Sample records for prevent lateral movement

  1. Comparison of custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints and off-the-shelf ankle braces in preventing ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. (United States)

    Lee, Winson C C; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Choy, Barton T S; Leung, Aaron K L


    A custom moulded ankle orthosis with hinged joints potentially offers a better control over the subtalar joint and the ankle joint during lateral cutting movements, due to total contact design and increase in material strength. To test the above hypothesis by comparing it to three other available orthoses. Repeated measures. Eight subjects with a history of ankle sprains (Grade 2), and 11 subjects without such history performed lateral cutting movements in four test conditions: 1) non-orthotic, 2) custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges, 3) Sport-Stirrup, and 4) elastic ankle sleeve with plastic support. A VICON motion analysis system was used to study the motions at the ankle and subtalar joints. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis significantly lowered the inversion angle at initial contact (p = 0.006) and the peak inversion angle (p = 0.000) during lateral cutting movements in comparison to non-orthotic condition, while the other two orthoses did not. The three orthoses did not affect the plantarflexion motions, which had been suggested by previous studies to be important in shock wave attenuation. The custom-moulded ankle orthosis with hinges could better control inversion and thus expected to better prevent ankle sprain in lateral cutting movements. Custom-moulded ankle orthoses are not commonly used in preventing ankle sprains. This study raises the awareness of the use of custom-moulded ankle orthoses which are expected to better prevent ankle sprains.

  2. Preventing Errors in Laterality


    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie


    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  3. Fractal analysis of lateral movement in biomembranes. (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech


    Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions. The model makes it possible to deduce the molecule step parameters, namely the step length and time, from data concerning confined and unrestricted diffusion coefficients. This is also possible using experimental results for sub-diffusive transport. The transition from normal to anomalous diffusion does not affect the molecule step parameters. The experimental literature data on molecular trajectories recorded at a high time resolution appear to confirm the modeled value of the mean free path length of DOPE for Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Although the step length and time give the proper values of diffusion coefficient, the DOPE speed calculated as their quotient is several orders of magnitude lower than the thermal speed. This is interpreted as a result of intermolecular interactions, as confirmed by lateral diffusion of other molecules in different membranes. The molecule step parameters are then utilized to analyze the problem of multiple visits in small compartments. The modeling of the diffusion exponent results in a smooth transition to normal diffusion on entering a large compartment, as observed in experiments.

  4. Lateral information transfer across saccadic eye movements. (United States)

    Jüttner, M; Röhler, R


    Our perception of the visual world remains stable and continuous despite the disruptions caused by retinal image displacements during saccadic eye movements. The problem of visual stability is closely related to the question of whether information is transferred across such eye movements--and if so, what sort of information is transferred. We report experiments carried out to investigate how presaccadic signals at the location of the saccade goal influence the visibility of postsaccadic test signals presented at the fovea. The signals were Landolt rings of different orientations. If the orientations of pre- and postsaccadic Landolt rings were different, the thresholds of the test signals were elevated by about 20%-25% relative to those at the static control condition. When the orientations were identical, no such elevation occurred. This selective threshold elevation effect proved to be a phenomenon different from ordinary saccadic suppression, although it was closely related to the execution of the saccadic eye movement. The consequences for visual stability are discussed.

  5. Development of prenatal lateralization: evidence from fetal mouth movements. (United States)

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Exley, K


    Human lateralized behaviors relate to the asymmetric development of the brain. Research of the prenatal origins of laterality is equivocal with some studies suggesting that fetuses exhibit lateralized behavior and other not finding such laterality. Given that by around 22weeks of gestation the left cerebral hemisphere compared to the right is significantly larger in both male and female fetuses we expected that the right side of the fetal face would show more movement with increased gestation. This longitudinal study investigated whether fetuses from 24 to 36weeks of gestation showed increasing lateralized behaviors during mouth opening and whether lateralized mouth movements are related to fetal age, gender and maternal self-reported prenatal stress. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy fetuses (8 girls) of primagravid mothers were scanned four times from 24 to 36-gestation. Two types of mouth opening movements - upper lip raiser and mouth stretch - were coded in 60 scans for 10min. We modeled the proportion of right mouth opening for each fetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, which takes account of the repeated measures design. There was a significant increase in the proportion of lateralized mouth openings over the period increasing by 11% for each week of gestational age (LRT change in deviance=10.92, 1df; pgender differences were found nor was there any effect of maternally reported stress on fetal lateralized mouth movements. There was also evidence of left lateralization preference in mouth movement, although no evidence of changes in lateralization bias over time. This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the development of lateralized mouth movements from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vision system for measuring wagon buffers’ lateral movements

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    Barjaktarović Marko


    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision system designed for measuring horizontal and vertical displacements of a railway wagon body. The model comprises a commercial webcam and a cooperative target of an appropriate shape. The lateral buffer movement is determined by calculating target displacement in real time by processing the camera image in a LabVIEW platform using free OpenCV library. Laboratory experiments demonstrate an accuracy which is better than ±0.5 mm within a 50 mm measuring range.

