involved in learning and motivation. However, it remains unclear whether these phasic changes in LHb neuronal activity actually influence animal behavior. To answer this question, we artificially activated the LHb by electrical stimulation while monkeys were performing a visually guided saccade task. In one block of trials, saccades to one fixed direction (e.g., right direction were followed by electrical stimulation of the LHb while saccades to the other direction (e.g., left direction were not. The direction-stimulation contingency was reversed in the next block. We found that the post-saccadic stimulation of the LHb increased the latencies of saccades in subsequent trials. Notably, the increase of the latency occurred gradually as the saccade was repeatedly followed by the stimulation, suggesting that the effect of the post-saccadic stimulation was accumulated across trials. LHb stimulation starting before saccades, on the other hand, had no effect on saccade latency. Together with previous studies showing LHb activation by reward omission and aversive stimuli, the present stimulation experiment suggests that LHb activity contributes to learning to suppress actions which lead to unpleasant events.

  12. Production of verbs related to body movement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Ash, Sharon; Grossman, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Theories of grounded cognition propose that action verb knowledge relies in part on motor processing regions, including premotor cortex. Accordingly, impaired action verb knowledge in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) is thought to be due to motor system degeneration. Upper motor neuron disease in ALS degrades the motor cortex and related pyramidal motor system, while disease in PD is centered in the basal ganglia and can spread to frontostriatal areas that are important to language functioning. These anatomical distinctions in disease may yield subtle differences in the action verb impairment between patient groups. Here we compare verbs where the body is the agent of the action to verbs where the body is the theme. To examine the role of motor functioning in body verb production, we split patient groups into patients with high motor impairment (HMI) and those with low motor impairment (LMI), using disease-specific measures of motor impairment. Regression analyses assessed how verb production in ALS and PD was related to motor system atrophy. We find a dissociation between agent- and theme-body verbs in ALS: ALS HMI were impaired for agent body verbs but not theme verbs, compared to ALS LMI. This dissociation was not present in PD patients, who instead show depressed production for all body verbs. Although patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from this study, cognitive performance significantly correlated with the production of theme verbs in ALS and cognitive/stative verbs in PD. Finally, regression analyses related the agent-theme dissociation in ALS to grey matter atrophy of premotor cortex. These findings support the view that motor dysfunction and disease in premotor cortex contributes to the agent body verb deficit in ALS, and begin to identify some distinct characteristics of impairment for verbs in ALS and PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies 6 months following first-time acute lateral ankle sprain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, C; Bleakley, C; Hertel, J; Caulfield, B; Ryan, J; Delahunt, E

    2015-12-01

    No research exists predicating a link between acute ankle sprain injury-affiliated movement patterns and those of chronic ankle instability (CAI) populations. The aim of the current study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of participants, 6 months after they sustained a first-time acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury to establish this link. Fifty-seven participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS and 20 noninjured participants completed a single-leg drop landing task on both limbs. Three-dimensional kinematic (angular displacement) and sagittal plane kinetic (moment of force) data were acquired for the joints of the lower extremity, from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC. Individual joint stiffnesses and the peak magnitude of the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) were also computed. LAS participants displayed increases in hip flexion and ankle inversion on their injured limb (P < 0.05); this coincided with a reduction in the net flexion-extension moment at the hip joint, with an increase in its stiffness (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of the peak vertical GRF for either limb compared with controls. These results demonstrate that altered movement strategies persist in participants, 6 months following acute LAS, which may precipitate the onset of CAI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E

    2017-09-07

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail undulations and naturally by removing the tail via autotomy. Restricting tail undulations resulted in kinematic adjustments similar to those that occur following tail autotomy, characterized by more flexed hind limb joints. These data suggest that effects of autotomy on locomotion may be linked to the loss of tail movements rather than the loss of mass or a shift in center of mass. We also provide empirical support for the link between lateral tail undulations and step length through the rotation of the pelvic girdle and retraction of the femur. Restriction and autotomy of the tail limits pelvic rotation, which reduces femur retraction and decreases step length. Our findings demonstrate a functional role for tail undulations in geckos, which likely applies to other terrestrial vertebrates.

  15. Preventive lateral ligament tester (PLLT): a novel method to evaluate mechanical properties of lateral ankle joint ligaments in the intact ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Raymond; Böhle, Caroline; Mauch, Frieder; Brüggemann, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    To construct and evaluate an ankle arthrometer that registers inversion joint deflection at standardized inversion loads and that, moreover, allows conclusions about the mechanical strain of intact ankle joint ligaments at these loads. Twelve healthy ankles and 12 lower limb cadaver specimens were tested in a self-developed measuring device monitoring passive ankle inversion movement (Inv-ROM) at standardized application of inversion loads of 5, 10 and 15 N. To adjust in vivo and in vitro conditions, the muscular inactivity of the evertor muscles was assured by EMG in vivo. Preliminary, test-retest and trial-to-trial reliabilities were tested in vivo. To detect lateral ligament strain, the cadaveric calcaneofibular ligament was instrumented with a buckle transducer. After post-test harvesting of the ligament with its bony attachments, previously obtained resistance strain gauge results were then transferred to tensile loads, mounting the specimens with their buckle transducers into a hydraulic material testing machine. ICC reliability considering the Inv-ROM and torsional stiffness varied between 0.80 and 0.90. Inv-ROM ranged from 15.3° (±7.3°) at 5 N to 28.3° (±7.6) at 15 N. The different tests revealed a CFL tensile load of 31.9 (±14.0) N at 5 N, 51.0 (±15.8) at 10 N and 75.4 (±21.3) N at 15 N inversion load. A highly reliable arthrometer was constructed allowing not only the accurate detection of passive joint deflections at standardized inversion loads but also reveals some objective conclusions of the intact CFL properties in correlation with the individual inversion deflections. The detection of individual joint deflections at predefined loads in correlation with the knowledge of tensile ligament loads in the future could enable more individual preventive measures, e.g., in high-level athletes.

  16. Distinct Laterality in Forelimb-Movement Representations of Rat Primary and Secondary Motor Cortical Neurons with Intratelencephalic and Pyramidal Tract Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Shogo; Saiki, Akiko; Yoshida, Junichi; Ríos, Alain; Kawabata, Masanori; Sakai, Yutaka; Isomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-11-08

    Two distinct motor areas, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2), play crucial roles in voluntary movement in rodents. The aim of this study was to characterize the laterality in motor cortical representations of right and left forelimb movements. To achieve this goal, we developed a novel behavioral task, the Right-Left Pedal task, in which a head-restrained male rat manipulates a right or left pedal with the corresponding forelimb. This task enabled us to monitor independent movements of both forelimbs with high spatiotemporal resolution. We observed phasic movement-related neuronal activity (Go-type) and tonic hold-related activity (Hold-type) in isolated unilateral movements. In both M1 and M2, Go-type neurons exhibited bias toward contralateral preference, whereas Hold-type neurons exhibited no bias. The contralateral bias was weaker in M2 than M1. Moreover, we differentiated between intratelencephalic (IT) and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons using optogenetically evoked spike collision in rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Even in identified PT and IT neurons, Hold-type neurons exhibited no lateral bias. Go-type PT neurons exhibited bias toward contralateral preference, whereas IT neurons exhibited no bias. Our findings suggest a different laterality of movement representations of M1 and M2, in each of which IT neurons are involved in cooperation of bilateral movements, whereas PT neurons control contralateral movements. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In rodents, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2) are involved in voluntary movements via distinct projection neurons: intratelencephalic (IT) neurons and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons. However, it remains unclear whether the two motor cortices (M1 vs M2) and the two classes of projection neurons (IT vs PT) have different laterality of movement representations. We optogenetically identified these neurons and analyzed their functional activity using a novel behavioral task to monitor movements

  17. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies in participants with chronic ankle instability compared with lateral ankle sprain 'copers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2016-04-01

    To compare the movement patterns and underlying energetics of individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) to ankle sprain 'copers' during a landing task. Twenty-eight (age 23.2 ± 4.9 years; body mass 75.5 ± 13.9 kg; height 1.7 ± 0.1 m) participants with CAI and 42 (age 22.7 ± 1.7 years; body mass 73.4 ± 11.3 kg; height 1.7 ± 0.1 m) ankle sprain 'copers' were evaluated 1 year after incurring a first-time lateral ankle sprain injury. Kinematics and kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle joints from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC, in addition to the vertical component of the landing ground reaction force, were acquired during performance of a drop land task. The CAI group adopted a position of increased hip flexion during the landing descent on their involved limb. This coincided with a reduced post-IC flexor pattern at the hip and increased overall hip joint stiffness compared to copers (-0.01 ± 0.05 vs. 0.02 ± 0.05°/Nm kg(-1), p = 0.03). Individuals with CAI display alterations in hip joint kinematics and energetics during a unipodal landing task compared to LAS 'copers'. These alterations may be responsible for the increased risk of injury experienced by individuals with CAI during landing manoeuvres. Thus, clinicians must recognise the potential for joints proximal to the affected ankle to contribute to impaired function following an acute lateral ankle sprain injury and to develop rehabilitation protocols accordingly. Level III.

  18. Chloroplast protein PLGG1 is involved in abscisic acid-regulated lateral root development and stomatal movement in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huan; Bai, Ling; Chang, Jie; Song, Chun-Peng

    2018-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in root architecture; however, the molecular mechanism of ABA-regulated lateral root (LR) growth is not well known. We screened an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant with LR growth that was sensitive to ABA from a T-DNA insertion mutant library, which was an allelic mutant of plgg1-1, termed plgg1-2. PLGG1 encodes a chloroplast protein that transports plastidic glycolate and glycerate. The length and number of LRs at the root-hypocotyl junction of plgg1-1 and plgg1-2 were significantly impaired under exogenous ABA treatment, and the transgenic plant complementary lines of plgg1-2 restored LR growth in response to ABA. In addition, we found that PLGG1 is involved in other major ABA responses, including ABA-inhibited seed germination, ABA-mediated stomatal movement, and drought tolerance. These findings open new perspectives on elucidating the mechanism of ABA response, and provide clues for analysing the functions of chloroplast proteins in regulating root growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  20. Method to reduce levitation force decay of the bulk HTSC above the NdFeB guideway due to lateral movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, G T; Lin, Q X; Wang, J S; Wang, S Y; Deng, Z G; Lu, Y Y; Liu, M X; Zheng, J [Applied Superconductivity Lab, Mail Stop 152 Southwestern Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn

    2008-06-15

    A magnetic levitation vehicle using bulk high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSC) is considered as a promising transportation type thanks to its lateral inherent stability, but previous studies have found that the levitation force (LF) decays due to lateral movement. In this paper, a pre-load method is presented to reduce the LF decay, and the experimental results indicate that this method is very applicable in supressing this decay in spite of the applied field and material property of the bulk HTSC, and this effect can be ascribed to the reduction of the hysteresis loss in the bulk HTSC, i.e. more trapped magnetic flux after the pre-load case. In the end, experimental results indicate that the Halbach PMG has an advantage to reduce the cost of the PMG, but its rate of LF decay is also larger due to lateral movement.

  1. Monitoring the extent of vertical and lateral movement of human decomposition products through sediment using cholesterol as a biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Susan; Forbes, Shari L; Wallman, James F; Roberts, Richard G

    2018-04-01

    Due to the lack of human decomposition research facilities available in different geographical regions, the extent of movement of human decomposition products from a cadaver into various sedimentary environments, in different climates, has not been able to be studied in detail. In our study, a human cadaver was placed on the surface of a designated plot at the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER), the only human decomposition facility in Australia, where the natural process of decomposition was allowed to progress over 14days in the Australian summer. Sediment columns (approximately 1m deep) were collected at lateral distances of 0.25m, 0.5m, 1.0m and 2.5m in each of four directions from the centre of the torso. Plot elevation and weather data were also collected. Each sediment column was subdivided, dried and homogenised. A sample was isolated from each sediment subdivision, extracted with hexane, and the hexane extract cleaned with citrate buffer (pH 3), filtered and spiked with cholesterol-D 7 internal standard. After derivatisation with BSTFA+1% TMCS, cholesterol was monitored in the samples using targeted gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A positive result for decomposition products was given if the cholesterol abundance in the test sample was higher than that detected in the 'control' samples of a similar substrate type collected prior to cadaver placement. Within the confines of the experimental design and the measured parameters, lateral leaching was observed over distances of up to 2.5m from the centre of the torso, which was the maximum distance tested in the study. Vertical leaching was detected to depths of up to 49cm below the ground surface. Such data can aid the development of policies related to plot sizing and sediment renewal and regeneration at other human decomposition facilities and at cemeteries. The density and distribution of cholesterol surrounding the cadaver in this study can also help

  2. Forest and Land Fire Prevention Through the Hotspot Movement Pattern Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmudi, T.; Kardono, P.; Hartanto, P.; Ardhitasari, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has experienced a great forest fire disaster in 2015. The losses incurred were enormous. But actually the incidence of forest and land fires occurs almost every year. Various efforts were made to cope with the fire disaster. The appearance of a hotspot becomes an early indication of the fire incident both location and time. By studying the location and time of the hotspot's appearance indicates that the hotspot has certain movement patterns from year to year. This study aims to show the pattern of movement of hotspots from year to year that can be used for the prevention of forest and land fires. The method used is time series analysis of land cover and hotspot distribution. The data used were land cover data from 2005 to 2016, hotspot data from 2005 to 2016. The location of this study is the territory of Meranti Kepulauan District. The results show that the highest hotspot is 425 hotspots occurs in the shrubs and bushes. From year to year, the pattern of hotspot movement occurs in the shrubs and bushes cover. The hotspot pattern follows the direction of unused land for cultivation and is dominated by shrubs. From these results, we need to pay more attentiont for the land with the cover of shrubs adjacent to the cultivated land.

  3. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  4. Prevention of stress-impaired fear extinction through neuropeptide s action in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Frédéric; Lange, Maren Denise; Jüngling, Kay; Lesting, Jörg; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2012-06-01

    Stressful and traumatic events can create aversive memories, which are a predisposing factor for anxiety disorders. The amygdala is critical for transforming such stressful events into anxiety, and the recently discovered neuropeptide S transmitter system represents a promising candidate apt to control these interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that neuropeptide S can regulate stress-induced hyperexcitability in the amygdala, and thereby can interact with stress-induced alterations of fear memory. Mice underwent acute immobilization stress (IS), and neuropeptide S and a receptor antagonist were locally injected into the lateral amygdala (LA) during stress exposure. Ten days later, anxiety-like behavior, fear acquisition, fear memory retrieval, and extinction were tested. Furthermore, patch-clamp recordings were performed in amygdala slices prepared ex vivo to identify synaptic substrates of stress-induced alterations in fear responsiveness. (1) IS increased anxiety-like behavior, and enhanced conditioned fear responses during extinction 10 days after stress, (2) neuropeptide S in the amygdala prevented, while an antagonist aggravated, these stress-induced changes of aversive behaviors, (3) excitatory synaptic activity in LA projection neurons was increased on fear conditioning and returned to pre-conditioning values on fear extinction, and (4) stress resulted in sustained high levels of excitatory synaptic activity during fear extinction, whereas neuropeptide S supported the return of synaptic activity during fear extinction to levels typical of non-stressed animals. Together these results suggest that the neuropeptide S system is capable of interfering with mechanisms in the amygdala that transform stressful events into anxiety and impaired fear extinction.

  5. The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing procedure prevents defensive processing in health persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a university sample (n = 124) listened to the persuasive message in a randomized laboratory experiment. In the EMDR condition, they were also instructed to follow with their eyes a dot on the computer screen. The dot constantly moved from one side of the screen to the other in 2 seconds. In addition, a self-affirmation procedure was applied in half of the participants. EMDR led to a significant increase in persuasion, only in recipients in whom the persuasive message could be expected to activate defensive self-regulation (in participants with a moderate health value and in participants with low self-esteem). In those with a moderate health value, EMDR increased persuasion, but only when recipients were not affirmed. In addition, EMDR increased persuasion only in recipients with low self-esteem, not in those with high self-esteem. These results showed that EMDR influenced persuasion and in some way lowered defensive reactions. The similarities and differences in effects of EMDR and self-affirmation further increased our insight into the psychology of defensiveness.

  6. Comparison of randomized preemptive dexketoprofen trometamol or placebo tablets to prevent withdrawal movement caused by rocuronium injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Gözde Bumin; Polat, Reyhan; Ergil, Julide; Sayın, Murat; Caparlar, Ceyda Ozhan

    2014-06-01

    Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent which is associated with injection pain and induces withdrawal movement of the injected hand or arm or generalized movements of the body after intravenous injection. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with oral dexketoprofen trometamol (Arvelles(®); Group A) with placebo (Group P) without tourniquet to prevent the withdrawal response caused by rocuronium injection. The study cohort comprised 150 American Society of Anaesthesiologists class I-III patients aged 18-75 years who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery with general anesthesia. The patients response to rocuronium was graded using a 4-point scale [0 = no response; 1 = movement/withdrawal at the wrist only, 2 = movement/withdrawal involving the arm only (elbow/shoulder); 3 = generalized response]. The overall incidence of withdrawal movement after rocuronium injection was significantly lower in Group A (30.1 %) than in Group P (64.6 %) (p  0.05). These results demonstrate that the preemptive administration of dexketoprofen trometamol can attenuate the degree of withdrawal movements caused by the pain of the rocuronium injection.

  7. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies in participants with chronic ankle instability compared with lateral ankle sprain 'copers'

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris J.; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with CAI display alterations in hip joint kinematics and energetics during a unipodal landing task compared to LAS 'copers'. These alterations may be responsible for the increased risk of injury experienced by individuals with CAI during landing manoeuvres. Thus, clinicians must recognise the potential for joints proximal to the affected ankle to contribute to impaired function following an acute lateral ankle sprain injury and to develop rehabilitation protocols accordingly.

  8. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail un...

  9. Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

  10. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  11. A careful evaluation of scout CT lateral radiograph may prevent unreported vertebral fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzocchi, Alberto; Spinnato, Paolo [Imaging Division, Clinical Department of Radiological and Histocytopathological Sciences, University of Bologna, Sant’Orsola – Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Albisinni, Ugo [Department of Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Battista, Giuseppe [Imaging Division, Clinical Department of Radiological and Histocytopathological Sciences, University of Bologna, Sant’Orsola – Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Rossi, Cristina [Section of Radiological Sciences, Department of Clinic Sciences, University of Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe, E-mail: g.guglielmi@unifg.it [Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Viale Luigi Pinto 1, 71100 Foggia (Italy); Department of Radiology, Scientific Institute “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza” Hospital, Viale Cappuccini 1, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Objectives: Our purpose was to review scout CT lateral radiographs to reveal osteoporotic vertebral fractures unreported by radiologists and to explore scout CT as a potential diagnostic tool in the detection of vertebral fractures. Methods: We considered 500 patients (303 males, 197 females, age 64.6 ± 13.5 year-old). Our investigation was firstly focused on scout CT lateral images to detect vertebral fractures with a combined semiquantitative and quantitative diagnostic approach. Findings addressed to vertebral fracture were subsequently confirmed by multiplanar sagittal CT reconstructions. Whenever a vertebral fracture was discovered the radiologist report was read and a collection of patient anamnesis followed to understand whether fractures were already known. Results: In 44/500 patients (8.8%) the evaluation on scout CT was incomplete or limited for patient/technical-based conditions, and 15 were excluded from the analysis. In 67/485 patients (13.8%) 99 vertebral fractures were detected. Among 67 fractured patients only 18 (26.9%) were previously diagnosed by radiologists. However, in the clinical history of 32 patients vertebral fractures were already known. Conclusions: The perception and sensibility to vertebral fractures among radiologists are still poor when the assessment of the spine is not the aim of the examination. Short time spent for the evaluation of scout CT lateral radiographs could improve our accuracy.

  12. Effect of fentanyl on the induction dose and minimum infusion rate of propofol preventing movement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carrie A; Seddighi, Reza; Cox, Sherry K; Sun, Xiaocun; Egger, Christine M; Doherty, Thomas J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effect of fentanyl on the induction dose of propofol and minimum infusion rate required to prevent movement in response to noxious stimulation (MIR NM ) in dogs. Crossover experimental design. Six healthy, adult intact male Beagle dogs, mean±standard deviation 12.6±0.4 kg. Dogs were administered 0.9% saline (treatment P), fentanyl (5 μg kg -1 ) (treatment PLDF) or fentanyl (10 μg kg -1 ) (treatment PHDF) intravenously over 5 minutes. Five minutes later, anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg kg -1 , followed by 1 mg kg -1 every 15 seconds to achieve intubation) and maintained for 90 minutes by constant rate infusions (CRIs) of propofol alone or with fentanyl: P, propofol (0.5 mg kg -1  minute -1 ); PLDF, propofol (0.35 mg kg -1  minute -1 ) and fentanyl (0.1 μg kg -1  minute -1 ); PHDF, propofol (0.3 mg kg -1  minute -1 ) and fentanyl (0.2 μg kg -1  minute -1 ). Propofol CRI was increased or decreased based on the response to stimulation (50 V, 50 Hz, 10 mA), with 20 minutes between adjustments. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model anova and presented as mean±standard error. ropofol induction doses were 6.16±0.31, 3.67±0.21 and 3.33±0.42 mg kg -1 for P, PLDF and PHDF, respectively. Doses for PLDF and PHDF were significantly decreased from P (pFentanyl, at the doses studied, caused statistically significant and clinically important decreases in the propofol induction dose and MIR NM . Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Breast radiotherapy in the lateral decubitus position: A technique to prevent lung and heart irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Francois; Kirova, Youlia M.; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude; Dendale, Remi; Vilcoq, Jacques R.; Dreyfus, Helene; Fourquet, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present an original technique for breast radiotherapy, with the aim of limiting lung and heart irradiation, satisfying quality assurance criteria. Methods and Material: An original radiotherapy technique for breast irradiation has been developed at the Institute Curie in January 1996. It consists of isocentric breast irradiation in the lateral decubitus position (isocentric lateral decubitus [ILD]). This technique is indicated for voluminous or pendulous breasts needing breast irradiation only. Thin carbon fiber supports and special patient positioning devices have been developed especially for this technique. In vivo measurements were performed to check the dose distribution before the routine use of the technique. Results: ILD has been successfully implemented in routine practice, and 500 patients have been already treated. Breast radiotherapy is performed using a dose of 50 Gy at ICRU point in 25 fractions. ILD shows good homogeneity of the dose in breast treatment volume, treatment fields are perpendicular to the skin ensuring its protection, and extremely low dose is delivered to the underlying lung and heart. Conclusion: In cases of voluminous breasts or patients with a history of lung and heart disease, our technique provides several advantages over the conventional technique with opposing tangential fields. This technique improves the dose homogeneity according to the ICRU recommendations

  15. The effect of intermittent preventive treatment on anti-malarial drug resistance spread in areas with population movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teboh-Ewungkem, Miranda I; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal; Baliraine, Frederick N; Duke-Sylvester, Scott M

    2014-11-15

    The use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women (IPTp), children (IPTc) and infant (IPTi) is an increasingly popular preventive strategy aimed at reducing malaria risk in these vulnerable groups. Studies to understand how this preventive intervention can affect the spread of anti-malarial drug resistance are important especially when there is human movement between neighbouring low and high transmission areas. Because the same drug is sometimes utilized for IPTi and for symptomatic malaria treatment, distinguishing their individual roles on accelerating the spread of drug resistant malaria, with or without human movement, may be difficult to isolate experimentally or by analysing data. A theoretical framework, as presented here, is thus relevant as the role of IPTi on accelerating the spread of drug resistance can be isolated in individual populations and when the populations are interconnected and interact. A previously published model is expanded to include human movement between neighbouring high and low transmission areas, with focus placed on the malaria parasites. Parasite fitness functions, determined by how many humans the parasites can infect, are used to investigate how fast resistance can spread within the neighbouring communities linked by movement, when the populations are at endemic equilibrium. Model simulations indicate that population movement results in resistance spreading fastest in high transmission areas, and the more complete the anti-malarial resistance the faster the resistant parasite will tend to spread through a population. Moreover, the demography of infection in low transmission areas tends to change to reflect the demography of high transmission areas. Additionally, when regions are strongly connected the rate of spread of partially resistant parasites (R1) relative to drug sensitive parasites (RS), and fully resistant parasites (R2) relative to partially resistant parasites (R1) tend to behave the same in both

  16. Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects.

  17. Retroperitoneal anatomy of the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: consequences for prevention and treatment of chronic inguinodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinpold, W; Schroeder, A D; Schroeder, M; Berger, C; Rohr, M; Wehrenberg, U

    2015-08-01

    Chronic inguinodynia is one of the most frequent complications after groin herniorrhaphy. We investigated the retroperitoneal anatomy of the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to prevent direct nerve injury during hernia repairs and to find the most advantageous approach for posterior triple neurectomy. We dissected the inguinal nerves in 30 human anatomic specimens bilaterally. The distances from each nerve and their entry points in the abdominal wall were measured in relation to the posterior superior iliac spine, anterior superior iliac spine, and the midpoint between the two iliac spines on the iliac crest. We evaluated our findings by creating high-resolution summation images. The courses of the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerve are most consistent on the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum muscle. The genitofemoral nerve always runs on the psoas muscle. The entry points of the nerves in the abdominal wall are located as follows: the iliohypogastric nerve is above the iliac crest and lateral from the anterior superior iliac spine, the ilioinguinal nerve is with great variability, either above or below the iliac crest and lateral from the anterior superior iliac spine, the genital branch is around the internal inguinal ring, the femoral branch is either cranial or caudal to the iliopubic tract, and the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is either medial or lateral to the anterior superior iliac spine. Nerve injury during inguinal hernia repairs can be avoided by taking the topographic anatomy of the inguinal nerves into consideration. The most advantageous plane to look for the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerve during posterior neurectomy is on the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum muscle. For the surgical treatment of severe chronic inguinodynia, especially after posterior open or endoscopic mesh repair (TAPP/TEP), the retroperitoneoscopic or open retroperitoneal approach for posterior

  18. [Prevention of the eruption of an upper later incisor by a compound odontoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Daniel; Reichart, Peter A; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Sleiter, Roberto; Bornstein, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours. They are considered as hamartomas - a local tissue malformation without autonomous growth potential - and are non-neoplastic. Clinically and histopathologically, compound and complex odontomas can be differentiated. Compound odontomas consist of a varying number of tooth-like structures and histology show dental tissues in an orderly pattern. Most often compound odontomas are diagnosed in young patients in the anterior maxilla. Patients are rarely complaining of symptoms and they are usually diagnosed during routine radiographic examinations or due to late eruption of permanent or persistence of deciduous teeth. The following case report presents a disturbed eruption of a lateral right incisor of the maxilla in a 8-year old female patient. Clinical, radiological and histopathological characteristics of this lesion will be discussed as well as therapy and follow-up.

  19. Does sports participation during adolescence prevent later alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, Tove; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2009-01-01

    To study whether participation in organized sports during adolescence predicts increased smoking of tobacco, alcohol intoxication and cannabis use from late adolescence to adulthood when controlling for potential confounders. Moreover, to study whether such increased drug use varies according to type of sport (team versus individual), main skills needed (endurance, strength or technical) and level of competition. Survey of national sample of Norwegian high school students (aged 13-19 years) in 1992 (T1) followed-up in 1994 (T2), 1999 (T3) and 2006 (T4) (n = 3251). Outcome measures included smoking of tobacco and 12-month prevalences of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use, respectively. Confounders included pubertal timing, friends' drug use, perceived social acceptance, grades and parental socio-economic status. Latent growth curve analyses showed that initial level of participation in organized sports predicted growth in alcohol intoxication. Those involved initially in team sports had greater growth in alcohol intoxication, but lower growth in tobacco use and cannabis use, during the adolescent and early adult years compared to those involved in technical or strength sports. Practising endurance sports, as opposed to technical or strength sports, predicted reduced growth in alcohol intoxication and tobacco use. Sports participation in adolescence, and participation in team sports in particular, may increase the growth in alcohol intoxication during late adolescent and early adult years, whereas participation in team sports and endurance sports may reduce later increase in tobacco and cannabis use.

  20. Intervention development for the indicated prevention of depression in later life: The “DIL” protocol in Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Dias, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Because depression is a major source of the global burden of illness-related disability, developing effective strategies for reducing its incidence is an important public health priority, especially in low-income countries, where resources for treating depression are scarce. We describe in this report an intervention development project, funded by the US National Institute of Mental Health, to address “indicated” prevention of depression in older adults attending rural and urban primary care clinics in Goa, India. Specifically, participants in the “DIL” (“Depression in Later Life” trial were older adults living with mild, subsyndromal symptoms of depression and anxiety and thus at substantial risk for transitioning to fully syndromal major depression and anxiety disorders. Building upon the MANAS treatment trial (“Promoting Mental Health” led by Patel et al. in the same locale, we present here lessons learned in the development and implementation of a protocol utilizing lay health counsellors (LHCs who deliver a multi-component depression prevention intervention organized conceptually around Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care (PST, with additional components addressing brief behavioural treatment of sleep disturbances such as insomnia, meeting basic social casework needs, and education in self-management of prevalent comorbid chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, DIL is the first randomized clinical trial addressing the prevention of depressive disorders ever conducted in a low- or middle-income country.

  1. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  2. Diagnosis of Cryptococcosis and Prevention of Cryptococcal Meningitis Using a Novel Point-of-Care Lateral Flow Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashar Dhana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite access to antiretroviral therapy, mortality from cryptococcal meningitis (CM is high among persons with advanced HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg is present several weeks to months before the onset of symptoms of meningitis and can be screened to prevent life threatening meningitis. Recently, the World Health Organisation recommended that a new rapid CrAg lateral flow ‘‘dipstick’’ assay (LFA is to be used to screen HIV-infected persons with CD4 counts of less than 100 cells/µL. In this paper, we describe two cases of cryptococcosis with differing outcomes. In the first case, the new CrAg LFA was used as part of a screen and preemptive treatment strategy to prevent CM. In the second case, our patient had no access to the CrAg LFA and subsequently developed life threatening meningitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of cryptococcosis diagnosed using this novel assay.

  3. Patient Outcomes Utilizing the Mulligan Concept of Mobilization With Movement to Treat Intercollegiate Patients Diagnosed With Lateral Ankle Sprain: An a Priori Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, James M; Nasypany, Alan; Paolino, Julie; Baker, Russell; Seegmiller, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    While the incidence and reinjury rates of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) continue to persist at high rates across many sporting activities, further exploration of assessment and treatment beyond the traditional ligamentous and strength/proprioceptive model is warranted. Further, assessing and treating both arthrokinematic and osteokinematic changes associated with LAS can provide insight into a more diverse approach to treating ankle pathology. To examine the clinical use of the Mulligan Concept mobilization with movement (MWM) while treating patients diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS through authentic patient care. An a priori case series. Intercollegiate athletic training clinic. Intercollegiate patients diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS. The Mulligan Concept distal fibular anterior to posterior MWM. Pain-Intensity Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) with Non-Weight Bearing (NRS-NWB) and Weight Bearing (NRS-WB), Disablement of the Physically Active Scale (DPAscale), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) with Activity of Daily living (FAMM-ADL) and Sport (FAAM-Sport), Client Specific Impairment Measure (CSIM), Y-Balance Composite (YBC), and Weight Bearing Measure for Dorsiflexion (WBDF). Patients who are diagnosed with an acute grade I or II LAS and are treated with the Mulligan Concept report immediate and long-lasting minimal clinically important differences in patient outcome measures. Clinicians who examine and use the Mulligan Concept MWM to treat acute LAS can expect immediate positive results that are progressively retained over time specific to patient-centered outcome measures as well as functional clinicianbased measures. Based on the immediate and positive results, clinicians should examine associated osteokinematic and arthrokinematic changes beyond that of the traditional ligamentous model.

  4. A home program of strength training, movement strategy training and education did not prevent falls in people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg E Morris

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: A home program of strength and movement strategy training and falls education does not prevent falls when applied at the dose used in this study. Arguably, the dosage of therapy was insufficient. Future trials need to explore further therapy content, repetitions and duration, in order to optimise outcomes and cost-effectiveness. [Morris ME, Taylor NF, Watts JJ, Evans A, Horne M, Kempster P, Danoudis M, McGinley J, Martin C, Menz HB (2017 A home program of strength training, movement strategy training and education did not prevent falls in people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 94–100

  5. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men's community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-03-01

    Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men's collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men's community rugby union players. 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected 'normal practice' exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises.Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  6. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fernández-Crespo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  7. A Special Role for Lawyers in a Social Norm Change Movement: From Tobacco Control to Childhood Obesity Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Graff, Samantha; Ackerman, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) has committed $500 million to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic by 2015. To accomplish this ambitious goal, RWJF and its partners have developed a movement to tackle childhood obesity as a societal problem, calling for population-based solutions. The movement is borrowing from the "social norm change" approach that has yielded tremendous public health gains in tobacco control. The goal of a social norm change movement is to influence behavior ind...

  8. Effect of fentanyl and lidocaine on the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration preventing motor movement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Martin A; Seddighi, Reza; Egger, Christine M; Rohrbach, Barton W; Cox, Sherry K; KuKanich, Butch K; Doherty, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MAC NM ) in dogs. ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MAC NM (MAC NM-B ) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MAC NM (MAC NM-T ) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MAC NM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine. RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MAC NM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MAC NM decreased from MAC NM-B to MAC NM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MAC NM of sevoflurane in dogs.

  9. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in accelerating tooth movement, preventing relapse and managing acute pain during orthodontic treatment in humans: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Mikael; De Geer, Emelie; Subraian, Jaqueline; Petrén, Sofia

    2016-07-07

    Recently low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been proposed to improve orthodontic treatment. The aims of this systematic review were to investigate the scientific evidence to support applications of LLLT: (a) to accelerate tooth movement, (b) to prevent orthodontic relapse and (c) to modulate acute pain, during treatment with fixed appliances in children and young adults. To ensure a systematic literature approach, this systematic review was conducted to Goodman's four step model. Three databases were searched (Medline, Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register and Scitation), using predetermined search terms. The quality of evidence was rated according to the GRADE system. The search identified 244 articles, 16 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria: three on acceleration of tooth movement by LLLT and 13 on LLLT modulation of acute pain. No study on LLLT for prevention of relapse was identified. The selected studies reported promising results for LLLT; elevated acceleration of tooth movement and lower pain scores, than controls. With respect to method, there were wide variations in type of laser techniques. The quality of evidence supporting LLLT to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement is very low and low with respect to modulate acute pain. No studies met the inclusion criteria for evaluating LLLT to limit relapse. The results highlight the need for high quality research, with consistency in study design, to determine whether LLLT can enhance fixed appliance treatment in children and young adults.

  10. Sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decrease in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-03-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi, and O. Delbono. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2709-2716). Charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were recorded simultaneously. The maximum charge movement (Q(max)) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (mean +/- SEM, in nC microF(-1)): 52 +/- 2.1 (n = 46) and 54 +/- 1.9 (n = 38) (non-significant, ns), respectively, whereas in old wild-type and old transgenic mice the values were 36 +/- 2.1 (n = 32) and 49 +/- 2.3 (n = 35), respectively (p voltage distribution or steepness of the Q-V or [Ca(2+)]-V relationship were found. These data support the concept that overexpression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle prevents age-dependent reduction in charge movement and peak [Ca(2+)](i).

  11. Insufficient Evidence Supports the Use of Low-Level Laser Therapy to Accelerate Tooth Movement, Prevent Orthodontic Relapse, and Modulate Acute Pain During Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsaii, Adrian; Al-Jewair, Thikriat

    2017-09-01

    Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in accelerating tooth movement, preventing relapse and managing acute pain during orthodontic treatment in humans: A systematic review. Sonesson M, De Geer E, Subraian J, Petrén S. BMC Oral Health 2017;17:11. No funding was obtained for this study TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [The experience of the EPM (Ergonomics of Posture and Movement) Research Unit in risk analysis and the prevention of work-related musculo-skeletal diseases (WMSDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, Daniela; Molteni, G

    2003-01-01

    The twenty-year experience of the "Ergonomics of Posture and Movement (epm)" Research Unit for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) is briefly summarized. The epm research unit is the outcome of an agreement between Milan University (Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto), Milan Polytechnic, Don Gnocchi Foundation IRCCS (Bioengineering Centre) and the Regional Health Service (CEMOC of ICP Hospital). Early activities of epm (1985-1993) are first outlined: they are characterized by a wide range of laboratory studies allowing the development of original methods and criteria for on-site analysis of fixed postures and awkward movements and for ad hoc clinical examination of the musculoskeletal apparatus in working populations. Epm contributions are reviewed for the analysis of working activity involving manual load handling (adapted NIOSH method) and hospital patients (MAPO method) as well as for standardization of health surveillance protocols of spinal diseases. Updated contributions are reported on analysis and prevention of upper limb MSDs connected with upper limb repetitive movements (OCRA method). Finally epm's main collaborations with national and international Authorities are summarized as well as the major technical (health promotion) publications addressed to operators and workers, in different working situations, for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders due to biomechanical overload.

  13. Kinematic analysis of modern dance movement “stag jump” within the context of impact loads, injury to the locomotor system and its prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwa, Joanna; Dworak, Lechosław B.; Michnik, Robert; Jurkojć, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper presents a case study of kinematic analysis of the modern dance movement known as the “stag jump”. Detailed analysis of the kinematic structure of this movement as performed by the dancers, accompanied by measurements of impact forces during landing, will allow the authors to determine, in subsequent model-based research phases, the forces acting in knee joints of the lower landing limb. Material/Methods Two professional modern dancers participated in the study: a male and a female. The study consisted in recording the values of ground reaction and body motion, and then determining and analyzing kinematic parameters of performed movements. Results The results of measurement of joint angles in the landing lower limb, pelvis, and foot position in relation to the ground, as well as the level of vertical components of ground reaction, provided insight into the loading response phase of the “stag jump”. The measurements and obtained results show differences between the man and woman in ground reactions and kinematic quantities. Conclusions The results obtained during the research may be used in the development and teaching of dancing movements. Training sessions, carried out in the biomechanical laboratory, with active participation of dancing teachers, could form a basis for a prevention model of injuries and physical overloads occurring within this occupational group. Primary differences in the “stag jump” performance technique probably result from the different educational path the man and the woman went through. PMID:24971626

  14. Kinematic analysis of modern dance movement "stag jump" within the context of impact loads, injury to the locomotor system and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwa, Joanna; Dworak, Lechosław B; Michnik, Robert; Jurkojć, Jacek

    2014-06-27

    This paper presents a case study of kinematic analysis of the modern dance movement known as the "stag jump". Detailed analysis of the kinematic structure of this movement as performed by the dancers, accompanied by measurements of impact forces during landing, will allow the authors to determine, in subsequent model-based research phases, the forces acting in knee joints of the lower landing limb. Two professional modern dancers participated in the study: a male and a female. The study consisted in recording the values of ground reaction and body motion, and then determining and analyzing kinematic parameters of performed movements. The results of measurement of joint angles in the landing lower limb, pelvis, and foot position in relation to the ground, as well as the level of vertical components of ground reaction, provided insight into the loading response phase of the "stag jump". The measurements and obtained results show differences between the man and woman in ground reactions and kinematic quantities. The results obtained during the research may be used in the development and teaching of dancing movements. Training sessions, carried out in the biomechanical laboratory, with active participation of dancing teachers, could form a basis for a prevention model of injuries and physical overloads occurring within this occupational group. Primary differences in the "stag jump" performance technique probably result from the different educational path the man and the woman went through.

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND OUT IMMEDIATE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOVEMENT WITH MOBILIZATION VERSUS ELBOW ORTHOSIS ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH IN LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS IN HOUSEWIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Kakati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various studies using Mulligan’s MWM with or without combining with electrotherapy modalities and proved the efficacy of the technique in immediately decreasing pain and improving grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Orthotic as a treatment is also proved to be beneficial in decreasing pain and improving grip strength. There is evidence that housewives are prone to develop lateral epicondylitis due to their routine household work. But there is lack of evidence which compare initial effects of MWM and orthosis in housewives bringing up better outcome measures. The purpose of this study is to compare the initial effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis on pain and grip strength in housewives with lateral epicondylitis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM technique versus counterforce elbow orthosis in immediately reducing pain and improving grip strength in lateral epicondylitis in housewives. Methodos: All subjects underwent a pre-treatment examination to assess pain and pain free hand grip strength with the help of outcome measures. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, A and B respectively; having 25 subjects in each group. Group A was treated with one session of Mulligan’s MWM technique. Group B was treated with Counterforce elbow strap orthosis. Data was assessed pre-treatment and immediately after treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hand grip on Hand Grip Dynamometer (HGD were used as outcome measures. Results: Independent t-test was performed to see the effectiveness between Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis. For VAS, t = - 2.243 which is significant at 5% level of significance. It has been inferred that VAS decreases more when Mulligan’s MWM was applied. For HGD, t = 0.878 which is not significant implying that increase in HGD do not differ remarkably for the two treatments. Conclusion: It has been recorded from the study that

  16. Sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decrease in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-01-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi, and O. Delbono. 1999. Biophys. J. 77:2709-2716). Charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were recorded simultaneously. The maximum charge movement (Q(max)) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (mean +/- SEM, in nC microF(-1)): 52 +/- 2.1 (n = 46) and 54 +/- 1.9 (n = 38) (non-significant, ns), respectively, whereas in old wild-type and old transgenic mice the values were 36 +/- 2.1 (n = 32) and 49 +/- 2.3 (n = 35), respectively (p < 0.01). The peak intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) recorded in young wild-type and transgenic mice was (in muM): 14.5 +/- 0.9 and 16 +/- 2.1 (ns), whereas in old wild-type and transgenic mice the values were 9.9 +/- 0.1 and 14 +/- 1.1 (p < 0.01), respectively. No significant changes in the voltage distribution or steepness of the Q-V or [Ca(2+)]-V relationship were found. These data support the concept that overexpression of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle prevents age-dependent reduction in charge movement and peak [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:11867450

  17. Prevention programme for eating disturbances in adolescents. Is their effect on body image maintained at 30 months later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2013-03-01

    We assessed changes in the body image of Spanish adolescents who participated in a programme aimed at preventing disordered eating, with a 30-month follow-up. 254 girls and 189 boys aged 12-14 were assigned to a control group (n=201) or one of two possible experimental conditions: media literacy programme (ML, n=143) and media literacy plus nutrition awareness programme (ML+NUT, n=99). Body image was assessed with the Body Image Questionnaire (Qüestionari d'Imatge Corporal; QÜIC). Pre-test, post-test, 7- and 30-month follow-up measurements were taken. Linear model analyses were carried out with a 2×3×3 ANOVA (sex×group×phase), adjusted by the baseline level. At 30-month follow-up, ML and ML+NUT participants showed fewer body problems and more body satisfaction than the control group. There is a need for prevention programmes addressing eating and body image disturbances that involve both boys and girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustained Overexpression of IGF-1 Prevents Age-Dependent Decrease in Charge Movement and Intracellular Ca2+ in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2002-01-01

    In this work we tested the hypothesis that transgenic sustained overexpression of IGF-1 prevents age-dependent decreases in charge movement and intracellular Ca(2+) in skeletal muscle fibers. To this end, short flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle fibers from 5-7- and 21-24-month-old FVB (wild-type) and S1S2 (IGF-1 transgenic) mice were studied. Fibers were voltage-clamped in the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique according to described procedures (Wang, Z. M., M. L. Messi,...

  19. Hypocretin-1 (orexin A) prevents the effects of hypoxia/hypercapnia and enhances the GABAergic pathway from the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, O; Philbin, K; Bateman, R; Mendelowitz, D

    2011-02-23

    Hypocretins (orexins) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that play a crucial role in regulating sleep/wake states and autonomic functions including parasympathetic cardiac activity. We have recently demonstrated stimulation of the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), the nucleus which is thought to play a role in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep control, activates an inhibitory pathway to preganglionic cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA). In this study we test the hypothesis that hypocretin-1 modulates the inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons evoked by stimulation of the LPGi using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in an in vitro brain slice preparation from rats. Activation of hypocretin-1 receptors produced a dose-dependent and long-term facilitation of GABAergic postsynaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation of the LPGi. Hypoxia/hypercapnia diminished LPGi-evoked GABAergic current in cardiac vagal neurons and this inhibition by hypoxia/hypercapnia was prevented by pre-application of hypocretin-1. The action of hypocretin-1 was blocked by the hypocretin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867. Facilitation of LPGi-evoked GABAergic current in cardiac vagal neurons under both normal condition and during hypoxia/hypercapnia could be the mechanism by which hypocretin-1 affects parasympathetic cardiac function and heart rate during REM sleep. Furthermore, our findings indicate a new potential mechanism that might be involved in the cardiac arrhythmias, bradycardia, and sudden cardiac death that can occur during sleep. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Using the zebrafish lateral line to uncover novel mechanisms of action and prevention in drug-induced hair cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicki, Tamara M; Esterberg, Robert; Hailey, Dale W; Raible, David W; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hearing loss and balance disorders are caused by the permanent loss of mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear. Identification of genes and compounds that modulate susceptibility to hair cell death is frequently confounded by the difficulties of assaying for such complex phenomena in mammalian models. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful animal model for genetic and chemical screening in many contexts. Several characteristics of the zebrafish, such as its small size and external location of mechanosensory hair cells within the lateral line sensory organ, uniquely position it as an ideal model organism for the study of hair cell toxicity. We have used this model to screen for genes and compounds that affect hair cell survival during ototoxin exposure and have identified agents that would not be expected to play a role in this process based on a priori knowledge of their function. The identification of such agents yields better understanding of hair cell death and holds promise to stem hearing loss and balance disorders in the human population.

  1. Exon skipping restores dystrophin expression, but fails to prevent disease progression in later stage dystrophic dko mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Cloer, C; Lu, P; Milazi, S; Shaban, M; Shah, S N; Marston-Poe, L; Moulton, H M; Lu, Q L

    2014-09-01

    Antisense therapy with both chemistries of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) and 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate has demonstrated the capability to induce dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients in phase II-III clinical trials with benefit in muscle functions. However, potential of the therapy for DMD at different stages of the disease progression is not understood. In this study, we examined the effect of peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO)-mediated exon skipping on disease progression of utrophin-dystrophin-deficient mice (dko) of four age groups (21-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50+ days), representing diseases from early stage to advanced stage with severe kyphosis. Biweekly intravenous (i.v.) administration of the PPMO restored the dystrophin expression in nearly 100% skeletal muscle fibers in all age groups. This was associated with the restoration of dystrophin-associated proteins including functional glycosylated dystroglycan and neuronal nitric synthase. However, therapeutic outcomes clearly depended on severity of the disease at the time the treatment started. The PPMO treatment alleviated the disease pathology and significantly prolonged the life span of the mice receiving treatment at younger age with mild phenotype. However, restoration of high levels of dystrophin expression failed to prevent disease progression to the mice receiving treatment when disease was already at advanced stage. The results could be critical for design of clinical trials with antisense therapy to DMD.

  2. G-CSF prevents the progression of structural disintegration of white matter tracts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pilot trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hematopoietic protein Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF has neuroprotective and -regenerative properties. The G-CSF receptor is expressed by motoneurons, and G-CSF protects cultured motoneuronal cells from apoptosis. It therefore appears as an attractive and feasible drug candidate for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The current pilot study was performed to determine whether treatment with G-CSF in ALS patients is feasible. METHODS: Ten patients with definite ALS were entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients received either 10 µg/kg BW G-CSF or placebo subcutaneously for the first 10 days and from day 20 to 25 of the study. Clinical outcome was assessed by changes in the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS, a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, and by examining hand activities of daily living over the course of the study (100 days. The total number of adverse events (AE and treatment-related AEs, discontinuation due to treatment-related AEs, laboratory parameters including leukocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet count, as well as vital signs were examined as safety endpoints. Furthermore, we explored potential effects of G-CSF on structural cerebral abnormalities on the basis of voxel-wise statistics of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, brain volumetry, and voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: Treatment was well-tolerated. No significant differences were found between groups in clinical tests and brain volumetry from baseline to day 100. However, DTI analysis revealed significant reductions of fractional anisotropy (FA encompassing diffuse areas of the brain when patients were compared to controls. On longitudinal analysis, the placebo group showed significant greater and more widespread decline in FA than the ALS patients treated with G-CSF. CONCLUSIONS: Subcutaneous G-CSF treatment in ALS patients appears as feasible approach. Although exploratory analysis of

  3. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  4. Caffeine treatment prevents rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced impairment of late-phase long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2015-11-01

    The CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) are physically and functionally closely related areas of the hippocampus, but they differ in various respects, including their reactions to different insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of chronic caffeine treatment on late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signalling cascade in the DG area of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement sleep-deprived rats. Rats were chronically treated with caffeine (300 mg/L drinking water) for 4 weeks, after which they were sleep-deprived for 24 h. L-LTP was induced in in anaesthetized rats, and extracellular field potentials from the DG area were recorded in vivo. The levels of L-LTP-related signalling proteins were assessed by western blot analysis. Sleep deprivation markedly reduced L-LTP magnitude, and basal levels of total cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB), and calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV). Chronic caffeine treatment prevented the reductions in the basal levels of P-CREB, total CREB and CaMKIV in sleep-deprived rats. Furthermore, caffeine prevented post-L-LTP sleep deprivation-induced downregulation of P-CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DG. The current findings show that caffeine treatment prevents acute sleep deprivation-induced deficits in brain function. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  6. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men’s community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-01-01

    Background Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men’s collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men’s community rugby union players. Methods 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected ‘normal practice’ exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises. Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Results Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). Conclusions The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. PMID:29055883

  7. Influence of risk perception, preventive behavior, movement and environment on malaria infection in Lundu district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Jusoh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of malaria in Sarawak is among the highest in Malaysia despite its downward trend since 2002. This study was conducted to identify the dominant risk factors related to malaria infection. A case-control study was conducted in Lundu District, Sarawak. Cases were 96 indigenous malaria cases registered from January to September 2005 at Lundu District Health Office. Controls were selected among those who never contracted malaria originating from the same villages as cases. Cases and control were similarly distributed with respect to age, number of household and total household income per month. Cases were more likely than controls to report high risk occupation, opened eaves, ever had movement for those aged 50 years or over and car ownership. Older age, male, lower socioeconomic level and perception of fatality toward malaria increased risk to malaria infection. Male than female had seven-fold risk to be malaria infected [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 7.09; 95% confidence interval (CI = 3.21-15.65]. In term of perception of fatality toward malaria, those who did not have than did have perception of fatality toward malaria had six-fold risk to be malaria infected (ORa = 6.38; 95% CI = 1.32-30.87. On contrary, those who had lower than middle and high per capita income per month had 85% lowered risk to be malaria infected (ORa = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.03-0.72. Male, older age, lower education and socioeconomy level, lower perception towards malaria, or lower environment sanitation had increased risk to be malaria infected. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:267-71Keywords: malaria, gender, sosioeconomics, perception, protective personal measure, environmental

  8. A home program of strength training, movement strategy training and education did not prevent falls in people with Parkinson's disease: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meg E; Taylor, Nicholas F; Watts, Jennifer J; Evans, Andrew; Horne, Malcolm; Kempster, Peter; Danoudis, Mary; McGinley, Jennifer; Martin, Clarissa; Menz, Hylton B

    2017-04-01

    For people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, does a 6-week, comprehensive, home exercise program reduce falls and disability and improve health-related quality of life? Is the program cost-effective? Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation and assessor blinding. One hundred and thirty-three community-dwelling adults with Parkinson's disease. The experimental group completed a 6-week home program comprising progressive resistance strength training, movement strategy training and falls education. The control group completed 6 weeks of non-specific life skills training. Participants in both groups received weekly therapist-guided sessions for 6 consecutive weeks and a weekly self-directed home program. The primary outcome was the rate of falls, documented for the 12-month period immediately after therapy. Secondary outcomes were disability and health-related quality of life, assessed before and after intervention and at a 12-month follow-up. A total of 2255 falls were reported by the 12-month follow-up. The proportion of fallers in the experimental and control groups was 61 and 72%, respectively, which was not statistically significantly different (RR=0.85, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.09). There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of falls (incidence rate ratio=1.58, 95% CI 0.73 to 3.43). A survival analysis of participant time to first fall did not show a significant between-group difference (log-rank test χ 2 =0.79, p=0.37). No significant between-group differences occurred for mobility, disability or quality of life. The mean cost of delivering the experimental intervention was AUD1596. A home program of strength and movement strategy training and falls education does not prevent falls when applied at the dose used in this study. Arguably, the dosage of therapy was insufficient. Future trials need to explore further therapy content, repetitions and duration, in order to optimise outcomes and cost-effectiveness. [Morris ME, Taylor NF

  9. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  10. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  11. Clinical benefit of the FIFA 11 programme for the prevention of hamstring and lateral ankle ligament injuries among amateur soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouni-Garcia, Rauf; Carratala-Munuera, Concepcion; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Lopez-Pineda, Adriana; Asensio-Garcia, María Rosario; Gil-Guillen, Vicente F

    2017-06-22

    To analyse the relationship between the implementation of 'the 11' protocol during the regular season in a men's amateur soccer team and the rate of hamstring and lateral ankle ligament (LAL) injuries, and to estimate the clinical benefit of the programme according to the type of injury and the position field. This cohort study was conducted in two different men's amateur soccer teams. During two seasons, the exposed group (43 players) performed 'the 11' protocol twice a week, and the unexposed group (43 players) performed the regular training programme. All players trained three times per week for 1.5 hours per day. Data collection was performed for every 1000 hours of play. 18 hamstring injuries (injury rate (IR) of 2.26 injuries/1000 training+competition hours) and 15 LAL injuries (IR of 1.88 injuries/1000) were registered in the exposed group. In the unexposed group, there were 25 LAL injuries (IR of 3.14 injuries/1000) and 35 hamstring injuries (IR of 4.39 injuries/1000). The number needed to treat to prevent one new case was 3.9 in LAL injuries, 3.31 in biceps femoris injuries and 10.7 in recurrent hamstring injuries. 'The 11' programme reduced the incidence of hamstring and LAL injuries in amateur players. According to the field position, the programme was effective for defenders and midfielders. In accordance with the type of injury, the exposed group had a lower risk of LAL, biceps femoris and hamstring injuries compared with those in the unexposed group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  13. The preventive effect of a soccer-specific ankle brace on acute lateral ankle sprains in girls amateur soccer players: study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Karin; Huisstede, Bionka; Goedhart, Edwin; Backx, Frank

    2017-07-27

    Acute lateral ankle sprains are the single most often diagnosed injury in female soccer players and often result in an inability to play. This highlights the need for effective prevention strategies. Proprioceptive training and/or the use of an external support to decrease inversion of the ankle joint can prevent or reduce the number of acute lateral ankle sprains. The effectiveness of a soccer-specific ankle brace in reducing first-time and recurrent acute lateral ankle sprains has never been investigated in girl soccer players. If effective, ankle braces could be introduced into soccer. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Girl amateur soccer players (aged 14-18 years) will be allocated to an intervention or control group. The intervention group will be instructed to wear soccer-specific ankle braces on both ankles during soccer training and matches; the control group will continue playing soccer as usual. Primary outcomes are the incidence and severity of acute lateral ankle sprains. Secondary outcomes are the prognostic value of generalised joint hypermobility and functional stability on the risk of acute lateral ankle sprains and compliance with the intervention. The findings from this study may provide evidence to support the use of a soccer-specific ankle brace to prevent lateral ankle sprains during soccer. We hypothesise that this brace will reduce the incidence of ankle sprains among young amateur girl soccer players by 50%. The prevention of such injuries will be beneficial to players, clubs and society. The Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR6045; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  15. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  16. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  17. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests in the labor...

  18. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Smit, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic

  19. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention>

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, E.; Smit, H.F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic

  20. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  1. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  2. Exercise-Based Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention for Firefighters: Contrasting the Fitness- and Movement-Related Adaptations to Two Training Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Using exercise to enhance physical fitness may have little impact on performers' movement patterns beyond the gym environment. This study examined the fitness and movement adaptations exhibited by firefighters in response to 2 training methodologies. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to a movement-guided fitness (MOV), conventional fitness (FIT), or control (CON) group. Before and after 12 weeks of training, participants performed a fitness evaluation and laboratory-based test. Three-dimensional lumbar spine and frontal plane knee kinematics were quantified. Five whole-body tasks not included in the interventions were used to evaluate the transfer of training. FIT and MOV groups exhibited significant improvements in all aspects of fitness; however, only MOV exhibited improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control when performing each transfer task (effect sizes [ESs] of 0.2-1.5). FIT exhibited less controlled spine and frontal plane knee motions while squatting, lunging, pushing, and pulling (ES: 0.2-0.7). More MOV participants (43%) exhibited only positive posttraining changes (i.e., improved control), in comparison with FIT (30%) and CON (23%). Fewer negative posttraining changes were also noted (19, 25, and 36% for MOV, FIT, and CON). These findings suggest that placing an emphasis on how participants move while exercising may be an effective training strategy to elicit behavioral changes beyond the gym environment. For occupational athletes such as firefighters, soldiers, and police officers, this implies that exercise programs designed with a movement-oriented approach to periodization could have a direct impact on their safety and effectiveness by engraining desirable movement patterns that transfer to occupational tasks.

  3. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  4. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Filip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic affordable. Methods and design This paper describes the design of a study evaluating "The stories we live by", a preventive life-review group intervention, which was recently developed for adults of 55 years and over with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both clinical and economic effectiveness will be evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention condition will receive the 8-session preventive intervention. The participants in the control condition will have access to usual care. Clinical end-terms are depressive and anxiety symptoms, current major depressive episode, quality of life and positive mental health post-treatment (3 months after baseline and at follow-ups (6 and 12 months after baseline. Additional goals of this study are to identify groups for whom the intervention is particularly effective and to identify the therapeutic pathways that are vital in inducing clinical change. This will be done by analyzing if treatment response is moderated by demographics, personality, past major depressive episodes, important life events and chronically disease, and mediated by reminiscence functions, perceived control, automatic positive thoughts and meaning in life. Finally the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to care as usual will be assessed by computing incremental costs per case of depression and anxiety avoided (cost-effectiveness and per quality adjusted life year (QALY (cost utility. Discussion It is expected that both the life-review intervention and its evaluation will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. First, the intervention is unique in linking life

  5. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well define...

  6. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  7. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  8. Stroboscopic image capture: Reducing the dose per frame by a factor of 30 does not prevent beam-induced specimen movement in paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Typke, Dieter [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gilpin, Christopher J. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Downing, Kenneth H. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov

    2007-02-15

    Beam-induced specimen movement may be the major factor that limits the quality of high-resolution images of organic specimens. One of the possible measures to improve the situation that was proposed by Henderson and Glaeser [Ultramicroscopy 16 (1985) 139-150], which we refer to here as 'stroboscopic image capture', is to divide the normal exposure into many successive frames, thus reducing the amount of electron exposure-and possibly the amount of beam-induced movement-per frame. The frames would then be aligned and summed. We have performed preliminary experiments on stroboscopic imaging using a 200-kV electron microscope that was equipped with a high dynamic range Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for image recording and a liquid N{sub 2}-cooled cryoholder. Single-layer paraffin crystals on carbon film were used as a test specimen. The ratio F(g)/F(0) of paraffin reflections, calculated from the images, serves as our criterion for the image quality. In the series that were evaluated, no significant improvement of the F {sub image}(g)/F {sub image}(0) ratio was found, even though the electron exposure per frame was reduced by a factor of 30. A frame-to-frame analysis of image distortions showed that considerable beam-induced movement had still occurred during each frame. In addition, the paraffin crystal lattice was observed to move relative to the supporting carbon film, a fact that cannot be explained as being an electron-optical effect caused by specimen charging. We conclude that a significant further reduction of the dose per frame (than was possible with this CCD detector) will be needed in order to test whether the frame-to-frame changes ultimately become small enough for stroboscopic image capture to show its potential.

  9. Stroboscopic image capture: Reducing the dose per frame by a factor of 30 does not prevent beam-induced specimen movement in paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typke, Dieter; Gilpin, Christopher J.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Beam-induced specimen movement may be the major factor that limits the quality of high-resolution images of organic specimens. One of the possible measures to improve the situation that was proposed by Henderson and Glaeser [Ultramicroscopy 16 (1985) 139-150], which we refer to here as 'stroboscopic image capture', is to divide the normal exposure into many successive frames, thus reducing the amount of electron exposure-and possibly the amount of beam-induced movement-per frame. The frames would then be aligned and summed. We have performed preliminary experiments on stroboscopic imaging using a 200-kV electron microscope that was equipped with a high dynamic range Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for image recording and a liquid N 2 -cooled cryoholder. Single-layer paraffin crystals on carbon film were used as a test specimen. The ratio F(g)/F(0) of paraffin reflections, calculated from the images, serves as our criterion for the image quality. In the series that were evaluated, no significant improvement of the F image (g)/F image (0) ratio was found, even though the electron exposure per frame was reduced by a factor of 30. A frame-to-frame analysis of image distortions showed that considerable beam-induced movement had still occurred during each frame. In addition, the paraffin crystal lattice was observed to move relative to the supporting carbon film, a fact that cannot be explained as being an electron-optical effect caused by specimen charging. We conclude that a significant further reduction of the dose per frame (than was possible with this CCD detector) will be needed in order to test whether the frame-to-frame changes ultimately become small enough for stroboscopic image capture to show its potential

  10. Presymptomatically applied AMPA receptor antagonist prevents calcium increase in vulnerable type of motor axon terminals of mice modeling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Roland; Paizs, Melinda; Tortarolo, Massimo; Bendotti, Caterina; Obál, Izabella; Engelhardt, József I; Siklós, László

    2017-07-01

    Increased intracellular calcium (Ca), which might be the consequence of an excess influx through Ca-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, plays a crucial role in degeneration of motor neurons. Previously we demonstrated that the presymptomatic application of AMPA receptor antagonist, talampanel, could reduce Ca elevation in spinal motor neurons of mice carrying the G93A mutation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), modeling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It remained to be examined whether the remote, functionally semi-autonomous motor axon terminals could be rescued from the Ca overload, or if the terminals, where the degeneration possibly starts, already experience intractable changes at early time points. Thus using electron microscopic techniques, we measured the Ca level of motor axon terminals in the interosseus muscle of the SOD1 mutant animals, which are prototypes of vulnerable nerve endings in ALS. In line with the results obtained in the perikarya, talampanel treatment could reduce Ca increase evoked by the presence of mutant SOD1 in the axon terminals if the treatment was started presymptomatically but not at an early symptomatic stage. We also tested the Ca level in the cell bodies and axon terminals of the oculomotor neurons, which are resistant to the disease. Neither Ca increase, nor talampanel effect could be demonstrated at either time point. This is consistent with the observations that oculomotor neurons contain increased level of Ca buffer, which could reduce excess Ca load, and they also express glutamate receptor subunit type 2, which renders AMPA receptors impermeable to Ca. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cost-effectiveness and value of information analysis of nutritional support for preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk patients: implement now, research later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffaha, Haitham W; Roberts, Shelley; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    Pressure ulcers are a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. Nutritional support may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients who are at risk of pressure ulcer and malnutrition. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutritional support in preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalised patients, and to assess the value of further research to inform the decision to implement this intervention using value of information analysis (VOI). The analysis was from the perspective of Queensland Health, Australia using a decision model with evidence derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resources were valued using 2014 prices and the time horizon of the analysis was one year. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate net monetary benefits (NB) and to calculate VOI measures. Compared with standard hospital diet, nutritional support was cost saving at AU$425 per patient, and more effective with an average 0.005 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. At a willingness-to-pay of AU$50,000 per QALY, the incremental NB was AU$675 per patient, with a probability of 87 % that nutritional support is cost-effective. The expected value of perfect information was AU$5 million and the expected value of perfect parameter information was highest for the relative risk of developing a pressure ulcer at AU$2.5 million. For a future trial investigating the relative effectiveness of the interventions, the expected net benefit of research would be maximised at AU$100,000 with 1,200 patients in each arm if nutritional support was perfectly implemented. The opportunity cost of withholding the decision to implement the intervention until the results of the future study are available would be AU$14 million. Nutritional support is cost-effective in preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalised patients compared with standard diet. Future research to reduce decision uncertainty is worthwhile; however, given the

  12. Antinuclear movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Hee; Im, Jaeg Yeong

    1988-08-15

    This book is for antinuclear movement. So, this book introduces many articles on nuclear issues of Asia and the pacific area. The titles of articles are the crusades of Reagan by Werner Plaha, contending between super powers in Europe by Alva Reimer Myrdal, claims of resistance by Daniel Ellsberg, nuclear and the Korean Peninsula by Go, Seung Woo, Liberation but of belief of nuclear weapon by Lee, Young Hee and nuclear weapon in Korea by peter Haze.

  13. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with a review of relevant anatomy, assessment and treatment. Also included is a discussion of the efficacy of manual therapy in the treatment of ankle sprain. Discussion: A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the ankle as well as the early recognition of factors that may delay the rate of healing are important considerations when developing a management plan for inversion sprains of the ankle. This area appears to be under-researched however it was found that movement therapy and its various forms appear to be the most efficient and most effective method of treating uncomplicated ankle injury. Future investigations should involve a study to determine the effect chiropractic treatment (manipulation) may have on the injured ankle. PMID:17987171

  14. Review of the thesis: Remnyova S.V. Crime prevention in Leningrad and the Leningrad Region between the later 1950s and the first half of the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vasiliy Vladimirovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the thesis “Crime prevention in Leningrad and the Leningrad Region between the later 1950s and the first half of the 1960s” (St. Petersburg, 2016. 254 p. for a Candidate Degree in History by S.V. Remneva as well as the structure and logic of work, the validity of the conclusions, the merits of research and its controversial points. Special attention was paid to the analysis of interaction between the public and law enforcement agencies in crime fighting in the second half of the 1950s and the first half of the 1960s. In conclusion the reviewer pays attention on the idea that the presented facts, assessments and results can be used to develop textbooks on the history of crime, the history of law enforcement community, the history of Leningrad and the Leningrad Region.

  15. Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, K; Patek, S N

    2016-02-01

    To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The time scale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high-speed images of strike mechanics and electromyograms of the extensor and flexor muscles that control spring compression and latch release. During spring compression, lateral extensor and flexor units were co-activated. The strike initiated several milliseconds after the flexor units ceased, suggesting that flexor activity prevents spring release and determines the timing of strike initiation. We used linear mixed models and Akaike's information criterion to serially evaluate multiple hypotheses for control mechanisms. We found that variation in spring compression and strike angular velocity were statistically explained by spike activity of the extensor muscle. The results show that mantis shrimp can generate kinematically variable strikes and that their kinematics can be changed through adjustments to motor activity prior to the movement, thus supporting an upstream, central-nervous-system-based control of ultrafast movement. Based on these and other findings, we present a shishiodoshi model that illustrates alternative models of control in biological ballistic systems. The discovery of feed-forward control in mantis shrimp sets the stage for the assessment of targets, strategic variation in kinematics and the role of learning in ultrafast animals. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  18. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    OpenAIRE

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-01-01

    The development of trade unions in the public and political dimension associated with maintaining by them socio-political movements, which in different periods of political history had the status of social movements. Among these movements are a social democratic and labor movements in Europe, which later acquired the status of parties. In addition, social movements are informal and very broad associations that need support group of values, or focused on single-step action, such as changing th...

  19. Pest Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Bhar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of woody borders surrounding crop fields is desirable for biodiversity conservation. However, for crop pest management, the desirability of woody borders depends on the trade-off between their effects at the local field scale and the landscape scale. At the local scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by increasing predation rates, but they can also increase pest populations by providing complementary habitats and reducing movement rate of pests out of crop fields. At the regional scale, woody borders can reduce pest populations by reducing colonization of newly planted crop fields. Our objective was to develop guidelines for maximizing pest control while maintaining woody borders in the landscape. We wished to determine the conditions under which the regional effect of borders on colonization can outweigh local enhancement effects of borders on pest populations. We built a stochastic, individual-based, spatially implicit simulation model of a specialist insect population in a landscape divided into a number of crop fields. We conducted simulations to determine the conditions under which woody borders enhance vs. reduce the regional pest population size. The following factors were considered: landscape fragmentation, crop rotation period, barrier effect of woody borders, disperser success rate, and effect of woody borders on local survival. The simulation results suggest that woody borders are most likely to enhance regional control of crop pests if (1 the woody borders are very effective in reducing insect movement from one crop field to another, and (2 crop rotation is on a very short cycle. Based on these results, our preliminary recommendations are that woody borders should contain dense, tall vegetation to reduce insect movement, and crops should be rotated on as short a cycle as possible. These conditions should ensure that woody borders can be maintained for their conservation value without enhancing crop pest

  20. Assessing and treating pain in movement disorders, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, severe acquired brain injury, disorders of consciousness, dementia, oncology and neuroinfectivology. Evidence and recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; Chiò, Adriano; Ferrari, Sergio; Tassorelli, Cristina; Tamburin, Stefano; Avenali, Micol; Azicnuda, Eva; Calvo, Andrea; Caraceni, Augusto T; Defazio, Giovanni; DE Icco, Roberto; Formisano, Rita; Franzoni, Simone; Greco, Elena; Jedrychowska, Iwona; Magrinelli, Francesca; Manera, Umberto; Marchioni, Enrico; Mariotto, Sara; Monaco, Salvatore; Pace, Andrea; Saviola, Donatella; Springhetti, Isabella; Tinazzi, Michele; DE Tanti, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Pain is an important non-motor symptom in several neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, cervical dystonia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, severe acquired brain injury, disorders of consciousness and dementia, as well as in oncology and neuroinfectivology. To overcome the lack of evidence-based data on pain management in these diseases, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) has defined criteria for good clinical practice among Italian neurorehabilitation professionals. Here a review of the literature (PubMed, EMBASE and gray literature) on pain characteristics, treatment and impact of pain in a neurorehabilitation setting is provided. Despite the heterogeneity of data, a consensus was reached on pain management for patients with these diseases: it is an approach originating from an analysis of the available data on pain characteristics in each disease, the evolution of pain in relation to the natural course of the disease and the impact of pain on the overall process of rehabilitation. There was unanimous consensus regarding the utility of a multidisciplinary approach to pain therapy, combining the benefits of pharmacological therapy with the techniques of physiotherapy and neurorehabilitation for all the conditions considered. While some treatments could be different depending on pathology, a progressive approach to the pharmacological treatment of pain is advisable, starting with non-opioid analgesics (paracetamol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a first-line treatment, and opioid analgesics as a second-line treatment. In cases of pain secondary to spasticity, botulinum neurotoxin, and, in some cases, intrathecal baclofen infusion should be considered. Randomized controlled trials and prospective multicenter studies aimed at documenting the efficacy of pain treatment and their risk-benefit profile are recommended for these conditions.

  1. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy versus supportive therapy in affective relapse prevention in bipolar patients with a history of trauma: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Radua, Joaquim; Landín-Romero, Ramon; Blanco, Laura; Madre, Mercè; Reinares, Maria; Comes, Mercè; Jiménez, Esther; Crespo, Jose Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Pérez, Victor; Novo, Patricia; Doñate, Marta; Cortizo, Romina; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Lupo, Walter; McKenna, Peter J; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-04-04

    Up to 60% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have a history of traumatic events, which is associated with greater episode severity, higher risk of comorbidity and higher relapse rates. Trauma-focused treatment strategies for BD are thus necessary but studies are currently scarce. The aim of this study is to examine whether Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy focusing on adherence, insight, de-idealisation of manic symptoms, prodromal symptoms and mood stabilization can reduce episode severity and relapse rates and increase cognitive performance and functioning in patients with BD. This is a single-blind, randomized controlled, multicentre trial in which 82 patients with BD and a history of traumatic events will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two treatment arms: EMDR therapy or supportive therapy. Patients in both groups will receive 20 psychotherapeutic sessions, 60 min each, during 6 months. The primary outcome is a reduction of affective episodes after 12 and 24 months in favour of the EMDR group. As secondary outcome we postulate a greater reduction in affective symptoms in the EMDR group (as measured by the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale modified for BD), and a better performance in cognitive state, social cognition and functioning (as measured by the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry, The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and the Functioning Assessment Short Test, respectively). Traumatic events will be evaluated by The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory, the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale and the Impact of Event Scale. The results of this study will provide evidence whether a specific EMDR protocol for patients with BD is effective in reducing affective episodes, affective symptoms and functional, cognitive and trauma symptoms. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02634372 . Registered on

  2. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  3. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  4. Breyten Breytenbach in een zijspiegel: Het vizier van H.C. ten Berge Transnationale laterale beweging en particuliere “hetero-images” van een literaire actor/ Breyten Breytenbach Through H.C. ten Berge’s Looking-Glass: Transnational Lateral Movement and Particular “Hetero-Images” of a Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T’Sjoen Yves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 1960s and in the beginning of the 1970s the South African poet Breyten Breytenbach had poetry and drawings published in the leading literary magazine Raster. The editor in charge at the time, H.C. ten Berge, gave the experimental writer and socially engaged Sestiger (the literary modernizing movement in South Africa in the sixties pride of place in the line-ups of the Dutch modernist periodical. In the seventies, Ten Berge contributed to Vingermaan (1980, a collection of poems by Dutch writers (Lucebert, Kopland, Kouwenaar, Schierbeek in support of the anti-apartheid activist. From 1975 Breytenbach was imprisoned in South Africa for political reasons. He served seven years of a nine year sentence. At that time, in the eighties, the Netherlands organized a cultural and economical boycott against the racist regime in Pretoria. Later on, Ten Berge presented his own poems dedicated to Breytenbach in his book of poetry Nieuwe gedichten (1981 and in the collection Materia prima: Gedichten 1963-1993 (1993. Before and during the imprisonment of Breytenbach Ten Berge played an important role in the introduction of the writer in the Low Countries. From a cultural-sociological point of view Breytenbach’s presence in the Dutch language area can be described, in the terminology of Francoise Lionnet and Shu-mei Shih and later on used by Louise Viljoen, as a transnational lateral movement in his writing career. This paper deals with the cultural transmission of an important political and experimental author in the literary system of Afrikaans and English in South Africa into the Dutch system. From a bibliographical viewpoint this paper affords special attention to the publication of Breytenbach’s volume of poetry in Skryt: Om ’n sinkende skip blou te verf ([1972] 1976, Vingermaan (1980 and Nieuwe gedichten ([1981] 1987. Ten Berge played an important role in the introduction of Breytenbach to the Low Countries in the way he presented the

  5. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  6. Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contáctenos Contact Us About Tourette Blog Later in Life Later in Life There are plenty of challenges for those still coping with Tourette Syndrome in later life — and plenty of ways to deal with them. ...

  7. Sleep and Fasciculations in Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonka, K.; Fiksa, J.; Horváth, E.; Kemlink, D.; Süssová, J.; Böhm, J.; Šebesta, Václav; Volná, J.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-30 ISSN 1432-9123 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5999 Keywords : amyothropic lateral sclerosis ALS * fasciculation * fragmentary myoclonus * periodic leg movements in sleep PLMS * polysomnography PSG * electromyography EMG * REM sleep Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  8. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Who ... Where can I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of ...

  9. Does regular repositioning prevent pressure ulcers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Lee Ann; Gray, Mikel

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to pressure is the primary etiologic factor of a pressure ulcer (PU) and effective preventive interventions must avoid or minimize this exposure. Therefore, frequent repositioning of the patient has long been recommended as a means of preventing PU. To review the evidence on the efficacy of repositioning as a PU prevention intervention. A systematic review of electronic databases MEDLINE and CINAHL, from January 1960 to July 2008, was undertaken. Studies were limited to prospective randomized clinical trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared repositioning to any other preventive interventions or any study that compared various techniques of repositioning such as turning frequency. Only those studies that measured the primary outcome of interest, PU incidence, were included in our review. Limited evidence suggests that repositioning every 4 hours, when combined with an appropriate pressure redistribution surface, is just as effective for the prevention of facility- acquired PUs as a more frequent (every 2 hour) regimen. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether a 30 degrees lateral position is superior to a 90 degrees lateral position or a semi-Fowler's position. The current regulatory and legal environment has focused increased attention on PU prevention. Pressure redistribution methods and the frequency of application are among the first factors scrutinized when a PU develops. Our clinical experience validates that regular movement of the immobilized patient is important, but evidence defining the optimal frequency of repositioning or optimal positioning is lacking.

  10. Mandibular condyle movement during mastication of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, O; Asano, T; Suzuki, H; Kawara, M; Wada, M; Kobayashi, K; Ohtake, S

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated the mandibular condyle displacement on the working side while masticating certain foods with different textures. For referencing the mandibular condyle movement, the range of voluntary border movement of the mandibular condyle was determined based on the analysis of the sagittal, left lateral and right lateral border motion using Posselt's figure. The test foods consisted of cheese, peanuts, and beef jerky. During mastication of cheese and peanuts, the amount of displacement of the mandibular condyle in all directions was within the range of border movement. Significant posterior and superior shifts of the mandibular condyle were observed during mastication of beef jerky, compared with the findings obtained during border movement. Accordingly, it is suggested that prolonged mastication of hard fibrous foods, may stimulate the temporomandibular joint structure and mandibular dysfunction patients should limit their intake of such foods.

  11. Lateral human-structure interaction on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, several high-profile footbridges have suffered from unexpected excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations. There is a commonly accepted view that the synchronisation of pedestrians to the lateral movement of a structure is necessary for the onset of a form of instability which...... may lead to large lateral responses. Several recently published load models are based on this assumption. Yet, few experimental studies exist to support this hypothesis. Therefore, an extensive experimental campaign, involving 71 test subjects, has been carried out to determine the lateral forces...... generated by pedestrians during walking on an instrumented moving treadmill. The treadmill was driven sinusoidally in a lateral motion at various vibration frequencies and amplitudes. Visual observations made during the experiments and testimonies from the walkers, as well as subsequent analysis of video...

  12. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    on the part of engineers and architects of the need to evaluate the potential for footbridge vibrations that can be attributed to pedestrians. Within the scientific community, the closures have also led to the initiation of a new tract of research, focused on the understanding of pedestrian loading, bridge...... the synchronised lateral movement of pedestrians. This excitation mechanism is often characterised as Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE). Reports from a limited number of controlled pedestrian crowd tests have verified the existence of a transition point at which a rapid increase in the lateral bridge response...... in the experimental data, a novel stochastic load model for the frequency and amplitude dependent lateral forces is presented. The parameters in the model are based directly on the measured lateral forces from the experimental campaign. Thereby, the model is currently the most statistically reliable analytical tool...

  13. Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Geriatrics Osteoporosis Prevention Related Documents PDF Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women Tools ...

  14. Dance movement therapy and falls prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Maggi, Stefania; Schofield, Patricia; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-08-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity, healthcare use and mortality. Dance is a popular form of physical activity among older people and previous research has suggested that it may improve various health outcomes in this population, including balance, gait and muscle performance. A systematic review of the potential benefits of dance on falls and fear of falling is lacking. Thus, we conducted a systematic review considering all randomized controls trials (RCTs) investigating if dance can reduce falls and improve fear of falling in older adults. Major databases were searched from inception until 1 March 2017 and a total of 10 RCTs were identified, which included a total of 680 people (n=356 dance, n=324 control). Overall, the mean age of the samples was 69.4 years, and 75.2% were female. Across four RCTs, dance therapy reduced falls versus usual care in only one study. Dance therapy improved fear of falling in two out of three included RCTs. There were no serious adverse events reported in the RCTs. In summary, we found a paucity of studies investigating the effect of dance on falls and fear of falling and the evidence base is preliminary and equivocal. Given the heterogeneity of the included samples and interventions, in addition to the short-term follow-up, no firm conclusions can be drawn. However, dance appears to be safe and, given its popularity and demonstrated benefits on other health/wellbeing outcomes in older adults, it is important that future research considers its potential benefits on falls/fear of falling in older age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dance movement therapy and falls prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Nicola; Maggi, Stefania; Schofield, Patricia; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity, healthcare use and mortality. Dance is a popular form of physical activity among older people and previous research has suggested that it may improve various health outcomes in this population, including balance, gait and muscle performance. A systematic review of the potential benefits of dance on falls and fear of falling is lacking. Thus, we conducted a systematic review considering all randomized controls trials (RCTs) investigating if dance can red...

  16. Analysis for lateral deflection of railroad track under quasi-static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes analyses to examine the lateral : deflection of railroad track subjected to quasi-static loading. : Rails are assumed to behave as beams in bending. Movement : of the track in the lateral plane is constrained by idealized : resis...

  17. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  18. Effects of flapless bur decortications on movement velocity of dogs′ teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: (1 Corticotomy facilitated orthodontic tooth movement is achievable with flapless bur decortication technique. (2 Velocity of tooth movement decreases in later stages of treatment due to maturation of newly formed bone at decortication sites.

  19. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  20. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  1. Lateral canthal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications.

  2. The cortical signature of symptom laterality in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Santamaria, Pamela M; Gendelman, Howard E; Wilson, Tony W

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with unilateral motor symptoms that eventually spread to the other side. This symptom lateralization is diagnostically important, as it serves to distinguish PD from other motor disorders with overlapping symptom profiles. Further, recent studies have shown that the side of symptom onset is important for prognosis, as there are differences in the rate of disease progression and the incidence of secondary symptoms between right- and left-dominant (RD, LD) patients. Physiologically, previous studies have shown asymmetrical decline in structure and metabolism throughout the basal ganglia, although connecting this directly to motor function has been difficult. To identify the neurophysiological basis of symptom laterality in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) during left- and right-hand movement paradigms in patients with PD who exhibited either RD or LD symptomatology. The beta oscillations serving these movements were then imaged using beamforming methods, and we extracted the time series of the peak voxel in the left and right primary motor cortices for each movement. In addition, each patient's symptom asymmetry was quantitated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which allowed the relationship between symptom asymmetry and neural asymmetry to be assessed. We found that LD patients had stronger beta suppression during movement, as well as greater post-movement beta rebound compared to patients with RD symptoms, independent of the hand that was moved. Interestingly, the asymmetry of beta activity during right-hand movement uniquely correlated with symptom asymmetry, such that the more LD the symptom profile, the more left-lateralized (i.e., contralateral to movement) the beta response; conversely, the more RD the symptom profile, the more right-lateralized (i.e., ipsilateral to movement) the beta response. This study is the first to directly probe the relationship between symptom

  3. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Alexander De Havas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies.

  4. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  5. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  6. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  7. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  8. Observational assessment of fundamental movement skill proficiency in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skill competency in children has been declining in recent years. Early childhood is a sensitive period for the development of fundamental movement skills ; the mastery of certain of these skills is a prerequisite for daily functioning and participation in later physical or sport-specific activities. Although quantitative methods have been developed for assessing movement development in children, it is also important to qualitatively evaluate such skills in developing chil...

  9. Movement Structure in Young and Elderly Adults during Goal-Directed Movements of the Left and Right Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Brach; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Barduson, Beth; Stelmach, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Elderly adults often exhibit performance deficits during goal-directed movements of the dominant arm compared with young adults. Recent studies involving hemispheric lateralization have provided evidence that the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere-arm systems are specialized for controlling different movement parameters and that hemispheric…

  10. The dynamic behavior of bacterial macrofibers growing with one end prevented from rotating: variation in shaft rotation along the fiber's length, and supercoil movement on a solid surface toward the constrained end

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liling

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial macrofibers twist as they grow, writhe, supercoil and wind up into plectonemic structures (helical forms the individual filaments of which cannot be taken apart without unwinding that eventually carry loops at both of their ends. Terminal loops rotate about the axis of a fiber's shaft in contrary directions at increasing rate as the shaft elongates. Theory suggests that rotation rates should vary linearly along the length of a fiber ranging from maxima at the loop ends to zero at an intermediate point. Blocking rotation at one end of a fiber should lead to a single gradient: zero at the blocked end to maximum at the free end. We tested this conclusion by measuring directly the rotation at various distances along fiber length from the blocked end. The movement of supercoils over a solid surface was also measured in tethered macrofibers. Results Macrofibers that hung down from a floating wire inserted through a terminal loop grew vertically and produced small plectonemic structures by supercoiling along their length. Using these as markers for shaft rotation we observed a uniform gradient of initial rotation rates with slopes of 25.6°/min. mm. and 36.2°/min. mm. in two different fibers. Measurements of the distal tip rotation in a third fiber as a function of length showed increases proportional to increases in length with constant of proportionality 79.2 rad/mm. Another fiber tethered to the floor grew horizontally with a length-doubling time of 74 min, made contact periodically with the floor and supercoiled repeatedly. The supercoils moved over the floor toward the tether at approximately 0.06 mm/min, 4 times faster than the fiber growth rate. Over a period of 800 minutes the fiber grew to 23 mm in length and was entirely retracted back to the tether by a process involving 29 supercoils. Conclusions The rate at which growing bacterial macrofibers rotated about the axis of the fiber shaft measured at various

  11. Brain-machine interface for eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arnulf B A; Andersen, Richard A

    2014-12-09

    A number of studies in tetraplegic humans and healthy nonhuman primates (NHPs) have shown that neuronal activity from reach-related cortical areas can be used to predict reach intentions using brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) and therefore assist tetraplegic patients by controlling external devices (e.g., robotic limbs and computer cursors). However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies that have applied BMIs to eye movement areas to decode intended eye movements. In this study, we recorded the activity from populations of neurons from the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), a cortical node in the NHP saccade system. Eye movement plans were predicted in real time using Bayesian inference from small ensembles of LIP neurons without the animal making an eye movement. Learning, defined as an increase in the prediction accuracy, occurred at the level of neuronal ensembles, particularly for difficult predictions. Population learning had two components: an update of the parameters of the BMI based on its history and a change in the responses of individual neurons. These results provide strong evidence that the responses of neuronal ensembles can be shaped with respect to a cost function, here the prediction accuracy of the BMI. Furthermore, eye movement plans could be decoded without the animals emitting any actual eye movements and could be used to control the position of a cursor on a computer screen. These findings show that BMIs for eye movements are promising aids for assisting paralyzed patients.

  12. Effects of dual-task conditions on cervical spine movement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Vogel, Johanna; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-22

    The potential to accurately perform cervical movements during more challenging tasks might be of importance to prevent dysfunctional motion characteristics. Although sensorimotor function during dual-task conditions are of increasing interest in biomedical and rehabilitation research, effects of such conditions on movement consistency of the neck have not yet been investigated. In this crossover MiSpEx(Medicine in Spine Exercise)-diagnostic study, we aimed to explore differences between single and dual-task conditions on cervical movement variability. Nineteen healthy participants (9 male; 24.5 ± 3.3 y) performed 10 repetitive maximal cervical movements in (1) flexion/extension and (2) lateral flexion, during one single- and during two dual-task test conditions (cognitive, motor) in a randomised and cross-over sequence. Latter consisted of a working memory n-back task (n= 2) and a repetitive ankle movement task. Range of motion (RoM) was assessed using an external three-dimensional ultrasonic movement analysis system. Coefficient of variation (CV) for repetitive RoM was analysed for differences between conditions and controlled for variances in intra-individual movement characteristics. Friedman and post-hoc Bonferroni-adjusted confidence intervals for differences from single- to dual-task values revealed changes in CV in flexion/extension from single-task to motor dual-task (+0.02 ± 0.02 (97.5%CI: 0.01; 0.03); pdual-task condition (+0.01 ± 0.02 (97.5%CI: 0.003; 0.02)) nor for lateral flexion (p> 0.05). Pearson regression analyses revealed a linear negative (pdual-task (R=2 0.55). Results for lateral flexion are comparable, baseline CV negatively impacts differences to cognitive (R=2 0.2) and motor dual-task performance (R=2 0.76; pdual-task conditions while participants with a higher variability remained almost stable or showed a decrease. The results point toward a complex interrelationship of motion patterns and adaptation processes during challenging tasks

  13. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  14. Volitional control of movement: the physiology of free will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2007-06-01

    This review deals with the physiology of the initiation of a voluntary movement and the appreciation of whether it is voluntary or not. I argue that free will is not a driving force for movement, but a conscious awareness concerning the nature of the movement. Movement initiation and the perception of willing the movement can be separately manipulated. Movement is generated subconsciously, and the conscious sense of volition comes later, but the exact time of this event is difficult to assess because of the potentially illusory nature of introspection. Neurological disorders of volition are also reviewed. The evidence suggests that movement is initiated in the frontal lobe, particularly the mesial areas, and the sense of volition arises as the result of a corollary discharge likely involving multiple areas with reciprocal connections including those in the parietal lobe and insular cortex.

  15. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, Francesca; Edwards, Mark J.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review describes the main clinical features of psychogenic (functional) movement disorders and reports recent advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. Recent Findings The terminology and definition of patients with psychogenic movement disorders remain subjects of controversy; the term “functional” has been used more frequently in the literature in recent years regarding the neurobiological substrate underpinning these disorders. Correct diagnosis of psychogenic movement disorders should rely not on the exclusion of organic disorders or the sole presence of psychological factors but on the observation or elicitation of clinical features related to the specific movement disorder (ie, a positive or inclusionary rather than exclusionary diagnosis). Sudden onset, spontaneous remissions, and variability over time or during clinical examination are useful “red flags” suggestive of a psychogenic movement disorder. Imaging studies have demonstrated impaired connectivity between limbic and motor areas involved in movement programming and hypoactivity of a brain region that compares expected data with actual sensory data occurring during voluntary movement. Treatment of psychogenic movement disorders begins with ensuring the patient’s acceptance of the diagnosis during the initial debriefing and includes nonpharmacologic (cognitive-behavioral therapy, physiotherapy) and pharmacologic options. Summary Psychogenic movement disorders represent a challenging disorder for neurologists to diagnose and treat. Recent advances have increased understanding of the neurobiological mechanism of psychogenic movement disorders. Treatment with cognitive strategies and physical rehabilitation can benefit some patients. As short duration of disease correlates with better prognosis, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are critical. PMID:24092294

  16. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A

    1999-08-01

    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  17. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  18. Pathways of lateral spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Disconjugate eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    To foveate targets in different depths, the movements of the two eyes must be disconjugate. Fine measurements of eye rotations about the three principal axes have demonstrated that disconjugate eye movements may appear not only in the horizontal, but also in the vertical and torsional directions. In the presence of visual targets, disconjugate eye movements are driven by the vergence system, but they may also appear during vestibular stimulation. Disconjugate eye movements are highly adaptable by visual disparities, but under normal condition the effects of adaptation only persist when one eye is covered. Finally, disorders of the brainstem and cerebellum may lead to abnormal disconjugate eye movements that are often specific for the topography of the lesion. This chapter reviews the literature on the phenomenology of disconjugate eye movements over the last 15 years.

  20. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  1. Anti-Vaccination Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The current anti-vaccination movements that have established themselves in the United States as well as other regions in the world are like a hydra of discourse. Right when one effective measure is created to convince people to vaccinate two more anti-vaccination movements sprout up in its place. These anti-vaccination movements are driven by cultural beliefs, ideologies, medical exemption laws, non-medical exemption laws, distrust of the government, distrust of large pharmaceutical companies...

  2. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  3. The mathematics of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  4. Laterality of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, Michael; Simons, Kurt; Kraker, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    To determine the frequency of unilateral amblyopia in right versus left eyes among children younger than 18 years. Analysis of data collected in randomized clinical trials conducted by the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. The laterality of the amblyopic eye was analyzed in 2635 subjects younger than 18 years who participated in 9 multicenter prospective, randomized treatment trials. Eligibility criteria for these clinical trials included unilateral amblyopia associated with strabismus, anisometropia, or both, with visual acuity between 20/40 and 20/400. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of baseline and demographic factors with the laterality of amblyopia. Among subjects with anisometropic amblyopia (with or without strabismus), amblyopia was present more often in left than right eyes, with a relative prevalence of 59% in left eyes (95% confidence interval, 57% to 62%; P amblyopia, there was no laterality predilection (relative prevalence of 50% in left eyes; 95% confidence interval, 47% to 54%; P = .94). Anisometropic amblyopia, with or without strabismus, occurs more often in left eyes than right eyes. This finding of amblyopia laterality may be related to microtropia, sighting dominance, or other forms of ocular dominance; developmental or neurological factors; laterality in the development of refractive error; or a combination thereof. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Dance/movement therapy in oncological rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Elana G; Helmes, Almut; Weis, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Dance/movement therapy may be defined as a psychosocial and body-oriented art therapy, which uses dance for the expression of emotional and cognitive issues. Dance/movement therapy is an important intervention for cancer patients to enhance coping strategies. There are only few studies investigating dance therapy with cancer patients. The present study investigates effects of dance/movement therapy (n = 115) in the setting of inpatient rehabilitation based on a pre-post design with a control group as well as a follow-up 3 months later. Standardized questionnaires measuring quality of life, anxiety and depression, and self-concept (EORTC QLQ-C30, HADS, FSKN) were used. In addition, at the end of the inpatient rehabilitation program subjective expectations of the dance/movement therapy and the patients' subjective evaluation of the benefits of the intervention were measured by a new developed questionnaire. As process factors of dance/movement therapy, expression of emotions, enhancement of self-esteem, development of the personality, vitality, getting inner balance, and getting in touch with the body have been identified. In terms of quality of life and psychological well-being, the results showed significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes. Even though those effects may not be attributed to the intervention alone, the analysis of the data and the patients' subjective statements help to reveal therapeutic factors and process characteristics of dance/movement therapy within inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Injerto columelar extendido angulado. Método para prevenir la rotación cefálica y lateral de los injertos de cartílago en la punta nasal Angulated extended collumelar graft. A method to prevent the cephalic and lateral rotation of the cartilage graft in the nasal tip

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Castro Govea; A. Fuente del Campo; H. Chacón Martínez; S. Pérez Porras; O. Vázquez Costilla; G. Mendoza Adam; O. De la Garza Pineda; A. Salazar Lozano

    2011-01-01

    El paciente mestizo generalmente posee una nariz pequeña, de base ancha, con fosas nasales redondas y dorso convexo. Los cartílagos alares son débiles, delgados y cortos, proporcionando un soporte estructural deficiente y pobre definición de la punta nasal. Los injertos de cartílago de la punta nasal se usan frecuentemente para corregir esta condición; sin embargo un problema común es la rotación cefálica, caudal y lateral de estos cartílagos. Empleamos un injerto columelar extendido angulado...

  7. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  8. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  9. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  10. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  11. Relationship between core stability, functional movement, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tomoko; Huxel, Kellie C; Nesser, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between core stability, functional movement, and performance. Twenty-eight healthy individuals (age = 24.4 ± 3.9 yr, height = 168.8 ± 12.5 cm, mass = 70.2 ± 14.9 kg) performed several tests in 3 categories: core stability (flexion [FLEX], extension [EXT], right and left lateral [LATr/LATl]), functional movement screen (FMS) (deep squat [DS], trunk-stability push-up [PU], right and left hurdle step [HSr/HSl], in-line lunge [ILLr/ILLl], shoulder mobility [SMr/SMl], active straight leg raise [ASLRr/ASLRl], and rotary stability [RSr/RSl]), and performance tests (backward medicine ball throw [BOMB], T-run [TR], and single leg squat [SLS]). Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There were significant correlations between SLS and FLEX (r = 0.500), LATr (r = 0.495), and LATl (r = 0.498). The TR correlated significantly with both LATr (r = 0.383) and LATl (r = 0.448). Of the FMS, BOMB was significantly correlated with HSr (r = 0.415), SMr (r = 0.388), PU (r = 0.407), and RSr (r = 0.391). The TR was significantly related with HSr (r = 0.518), ILLl (r = 0.462) and SMr (r = 0.392). The SLS only correlated significantly with SMr (r = 0.446). There were no significant correlations between core stability and FMS. Moderate to weak correlations identified suggest core stability and FMS are not strong predictors of performance. In addition, existent assessments do not satisfactorily confirm the importance of core stability on functional movement. Despite the emphasis fitness professionals have placed on functional movement and core training for increased performance, our results suggest otherwise. Although training for core and functional movement are important to include in a fitness program, especially for injury prevention, they should not be the primary emphasis of any training program.

  12. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2010-01-01

    . The treetop buds remaining after bud excision experienced an immediate decrease in most cytokinins, followed, however, by a large surplus later in the season. The following spring this high level persisted in the leader bud of destipitated trees, but not in whorl buds of decapitated trees. Conspicuous growth...... pattern changes followed from destipitation, but few from decapitation. Growth reactions suggest that resource allocation to main branch buds inhibits leader growth in normal trees, a kind of “lateral control.” Auxin and ABA content in buds and stems was largely unaffected by treatments. Data suggest...

  13. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  14. Gas pipelines involved in sliding movements: safeguard actions Este site (Padova - Italy); Conduites de gaz concernees par les glissements de terrain: mesures preventives dans la commune d'Este (Padoue - Italie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomassini, D.; Glavina, S.; Raffaeli, E.; Stelluti, S. [Snamprogetti, ENI Group (Italy); Giurlani, G. [SNAM, ENI Group (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the design and the construction methodology of local re-routing on buried gas pipelines involved in sliding movements. The re-routing layouts are defined on the basis of the results obtained by structural analysis concerning pipe-soil interaction, by research and development studies and by the indications of International Codes and Standards regarding this argument. The analysis of slide movement permits to define the displacement field in terms of extension and direction, to be used in the following pipe-soil interaction analysis. In order to protect the pipeline from future slide displacements, the re-routing pipeline layout is optimised and aimed construction specifications are defined, even considering possible road crossings. In particular the definition of the local re-routing on the Alfonsine - S. Bonifacio DN 300 (12'') gas pipeline, in Este site is described. The realised intervention permits to guarantee safe operations of the gas transportation, even if large sliding displacements occurs, and to limit maintenance interventions aimed to remove the stresses due to the cumulated slow slide movements. (authors)

  15. Context-dependent lateralized feeding strategies in blue whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, Ari S; Herbert-Read, James E; Hazen, Elliott L; Cade, David E; Calambokidis, John; Southall, Brandon L; Stimpert, Alison K; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2017-11-20

    Lateralized behaviors benefit individuals by increasing task efficiency in foraging and anti-predator behaviors [1-4]. The conventional lateralization paradigm suggests individuals are left or right lateralized, although the direction of this laterality can vary for different tasks (e.g. foraging or predator inspection/avoidance). By fitting tri-axial movement sensors to blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), and by recording the direction and size of their rolls during lunge feeding events, we show how these animals differ from such a paradigm. The strength and direction of individuals' lateralization were related to where and how the whales were feeding in the water column. Smaller rolls (≤180°) predominantly occurred at depth (>70 m), with whales being more likely to rotate clockwise around their longest axis (right lateralized). Larger rolls (>180°), conversely, occurred more often at shallower depths (feeding strategies may enhance foraging efficiency in environments with heterogeneous prey distributions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Stefan; Viblanc, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Lateralization is widespread throughout the animal kingdom [1–7] and can increase task efficiency via shortening reaction times and saving on neural tissue [8–16]. However, lateralization might be costly because it increases predictability [17–21]. In predator-prey interactions, for example......, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow...... the prey [22–24]. This rapid bill movement is either leftward or rightward. Using behavioral observations of identifiable individual sailfish hunting in groups, we provide evidence for individual-level attack lateralization in sailfish. More strongly lateralized individuals had a higher capture success...

  17. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a validation study of a previously published method of sex determination from the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle method for the internal acoustic canal for accurately determining the sex of human skeletal remains usi...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  18. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Shashiraj

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile amytrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) is a type of motor neuron disease presenting before 25 years of age. It is characterized by a combination of upper and lower motor signs. It may be familial or sporadic. We are reporting a sporadic case of JALS with onset of symptoms at 4 years of age. Diagnostic criteria and a brief review of literature are presented.

  19. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  20. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  1. Clinical importance of voluntary and induced Bennett movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupac, R G

    1978-07-01

    A total of 136 dentulous patients were divided into three groups for purposes of quantitative pantographic comparison of voluntary and induced Bennett movement. The effects of patient age and operator experience on recording the Bennett movement were also studied. The results indicates that for patients studied with Bennett movement iduced in the manner described: 1. Experienced operators can obtain more induced Bennett movement that inexperienced operators. 2. Inducing Bennett movement has a greater effect on the immediate side shift component than it has on the progressive side shift component. 3. For older individuals the amount and direction of induced immediate side shift is greater than for younger patients, statistically highly significant, and therefore clinically important. In conclusion, if the objective of a pantographic survey is to record the complete capacity of the joint to move, *lateral jaw movements must be induced.

  2. Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as baclofen, tizanidine, and the benzodiazepines may reduce spasticity. Other drugs may relieve pain and antidepressants can help treat depression. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and rehabilitation may prevent joint immobility ...

  3. The effect of age, movement direction, and target size on the maximum speed of targeted COP movements in healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Manuel E.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Alexander, Neil B.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid center of pressure (COP) movements are often required to avoid falls. Little is known about the effect of age on rapid and accurate volitional COP movements. We hypothesized that COP movements to a target would be slower and exhibit more submovements in older versus younger adults, particularly in posterior versus anterior movements. Healthy older (N = 12, mean age = 76 years) and young women (N = 13, mean age = 23 years) performed anterior and posterior lean movements while standing on a force plate, and were instructed to move their COP ‘as fast and as accurately as possible’ using visual feedback. The results show that rapid posterior COP movements were slower and had an increased number of submovements and ratio of peak-to-average velocity, in comparison to anterior movements (p COP velocity than young (p COP accuracy, particularly posteriorly, thereby providing evidence of a compensatory strategy that may be used for preventing backward falls. PMID:22225924

  4. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    -ation stimulations (gravitropism reactions). Such a negative feedback can account for gravity initiated transport, resulting in lateral water transport and overall movements. The simulation results indicate that self-sustained oscillations can occur on such a cylinder of cells. It will also be demonstrated that the introduction of feedback in the model results in longer circum-nutation periods. It will be discussed how this generic modeling approach could be applied to discuss oscillatory plant movements in general and how other environmental factors, as for instance light gradients, could couple to the self-sustained movements. The oscillations require weightlessness for proper investigations. References: Antonsen F.: Biophysical studies of plant growth movements in microgravity and under 1 g conditions. PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology 1998. Johnsson A., Solheim BGB, Iversen T.-H.: Gravity amplifies and microgravity decreases cir-cumnutations in Arabidopsis thaliana stems: results from a space experiment.-New Phytologist 182: 621-629. 2009. Turing AM.: The chemical basis for morphogenesis.-Phil Trans. R. Soc. London Ser B237:37 -72. 1952.

  5. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychogenic movement may develop as part of a conversion disorder (in which a psychological event causes physical symptoms ... distracted. Many individuals with psychogenic tremor have a conversion disorder. Psychogenic dystonia involves involuntary muscle contractions that cause ...

  6. Lateral flow assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea

    2016-06-30

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Lateral flow assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  8. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  9. The lateral atlantooccipital ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Stetler, William; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Hansasuta, Ake; Liechty, Peter; Acakpo-Satchivi, Leslie; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-04-01

    Stability of the atlantooccipital joint is of vital importance. The ligaments of this region, for the most part, have been thoroughly investigated, except for the lateral atlantooccipital ligament (LAO), which is not described in most modern texts. The authors examined 20 adult cadaveric specimens to observe the morphology of the LAO. All specimens were found to have an LAO, bilaterally, immediately posterior to the rectus capitis lateralis muscle with a fiber direction more or less opposite to this muscle. The LAO was found in intimate contact with the vertebral artery posteriorly and with the contents of the jugular foramen anteriorly. In all specimens, the origin of this ligament was from the anterolateral aspect of the transverse process of the atlas and the insertion onto the jugular process of the occipital bone. The fibers of the LAO had a mean angle of 26 degrees from the midline. The mean length and width of this ligament was 2.2 and 0.5 cm, respectively. The mean thickness of the LAO was 2 mm. The average tensile strength of this band was 37.5 degrees N. The LAO remained lax with flexion and extension of the craniocervical junction. With contralateral lateral flexion of the craniocervical junction, the LAO became fully taut at a mean of 8 degrees . Partial, but never complete, tautness was observed with rotation of the occipital on the atlas bilaterally. Following sectioning of the LAO, approximately an additional 3 degrees -5 degrees of contralateral lateral flexion was observed. The LAO is a constant anatomical structure of the craniocervical junction that might be of concern to the clinician. This ligament inhibits lateral flexion of the atlantooccipital joint and its disruption appears to add to instability at this articulation.

  10. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  11. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used re...... such as the circular camera movement. Keywords: embodied perception, embodied style, explicit narration, interpretation, style pattern, television style...

  12. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Reliability and concurrent validity of an alternative method of lateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cricket bowling involves combined spinal movements of side bending and rotation and, consequently, injury to the low back is a common problem. Therefore the assessment of lumbar spine kinematics has become a routine component in preseason screening. This includes static measurement of lateral spinal ...

  14. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  15. Analisis Tekuk Lateral Pipa Gas Bawah Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrotul Laeli Hidayaturrohmah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To prevent solidification on the pipeline, hydrocarbon is transferred in high temperature and high pressure. High presure and temperature lead to axial tension appearence along the pipeline. Interaction between soil and the surface of pipeline trigering frictional resistance which holding axial force on the pipeline and could cause the occurence of global buckling. According to DNV RP F110, global buckling may occur in several directions which one of them is in the lateral direction. Lateral buckling usually occurs only in the exposed pipe which occurs when the compressive force on the pipe imperfection released at one point so that the excess force in the slip zone turn into buckling. According to DNV RP F 110, there are three methods of analysis that can be used to perform the analysis of lateral buckling the pipe. Those are methods of Hobbs, Van GAF, and Spinazle. In this paper, lateral buckling analysis performed on a 7.67 km subsea gas pipeline by using Hobbs method which concluded that the pipeline has the potential to lateral buckling. Analysis by using software ABAQUS was also carried out to determine the location of the lateral buckling which is the location where overstressed occur.

  16. The cortical signature of symptom laterality in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD often present with unilateral motor symptoms that eventually spread to the other side. This symptom lateralization is diagnostically important, as it serves to distinguish PD from other motor disorders with overlapping symptom profiles. Further, recent studies have shown that the side of symptom onset is important for prognosis, as there are differences in the rate of disease progression and the incidence of secondary symptoms between right- and left-dominant (RD, LD patients. Physiologically, previous studies have shown asymmetrical decline in structure and metabolism throughout the basal ganglia, although connecting this directly to motor function has been difficult. To identify the neurophysiological basis of symptom laterality in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG during left- and right-hand movement paradigms in patients with PD who exhibited either RD or LD symptomatology. The beta oscillations serving these movements were then imaged using beamforming methods, and we extracted the time series of the peak voxel in the left and right primary motor cortices for each movement. In addition, each patient's symptom asymmetry was quantitated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, which allowed the relationship between symptom asymmetry and neural asymmetry to be assessed. We found that LD patients had stronger beta suppression during movement, as well as greater post-movement beta rebound compared to patients with RD symptoms, independent of the hand that was moved. Interestingly, the asymmetry of beta activity during right-hand movement uniquely correlated with symptom asymmetry, such that the more LD the symptom profile, the more left-lateralized (i.e., contralateral to movement the beta response; conversely, the more RD the symptom profile, the more right-lateralized (i.e., ipsilateral to movement the beta response. This study is the first to directly probe the relationship

  17. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  18. The equine neck and its function during movement and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Licka, Theresia F

    2015-10-01

    During both locomotion and body movements at stance, the head and neck of the horse are a major craniocaudal and lateral balancing mechanism employing input from the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The function of the equine neck has recently become the focus of several research groups; this is probably also feeding on an increase of interest in the equine neck in equestrian sports, with a controversial discussion of specific neck positions such as maximum head and neck flexion. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of new findings on the structures and functions of the equine neck, illustrating their interplay. The movement of the neck is based on intervertebral motion, but it is also an integral part of locomotion; this is illustrated by the different neck conformations in the breeds of horses used for various types of work. The considerable effect of the neck movement and posture onto the whole trunk and even the limbs is transmitted via bony, ligamentous and muscular structures. Also, the fact that the neck position can easily be influenced by the rider and/or by the employment of training aids makes it an important avenue for training of new movements of the neck as well as the whole horse. Additionally, the neck position also affects the cervical spinal cord as well as the roots of the spinal nerves; besides the commonly encountered long-term neurological effects of cervical vertebral disorders, short-term changes of neural and muscular function have also been identified in the maximum flexion of the cranial neck and head position. During locomotion, the neck stores elastic energy within the passive tissues such as ligaments, joint capsules and fasciae. For adequate stabilisation, additional muscle activity is necessary; this is learned and requires constant muscle training as it is essential to prevent excessive wear and tear on the vertebral joints and also repetitive or single trauma to the spinal nerves and the spinal cord. The

  19. Lateralization of splay posture in reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoke, Joseph T

    2017-02-01

    Motor laterality is quite often studied in non-human primates, but rarely has been investigated within ungulates. The aim of the study was to use the naturally occurring splay behavior in giraffe as a method to look for the presence of laterality. Four male giraffes housed at Zoo Atlanta were watched for three months, recording their first leg moved to begin the splay posture and the total number of leg movements to achieve a secure stance. All four giraffe significantly moved their left leg first to begin the stance, which suggests at least individual level laterality. However, using the number of leg movements overall, the last leg moved was only significant in one individual. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Psychostimulants and movement disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eAsser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list.Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction.The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.

  1. Watching your foot move - an fMRI study of visuomotor interactions during foot movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate brain areas involved in distinguishing sensory events caused by self-generated movements from similar sensory events caused by externally generated movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects performed 4 types of movements: 1) self......-generated voluntary movement with visual feedback, 2) externally generated movement with visual feedback, 3) self-generated voluntary movement without visual feedback, and 4) externally generated movement without visual feedback, this design. This factorial design makes it possible to study which brain areas...... are activated during self-generated ankle movements guided by visual feedback as compared with externally generated movements under similar visual and proprioceptive conditions. We found a distinct network, comprising the posterior parietal cortex and lateral cerebellar hemispheres, which showed increased...

  2. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  3. Brainmining emotive lateral solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Scaltsas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BrainMining is a theory of creative thinking that shows how we should exploit the mind’s spontaneous natural disposition to use old solutions to address new problems – our Anchoring Cognitive Bias. BrainMining develops a simple and straightforward method to transform recalcitrant problems into types of problems which we have solved before, and then apply an old type of solution to them. The transformation makes the thinking lateral by matching up disparate types of problem and solution. It emphasises the role of emotive judgements that the agent makes, when she discerns whether a change of the values or the emotions and feelings in a situation, which would expand the space of solutions available for the problem at hand, would be acceptable or appropriate in the situation. A lateral solution for an intractable problem is thus spontaneously brainmined from the agent’s old solutions, to solve a transformed version of the intractable problem, possibly involving changes in the value system or the emotional profile of the situation, which the agent judges, emotively, will be acceptable, and even appropriate in the circumstances.

  4. Eye movement identification based on accumulated time feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baobao; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Jiande; Yan, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Eye movement is a new kind of feature for biometrical recognition, it has many advantages compared with other features such as fingerprint, face, and iris. It is not only a sort of static characteristics, but also a combination of brain activity and muscle behavior, which makes it effective to prevent spoofing attack. In addition, eye movements can be incorporated with faces, iris and other features recorded from the face region into multimode systems. In this paper, we do an exploring study on eye movement identification based on the eye movement datasets provided by Komogortsev et al. in 2011 with different classification methods. The time of saccade and fixation are extracted from the eye movement data as the eye movement features. Furthermore, the performance analysis was conducted on different classification methods such as the BP, RBF, ELMAN and SVM in order to provide a reference to the future research in this field.

  5. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  6. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  7. Eye movements modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temereanca, Simona; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Kuperberg, Gina R; Stufflebeam, Steve M; Halgren, Eric; Brown, Emery N

    2012-03-28

    Active reading requires coordination between frequent eye movements (saccades) and short fixations in text. Yet, the impact of saccades on word processing remains unknown, as neuroimaging studies typically employ constant eye fixation. Here we investigate eye-movement effects on word recognition processes in healthy human subjects using anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography, psychophysical measurements, and saccade detection in real time. Word recognition was slower and brain responses were reduced to words presented early versus late after saccades, suggesting an overall transient impairment of word processing after eye movements. Response reductions occurred early in visual cortices and later in language regions, where they colocalized with repetition priming effects. Qualitatively similar effects occurred when words appeared early versus late after background movement that mimicked saccades, suggesting that retinal motion contributes to postsaccadic inhibition. Further, differences in postsaccadic and background-movement effects suggest that central mechanisms also contribute to postsaccadic modulation. Together, these results suggest a complex interplay between visual and central saccadic mechanisms during reading.

  8. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  9. Fluid movement and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Locomotor-Like Leg Movements Evoked by Rhythmic Arm Movements in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; MacLellan, Michael J.; Cappellini, Germana; Poppele, Richard E.; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG) activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs. PMID:24608249

  11. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  12. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  13. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described.

  14. [Studies on the standardization of parameters for jaw movement analysis--6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hisahiro; Bando, Eiichi; Abe, Susumu

    2008-07-01

    To establish standardized evaluating methods for jaw movements analysis. In this paper, we investigated evaluating parameters for 6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements data. Recorded data of jaw border movements from 20 male adults were employed as basic samples. The main parameters were as follows: 1. The displacement of an intercondylar midpoint: the length of a straight line between 2 positions of this point, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 2. The angle of intercondylar axes: the angle between 2 position of the intercondylar axis, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 3. The angle of incisal-condylar planes: the angle between 2 position of the plane, the intercuspal position and other jaw position (this plane was defined with the incisal point and condylar points of both sides 4. The mandibular motion range index: quantitative values calculated with 2 of 3 parameters described above. The mandibular motion range index showed a close correlation with respective projected areas of the incisal paths, with the projected area of sagittal border movements on the sagittal plane r = 0.82 (p movements on the frontal plane: left lateral border movements r = 0.92 (p movements r = 0.84 (p movements data and relative relationship between the intercuspal position and other jaw position. They were independent of reference coordinate systems and could measure jaw movement quantitatively.

  15. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  16. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  17. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  18. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  19. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  20. The Mastery of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Rudolf; Ullmann, Lisa

    In this third edition, some amendments and additions have been made to the original text, first published in 1950. As in past editions, the relationship between the inner motivation of movement and the outer functioning of the body is explored. Acting and dancing are shown as activities deeply concerned with man's urge to establish values and…

  1. The Full Inclusion Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rodney E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Overviews background of the movement toward full inclusion of special education students into regular classrooms, including legal issues and successful educational practices. Suggests that full inclusion does not benefit all students and that inclusion should be one of several alternatives to meeting students' educational needs. Of approximately…

  2. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  3. Posture and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  4. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  5. Reasons for Implementing Movement in Kinetic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudzik, Jan; Nyka, Lucyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives insights into different forms of movement in contemporary architecture and examines them based on the reasons for their implementation. The main objective of the paper is to determine: the degree to which the complexity of kinematic architecture results from functional and spatial needs and what other motivations there are. The method adopted to investigate these questions involves theoretical studies and comparative analyses of architectural objects with different forms of movement imbedded in their structure. Using both methods allowed delving into reasons that lie behind the implementation of movement in contemporary kinetic architecture. As research shows, there is a constantly growing range of applications with kinematic solutions inserted in buildings’ structures. The reasons for their implementation are manifold and encompass pursuits of functional qualities, environmental performance, spatial effects, social interactions and new aesthetics. In those early projects based on simple mechanisms, the main motives were focused on functional values and in later experiments - on improving buildings’ environmental performance. Additionally, in recent proposals, a significant quest could be detected toward kinematic solutions that are focused on factors related to alternative aesthetics and innovative spatial effects. Research reveals that the more complicated form of movement, the more often the reason for its implementation goes beyond the traditionally understood “function”. However, research also shows that the effects resulting from investigations on spatial qualities of architecture and new aesthetics often appear to provide creative insights into new functionalities in architecture.

  6. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dalaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  7. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  8. WE-A-17A-11: Implanted Brachytherapy Seed Movement Due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Kay, I [Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds due to transrectal ultrasound probe-induced prostate deformation and to estimate the effects on prostate dosimetry. Methods: Implanted probe-in and probe-removed seed distributions were reconstructed for 10 patients using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate was delineated on ultrasound and registered to the fluoroscopy seeds using a visible subset of seeds and residual needle tracks. A linear tensor and shearing model correlated the seed movement with position. The seed movement model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to simulate the prostate contour without probe compression. Changes in prostate and surrogate urethra dosimetry were calculated. Results: Seed movement patterns reflecting elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending were observed. Elastic decompression was characterized by anterior-posterior expansion and superior-inferior and lateral contractions. For lateral shearing, anterior movement up to 6 mm was observed for extraprostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. The average intra-prostatic seed movement was 1.3 mm, and the residual after linear modeling was 0.6 mm. Prostate D90 increased by 4 Gy on average (8 Gy max) and was correlated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing resulted in differential change in D90 of 7 Gy between anterior and posterior quadrants, and increase in whole prostate D90 of 4 Gy. Urethra D10 increased by 4 Gy. Conclusion: Seed movement upon probe removal was characterized. The proposed model captured the linear correlation between seed movement and position. Whole prostate dose coverage increased slightly, due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. Lateral shearing movement increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region, at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect on whole prostate D90 was smaller due to the subset

  9. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 ... OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## Press Releases | Have a Success Story to Share? | Contact Us SPINE CARE PROVIDERS GO ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pain Radiological Assessment of Spinal Disorders Repeated End-Range Spinal Testing Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and ... chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain ... area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, ...

  14. Prediction of Lateral Ankle Sprains in Football Players Based on Clinical Tests and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Terada, Masafumi; Beard, Megan Q; Kosik, Kyle B; Lepley, Adam S; McCann, Ryan S; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Thomas, Abbey C

    2016-02-01

    The lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is the most common injury suffered in sports, especially in football. While suggested in some studies, a predictive role of clinical tests for LAS has not been established. To determine which clinical tests, focused on potentially modifiable factors of movement patterns and body mass index (BMI), could best demonstrate risk of LAS among high school and collegiate football players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 539 high school and collegiate football players were evaluated during the preseason with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Functional Movement Screen as well as BMI. Results were compared between players who did and did not suffer an LAS during the season. Logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios were used to determine which measures predicted risk of LAS. The LAS group performed worse on the SEBT-anterior reaching direction (SEBT-ANT) and had higher BMI as compared with the noninjured group (P football players. BMI was also significantly higher in football players who sustained an LAS. Identifying clinical tools for successful LAS injury risk prediction will be a critical step toward the creation of effective prevention programs to reduce risk of sustaining an LAS during participation in football. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with…

  16. Evaluating the movement of active faults on buried pipelines | Parish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the earthquake, a buried pipeline may be experienced extreme loading that is the result of the relatively large displacement of the Earth along the pipe. Large movements of ground could occur by faulting, liquefaction, lateral spreading, landslides, and slope failures. Since the pipelines are widely spread, and in ...

  17. Cramped synchronized general movements in preterm infants as an early marker for cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, F; Cioni, G; Einspieler, C; Roversi, MF; Bos, AF; Paolicelli, PB; Ranzi, A; Prechtl, HFR

    Objective: To ascertain whether specific abnormalities (ie, cramped synchronized general movements [GMs]) can predict cerebral palsy and the severity of later motor impairment in preterm infants affected by brain lesions. Design: Traditional neurological examination was performed, and GMs were

  18. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Studying frozen movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spyros Papapetros, On the Animation of the Inorganic: Art, Architecture, and the Extension of Life: Spyros Papapetros examines ideas about simulated movement and inorganic life during and after the turn of the twentieth century. Exploring works of a selection of important art historians as well as artists and architects of the period, the author maintains that the ability to identify with material objects was repressed by modernist culture, and yet found expression stylistically through depictions of inorganic forms. That expression is shown to have continuity with older medieval and renaissance depictions. The book is organized by a narrative that evokes the modes of inquiry documented and critiqued by the content of the book, employing movement as a narrative device, a metaphor, while serving as a subject of inquiry.

  20. Confronting Islamic Jihadist Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal Upal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that in order to win the long-term fight against Islamic Jihadist movements, we must confront their ideological foundations and provide the majority of Muslims with an alternative narrative that satisfies their social identity needs for a positive esteem.  By analysing social identity dynamics of Western-Muslim interactions, this paper presents some novel ideas that can lead to the creation of such a narrative.

  1. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  3. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  4. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  5. Child readers' eye movements in reading Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chinas architectural heritage conservation movement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Guangya

    2017-01-01

    Chinas civilization is ancient. The countrys architectural heritage conservation activity is an integral part of the world conservation movement. This paper gives a general introduction of the movement in China from four aspects: (1) history, (2) important conservation projects assessments, (3) new ideas and principles being debated and discussed, and (4) issues facing the movement. The present paper summarizes the essential character of the movement in China and highlights the importance of ...

  7. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Antiglobalization movements are transnational social movements that challenge what they perceive as a monolithic global laissez-faire economic regime. From the 1990s, these movements have accused global political and economic networks of delivering too much power to dominant elites at the expense...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  8. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  10. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cosmi, Valentina; Scaglioni, Silvia; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-02-04

    Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia). While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children's willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  11. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  12. Foundations in Elementary Education: Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    The eight chapters in this book explain a teaching model to help students develop their kinesthetic intelligence through purposeful movement education. The major focus is the kindergarten through third grade child, but because in movement one can be a "beginner" at any age, movement experiences of both older and younger learners are occasionally…

  13. Movement Arts and Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Gail Neary; Kirschenbaum, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The study of creative movement, dramatic expression, and kinesthetic awareness can develop students' skills not only in movement but also in communication and leadership. Suggested kinesthetic activities follow the four phases of: physical movement, examining student responses, stimulating the imagination, and analyzing and sharing the experience.…

  14. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  15. A Discovery Approach to Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagin, Isabel B.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of the discovery approach to movement-based instruction on children's level of musicality. Finds that the students with the highest musicality were girls, demonstrated reflective movements and a personal sense of style while moving, and made sense of the music by organizing, categorizing, and developing movement ideas.…

  16. Acute lateral ankle sprains: from functional treatment to prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemler, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ankle sprains are common in daily life and often considered to be minor injuries. The objective in this thesis was to provide more evidence on the burden and optimal management of ankle sprains in terms of the magnitude of the problem, the prognostic consequences and ways to improve treatment and

  17. Watching your foot move--an fMRI study of visuomotor interactions during foot movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    are activated during self-generated ankle movements guided by visual feedback as compared with externally generated movements under similar visual and proprioceptive conditions. We found a distinct network, comprising the posterior parietal cortex and lateral cerebellar hemispheres, which showed increased......, and activation related to proprioceptive input. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug...

  18. Ampleness of head movements of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Melo, Renato

    2017-02-01

    Head movements are controlled by the vestibular system. Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present restrictions in ampleness of head movements due to damage in the vestibule-cochlear systems, resulting from injury in the inner ear. To evaluate the ampleness of head movements of children with normal hearing and children with sensorineural hearing loss and compare data between groups. Cross-sectional study that evaluated the ampleness of head movements of 96 students, being 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, of both sexes, with aged between 7 and 18 years old. The performance of ampleness of head movements was analyzed by a manual goniometric evaluation, according the references proposed by Marques. To the statistical analysis we used the t-Student test in case of normality of the data or the Mann-Whitney test when did not applied the suppositions of normality. Hearing loss children showed less mean in ampleness of all movements of head compared to normal hearing children, pointing difference to movements of flexion (p = 0,001), lateral inclination to the right (p = 0,025) and lateral rotation to the left (p = 0,021). Hearing loss children showed reduction in the ampleness of these head movements: flexion, lateral inclination to the right and lateral rotation to the left compared to normal hearing children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Against Euromissiles: Anti-nuclear Movements in 1980s Italy (1979-1984)

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Between 1981 and 1983, the mobilization against Euromissiles introduced an extraordinary novelty in Italian social and political history. The Italian anti-nuclear movement took off later than in other European countries and its main feature was a politicization unknown elsewhere. The movement developed on the basis of a double and contrary youth mobilization: the first coming from the Communists and the second from the New Left. The movement was not only manifold, but also radically divided a...

  20. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, A H

    2015-11-01

    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  2. Stress changes of lateral collateral ligament at different

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG Yan-lin; WANG You; WANG Hai-peng; RONG Ke; XIE Le

    2011-01-01

    【Abstract】 Objective: To create a 3-dimensional finite element model of knee ligaments and to analyse the stress changes of lateral collateral ligament (LCL) with or without displaced movements at different knee flexion conditions. Methods: A four-major-ligament contained knee specimen from an adult died of skull injury was prepared for CT scanning with the detectable ligament insertion footprints, locations and orientations precisely marked in advance. The CT scann...

  3. Studi Regangan Axial dan Lateral pada Tanah Ekspansif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fitriyana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Swelling and shrinkage abilities of soils are dangerous for buildings. According to Hardiyatmo (2014 There are two types of swelling in expansive soils that are the movement of lateral (horizontal and axial (vertical. Oftentimes the deformation of soils cannot be supported by building stiffness. This damage can be seen in retaining walls, tunnel walls, and etc. With the aims to identify an expansive soil and to know its lateral and axial strains, an experimental study was performed. Swelling tests were conducted in a specimen having diameter (d of 4,5 cm and height (h0 of 2 cm with the variations in : 1 water content wopt = 31% and 18%; 2 vertical pressure (pv 1 kPa, 3.5 kPa and 6.9 kPa; and 3 membrane thickness (t 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm. The strain in the axial direction was measured with a dial gauge that was set vertically parallel whereas the lateral strain is by measuring changes in diameter of the specimen with a digital caliper measurement tools. Based on the analysis on the identification results, the observed soil is classified as expansive soil with the expansion potential is high average. The test results show the same potential for the occurrence of lateral and lateral strain if the lateral retention (e.g. retaining wall is weak. The largest lateral and axial soil development occurred at water content w0 = 18% are 15.7% and 15.8% respectively.

  4. Eye movements in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Robert J; Ko, Philip C; Ally, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has investigated changes in eye movements as a result of Alzheimer's disease (AD). When compared to healthy, age-matched controls, patients display a number of remarkable alterations to oculomotor function and viewing behavior. In this article, we review AD-related changes to fundamental eye movements, such as saccades and smooth pursuit motion, in addition to changes to eye movement patterns during more complex tasks like visual search and scene exploration. We discuss the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these changes and consider the clinical significance of eye movement behavior, with a focus on eye movements in mild cognitive impairment. We conclude with directions for future research.

  5. Cortical representation of facial and tongue movements: a task functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fu-Long; Gao, Pei-Yi; Qian, Tian-Yi; Sui, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Lin, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping can present the activated cortical area during movement, while little is known about precise location in facial and tongue movements. To investigate the representation of facial and tongue movements by task fMRI. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects were underwent block design task fMRI examination. Task movements included lip pursing, cheek bulging, grinning and vertical tongue excursion. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) was applied to analysis the data. One-sample t-test was used to calculate the common activation area between facial and tongue movements. Also, paired t-test was used to test for areas of over- or underactivation in tongue movement compared with each group of facial movements. The common areas within facial and tongue movements suggested the similar motor circuits of activation in both movements. Prior activation in tongue movement was situated laterally and inferiorly in sensorimotor area relative to facial movements. Prior activation of tongue movement was investigated in left superior parietal lobe relative to lip pursing. Also, prior activation in bilateral cuneus lobe in grinning compared with tongue movement was detected. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  7. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established....... This article analyses how the idea is practised in the areas of health, social welfare and education and shows that evidence-producing organizations work differently. Some subscribe to the hierarchy of evidence, others to a typology of evidence. The consequences of these variations are discussed....

  8. Energy and Movement

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, Energy and Movement, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  9. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...... of snuff tobacco, revolutionary talk and generational exclusion, it is argued that one way of understanding the connection between the various elements is to look at specific youth practices that cut across apparently separate activities. This reveals that youth in the Mungiki discourse is a highly...

  10. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Cortical Areas for Controlling Voluntary Movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Hoshi, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal. The supplementary motor area, which occupies the mesial aspect, is involved in planning and executing actions based on internalized or memorized signals. The supplementary motor area plays a central role in bimanual movements, organizing multiple movements, and switching from a routine to a controlled behavior. Thus, Brodmann areas 4 and 6 are considered as central motor areas in the cerebral cortex, in which the idea of an action is transformed to an actual movement in a variety of contexts.

  12. Using a continuous index of laterality to determine how laterality is related to interhemispheric transfer and bimanual coordination in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, Jacqueline; Corroyer, Denis

    2003-07-01

    We sought to determine whether laterality is related to interhemispheric transfer and bimanual coordination during development. Children between 3 and 8 years of age were observed. In the first part of the experiment, we devised a continuous index to order the subjects according to their laterality. The laterality index included evaluation of hand and eye preference, and the right-left performance difference. In the second part of the experiment, we used this single index to determine whether laterality is related to interhemispheric transfer and bimanual coordination. Interhemispheric transfer was assessed by means of two tactile transfer tasks and one visuo-manual transfer task. We assessed bimanual coordination using the tapping task and the bimanual crank-rotation task. Results showed that right- and left-hand writers overlap on certain measures of laterality. They confirmed the improvement of interhemispheric transfer at around age 5 years, earlier progress in bimanual coordination with mirror than with parallel movements, and the existence of a relationship between visuo-manual interhemispheric transfer and bimanual coordination. The laterality index was not related to interhemispheric transfer, but it was related to the younger subjects' performance on the bimanual crank-rotation task: the less right handed, the better the bimanual coordination. In addition, on the same bimanual task, crossed hand-eye laterality was associated with better performance. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 43: 44-56, 2003.

  13. CONTROLS ON CAPITAL MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  14. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  15. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  16. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert and the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1870-1896.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    The Woman Suffrage Movement experienced ideological changes so that earlier and later suffragists had different views. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert was one reformer who first criticized female socialization and the system of separate spheres. Later her views became more sentimental and she idealized the traditional role of women. (VM)

  17. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-11-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  18. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...... that rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder coexists with cataplexy in narcolepsy due to hypocretin deficiency. In our study, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2nd edition) criteria in 63 narcolepsy patients with or without...

  19. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  20. Rhythm, Movement and Synchrony. Effective Teaching Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Kenneth R.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses incorporation of academic curriculum elements into movement units, synchronous movement as a teaching tool, the movement-cognition connection, and identification and use of rhythm and movement elements in the classroom. (IAH)

  1. Quantification of prostate movements during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artignana, X.; Rastkhah, M.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Fourneret, P.; Gilliot, O.

    2006-01-01

    Decrease treatment uncertainties is one of the most important challenge in radiation oncology. Numerous techniques are available to quantify prostate motion and visualize prostate location day after day before each irradiation: CT-scan, cone-beam-CT-Scan, ultrasound, prostatic markers... The knowledge of prostate motion is necessary to define the minimal margin around the target volume needed to avoid mis-positioning during treatment session. Different kind of prostate movement have been studied and are reported in the present work: namely, those having a large amplitude extending through out the whole treatment period on one hand; and those with a shorter amplitude happening during treatment session one the other hand. The long lasting movement are mostly anterior posterior (3 mm standard deviation), secondary in cranial-caudal (1-2 mm standard deviation) and lateral directions (0.5-1 mm standard deviation). They are mostly due to the rectal state of filling and mildly due to bladder filling or inferior limbs position. On the other hand the shorter movement that occurs during the treatment session is mostly variation of position around a steady point represented by the apex. Ones again, the rectal filling state is the principle cause. This way, during the 20 minutes of a treatment session, including the positioning of the patient, a movement of less than 3 mm could be expected when the rectum is empty. Ideally, real time imaging tools should allow an accurate localisation of the prostate and the adaptation of the dosimetry before each treatment session in a time envelope not exceeding 20 minutes. (author)

  2. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Senhorinho Esteves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars.

  3. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  4. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    This chapter offers a study of life at school as remembered by groups of people who finished secondary school in the 1950s, 1970s and 1990s. The article draws up three generational portraits based on in-depth interviews that demonstrate how school life is remembered in complex and textural ways. ...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective........ The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...

  5. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...... graphic material in urban and museum space alike. To clarify the curatorial approach the analysis draws on a theoretical scheme of ecological semiotics, the concept of counterability and contextualising displays, which I name poster milieux: the 1931 case demonstrates how contemporary commercial art...

  6. Movement velocity vs. strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. Marques

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensity during strength training has been commonly identified with relative load (percentage of one-repetition maximum, 1RM or with performing a given maximal number of repetitions in each set (XRM: 5RM, 10RM, 15 RM, etc.. Yet, none of these methods can be appropriate for precisely monitoring the real training effort in each training session. The first approach requires coaches to individually assess the 1RM value for each athlete. We may agree that expressing intensity as a percentage of the maximum repetition has the advantage that it can be used to program strength training for multiple athletes simultaneously, the loads being later transformed in absolute values (kg for each individual. Further, another advantage is that this expression of the intensity can clearly reflect the dynamics of the evolution of the training load if we understand the percentage of 1RM as an effort, and not as a simple arithmetic calculus. Nevertheless, direct assessment of 1RM has some possible disadvantages worth noting. It may be associated with risk of injury when performed incorrectly or by novice athlete’s and it is time-consuming and impractical for large groups. Moreover, the actual RM can change quite rapidly after only a few training sessions and often the obtained value is not the subject’s true maximum. The classic way to prescribe loading intensity is to determine, through trial and error, the maximum number of repetitions that one can be performed with a given submaximal weight. For example, 5RM refers to a weight that can only be lifted five times. Some studies identified the relationship between selected percentages of 1RM and the number of repetitions to failure, establishing a repetition maximum continuum. It is believed that certain performance characteristics are best trained using specific RM load ranges. This method eliminates the need for a direct 1RM test, but it is not without drawbacks either. Using exhaustive efforts is common

  7. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...

  8. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    in non-ideal scenarios, we show that generally the estimation of models of this type is both feasible and ecologically informative. We illustrate the approach using real movement data from 11 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Results indicate a directional bias towards a group centroid for reindeer......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...

  9. 2D ultrasonic elastography with lateral displacement estimation using statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Haolin; Cheng, Yangjie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is the method of obtaining relative stiffness information of biological tissue, which plays an important role in early diagnosis. Generally, a gradient-based strain imaging algorithm assumes that motion only occurs in an axial direction. However, because tissue has different relative stiffness, the scatter presents lateral motion under high freehand compression. Therefore, errors occur in estimating the cross-correlation phase in the calculation window. A 2D elastography algorithm with lateral displacement estimation using statistics was proposed to reduce errors. The new method was investigated through simulation, and the experiment confirmed that errors introduced by lateral tissue movement have been greatly reduced with no sacrifice of real-time ultrasonic imaging quality.

  10. Movement and mortality of stocked brown trout in a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Koed, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The movement and mortality of stocked brown trout Salmo trutta were investigated using radio telemetry. Four brown trout left the study area whereas the remaining fish were stationary. After 5 weeks, 13 out of 50 tagged brown trout were still alive in the stream. Surviving fish had a significantly...... lower mean movement per day than fish, which later either died or disappeared. This difference in behaviour was most pronounced 2 to 8 days after release. Predation by the otter Lutra lutra was probably the main cause of the observed mortality. (c) 2005 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  11. The use of palatal rugae for the assessment of anteroposterior tooth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggan, B R; Sadowsky, C

    2001-05-01

    Currently, cephalometric superimpositions are the accepted means for the assessment of orthodontic tooth movement. The present investigation evaluated the use of palatal rugae as reference points for the measurement of tooth movement, in a manner comparable with cephalometric superimpositions. The sample consisted of pretreatment and posttreatment maxillary study models and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 33 patients who had received orthodontic treatment that involved the extraction of the maxillary first permanent premolars. The mean age at the start of treatment was 13 years 11 months, and the average time between records was 35 months. The anteroposterior movement of the maxillary first molars and central incisors was evaluated with the use of 2 cephalometric variables and 12 study model variables that were reduced to 6 by the combining of the left and right sides. No statistical differences were found between the mean molar movement that was measured cephalometrically and the mean molar movement that was relative to the medial and lateral ends of the first and second palatal rugae or relative to the medial end of the third palatal ruga. Also, no statistical differences were found between the mean incisor movement that was measured cephalometrically and the mean incisor movement that was relative to the medial and lateral end of the third palatal ruga. These findings suggest that ruga landmarks can be used as reliably as cephalometric superimpositions to assess anteroposterior molar movements.

  12. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  13. A stochastic load model for pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    to support their applicability. Recently, an extensive experimental campaign was carried out, in which the lateral forces generated by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill were determined for various combinations of lateral frequencies (0.33–1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5–48 mm......). It was shown that large amplitude vibrations are the result of correlated pedestrian forces in the form of “negative damping”, with magnitudes that depend on the relationship between the pacing frequency and the frequency of the lateral movement.Herewith, a novel stochastic load model for the frequency...

  14. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall drawn in, ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall drawn in, ...

  17. Abdominal Hollowing Reduces Lateral Trunk Displacement During Single-Leg Squats in Healthy Females But Does Not Affect Peak Hip Abduction Angle or Knee Abductio Angle/Moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Lukas D; Archibald, Jessica; Lampert, Eve C; Srbely, John Z

    2017-07-17

    Females suffer 4-6 times more non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than males due to neuromuscular control deficits of the hip musculature leading to increases in hip adduction angle, knee abduction angle, and knee abduction moment during dynamic tasks such as single-leg squats. Lateral trunk displacement has been further related to ACL injury risk in females, leading to the incorporation of core strength/stability exercises in ACL preventative training programs. However, the direct mechanism relating lateral trunk displacement and lower limb ACL risk factors is not well established. To assess the relationship between lateral trunk displacement and lower limb measures of ACL injury risk by altering trunk control through abdominal activation techniques during single-leg squats in healthy females. Interventional Study Setting: Movement and Posture Laboratory Participants: 13 healthy females (21.3±0.88y, 1.68±0.07m, 58.27±5.46kg) Intervention: Trunk position and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an optoelectric motion capture system during single-leg squats under differing conditions of abdominal muscle activation (abdominal hollowing, abdominal bracing, control), confirmed via surface electromyography. Lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle, peak knee abduction angle/moment, and average muscle activity from bilateral internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae muscles. No differences were observed for peak lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle or peak knee abduction angle/moment. Abdominal hollowing and bracing elicited greater muscle activation than the control condition, and bracing was greater than hollowing in four of six muscles recorded. The lack of reduction in trunk, hip, and knee measures of ACL injury risk during abdominal hollowing and bracing suggests that these techniques alone may provide minimal benefit in ACL injury prevention training.

  18. Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI differentially suppresses head and thigh movements during screenic engagement: dependence on interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J Witchel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimating engagement levels from postural micromovements has been summarized by some researchers as: increased proximity to the screen is a marker for engagement, while increased postural movement is a signal for disengagement or negative affect. However, these findings are inconclusive: the movement hypothesis challenges other findings of dyadic interaction in humans, and experiments on the positional hypothesis diverge from it.Hypotheses: 1 Under controlled conditions, adding a relevant visual stimulus to an auditory stimulus will preferentially result in Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI of the head. 2 When instrumental movements are eliminated and computer-interaction rate is held constant, for two identically-structured stimuli, cognitive engagement (i.e. interest will result in measurable NIMI of the body generally. Methods: Twenty-seven healthy participants were seated in front of a computer monitor and speakers. Discrete three-minute stimuli were presented with interactions mediated via a handheld trackball without any keyboard, to minimize instrumental movements of the participant's body. Music videos and audio-only music were used to test hypothesis 1. Time-sensitive, highly interactive stimuli were used to test hypothesis 2. Subjective responses were assessed via visual analogue scales. The computer users' movements were quantified using video motion tracking from the lateral aspect. Repeated measures ANOVAs with Tukey post hoc comparisons were performed.Results: For two equivalently-engaging music videos, eliminating the visual content elicited significantly increased non-instrumental movements of the head (while also decreasing subjective engagement; a highly engaging user-selected piece of favorite music led to further increased non-instrumental movement. For two comparable reading tasks, the more engaging reading significantly inhibited (42% movement of the head and thigh; however, when a highly engaging

  19. Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI) Differentially Suppresses Head and Thigh Movements during Screenic Engagement: Dependence on Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchel, Harry J.; Santos, Carlos P.; Ackah, James K.; Westling, Carina E. I.; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Estimating engagement levels from postural micromovements has been summarized by some researchers as: increased proximity to the screen is a marker for engagement, while increased postural movement is a signal for disengagement or negative affect. However, these findings are inconclusive: the movement hypothesis challenges other findings of dyadic interaction in humans, and experiments on the positional hypothesis diverge from it. Hypotheses: (1) Under controlled conditions, adding a relevant visual stimulus to an auditory stimulus will preferentially result in Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI) of the head. (2) When instrumental movements are eliminated and computer-interaction rate is held constant, for two identically-structured stimuli, cognitive engagement (i.e., interest) will result in measurable NIMI of the body generally. Methods: Twenty-seven healthy participants were seated in front of a computer monitor and speakers. Discrete 3-min stimuli were presented with interactions mediated via a handheld trackball without any keyboard, to minimize instrumental movements of the participant's body. Music videos and audio-only music were used to test hypothesis (1). Time-sensitive, highly interactive stimuli were used to test hypothesis (2). Subjective responses were assessed via visual analog scales. The computer users' movements were quantified using video motion tracking from the lateral aspect. Repeated measures ANOVAs with Tukey post hoc comparisons were performed. Results: For two equivalently-engaging music videos, eliminating the visual content elicited significantly increased non-instrumental movements of the head (while also decreasing subjective engagement); a highly engaging user-selected piece of favorite music led to further increased non-instrumental movement. For two comparable reading tasks, the more engaging reading significantly inhibited (42%) movement of the head and thigh; however, when a highly engaging video game was

  20. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  1. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  2. Differential Subalterns in the Niyamgiri Movement in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borde, Radhika

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis GroupThis essay discusses the politics of the non-Adivasi activists who participated in the Niyamgiri movement in the state of Odisha in India, which was aimed at preventing the mining of a mountain which an Adivasi community that lived on

  3. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  4. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  5. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  6. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  7. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  9. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    In August 2014, a new school reform was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system. In the new prolonged school days’ movement activities is introduced as a tool to increase the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing. By introducing movement activities in the literate......-teaching the movement activities must be integrated in the academic and creative subjects as active teaching and brain breaks etc. or as organized activities during the extended school day. Movement activities has become a part of all subjects and all teachers’ professional task. Since these movement activities...... is a new obligation the teachers are facing some pedagogical challenges (Jensen, 2015). The new school reform forces the teachers to teach in a way they are not educated, trained in or experienced. The teachers’ role is changing. This study investigates how teachers in different subjects and with different...

  10. Dynamical Patterns of Cattle Trade Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajardi, Paolo; Barrat, Alain; Natale, Fabrizio; Savini, Lara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displacement network hide important patterns of structural changes affecting nodes' centrality and farms' spreading potential, thus limiting the efficiency of interventions based on partial longitudinal information. By fully taking into account the longitudinal dimension, we propose a novel definition of dynamical motifs that is able to uncover the presence of a temporal arrow describing the evolution of the system and the causality patterns of its displacements, shedding light on mechanisms that may play a crucial role in the definition of preventive actions. PMID:21625633

  11. Femoropatellar gliding movement during active stretching of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossmann, J.; Muhle, C.; Melchert, U.H.; Spielmann, R.P.; Schroeder, C.; Hassenpflug, J.

    1992-01-01

    By means of motion-triggered MRT it has been possible for the first time to demonstrate movements in the patello-femoral joint by means of MRT. Patello-femoral movement was studied during active extension of the knee between 30deg flexion and complete extension. The knees of 5 normal females and 7 normal males were studied together with 2 women with recurrent lateral patellar luxation. In normal women there was an average 16deg (10 to 18deg), in men an average of 12deg (10 to 14deg) of lateralisation of the patella during complete extension of the knee. In 1 patient there was 10deg medial displacement of the patella before extension. In 2 knees with recurrent lateral subluxation there was a 20 and 24deg displacement of the patella. (orig.) [de

  12. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  13. "The Civil Rights Movement of the 1990s?": The anti-abortion movement and the struggle for racial justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    In 1964, Claude and Jeanne Nolen, who were white, joined an interracial NAACP team intent on desegregating local restaurants in Austin, Texas as a test of the recently passed Civil Rights ACt. Twenty-five years later, the Nolens pleaded "no contest" in a courtroom for their continued social activism. This time the issue was not racial segregation, but rather criminal trespassing for blockading abortion clinics with Operation Rescue. The Nolens served prison sentences for direct action protests that they believe stemmed from the same commitment to Christianity and social justice as the civil rights movements. Despite its relationship to political and cultural conservatism, the anti-abortion movement since Roe v. Wade (1973) was also a product of the progressive social movements of the turbulent sixties. Utilizing oral history interviews and organizational literature, the article explores the historical context of the anti-abortion movement, specifically how the lengthy struggle for racial justice shaped the rhetoric, tactics, and ideology of the anti-abortion activists. Even after political conservatives dominated the movement in the 1980s, the successes and failures of the sixties provided a cultural lens through which grassroots anti-abortion activists forged what was arguably the largest movement of civil disobedience in American history.

  14. Corporate interests, philanthropies, and the peace movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T; Rodriguez, F; Waitzkin, H

    1986-01-01

    Corporate and philanthropic involvement in the peace movement is growing. In considering medical peace groups as examples, we have studied the ways that corporate and philanthropic funding have shaped the course of activism. Our methods have included: review of the Foundations Grant Index from 1974-1983; analysis of corporations' and foundations' criteria for grants in the categories of peace, arms control, and disarmament; interviews with leaders of activist organizations and with foundation officials; and our own experiences in the peace movement. Corporate interests in preventing nuclear war stem from a concern for global stability in which world markets may expand, and from a hope to frame issues posed by the peace movement in a way that will not challenge basic structures of power and finance. Several general features make peace groups respectable and attractive to philanthropies; an uncritical stance toward corporate participation in the arms race; a viewpoint that the main danger of nuclear war stems from a profound, bilateral conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union; and a single-issue focus that does not deal with the many related problems reflecting the injustices of capitalism. The two major medical groups working for peace, Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) and International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), have accomplished many goals; however, their adherence to subtle criteria of respectability and their dependence on philanthropic funding have limited the scope of their activism. The struggle for peace can not succeed without fundamental changes in the corporate system that initiates, maintains, and promotes the arms race.

  15. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. Mandibular movement during speech of two related Latin languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoira-Surís, Marilí; Lago, Laura; Da Silva, Luís; Santana-Mora, Urbano; Santana-Penín, Urbano; Mora, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the kinesiographic recordings of jaw movements during reading a text in Galician and Spanish language. Cross-sectional blind study. A homogeneous healthy group of 25 normal stomatognathic system and native Galician participants was studied. Frontal and parasagittal plane recordings of the intraborder lateral jaw movements and during reading Galician and Spanish texts were recorded using a calibrated jaw-tracking device, kinesiograph. Although movements were similar in both languages, a greater retrusion of the jaw in the Spanish language was shown; moreover, a tendency exists for a left-side motion envelope in this right-handedness preference sample. This study supports the hypothesis that speech is controlled by the central nervous system rather than by peripheral factors and that the hemispheric dominance influences the asymmetry of the speech envelope.

  17. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  18. The Neural Basis of Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in the Rhesus Monkey Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Uwe J.; Thier, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are performed in order to prevent retinal image blur of a moving object. Rhesus monkeys are able to perform smooth pursuit eye movements quite similar as humans, even if the pursuit target does not consist in a simple moving dot. Therefore, the study of the neuronal responses as well as the consequences of…

  19. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. From photography to cinematography: recording movement and gait in a neurological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2002-09-01

    The major challenge of photography has been freezing movement, to transform it into a fixed image or series of images. Very soon, photographers became interested in movement itself and tried to use photography as a tool to analyze movement. At the early stages, physicians interested in movement, perhaps surprisingly, made important technical contributions. Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, by Duchenne, the first book with physiological experiments illustrated by photographs, is a landmark in this historical development. At the Salpêtrière, thanks to Charcot, photography officially entered clinical neurology. Medical journals with photographs were actively developed by Bourneville. Londe established a clinical photographic laboratory and published the first book on medical photography. The study of animal and human movement by Muybridge and Marey in the 1880s led to chronophotography and later cinematography. Clinicians such as Dercum and Richer took advantage of these new techniques to study pathological movement and gait in neurological diseases.

  1. 7 CFR 301.38 - Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38 Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of black stem rust. No person shall move interstate any regulated article except in...

  2. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    ’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....

  3. Navigation of the autonomous vehicle reverse movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, M.; Petukhov, S.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a mathematical formulation of the vehicle reverse motion along a multi-link polygonal trajectory consisting of rectilinear segments interconnected by nodal points. Relevance of the problem is caused by the need to solve a number of tasks: to save the vehicle in the event of а communication break by returning along the trajectory already passed, to avoid a turn on the ground in constrained obstacles or dangerous conditions, or a partial return stroke for the subsequent bypass of the obstacle and continuation of the forward movement. The method of navigation with direct movement assumes that the reverse path is elaborated by using landmarks. To measure landmarks on board, a block of cameras is placed on a vehicle controlled by the operator through the radio channel. Errors in estimating deviation from the nominal trajectory of motion are determined using the multidimensional correlation analysis apparatus based on the dynamics of a lateral deviation error and a vehicle speed error. The result of the experiment showed a relatively high accuracy in determining the state vector that provides the vehicle reverse motion relative to the reference trajectory with a practically acceptable error while returning to the start point.

  4. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen

    2002-10-15

    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  6. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  8. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance.

  9. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  10. Movement disorders emergencies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Munhoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders (MD encompass acute and chronic diseases characterized by involuntary movements and/or loss of control or efficiency in voluntary movements. In this review, we covered situations in which the main manifestations are MDs that pose significant risks for acute morbidity and mortality. The authors examine literature data on the most relevant MD emergencies, including those related to Parkinson's disease, acute drug reactions (acute dystonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonergic syndrome and malignant hyperthermia, acute exacerbation of chronic MD (status dystonicus, hemiballism and stiff-person syndrome, highlighting clinical presentation, demographics, diagnosis and management.

  11. Biological soliton in multicellular movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Ishida, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    Solitons have been observed in various physical phenomena. Here, we show that the distinct characteristics of solitons are present in the mass cell movement of non-chemotactic mutants of the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. During starvation, D. discoideum forms multicellular structures that differentiate into spore or stalk cells and, eventually, a fruiting body. Non-chemotactic mutant cells do not form multicellular structures; however, they do undergo mass cell movement in the form of a pulsatile soliton-like structure (SLS). We also found that SLS induction is mediated by adhesive cell-cell interactions. These observations provide novel insights into the mechanisms of biological solitons in multicellular movement. PMID:23893301

  12. Daily Quantity of Infant Leg Movement: Wearable Sensor Algorithm and Relationship to Walking Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Beth A; Trujillo-Priego, Ivan A; Lane, Christianne J; Finley, James M; Horak, Fay B

    2015-08-04

    Normative values are lacking for daily quantity of infant leg movements. This is critical for understanding the relationship between the quantity of leg movements and onset of independent walking, and will begin to inform early therapy intervention for infants at risk for developmental delay. We used wearable inertial movement sensors to record full-day leg movement activity from 12 infants with typical development, ages 1-12 months. Each infant was tested three times across 5 months, and followed until the onset of independent walking. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify infant-produced leg movements. Infants moved their legs tens of thousands of times per day. There was a significant effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset. Infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less, even when adjusting for age, developmental level or percentile length. We will need a much larger sample to adequately capture and describe the effect of movement experience on developmental rate. Our algorithm defines a leg movement in a specific way (each pause or change in direction is counted as a new movement), and further assessment of movement characteristics are necessary before we can fully understand and interpret our finding that infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less. We have shown that typically-developing infants produce thousands of leg movements in a typical day, and that this can be accurately captured in the home environment using wearable sensors. In our small sample we can identify there is an effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset, however we cannot fully explain it.

  13. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  14. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  15. Lateral Learning for Science Reporters

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Lateral Learning for. Science Reporters. An IDRC-supported peer-to-peer mentoring program helps bring science journalists in the Middle East and Africa closer to the professional mainstream. “The way we see the world ... understands science and technology. This is a .... languages, and even pick up tips on operating.

  16. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ootani, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tomoda, Kaname; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Mitomo, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  17. Lateral atlantooccipital dislocation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watridge, C B; Orrison, W W; Arnold, H; Woods, G A

    1985-08-01

    A case of lateral atlantooccipital dislocation is presented, and its successful management is outlined, demonstrating the importance of the physical examination and the utilization of computed tomography. Open reduction and stabilization with direct visualization of the spinal axis is the preferred method of treatment.

  18. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Furtado Bastos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1, certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients.

  20. The Effects of β-Adrenergic Blockade on the Degrading Effects of Eye Movements on Negative Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Marianne; Kenemans, J. Leon; Baas, Johanna M.P.; Logemann, H. N.Alexander; Rijken, Nellie; Remijn, Malou; Hassink, Rutger J.; Engelhard, Iris M.; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During EMDR, patients make horizontal eye movements (EMs) while simultaneously recalling a traumatic memory, which renders the memory less vivid and emotional when it is later

  1. The quality of preterm infants' spontaneous movements : an early indicator of intelligence and behaviour at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, Phillipa R.; van Braeckel, Koen; Bouma, Anke; Einspieler, Christa; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Bos, Arend F.

    Background: The quality of very preterm infants' spontaneous movements at 11 to 16 weeks post-term age is a powerful predictor of their later neurological status. This study investigated whether early spontaneous movements also have predictive value for the intellectual and behavioural problems that

  2. A comparison between flexible electrogoniometers, inclinometers and three-dimensional video analysis system for recording neck movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaz, Letícia; Moriguchi, Cristiane S; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Santiago, Paulo R P; Caurin, Glauco A P; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice J C Gil

    2013-11-01

    This study compared neck range of movement recording using three different methods goniometers (EGM), inclinometers (INC) and a three-dimensional video analysis system (IMG) in simultaneous and synchronized data collection. Twelve females performed neck flexion-extension, lateral flexion, rotation and circumduction. The differences between EGM, INC, and IMG were calculated sample by sample. For flexion-extension movement, IMG underestimated the amplitude by 13%; moreover, EGM showed a crosstalk of about 20% for lateral flexion and rotation axes. In lateral flexion movement, all systems showed similar amplitude and the inter-system differences were moderate (4-7%). For rotation movement, EGM showed a high crosstalk (13%) for flexion-extension axis. During the circumduction movement, IMG underestimated the amplitude of flexion-extension movements by about 11%, and the inter-system differences were high (about 17%) except for INC-IMG regarding lateral flexion (7%) and EGM-INC regarding flexion-extension (10%). For application in workplace, INC presents good results compared to IMG and EGM though INC cannot record rotation. EGM should be improved in order to reduce its crosstalk errors and allow recording of the full neck range of movement. Due to non-optimal positioning of the cameras for recording flexion-extension, IMG underestimated the amplitude of these movements. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NSAIDs in orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar Karthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response toward a mechanical force. The movement is induced by prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces, which create pressure and tension zones in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, causing remodeling of tooth sockets. Orthodontists often prescribe drugs to manage pain from force application to biologic tissues. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the drugs usually prescribed. NSAIDs block prostaglandin synthesis and result in slower tooth movement. Prostaglandins have been found to play a direct role in bone resorption. Aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, vadecoxib, and celecoxib are the commonly prescribed drugs. Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for orthodontic pain without affecting orthodontic tooth movement.

  4. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  5. Chinese Movements and Social Controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mui, Michelle S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore and analyze the threat posed by certain social movements during the post-Mao reform era and the various methods of social control used by the Chinese government to deal...

  6. EphrinB1/EphB3b Coordinate Bidirectional Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions Controlling Liver Morphogenesis and Laterality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayuso, Jordi; Dzementsei, Aliaksandr; Fischer, Johanna C

    2016-01-01

    Positioning organs in the body often requires the movement of multiple tissues, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms coordinating such movements are largely unknown. Here, we show that bidirectional signaling between EphrinB1 and EphB3b coordinates the movements of the hepatic endoderm...... and adjacent lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), resulting in asymmetric positioning of the zebrafish liver. EphrinB1 in hepatoblasts regulates directional migration and mediates interactions with the LPM, where EphB3b controls polarity and movement of the LPM. EphB3b in the LPM concomitantly repels hepatoblasts...

  7. Development of Infrared Lip Movement Sensor for Spoken Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yoshida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lip movement of speaker is very informative for many application of speech signal processing such as multi-modal speech recognition and password authentication without speech signal. However, in collecting multi-modal speech information, we need a video camera, large amount of memory, video interface, and high speed processor to extract lip movement in real time. Such a system tends to be expensive and large. This is one reasons of preventing the use of multi-modal speech processing. In this study, we have developed a simple infrared lip movement sensor mounted on a headset, and made it possible to acquire lip movement by PDA, mobile phone, and notebook PC. The sensor consists of an infrared LED and an infrared photo transistor, and measures the lip movement by the reflected light from the mouth region. From experiment, we achieved 66% successfully word recognition rate only by lip movement features. This experimental result shows that our developed sensor can be utilized as a tool for multi-modal speech processing by combining a microphone mounted on the headset.

  8. Automatic Human Movement Assessment With Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio P L; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However, the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and later use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72%-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0%-12%).

  9. Muscle Activation and Movement Coordination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ljung, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to empirically develop a method of using electromyography to identify how humans coordinate their muscles during certain sequences of movement and the effect of an injured anterior cruciate ligament to muscle coordination. In this study, more simple movements of the lower extremities are examined and relatively accurate hypothesizes can be made solely based on anatomical theory. However, a general method for electromyographic studies would open up the possibili...

  10. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  11. Orthodontic tooth movement and bioelectricity.

    OpenAIRE

    Karanth H; Shetty K

    2001-01-01

    Research in the field of orthodontics is now focused on the biology of tooth movement. Advanced molecular biology techniques has showed the researchers new avenue towards finding answers to the questions asked for the last few decades. Now it is possible for the researches to explore the lacunae in the field. One such field is, pharmaco-therapeutically or electrophysiologically enhancing the rate of tooth movement, improving the stability of the results, augmenting the anchorage. The voltage ...

  12. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes 4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved seventy-one male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop also...... with the acceleration of the treadmill depends on the frequency of the movement, such that pedestrians (on average) add to the overall modal mass for low frequency motion and subtract from the overall modal mass at higher frequencies....

  13. LATERAL FLOODING ASSOCIATED TO WAVE FLOOD GENERATION ON RIVER SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramírez-Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  14. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  15. Effect of Low Llevel Therapy on Orthodontic Movement in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini MH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Lasers with different characteristics have been used to stimulate orthodontic tooth movement. Considering the contradictory findings in this regard, this study was designed to assess the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 12 patients (4 boys and 8 girls; average age:16.9 ± 3.4 with extracted upper first premolars and required canine retraction into extraction site were included. While in both sides canines were retracted by NiTi coil spring, one side was exposed to GaAlAs laser (890 nm. LLLT was done (on the buccal and palatal mucosa by slow movement of probe at the beginning of the first month. Impression and cast fabrication performed at the beginning of retraction, one and two months later. The amount of retraction on the cast was measured with the aid of a reference plaque fabricated on the rogae using a digital caliper. Data were analyzed using paired sample T-test and one-sample Kolmogorov-Simirnov test. Results: There was no significant difference in the amounts of canine movement between laser exposed and control sides (P>0.05. Conclusion: The energy dose of laser used in this study (72 J per each tooth was not appropriate for increasing dental movement.

  16. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  17. Is that really my movement? - Students' experiences of a video-supported interactive learning model for movement awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backåberg, Sofia; Gummesson, Christina; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students' experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12-18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; "Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness," "Experiencing changes in one's own movement," and "Experiencing challenges in the learning process." The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required.

  18. Is that really my movement?—Students' experiences of a video-supported interactive learning model for movement awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backåberg, Sofia; Gummesson, Christina; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12–18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; “Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness,” “Experiencing changes in one's own movement,” and “Experiencing challenges in the learning process.” The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required. PMID:26274385

  19. Is that really my movement?—Students' experiences of a video-supported interactive learning model for movement awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Backåberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12–18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; “Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness,” “Experiencing changes in one's own movement,” and “Experiencing challenges in the learning process.” The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required.

  20. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin

  1. Right-lateralized brain oscillations in human spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joshua; Korolev, Igor O; Caplan, Jeremy B; Ekstrom, Arne D; Litt, Brian; Baltuch, Gordon; Fried, Itzhak; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Madsen, Joseph R; Kahana, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    During spatial navigation, lesion and functional imaging studies suggest that the right hemisphere has a unique functional role. However, studies of direct human brain recordings have not reported interhemisphere differences in navigation-related oscillatory activity. We investigated this apparent discrepancy using intracranial electroencephalographic recordings from 24 neurosurgical patients playing a virtual taxi driver game. When patients were virtually moving in the game, brain oscillations at various frequencies increased in amplitude compared with periods of virtual stillness. Using log-linear analysis, we analyzed the region and frequency specificities of this pattern and found that neocortical movement-related gamma oscillations (34-54 Hz) were significantly lateralized to the right hemisphere, especially in posterior neocortex. We also observed a similar right lateralization of gamma oscillations related to searching for objects at unknown virtual locations. Thus, our results indicate that gamma oscillations in the right neocortex play a special role in human spatial navigation.

  2. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  4. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  5. Designing for movement quality in exergames: lessons learned from observing senior citizens playing stepping games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjæret, Nina; Nawaz, Ather; Ystmark, Kristine; Dahl, Yngve; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Svanæs, Dag; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Exergames are increasingly used as an exercise intervention to reduce fall risk in elderly. However, few exergames have been designed specifically for elderly, and we lack knowledge about the characteristics of the movements elicited by exergames and thereby about their potential to train functions important for fall risk reduction. This study investigates game elements and older players' movement characteristics during stepping exergames in order to inform exergame design for movement quality in the context of fall preventive exercise. Fourteen senior citizens (mean age 73 years ± 5.7, range 65 - 85) played 3 stepping exergames in a laboratory. Each of the exergames was described with respect to 7 game elements (physical space, sensing hardware technology, game graphics and sound, model of user, avatar/mapping of movements, game mechanism and game narrative). Five movement characteristics (weight shift; variation in step length, speed, and movement direction; visual independency) were scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on video observations of each player and each game. Disagreement between raters was resolved by agreement. Differences in scores for the 3 exergames were analyzed with a multivariate one-way ANOVA. The Mole received the highest sum score and the best score on each of the 5 movement characteristics (all p values movement direction (both p values movement quality positively as indexed by multiple weight shifts and variation in stepping size, direction, and speed. Furthermore, players' movements improved when playing speed-affected game progression and when the game narrative was related to a natural context. Comparing differences in game elements with associated differences in game movement requirements provides valuable insights about how to design for movement quality in exergames. This provided important lessons for the design of exergames for fall-preventive exercise in senior citizens and illustrates the value of including analyses of

  6. Lateral asymmetries in the kick movement and the soccer and futsal performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Barbieri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For proficiency, on soccer and futsal, is necessary that the athlete has similar performance between contralateral limbs. However, few athletes show this level of behavior. The aim of this study was to review in the literature the side asymmetry on soccer and futsal kick and what its effects on performance. The study used a systematic review to answer the questions. The results showed asymmetries between contralateral limbs with respect to the ability to kick, requiring proper and equality training between the sides to develop similarly limbs. Moreover, the similarity should be at the highest level, in other words, on performance level of the dominant limb. In the training, greater emphasis to aspects of the kick kinematic than the aspects related to the strength should be performed as much the kick limb as the support limb. We conclude that the asymmetries between the sides in the kicks affect the athletes’ performance during the game, but this issue is not yet solved, requiring further studies with respect to training and the differences between the sides.

  7. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...waves, mixing, stirring 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Craig

  8. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  9. A preliminary study into the effects of pelvic rotations on upper body lateral translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycott, Andrew; Wyss, Dario; Vallery, Heike; Riener, Robert

    2013-06-01

    An understanding concerning the roles of the various degrees of freedom of the human body during functions such as walking is crucial to the design of robotic devices for rehabilitation. However, the function of the three rotational degrees of freedom of the pelvis during walking remains uncertain. Theories have been previously presented postulating a role of pelvic obliquity in reducing vertical movements of the body's centre of mass, and therefore in minimising energy expenditure, but these are not fully supported by empirical evidence. In this paper, an alterative role of pelvic obliquity in reducing lateral movements of the upper body is proposed. Through the application of a robotic orthosis platform, a variety of walking conditions are tested with different levels of pelvic rotation and lateral movement of the upper body. The presence of the robotic device significantly reduces the degree of pelvic obliquity. Though the data show no significant relationship between the pelvic angles and lateral movement, a trend for decreasing upper body movement with increasing pelvic obliquity is apparent.

  10. Predictive factors of uterine movement during definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maemoto, Hitoshi; Toita, Takafumi; Ariga, Takuro; Heianna, Joichi; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2017-05-01

    To determine the predictive factors affecting uterine movement during radiotherapy (RT), we quantified interfraction uterine movement using computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT). A total of 38 patients who underwent definitive RT for cervical cancer were retrospectively analyzed. We compared pre-RT planning CT (n = 38) and intratreatment CBCT (n = 315), measuring cervical and corporal movement in each direction. Correlations between uterine movement and volume changes of the bladder and rectum on all CBCT scans were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation analysis. Relationships between the mean uterine movement and patient factors were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The mean corpus movement was: superior margin (cranio-caudal direction), 7.6 ± 5.9 mm; anterior margin (anteroposterior direction), 8.3 ± 6.3 mm; left margin (lateral direction), 3.3 ± 2.9 mm; and right margin (lateral direction), 3.0 ± 2.3 mm. Generally, the mean values for cervical movement were smaller than those for the corpus. There was a significant, weak correlation between changes in bladder volume and the movement of the superior margin of the corpus (ρ = 0.364, P < 0.001). There was a significant difference in movement of the superior margin of the corpus between the subgroups with and without a history of previous pelvic surgery (P = 0.007). In conclusion, change in bladder volume and a history of previous surgery were significantly related to intrafractional corpus movement; however, our observations suggest that the accurate prediction of uterine movement remains challenging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  12. Composite body movements modulate numerical cognition: Evidence from the motion–numerical compatibility effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong eCheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011 and Fisher (2012, suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher and colleagues (2008 found that participants’ behavior in a random number generation (RNG task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e. a motion–numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion–numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g. arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.'s (2008 finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out.

  13. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  14. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  15. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  16. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  17. Lateral posterior fossa venous sinus relationships to surface landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Emel; Kocaogullar, Yalcin; Fossett, Damirez; Caputy, Anthony

    2003-05-01

    Knowing the location of the venous sinuses in the combined lateral posterior fossa and lateral cranial base approach is important to prevent their inadvertent injury. The identification of surface landmarks related to these structures is useful in planning such surgical approaches. Twelve injected adult cadaver specimens and 10 dried skulls were used to study the relationship of the venous sinuses to various surface anatomic structures. The asterion was not clearly seen in 60% of the studied cadaver sides. The asterion was always clearly seen in the dry skull preparations. The upper margin of the superior nuchal line was found to range from 1.5 mm to 14 mm inferior to the lower margin of the lateral transverse sinus. In 85% of our specimens, the mastoid groove was found to completely overlie the sigmoid sinus. The asterion was found to be variable in its anatomic relations to other identifiable structures. This variability in relation to other posterior fossa bony landmarks limits its overall usefulness as a consistently stable marker for intracranial structures. The first and most superolateral burr hole for lateral posterior fossa procedures can be safely placed 1 cm below the superior nuchal line and 1 cm medial to the top of the mastoid groove. A burr hole in this location will avoid the transverse and sigmoid sinuses, as well as the transverse-sigmoid junction, yet will be high enough and lateral enough to provide easy exposure of these venous sinuses for all lateral posterior fossa procedures.

  18. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  19. Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    involving the lateral ankle . • Ankle sprains represent 21 to 53% and 17 to 29% of all basketball and soccer injuries respectively. • Ankle sprains...Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention Francis G. O’Connor, MD, MPH Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH Department of Military and Emergency...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  20. Study on the Rule of Super Strata Movement and Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunli; Yuan, Hongyong; Jiang, Fuxing; Chen, Tao; Wu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The movement of key strata is related to the safety of the whole earth’s surface for coal mining under super strata. Based on the key strata theory, the paper comprehensively analyzes the characteristics of the subsidence before and after the instability of the super strata by studing through FLAC3D and microseismic dynamic monitoring of the surface rock movement observation. The stability of the super strata movement is analyzed according to the characteristic value of the subsidence. The subsidence law and quantitative indexes under the control of the super rock strata that provides basis for the prevention and control of surface risk, optimize mining area and face layout and reasonably set mining boundary around mining area. It provides basis for the even growth of mine safety production and regional public safety.

  1. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  2. Movement sequencing in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Long, Jeffrey D; Lourens, Spencer G; Stout, Julie C; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-08-01

    To examine longitudinal changes in movement sequencing in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) participants (795 prodromal HD; 225 controls) from the PREDICT-HD study. Prodromal HD participants were tested over seven annual visits and were stratified into three groups (low, medium, high) based on their CAG-Age Product (CAP) score, which indicates likely increasing proximity to diagnosis. A cued movement sequence task assessed the impact of advance cueing on response initiation and execution via three levels of advance information. Compared to controls, all CAP groups showed longer initiation and movement times across all conditions at baseline, demonstrating a disease gradient for the majority of outcomes. Across all conditions, the high CAP group had the highest mean for baseline testing, but also demonstrated an increase in movement time across the study. For initiation time, the high CAP group showed the highest mean baseline time across all conditions, but also faster decreasing rates of change over time. With progress to diagnosis, participants may increasingly use compensatory strategies, as evidenced by faster initiation. However, this occurred in conjunction with slowed execution times, suggesting a decline in effectively accessing control processes required to translate movement into effective execution.

  3. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  4. Continuous Auditory Feedback of Eye Movements: An Exploratory Study toward Improving Oculomotor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric O. Boyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target. We investigated whether real-time auditory feedback of eye movement dynamics might improve learning in both tasks, through a training protocol over 8 days. The results indicate that real-time sonification of eye movements can actually modify the oculomotor behavior, and reinforce intrinsic oculomotor perception. Nevertheless, large inter-individual differences were observed preventing us from reaching a strong conclusion on sensorimotor learning improvements.

  5. Diagnosis of laterality in the school environment

    OpenAIRE

    Šnajdrová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains theoretical principals of expressions of the dominance of the brain hemispheres - laterality. It solves the development of laterality, its genotype and phenotype, levels, laterality types and species, refers to the educational consequences of the improper educational influence on genotype laterality and subsequent corrections. It also deals with the diagnosis of laterality, especially from a position of a teacher. The basic idea of this work is to support the nat...

  6. Threat perception in the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon): evidence for lateralized eye use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Avichai; Keter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi

    2012-07-01

    Chameleons are arboreal lizards with highly independent, large amplitude eye movements. In response to an approaching threat, a chameleon on a vertical pole moves so as to keep itself away from the threat. In so doing, it shifts between monocular and binocular scanning of the threat and of the environment. We analyzed eye movements in the Common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon, during avoidance response for lateralization, that is, asymmetry at the functional/behavioral levels. The chameleons were exposed to a threat, approaching horizontally from clockwise or anti-clockwise directions, and that could be viewed monocularly or binocularly. Our results show three broad patterns of eye use, as determined by durations spent viewing the threat and by frequency of eye shifts. Under binocular viewing, two of the patterns were found to be both side dependent, that is, lateralized and role dependent ("leading" or "following"). However, under monocular viewing, no such lateralization was detected. We discuss these findings in light of the situation not uncommon in vertebrates, of independent eye movements and a high degree of optic nerve decussation and that lateralization may well occur in organisms that are regularly exposed to critical stimuli from all spatial directions. We point to the need of further investigating lateralization at fine behavioral levels.

  7. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  8. Eye Movement Impairment Recovery in a Gaucher Patient Treated with Miglustat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Accardo

    2010-01-01

    Two sisters, presenting the same genotype (R353G/R353G, were diagnosed as suffering from GD; one of them later developed neurological alterations identified by quantitative saccadic eye movements analysis. The aim of the study was to quantitatively measure the miglustat effects in this GD neurological patient. Eye movement analysis during subsequent controls was performed by estimating the characteristic parameters of saccadic main sequence. The study demonstrates that the SRT alone can be effective in GD3. Moreover, it confirms that quantitative eye movement analysis is able to precociously identify also slight neurological alterations, permitting more accurate GD classification.

  9. Relationship between fear of falling and arm movements in the elderly women : A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Tomonori; Futaki, Toshiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fear of falling and the arm movements in the elderly women. The subjects consisted of 48 elderly women (mean age, 74.8 ± 7.1 years) and 10 young women (20.9 ± 0.3 years). Fear of falling and experiences of falls in the previous year were investigated, and forward, lateral, and downward arm movement times in the standing position were measured. The arm movement time was compared with the degrees of fear of falling, as well as wi...

  10. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  11. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  12. The Importance of Lateral Connections in the Parietal Cortex for Generating Motor Plans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrik E Asher

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has highlighted the significant role of associative brain areas, such as the posterior parietal cortex (PPC in transforming multimodal sensory information into motor plans. However, little is known about how different sensory information, which can have different delays or be absent, combines to produce a motor plan, such as executing a reaching movement. To address these issues, we constructed four biologically plausible network architectures to simulate PPC: 1 feedforward from sensory input to the PPC to a motor output area, 2 feedforward with the addition of an efference copy from the motor area, 3 feedforward with the addition of lateral or recurrent connectivity across PPC neurons, and 4 feedforward plus efference copy, and lateral connections. Using an evolutionary strategy, the connectivity of these network architectures was evolved to execute visually guided movements, where the target stimulus provided visual input for the entirety of each trial. The models were then tested on a memory guided motor task, where the visual target disappeared after a short duration. Sensory input to the neural networks had sensory delays consistent with results from monkey studies. We found that lateral connections within the PPC resulted in smoother movements and were necessary for accurate movements in the absence of visual input. The addition of lateral connections resulted in velocity profiles consistent with those observed in human and non-human primate visually guided studies of reaching, and allowed for smooth, rapid, and accurate movements under all conditions. In contrast, Feedforward or Feedback architectures were insufficient to overcome these challenges. Our results suggest that intrinsic lateral connections are critical for executing accurate, smooth motor plans.

  13. c-fos expression in the trigeminal sensory complex and pontine parabrachial areas following experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, T; Nakagawa, K; Satoh, K; Moriyama, H; Takada, K

    1997-07-07

    Ortodontic tooth movement causes continuous pain. However, it does not appear immediately, usually appearing after the application of orthodontic force to the teeth. Mechanically induced inflammatory responses in the periodontal membrane are assumed to be related to the mechanism of the later pain sensation. In the present study, we investigated Fos-like immunoreactivity in the trigeminal sensory complex and pontine parabrachial areas 24 h after the commencement of experimental tooth movement. An orthodontic elastic module was unilaterally inserted between upper molars. Following experimental tooth movement, Fos-like immunoreactive neurons appeared ipsilaterally in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and bilaterally in the lateral parabrachial nucleus. These results indicate that experimental tooth movement evokes delayed and continuous nociception after application of orthodontic force to the teeth and that the nociceptive information would be conveyed to the ipsilateral trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and further processed, at least in part, to the lateral parabrachial nucleus.

  14. Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  16. Studies on exploratory eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the pioneering studies on eye movements by Prof. Takuya Kojima, which clarified the scarcity of adjustability of alertness level in schizophrenia. Shimazono first thought that closed-eye eye movement may provide objective and physiological indicator for brain activities during awake state. Prof. Kojima thought that depressive patients may also have latent inner tension and was also intrigued by the contrast of the scarcity of exploratory eye movement in schizophrenic patients. He found out that depressive patients are tense at rest but that accustomization takes place in them, while accustomization does not take place in schizophrenic patients. Isse researched on closed-eye eye movements in relation with alertness and disturbance of consciousness. Prof. Kojima invented eye camera to measure the exploratory eye movement and created Responsive Search Score (RSS), an indicator of the parts which the subject covers during the responsive search. Prof. Kojima's research on differentiation of schizophrenic patients was carried out as WHO and the result was replicated in different ethnicities. Clinical molecular genetic studies suggest that RSS reflects the disposition of susceptibility for schizophrenia and possible linkage between RSS and chromosome 22q. Brain imaging studies showed correlation between RSS and the volume of the right parietal eye field, right frontal eye field including the right supplementary eye field and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Based on these findings Prof. Kojima invented an apparatus which can monitor eye movements and show diagnostic sensitivity 75% and specificity 80% for schizophrenia. The apparatus is expected to be applied clinically in the future.

  17. Sensorimotor integration in movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-01

    Although current knowledge attributes movement disorders to a dysfunction of the basal ganglia-motor cortex circuits, abnormalities in the peripheral afferent inputs or in their central processing may interfere with motor program execution. We review the abnormalities of sensorimotor integration described in the various types of movement disorders. Several observations, including those of parkinsonian patients' excessive reliance on ongoing visual information during movement tasks, suggest that proprioception is defective in Parkinson's disease (PD). The disturbance of proprioceptive regulation, possibly related to the occurrence of abnormal muscle-stretch reflexes, might be important for generating hypometric or bradykinetic movements. Studies with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), prepulse inhibition, and event-related potentials support the hypothesis of central abnormalities of sensorimotor integration in PD. In Huntington's disease (HD), changes in SEPs and long-latency stretch reflexes suggest that a defective gating of peripheral afferent input to the brain might impair sensorimotor integration in cortical motor areas, thus interfering with the processing of motor programs. Defective motor programming might contribute to some features of motor impairment in HD. Sensory symptoms are frequent in focal dystonia and sensory manipulation can modify the dystonic movements. In addition, specific sensory functions (kinaesthesia, spatial-temporal discrimination) can be impaired in patients with focal hand dystonia, thus leading to a "sensory overflow." Sensory input may be abnormal and trigger focal dystonia, or defective "gating" may cause an input-output mismatch in specific motor programs. Altogether, several observations strongly support the idea that sensorimotor integration is impaired in focal dystonia. Although elemental sensation is normal in patients with tics, tics can be associated with sensory phenomena. Some neurophysiological studies suggest that

  18. Studies of 65Zn movement in soil columns under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Shukla, U.C.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc movement was studied in relation to moisture regime, element source, and method of application in soil columns constructed from samples of surface layers of Begu loamy sand and Gurgaon sandy loam. Maximum movement was only 10 mm laterally and 40 mm downward. The amount of zinc and the distance moved were greatest under the wettest regime. Movement was also greater in loamy sand than sandy loam columns, with Zn-EDTA rather than sulphate as the source, and when the amount of zinc was greater for a given volume of soil material. The effect of urea, monocalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and farmyard manure on the movement of zinc was determined at one moisture level in columns constructed from samples of surface layers of Begu loamy sand and Thana loam. The movement of zinc within the soil columns was reduced by all four treatments

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J

    2010-01-01

    . Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...... that rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder coexists with cataplexy in narcolepsy due to hypocretin deficiency. In our study, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2nd edition) criteria in 63 narcolepsy patients with or without...... variables were analysed in relation to cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency with uni- and multivariate logistic/linear regression models, controlling for possible rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder biasing factors (age, gender, disease duration, previous anti-cataplexy medication). Only hypocretin...

  20. Lateral Inhibition in the Human Visual System in Patients with Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G Junoy Montolio

    Full Text Available In glaucoma, the density of retinal ganglion cells is reduced. It is largely unknown how this influences retinal information processing. An increase in spatial summation and a decrease in contrast gain control and contrast adaptation have been reported. A decrease in lateral inhibition might also arise. This could result in a larger than expected response to some stimuli, which could mask ganglion cell loss on functional testing (structure-function discrepancy. The aim of this study was to compare lateral inhibition between glaucoma patients and healthy subjects; we used a case-control design. Cases (n = 18 were selected to have advanced visual field loss in combination with a normal visual acuity. Controls (n = 50 were not allowed to have symptoms or signs of any eye disease. Lateral inhibition was measured psychophysically on a computer screen, with (1 a modified illusory movement experiment and (2 a contrast sensitivity (CS test. Illusory movement was quantified by nulling it with a real movement; measure of lateral inhibition was the amount of illusory movement. CS was measured at 1 and 4 cycles per degree (cpd; measure of lateral inhibition was the difference between log CS at 4 and 1 cpd. Both measures were compared between cases and controls; analyses were adjusted for age and gender. There was no difference between cases and controls for these two measures of lateral inhibition (p = 0.58 for illusory movement; p = 0.20 for CS. The movement threshold was higher in cases than in controls (p = 0.008 and log CS was lower, at both 1 (-0.20; p = 0.008 and 4 (-0.28; p = 0.001 cpd. Our results indicate that spatially antagonistic mechanisms are not specifically affected in glaucoma, at least not in the intact center of a severely damaged visual field. This suggests that the structure-function discrepancy in glaucoma is not related to a decrease in lateral inhibition.

  1. [Case of an elderly woman with dementia showing episodic involuntary movement of the tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsueda, Takahiro; Nakaya, Yoshifumi; Hagiwara, Mai; Manabe, Tatsuo; Matsui, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    We report a 93-year-old woman with dementia who developed generalized convulsion and involuntary movement of her tongue. She could independently walk and eat meals until 8 months ago, however she turned into bedridden. When she was admitted to our emergency room due to status epilepticus, her tongue intermittently moved from the midline to the left. She could not eat or speak during this episodic tongue movement. MR imaging study revealed brain atrophy in the bilateral mesial temporal lobe, consistent with senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Despite her tongue movements seemingly developing to the generalized convulsion, EEG study did not indicate epileptiform discharges corresponding to this movement. Although antiepileptic drug therapy was effective, we needed polytherapy to control this movement. Paroxysmal tongue movements were previously reported in cases of epilepsy, brain tumor, and stroke, observed bilaterally in most cases. This episodic tongue movement would be rare in terms of the clear laterality. The etiology of this movement was presumed as focal seizure, palatal tremor, dyskinesia or others, but was undetermined. Episodic movements involving tongue decrease the quality of daily life especially in the elderly. Therefore, we should pay more attention to it and try to treat it earlier.

  2. Effects of rearranged vision on event-related lateralizations of the EEG during pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Isabelle; Franz, Volker H; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Gotz, Karl G; Wascher, Edmund

    2005-01-01

    We used event-related lateralizations of the EEG (ERLs) and reversed vision to study visuomotor processing with conflicting proprioceptive and visual information during pointing. Reversed vision decreased arm-related lateralization, probably reflecting the simultaneous activity of left and right arm specific neurons: neurons in the hemisphere contralateral to the observed action were probably activated by visual feedback, neurons in the hemisphere contralateral to the response side by the somatomotor feedback. Lateralization related to the target in parietal cortex increased, indicating that visual to motor transformation in parietal cortex required additional time and resources with reversed vision. A short period of adaptation to an additional lateral displacement of the visual field increased arm-contralateral activity in parietal cortex during the movement. This is in agreement with the, which showed that adaptation to a lateral displacement of the visual field is reflected in increased parietal involvement during pointing.

  3. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  4. Fixational eye movements during viewing of dynamic natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Roberts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even during periods of fixation our eyes undergo small amplitude movements. These movements are thought to be essential to the visual system because neural responses rapidly fade when images are stabilized on the retina. The considerable recent interest in fixational eye movements (FEMs has thus far concentrated on idealized experimental conditions with artificial stimuli and restrained head movements, which are not necessarily a suitable model for natural vision. Natural dynamic stimuli, such as movies, offer the potential to move beyond restrictive experimental settings to probe the visual system with greater ecological validity. Here, we study FEMs recorded in humans during the unconstrained viewing of a dynamic and realistic visual environment, revealing that drift trajectories exhibit the properties of a random walk with memory. Drifts are correlated at short time scales such that the gaze position diverges from the initial fixation more quickly than would be expected for an uncorrelated random walk. We propose a simple model based on the premise that the eye tends to avoid retracing its recent steps to prevent photoreceptor adaptation. The model reproduces key features of the observed dynamics and enables estimation of parameters from data. Our findings show that FEM correlations thought to prevent perceptual fading exist even in highly dynamic real-world conditions.

  5. Biomechanical Performance of Lateral Versus Dual Locking Plates for Calcaneal Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Abby B; Owen, John R; Gilbert, Todd M; Romash, Michael M; Wayne, Jennifer S; Adelaar, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Given the high rates of wound complications with a standard lateral extensile incision, small dual incision techniques might result in less soft tissue destruction. The goal of the present study was to compare the biomechanical performance between a single locking plate and a dual locking plating system for an intra-articular calcaneal fracture model. A Sanders IIB type joint depression calcaneal fracture was created in 10 paired, fresh-frozen, cadaveric calcanei (age 47 ± 12, range 35 to 78 years). The calcanei of each pair were randomly assigned for fixation using either a lateral locking reconstruction plate or lateral and medial locking reconstruction plates. The specimens were axially loaded in cyclic fashion for 1000 cycles, followed by load to failure. The relative fragment movement was monitored optically in both the sagittal and the coronal planes. The amount of overall construct displacement increased with cycling, although no difference was found between the plating techniques. For fragment movement during cycling, the lateral joint fragment migrated anteroinferiorly along the fracture line relative to the tuberosity fragment for dual plated specimens by a small, but statistically significant, amount. This same translation was smaller for lateral plated specimens but was not found to be significant. During load to failure testing, no statistically significant differences were found for construct stiffness. A tendency was seen toward more interfragmentary motion in the sagittal plane (lateral joint fragment movement relative to the fracture line), with less movement overall in the coronal plane (anterior fragment translation and twist) for dual plating, although the difference from the lateral plate was not statistically significant. The present study demonstrated that for this calcaneal fracture model, the dual plating technique experienced a small amount of fragment translation during cycling that was significantly different statistically from that

  6. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  7. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... performance. •Our results suggest that abiotic and biotic soil characteristics can shape climate change-driven plant movements by affecting growth of nonlocal migrants, a mechanism which should be integrated into predictions of future range shifts....

  8. Masticatory jaw movement of Exaeretodon argentinus (Therapsida: Cynodontia inferred from its dental microwear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dental microwear of four postcanine teeth of Exaeretodon argentinus was analyzed using both two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D methods to infer their masticatory jaw movements. Results of both methods were congruent, showing that linear microwear features (scratches were well aligned and mostly directed to the antero-posterior direction in all four teeth examined. These findings support the palinal masticatory jaw movement, which was inferred in previous studies based on the observation of gross morphology of wear facets. In contrast, the lack of detection of lateral scratches confirmed the absence of the lateral jaw movement that was also proposed by a previous study. Considering previous microwear studies on cynodonts, palinal jaw movements observed in Exaeretodon evolved within cynognathian cynodonts from the fully orthal jaw movement of its basal member. Although there are currently only three studies of dental microwear of non-mammalian cynodonts including the present study, microwear analysis is a useful tool for the reconstruction of masticatory jaw movement and its future application to various cynodonts will shed light on the evolutionary process of jaw movement towards the mammalian condition in more detail.

  9. Evaluation of Repositioning in Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To reduce the risk for pressure ulcers, repositioning of immobile patients is an important standard nursing practice. However, knowledge on how this preventive intervention is carried out among elderly immobile patients is limited and to what extent patients perform minor movements between nursing staff-induced repositionings is largely unknown, but these movements might have implications for the repositioning intervention. Different lying positions are used in repositioning sch...

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical features and current treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Tulay Koca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also known as Lou Gehring's disease, is the most common motor neuron disease characterized by motor neuron degeneration in the primary cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. This leads to widespread paralysis, respiratory insufficiency and death within an average of 3-5 years from disease onset. Majority of cases is sporadic and only 10% have a family story. One of the most interesting discovery in the field of neurodegeneration in recent years is genetic mutation in the C9orf72 (chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 gene, the most common mutation found to be causative of frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and concomitant of these two diseases. Currently curative therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is lacking. To date, one medication, Riluzole, has been proved to prolong survival, approximately 3-5 months, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Researches aim to slow disease progression by targeting known pathophysiological pathways or genetics defects. Only symptomatic care to improve quality of life and survival is suggested. These includes respiratory and nutrition support; dysphagia and gastrostomy management; communication and mobility programs; spasticity prevention; pain medication; management of cognitive dysfunction, depression, mood dysorders (especially apathy, fatigue, sleep disturbance and prevention of deep venous thrombosis. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(2.000: 182-194

  11. Motion energy analysis reveals altered body movement in youth at risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Derek J; Samson, Alayna T; Newberry, Raeana; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-06-03

    Growing evidence suggests that movement abnormalities occur prior to the onset of psychosis. Innovations in technology and software provide the opportunity for a fine-tuned and sensitive measurement of observable behavior that may be particularly useful to detecting the subtle movement aberrations present during the prodromal period. In the present study, 54 youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis and 62 healthy controls participated in structured clinical interviews to assess for an UHR syndrome. The initial 15min of the baseline clinical interview was assessed using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) providing frame-by-frame measures of total movement, amplitude, speed, and variability of both head and body movement separately. Result showed region-specific group differences such that there were no differences in head movement but significant differences in body movement. Specifically, the UHR group showed greater total body movement and speed of body movements, and lower variation in body movement compared to healthy controls. However, there were no significant associations with positive, negative or disorganized symptom domains. This study represents an innovative perspective on gross motor function in the UHR group. Importantly, the automated approach used in this study provides a sensitive and objective measure of body movement abnormalities, potentially guiding novel assessment and prevention of symptom development in those at risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Current Perspectives in Cardiac Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campione

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo and onset of dextral looping is the first indication of this event. Looping is a complex process that progresses concomitantly to cardiac chamber differentiation and ultimately leads to the alignment of the cardiac regions in their final topology. Generation of cardiac asymmetry is crucial to ensuring proper form and consequent functionality of the heart, and therefore it is a highly regulated process. It has long been known that molecular left/right signals originate far before morphological asymmetry and therefore can direct it. The use of several animal models has led to the characterization of a complex regulatory network, which invariably converges on the Tgf-β signaling molecule Nodal and its downstream target, the homeobox transcription factor Pitx2. Here, we review current data on the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac looping and laterality, and discuss the contribution of Nodal and Pitx2 to these processes. A special emphasis will be given to the morphogenetic role of Pitx2 and to its modulation of transcriptional and functional properties, which have also linked laterality to atrial fibrillation.

  13. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  14. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  15. How consistent are lordosis, range of movement and lumbo-pelvic rhythm in people with and without back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Robert A; Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comparing movements/postures in people with and without lower back pain (LBP) may assist identifying LBP-specific dysfunction and its relationship to pain or activity limitation. This study compared the consistency in lumbo-pelvic posture and movement (range and pattern) in people...... and a third (intra-rater) test one to two weeks later. Participants performed five repetitions of tested postures or movements. Test data were captured automatically. Minimal detectable change scores (MDC90) provided estimates of between-test consistency. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between...... posture and movement changes....

  16. Dance/movement therapy approaches to fostering resilience and recovery among African adolescent torture survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David Alan

    2007-01-01

    Dance/movement therapy (DMT) interventions, if designed to promote cultural relevance and community ownership, may enhance healing among African adolescent survivors of war and organised violence. The author posits a theoretical rationale for body movement-based approaches to psychosocial rehabilitation, and offers DMT's holism as evidence of transcultural applicability. Two distinct DMT iniatives with this population are discussed in terms of theoretical assumptions, implementation, and outcomes. Both efforts afforded creative means for discharging aggression and restoring interpersonal connection. The first of these programes engaged a community of South Sudanese refugee youths, resettled to the U.S., in a series of gatherings for traditional dancing and drumming that reconstituted a central culture-of-origin ritual. Anectodal evidence supports this psychosocial intervention's emphasis on group cohesion as a vehicle with both preventive and reparative capacities. Also a series of DMT groups with youths in Sierra Leone. All organized several years post-conflict, these interventions involved applying the DMT modality within a framework of Western psychotherapeutic conventions described in a series of groups with youths, all organized several years post-conflict, is presented. Programe evaluation revealed a drop in average symptom expression among a group comprised of former boy combatants who reported continual reduction in symptoms of anxiety, depression, intrusive recollection, elevated arousal, and aggression. The group's teenage males joined actively in improvisatory dancing and in other structured creative exercices. Theese former child soldiers later elected to demonstrate their wartime experiences through public presentation of a role-play. A report on this event illustrates the success of the process in overcoming stigma and enabling meaningful community reintegration. Thus, whether introduced in refuge or post-conflict, DMT approaches are shown to embody

  17. Clozapine safety, 40 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Michele; Raja, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Clozapine is, and will remain in the coming years, an irreplaceable drug in psychiatry which has elective indication in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, aggressiveness or violence in psychiatric patients, psychosis in Parkinson's disease, prevention and treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Unfortunately, the drug is largely underused for many and serious side effects. Only a good knowledge of these side effects and of the main strategies to prevent their occurrence or minimize their impact can allow overcoming the underutilization of this valuable therapy. The article describes the clinical and epidemiological features of the non-motor side effects of clozapine including blood dyscrasias, constipation, diabetes, enuresis, fever, hepatitis, hypersalivation, ileus, myocarditis, nephritis, priapism, seizures, serositis, weight gain and metabolic syndrome. The paper suggests several strategies, supported by scientific evidence, in the management of these side effects. The neuropsychiatric side effects of clozapine are not discussed in this review.

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  1. Women's Movements and Human Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Two strands of futurism share values of equality, development, and peace, and can catalyze each other into potentially transformational forces. The path is re-education: World order thinking provides an appropriate content for adult learning, and women's movements provide the energy of commitment and a worldwide network for communicating policies.…

  2. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at the University of Utah. Body movements involve force, balance, gravity and motion. “Biomechanics is effectively applying the physics of mechanics ...

  3. Population consequences of aggregative movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin

    1989-01-01

    Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.

  4. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  5. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective k...

  6. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  7. Chinese Movements and Social Controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mui, Michelle S

    2006-01-01

    .... What characteristics of a social movement threaten the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)? Does the CCP have a preferred method of social control, and has that method withstood the test of time? Does the increasing number of protests signify that China is losing control over its population? What does the future hold?

  8. Treatable inherited rare movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinnah, H A; Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash P; Cardoso, Francisco; Da Prat, Gustavo; de Koning, Tom J; Espay, Alberto J; Fung, Victor; Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Gershanik, Oscar; Jankovic, Joseph; Kaji, Ryuji; Kotschet, Katya; Marras, Connie; Miyasaki, Janis M; Morgante, Francesca; Munchau, Alexander; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Rodriguez Oroz, Maria C; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Schöls, Ludger; Stamelou, Maria; Tijssen, Marina; Uribe Roca, Claudia; de la Cerda, Andres; Gatto, Emilia M

    There are many rare movement disorders, and new ones are described every year. Because they are not well recognized, they often go undiagnosed for long periods of time. However, early diagnosis is becoming increasingly important. Rapid advances in our understanding of the biological mechanisms

  9. Osteoarthritis action alliance consensus opinion - best practice features of anterior cruciate ligament and lower limb injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas; Driban, Jeffrey; Nuti, Rathna; Distefano, Lindsay; Root, Hayley; Nistler, Cristina; LaBella, Cynthia

    2017-09-18

    To identify best practice features of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and lower limb injury prevention programs (IPPs) to reduce osteoarthritis (OA). This consensus statement started with us performing a systematic literature search for all relevant articles from 1960 through January 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science and CINAHL. The search strategy combined the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and keywords for terms: (1) ACL OR "knee injury" OR "anterior cruciate ligament"; (2) "prevention and control" OR "risk reduction" OR "injury prevention" OR "neuromuscular training"; and (3) meta-analysis OR "systematic review" OR "cohort study" OR randomized. We found 166 different titles. The abstracts were reviewed for pertinent papers. The papers were reviewed by at least two authors and consensus of best practice for IPP to prevent OA was obtained by conference calls and e-mail discussions. All authors participated in the discussion. The best practice features of an IPP have the following six components: (1) lower extremity and core strengthening; (2) plyometrics; (3) continual feedback to athletes regarding proper technique; (4) sufficient dosage; (5) minimal-to-no additional equipment; and (6) balance training to help prevent injuries. Exercises focused on preventing ankle sprains, hamstring injuries and lateral trunk movements are important. Plyometric exercises should focus on correcting knee valgus movement. Exercises should focus on optimizing the hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio. In order for IPP to be successful, there should be increased education and verbal feedback along with increased athletic compliance. Additional equipment is not necessary. Balance training alone does not significantly reduce injuries, but is beneficial with other exercises. Not enough evidence to recommend stretching and agility exercises, with no ill effects identified. Therefore, we suggest making these optional features. Best practice features for ACL and lower limb IPPs to help

  10. Lateral cephalometry changes after SARPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhiz, A; Schepers, S; Lambrichts, I; Vrielinck, L; Sun, Y; Politis, C

    2011-07-01

    Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE) is associated with postoperative cephalometric changes. In this study we analyse these changes in the sagittal plane in orthognathic patients undergoing SARPE followed by orthodontic treatment and Le Fort I, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. This is a retrospective review of 50 patients (20 males, 30 females) undergoing orthognathic treatment with SARPE to correct transversal deficiency of the maxilla as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. PP-SN, SNA, and ANB angles were increased and U1-SN and U1-PP angles were decreased. All changes were statistically significant. Changes of SNB, PP-Mand plane angle, and SN-Mand. plane angle were not statistically significant. Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion using a bone-borne appliance as a preparative step for later orthognathic surgery results in clockwise rotation of the maxilla. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lateral Penetration of a Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, James; Bless, Stephan; Subramanian, Ravi

    2002-03-01

    Penetration of yawed rods remains one of the outstanding problems in terminal ballistics. An essential feature of yawed rod penetration is the interaction of the shank of the projectile with the side of the penetration cavity. A two-dimensional finite difference code was used to solve this problem for the case of a projectile with a circular cross section penetrating armor steel. This case is particularly relevant for the problem of a high velocity high density rod penetrating a finite plate. The force exerted by the target on the projectile was determined as a function of embedment depth and lateral velocity. The solution was verified by checking the centerline pressure against the closed form solution for cylindrical cavity expansion

  12. An fMRI study during finger movement tasks and recalling finger movement tasks in normal subjects and schizophrenia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    Using fMRI, we investigated the region of the brain, which was activated by the finger movement tasks (F1) and the recalling finger movement tasks (F2). Six right-handed age-matched healthy controls and six Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) Schizophrenia patients were included in the study. In healthy controls, contralateral motor area, supplementary motor area and somatosensory area were all activated during F1 and F2. However the contralateral parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus etc) and ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during F2. In schizophrenia patients, the contralateral motor area was activated during F1, but the activated region was smaller than that observed in healthy subjects. During F2, the bilateral parietal lobes (sensorimotor cortices, association cortex) were activated, while the activated regions were smaller than those seen in healthy controls and no laterality was observed. In addition, no laterality of the activated regions was clearly observed. These results suggest that the function of recalling motor tasks can be mapped onto the contralateral motor area, somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, parietal association cortices, and ipsilateral cerebellum. In schizophrenia patients, the activated regions are smaller than those observed in healthy controls, and parietal regions are also activated bilaterally during recalling motor tasks. Schizophrenia patients may therefore process to recall motor task differently from healthy subjects while also demonstrate less laterality of the brain. (author)

  13. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  14. Lateralized kinematics of predation behavior in a Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Behavioral lateralization has been documented in many vertebrates. The scale-eating cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis is well known for exhibiting lateral dimorphism in its mouth morphology and lateralized behavior in robbing scales from prey fish. A previous field study indicated that this mouth asymmetry closely correlates with the side on which prey is attacked, but details of this species' predation behavior have not been previously analyzed because of the rapidity of the movements. Here, we studied scale-eating behavior in cichlids in a tank through high-speed video monitoring and quantitative assessment of behavioral laterality and kinematics. The fish observed showed a clear bias toward striking on one side, which closely correlated with their asymmetric mouth morphologies. Furthermore, the maximum angular velocity and amplitude of body flexion were significantly larger during attacks on the preferred side compared to those on the nonpreferred side, permitting increased predation success. In contrast, no such lateral difference in movement elements was observed in acoustically evoked flexion during the escape response, which is similar to flexion during scale eating and suggests that they share a common motor control pathway. Thus the neuronal circuits controlling body flexion during scale eating may be functionally lateralized upstream of this common motor pathway.

  15. Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Banga

    2016-01-01

    Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics ...

  16. Later adults' cultural life scripts of middle and later adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Dimakis, Sarah

    2017-04-20

    The cultural life script (CLS) refers to expected prototypical life events, often including life transitions overwhelmingly occurring at ages 11-30. This study outlined CLS events at ages after the majority of these events typically occur. Participants, age 38-76, nominated events they expected a person of their age to experience in the future. Participants rated each event's valence, importance, prevalence, and expected age of occurrence. Events were coded into three categories: the normative CLS for events listed by previous CLS studies, offspring's CLS for experiencing CLS events of offspring, and later adulthood CLS for other events nominated by at least 4% of participants. Results suggest scripted events highlighting positivity and change. Offspring's CLS was more positive and occurred earlier than others. Correlations emerged between event characteristics and well-being. Results affirm the prominence of transitions in memory, and suggest ways that older adults maintain well-being despite a cultural narrative that emphasizes decline.

  17. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  18. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  19. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, R; Skandarajah, A; Gerver, RE; Neira, HD; Fletcher, DA; Herr, AE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to ...

  20. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2007-01-01

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex ta...

  1. Lateralized discrimination of emotional scenes in peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Rodríguez-Chinea, Sandra; Fernández-Martín, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates whether there is lateralized processing of emotional scenes in the visual periphery, in the absence of eye fixations; and whether this varies with emotional valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant), specific emotional scene content (babies, erotica, human attack, mutilation, etc.), and sex of the viewer. Pairs of emotional (positive or negative) and neutral photographs were presented for 150 ms peripherally (≥6.5° away from fixation). Observers judged on which side the emotional picture was located. Low-level image properties, scene visual saliency, and eye movements were controlled. Results showed that (a) correct identification of the emotional scene exceeded the chance level; (b) performance was more accurate and faster when the emotional scene appeared in the left than in the right visual field; (c) lateralization was equivalent for females and males for pleasant scenes, but was greater for females and unpleasant scenes; and (d) lateralization occurred similarly for different emotional scene categories. These findings reveal discrimination between emotional and neutral scenes, and right brain hemisphere dominance for emotional processing, which is modulated by sex of the viewer and scene valence, and suggest that coarse affective significance can be extracted in peripheral vision.

  2. The normal range of condylar movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Han Up; Park, Tae Won

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of condylar movement of normal adults. The author gas observed roentgenographic images of four serial positions of condylar head taken by modified transcranial lateral oblique projection. The serial positions are centric occlusion, rest position, 1 inch open position and maximal open position. The results were obtained as follow; 1. Inter-incisal distance was 46.85 mm in maximal open position. 2. The length between the deepest point of glenoid fossa and summit of condylar head in rest position was wider than that in centric occlusion by 0.8 mm. 3. In 1 inch open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 12.64 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 1.84 mm of vertical direction. 4. In maximal open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 19.06 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 0.4 mm of vertical direction. 5. In centric occlusion, the width between glenoid fossa and margin of condylar head was greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior portion by 0.4 mm. 6. Except for estimated figures of 1 inch open position, all of the estimated figures was greater in male than in female.

  3. Motion sickness, body movement, and claustrophobia during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugloire, Elise; Bonnet, Cédrick T; Riley, Michael A; Bardy, Benoît G; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2007-03-01

    Standing participants were passively restrained and exposed to oscillating visual motion. Thirty-nine percent of participants reported motion sickness. Despite passive restraint, participants exhibited displacements of the center of pressure, and prior to the onset of motion sickness the evolution of these displacements differed between participants who later became sick and those who did not. Claustrophobia occurred during restraint, but only among participants who became motion sick. The results are consistent with the postural instability theory of motion sickness. We discuss the possible relation between claustrophobia symptoms, postural movements and motion sickness incidence.

  4. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  5. STABILITY MATRICES FOR LATERAL BUCKLING ANALYSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    ABSTRACT. In the present work, a new formulation for lateral buckling of beams comprising bi- symmetric sections has been proposed. The formulation employs a coupled lateral buckling functional to investigate the lateral buckling behaviour of a class of beams comprising bi- symmetric sections. While retaining the ...

  6. Arm and Hand Movement in Children Suspected of Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Hilton, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe arm and hand movement in children suspected of having autism spectrum disorder (ASD; age range 29-43 months). A videotaped retrospective review of five children with symptoms of ASD during "Communication Temptation Tasks" was completed at two time points (pre-testing and 6 weeks later). Categories of…

  7. The Islamic Courts Union : the ebb and flow of a Somali Islamist movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Ellis, S.D.K.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter deals with the case of the Islamic Courts Union (Midowga Maxkamadaha Islaamiga in Somali) in Somalia, an Islamist movement active between c. 2004 and 2008. The ICU's social and political aims reflected both internal diversity (and division) and a new international positioning. Later

  8. The Effect of Core Stability Training on Functional Movement Patterns in Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Sajad; Ghasempoor, Khodayar; Rahnama, Nader; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2018-02-06

    Pre-participation examinations are the standard approach for assessing poor movement quality that would increase musculoskeletal injury risk. However, little is known about how core stability influences functional movement patterns. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week core stability program on functional movement patterns in collegiate athletes. The secondary purpose was to determine if the core stability training program would be more effective in those with worse movement quality (i.e. ≤14 baseline FMS score). Quasi-experimental design. Athletic Training Facility. One-hundred collegiate athletes. Functional movement patterns included the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Lateral step down (LSD) and Y balance test (YBT) and were assessed before and after the 8-week program. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control. The intervention group was required to complete a core stability training program that met 3 times per week for 8-week. Significant group x time interactions demonstrated improvements in FMS, LSD and YBT scores in the experimental group relative to the control group (pcore stability training program enhances functional movement patterns and dynamic postural control in collegiate athletes. The benefits are more pronounced in collegiate athletes with poor movement quality.

  9. Patterns of auxin and abscisic acid movement in the tips of gravistimulated primary roots of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Because both abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) have been suggested as possible chemical mediators of differential growth during root gravitropism, we compared with redistribution of label from applied 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA during maize root gravitropism and examined the relative basipetal movement of 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA applied to the caps of vertical roots. Lateral movement of 3H-ABA across the tips of vertical roots was non-polar and about 2-fold greater than lateral movement of 3H-IAA (also non-polar). The greater movement of ABA was not due to enhanced uptake since the uptake of 3H-IAA was greater than that of 3H-ABA. Basipetal movement of label from 3H-IAA or 3H-ABA applied to the root cap was determined by measuring radioactivity in successive 1 mm sections behind the tip 90 minutes after application. ABA remained largely in the first mm (point of application) whereas IAA was concentrated in the region 2-4 mm from the tip with substantial levels found 7-8 mm from the tip. Pretreatment with inhibitors of polar auxin transport decreased both gravicurvature and the basipetal movement of IAA. When roots were placed horizontally, the movement of 3H-IAA from top to bottom across the cap was enhanced relative to movement from bottom to top whereas the pattern of movement of label from 3H-ABA was unaffected. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in root gravitropism but contrary to the idea that gravi-induced asymmetric distribution of ABA contributes to the response.

  10. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  11. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  12. Teaching Movement Activities as Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    ways because they feel like teachers, but they feel like teachers because they act like teachers. Methods/methodologyShort term (Pink & Morgan, 2013) and focused (Knoblauch, 2005) ethnographic fieldwork was carried out in two Danish primary schools for approximately 15 days at each school....... The researcher was following an age-integrated class in grade 0-2 and a class in grade 5. The two classes were followed throughout the school day through the different subjects and with their different teachers. The observations were mainly non-participating but at some occasions the researcher was participating......In August 2014, a new school reform was implemented in the Danish primary and secondary school system. In the new prolonged school days’ movement activities is introduced as a tool to increase the pupils’ health, cognitive learning and wellbeing. By introducing movement activities in the literate...

  13. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  14. Leukotrienes in orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A H; Tatakis, D N; Dziak, R

    1989-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) are products of arachidonic acid conversion. PGs have an established role in mediating orthodontic tooth movement. The role of LTs in modulating or mediating orthodontic tooth movement was investigated in this study. One hundred thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used; the animals weighed 300 to 400 gm with equal numbers of male and female rats. They were divided into five main groups of 24 animals each and a sham group of 12 animals. An orthodontic appliance was placed and activated on all the animals except the sham group; in this group the appliances were not active. Each main group was given one of the following treatments daily: distilled water, 5% gum arabic solution, PG synthesis inhibitor indomethacin, LT synthesis inhibitor AA861, and a combination of both drugs. Each group was divided into six subgroups of four animals; the animals were killed at either 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 14 days, and tooth movement measured. The three sham subgroups received distilled water and were killed at 1, 7, or 10 days. The first maxillary molar (the moved tooth) and surrounding tissues were removed from all animals in the sham group and the subgroups killed at 1, 7, and 10 days in the gum arabic solution group and the LT synthesis inhibitor group. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were extracted, measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA), and standardized per milligram of protein in the sample. A significant inhibition of tooth movement occurred beginning on day 7 in the indomethacin, AA861, and combination groups; there was no significant difference among these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Movement disorder emergencies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, F J; Haywood, P; Kashyape, P; Borbone, J; Lording, A; Pryde, K; Cox, M; Keslake, J; Smith, M; Cuthbertson, L; Murugan, V; Mackie, S; Thomas, N H; Whitney, A; Forrest, K M; Parker, A; Forsyth, R; Kipps, C M

    2011-09-01

    The literature on paediatric acute-onset movement disorders is scattered. In a prospective cohort of 52 children (21 male; age range 2mo-15y), the commonest were chorea, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, and Parkinsonism in descending order of frequency. In this series of mainly previously well children with cryptogenic acute movement disorders, three groups were recognised: (1) Psychogenic disorders (n = 12), typically >10 years of age, more likely to be female and to have tremor and myoclonus (2) Inflammatory or autoimmune disorders (n = 22), including N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus, Sydenham chorea, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (which may be autosomal dominant), and other encephalitides and (3) Non-inflammatory disorders (n = 18), including drug-induced movement disorder, post-pump chorea, metabolic, e.g. glutaric aciduria, and vascular disease, e.g. moyamoya. Other important non-inflammatory movement disorders, typically seen in symptomatic children with underlying aetiologies such as trauma, severe cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy, Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, include dystonic posturing secondary to gastro-oesophageal reflux (Sandifer syndrome) and Paroxysmal Autonomic Instability with Dystonia (PAID) or autonomic 'storming'. Status dystonicus may present in children with known extrapyramidal disorders, such as cerebral palsy or during changes in management e.g. introduction or withdrawal of neuroleptic drugs or failure of intrathecal baclofen infusion; the main risk in terms of mortality is renal failure from rhabdomyolysis. Although the evidence base is weak, as many of the inflammatory/autoimmune conditions are treatable with steroids, immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclophosphamide, it is important to make an early diagnosis where possible. Outcome in survivors is variable. Using illustrative case histories, this review draws attention to the practical difficulties in

  16. Transparency and Movement in Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Estremadoyro, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    This project investigates transparency and movement as the main measured elements that defi ne space. These elements seek to articulate distinct and memorable places throughout the building, acknowledging its unique setting along the Potomac River in Old Town Alexandria, Virginia. Architecture and nature as opposite elements combine here to defi ne a building in which water, light and views become the main architectural agents set in dialog with the natural surroundings. An existi...

  17. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  18. Repair of Lateral Wall Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezeafshar, Reza; Moubayed, Sami P; Most, Sam P

    2018-03-01

    Lateral wall insufficiency (LWI) is classified by the zone in which it occurs. Multiple techniques for treating LWI are described in the literature and are used, but no treatment approach has been widely adopted. To establish an algorithm for treatment of LWI by evaluating subjective and objective outcomes of patients who underwent LWI repair and comparing these results with those of a control group who received no specific LWI repair. This case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. In group 1, there were 44 patients who underwent septorhinoplasty to repair LWI between February 1, 2014, and May 31, 2016. In group 2, there were 44 age- and sex-matched patients who underwent cosmetic septorhinoplasty without LWI repair. Data analysis was conducted from February 1, 2014, to May 31, 2016. Open septorhinoplasty. Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores and LWI grades. Forty-four patients (8 men and 36 women, with a mean [SD] age of 46 [16] years) who underwent open septorhinoplasty to repair LWI and 44 age- and sex-matched patients (composed of 8 men and 36 women, with a mean [SD] age of 41 [12] years) were included in the study. The mean (SD) preoperative NOSE scores were 69.4 (22) in group 1 and 20.5 (20.8) in group 2 (P system enables surgeons to localize LWI, tailor the surgical treatment to the patient, and monitor improvements in the postoperative period. 3.

  19. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  20. Depression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATASSI, NAZEM; COOK, AMANDA; PINEDA, CRISTIANA M. E.; YERRAMILLI-RAO, PADMAJA; PULLEY, DARLENE; CUDKOWICZ, MERIT

    2011-01-01

    Depression is an under-recognized comorbidity associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The goals of this study were to prospectively estimate the prevalence of depression and other ALS related symptoms and to study the impact of depression on enrollment in research studies. One hundred and twenty-seven people with ALS completed the ALS Depression Inventory (ADI-12) and answered questions about ALS related symptoms and research study enrollment preferences. Demographics, ALS symptoms, medications, functional status, and research enrollment were compared between depressed and non-depressed patients. Results showed that the prevalence of mild and severe depression was 29% and 6%, respectively. More than one-third of our ALS patients were receiving anti-depressants to treat depression, sialorrhea, and pseudobulbar affect. Depression prevalence was not correlated with disease duration or progression. Except for anxiety, none of the ALS related symptoms predicted depression. The presence of depression did not have an effect on the decision to enroll in research studies. In conclusion, major depression is less common in our ALS cohort than in the general population. The diagnosis of depression can be masked by some ALS related symptoms and it has no impact on enrollment in ALS clinical trials. PMID:21091399

  1. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  2. [Prevention of preeclampsia - review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, R; Matěcha, J; Drochýtek, V

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious condition that affects about five percent of pregnant women. The disorder itself or related complications are responsible for a significant percentage of maternal and fetal morbidity, even in developed countries. Although our understanding of etiology is still limited, the possibility of detecting and evaluating certain angiogenic factors by the end of the first trimester gives food for thought about prospects for preeclampsia prevention. Secondary prevention is currently based mostly on the effort to pharmacologically affect the spiral artery transformation and development of the abnormal placental microcirculation which lead to clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. The preventive treatment options are narrow. Greatest effect was noted with acetylsalicylic acid medication in the at-risk population. The dose of 75-150 mg per day is considered optimal. The treatment should start before the 16th gestational week; later initiation of therapy is associated with considerably smaller effect. The incidence of the early-onset preeclampsia (preventive treatment affects the late-onset preeclampsia only minimally. Calcium supplementation is effective only in women with low calcium intake. Question for the future as well as subject of several studies is a clinical significance of low molecular weight heparin and sildenafil.

  3. Movement strategies during car transfers in individuals with tetraplegia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, M; Yasuda, T; Kataoka, T; Ueda, E; Yonetsu, R; Okuda, K

    2012-06-01

    Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of car transfer (CT) movement in four adult males with C6 tetraplegia. The aim of the present study was to assess the normal transfer technique movement from a wheelchair to a car (that is, CT) in subjects with tetraplegia. A better understanding of CT movement is invaluable knowledge for spinal cord injury rehabilitation. This type of knowledge will improve rehabilitation programs so that patients with tetraplegia will have greater societal participation. School of Comprehensive Rehabilitation, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka, Japan. Four adult males with C6 tetraplegia, an impairment grade of A according to the American Spinal Injury Association guidelines, took part in the study. The subjects used their own wheelchair and car in our assessments of their CT movement technique. Movements were assessed using a three-dimensional video analysis system with six digital video cameras. CT data, which included lateral displacement of the head and buttocks, and angular displacement of neck flexion and trunk forward inclination, were collected and correlation coefficients were calculated. All four subjects demonstrated negative correlations in lateral displacements greater than 0.70. As for correlation coefficients of angular displacement, two subjects demonstrated negative correlations (r = -0.98 and r = -0.77) and one subject demonstrated a positive correlation (r = 0.75). The neck flexion and trunk forward inclination strategy was different among the four subjects. Each subject with C6 tetraplegia demonstrated different strategies during CT movement.

  4. The Primary Role of Flow Processing in the Identification of Scene-Relative Object Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon K; Niehorster, Diederick C; Warren, Paul A; Li, Li

    2018-02-14

    Retinal image motion could be due to the movement of the observer through space or an object relative to the scene. Optic flow, form, and change of position cues all provide information that could be used to separate out retinal motion due to object movement from retinal motion due to observer movement. In Experiment 1, we used a minimal display to examine the contribution of optic flow and form cues. Human participants indicated the direction of movement of a probe object presented against a background of radially moving pairs of dots. By independently controlling the orientation of each dot pair, we were able to put flow cues to self-movement direction (the point from which all the motion radiated) and form cues to self-movement direction (the point toward which all the dot pairs were oriented) in conflict. We found that only flow cues influenced perceived probe movement. In Experiment 2, we switched to a rich stereo display composed of 3D objects to examine the contribution of flow and position cues. We moved the scene objects to simulate a lateral translation and counter-rotation of gaze. By changing the polarity of the scene objects (from light to dark and vice versa) between frames, we placed flow cues to self-movement direction in opposition to change of position cues. We found that again flow cues dominated the perceived probe movement relative to the scene. Together, these experiments indicate the neural network that processes optic flow has a primary role in the identification of scene-relative object movement. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motion of an object in the retinal image indicates relative movement between the observer and the object, but it does not indicate its cause: movement of an object in the scene; movement of the observer; or both. To isolate retinal motion due to movement of a scene object, the brain must parse out the retinal motion due to movement of the eye ("flow parsing"). Optic flow, form, and position cues all have potential roles in

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  7. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  13. Clozapine safety, 35 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Michele

    2011-07-01

    Clozapine is the best treatment option in several clinical circumstances, including treatment-resistant schizophrenia, non treatment-resistant schizophrenia, suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, aggressiveness or violence in psychiatric patients, psychosis in Parkinson's disease, prevention and treatment of tardive dyskinesia. However, clozapine is associated with many serious side effects. Furthermore, monitoring requirements, i.e., frequent blood draws and frequent visits, discourage clozapine use. Therefore, the drug is underused. The only way to avoid the underuse of clozapine is full awareness of its side effects and competence to minimize them. The aim of the paper is reviewing the safety profile of clozapine and the suggested strategies in the management of its side effects, including neutropenia, eosinophilia, seizures, myocarditis, weight gain, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypersalivation, fever, constipation, ileus, urinary incontinence, sweating. The neuropsychiatric side effects of clozapine are not discussed in this review.

  14. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  15. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal

  16. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  17. Laterality judgments are not impaired in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Ashley; Motlagh, Helena; Sterling, Michele

    2013-02-01

    Impaired integration of the body schema with motor processes may contribute to painful and/or restricted movement in chronic pain. Laterality judgment tasks assess this integration of the body schema with motor processes. The purpose of this study was to assess if patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are impaired on laterality judgment tasks. Accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for foot and neck laterality tasks were assessed in 64 (35 female) patients with chronic (>6 months) WAD and 24 (14 female) asymptomatic subjects. Pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms, cold pain thresholds (CPT) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were collected for patients with WAD. The effect of WAD and body part on laterality task performance was assessed. For patients with WAD, the correlations between neck task performance and pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain thresholds were assessed. There was no effect of group on laterality performance. Subjects showed better RT (p laterality task in patients with WAD. Cervical spine PPT were significantly correlated with accuracy (r = 0.36) and RT (r = 0.29) in patients with WAD. These findings suggest that patients with chronic WAD are not impaired on neck or foot laterality judgment tasks. Laterality training is not indicated in the management of chronic WAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lateral temporal encephaloceles: case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Kato, Mihoko; Chu, Jonsu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Lateral temporal encephalocele is an extremely rare clinical condition, with only 18 cases presented in the literature to date. No review articles have examined lateral temporal encephalocele in depth. We therefore reviewed past cases of lateral encephalocele to clarify the clinical characteristics of this extremely rare deformity. We also present a case of lateral encephalocele with arachnoid cyst which has never been reported in past reports. We identified 8 reports describing 18 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele. We therefore reviewed 19 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele, including our own experience, and discussed the clinical characteristics of this pathology. All the cases with lateral temporal encephalocele were detected at birth except for an occult case. The majority occurred at the pterion, and occurrence at the asterion appears much rarer. Due to the preference for the pterion, the ipsilateral orbital wall was also distorted in some cases. Lateral temporal encephalocele seems to have fewer associated malformations: only 3 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele had associated malformations, including our case which was associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst. The only case of lateral temporal encephalocele to have shown hydrocephalus was our own case. Patients with this deformity have relatively good prognoses: only 3 of the 19 cases showed delayed psychomotor development during follow-up. Provision of adequate treatment is likely to achieve a good prognosis in patients with lateral temporal encephalocele, so we should keep in mind this deformity when encountering pediatric patients with mass lesions on the temporal cranium.

  19. Excessively delayed maternal reaction after their perception of decreased fetal movements in stillbirths: Population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshida, Shigeki; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Murakami, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Takahashi, Kentaro

    2017-12-01

    Fetal movement is the most common method to evaluate fetal well-being. Furthermore, maternal perception of decreased fetal movements is associated with perinatal demise. Previously, we showed that perception of decreased fetal movements was the most common reason for mothers visiting the outpatient department among those who had stillbirths in our region. Further investigation of stillbirths with decreased fetal movements is essential to find a possible way of preventing stillbirth. To investigate maternal reaction time after their perceiving decreased fetal movements among stillbirths in our region of Japan. This is a population-based study of stillbirths in Shiga Prefecture, Japan conducted from 2007 to 2011. We sent a questionnaire to each obstetrician who had submitted the stillbirth certificate. We reviewed and evaluated the questionnaires returned from the obstetricians. There were 66 cases (35%) with decreased fetal movements among 188 stillbirths in Shiga during the study period. The number of maternal visits to outpatient department after perception of decreased fetal movements within 24h was only seven (11%) among 64 stillbirths diagnosed at outpatient department. We conclude that delayed maternal visit after perceiving decreased fetal movements is frequently observed in stillbirths. Promoting more thorough maternal education on fetal movements, including emphasizing earlier visitation after perceiving decreased fetal movements, may prevent stillbirths. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Cortical representation of different motor rhythms during bimanual movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Arning, K; Govindan, R B; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2012-12-01

    The cortical control of bimanual and unimanual movements involves complex facilitatory and inhibitory interhemispheric interactions. We analysed the part of the cortical network directly related to the motor output by corticomuscular (64 channel EEG-EMG) and cortico-cortical (EEG-EEG) coherence and delays at the frequency of a voluntarily maintained unimanual and bimanual rhythm and in the 15-30-Hz band during isometric contractions. Voluntary rhythms of each hand showed coherence with lateral cortical areas in both hemispheres and occasionally in the frontal midline region (60-80 % of the recordings and 10-30 %, respectively). They were always coherent between both hands, and this coherence was positively correlated with the interhemispheric coherence (p < 0.01). Unilateral movements were represented mainly in the contralateral cortex (60-80 vs. 10-30 % ipsilateral, p < 0.01). Ipsilateral coherence was more common in left-hand movements, paralleled by more left-right muscle coherence. Partial corticomuscular coherence most often disappeared (p < 0.05) when the contralateral cortex was the predictor, indicating a mainly indirect connection of ipsilateral/frontomesial representations with the muscle via contralateral cortex. Interhemispheric delays had a bimodal distribution (1-10 and 15-30 ms) indicating direct and subcortical routes. Corticomuscular delays (mainly 12-25 ms) indicated fast corticospinal projections and musculocortical feedback. The 15-30-Hz corticomuscular coherence during isometric contractions (60-70 % of recordings) was strictly contralaterally represented without any peripheral left-right coherence. Thus, bilateral cortical areas generate voluntary unimanual and bimanual rhythmic movements. Interhemispheric interactions as detected by EEG-EEG coherence contribute to bimanual synchronization. This is distinct from the unilateral cortical representation of the 15-30-Hz motor rhythm during isometric movements.