  7. Lateral movements in Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities due to frontiers. Experimental study (United States)

    Binda, L.; Fernández, D.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.; D'Onofrio, A.


    Lateral movements of the fingers in Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface between two fluids are studied. We show that transverse movements appear when a physical boundary is present; these phenomena have not been explained until now. The boundary prevents one of the fluids from crossing it. Such frontiers can be buoyancy driven as, for example, the frontier to the passage of a less dense solution through a denser solution or when different aggregation states coexist (liquid and gaseous phases). An experimental study of the lateral movement velocity of the fingers was performed for different Rayleigh numbers (Ra), and when oscillations were detected, their amplitudes were studied. Liquid-liquid (L-L) and gas-liquid (G-L) systems were analysed. Aqueous HCl and Bromocresol Green (sodium salt, NaBCG) solutions were used in L-L experiments, and CO2 (gas) and aqueous NaOH, NaHCO3, and CaCl2 solutions were employed for the G-L studies. We observed that the lateral movement of the fingers and finger collapses near the interface are more notorious when Ra increases. The consequences of this, for each experience, are a decrease in the number of fingers and an increase in the velocity of the lateral finger movement close to the interface as time evolves. We found that the amplitude of the oscillations did not vary significantly within the considered Ra range. These results have an important implication when determining the wave number of instabilities in an evolving system. The wave number could be strongly diminished if there is a boundary.

  8. Defense Mechanisms, Psychosomatic Symptomatology, and Conjugate Lateral Eye Movements (United States)

    Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.


    Subjects were classified into left movers, right movers, and bidirectionals according to the characteristic direction of their eye movements in response to questions. The three groups were compared on their preferential use of defense mechanisms and on the number of psychosomatic complaints. (Author)

  9. Tracking a Movement: U.S. Milestones in Suicide Prevention (United States)

    Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Jahn, Danielle R.


    Suicidology and suicide prevention are relatively new fields of study in the United States, but they have made significant progress since their beginnings. This study aimed to identify the most impactful theories in the history of science and suicidology and the most impactful events in the suicide prevention movement. These theories and events…

  10. Lateralization of brain activity pattern during unilateral movement in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Hallett, Mark; Zhang, Jiarong; Chan, Piu


    We investigated the lateralization of brain activity pattern during performance of unilateral movement in drug-naïve Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with only right hemiparkinsonian symptoms. Functional MRI was obtained when the subjects performed strictly unilateral right hand movement. A laterality index was calculated to examine the lateralization. Patients had decreased activity in the left putamen and left supplementary motor area, but had increased activity in the right primary motor cortex, right premotor cortex, left postcentral gyrus, and bilateral cerebellum. The laterality index was significantly decreased in PD patients compared with controls (0.41 ± 0.14 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09). The connectivity from the left putamen to cortical motor regions and cerebellum was decreased, while the interactions between the cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and right putamen were increased. Our study demonstrates that in early PD, the lateralization of brain activity during unilateral movement is significantly reduced. The dysfunction of the striatum-cortical circuit, decreased transcallosal inhibition, and compensatory efforts from cortical motor regions, cerebellum, and the less affected striatum are likely reasons contributing to the reduced motor lateralization. The disruption of the lateralized brain activity pattern might be a reason underlying some motor deficits in PD, like mirror movements or impaired bilateral motor coordination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lateralization of the posterior parietal cortex for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements. (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenji; Inui, Toshio


    Internal monitoring or state estimation of movements is essential for human motor control to compensate for inherent delays and noise in sensorimotor loops. Two types of internal estimation of movements exist: self-generated movements, and externally generated movements. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate differences in brain activity for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements during visual occlusion. Participants tracked a sinusoidally moving target with a mouse cursor. On some trials, vision of either target (externally generated) or cursor (self-generated) movement was transiently occluded, during which subjects continued tracking by estimating current position of either the invisible target or cursor on screen. Analysis revealed that both occlusion conditions were associated with increased activity in the presupplementary motor area and decreased activity in the right lateral occipital cortex compared to a control condition with no occlusion. Moreover, the right and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed greater activation during occlusion of target and cursor movements, respectively. This study suggests lateralization of the PPC for internal monitoring of internally versus externally generated movements, fully consistent with previously reported clinical findings.

  12. Lateralization patterns of covert but not overt movements change with age: An EEG neurofeedback study. (United States)

    Zich, Catharina; Debener, Stefan; De Vos, Maarten; Frerichs, Stella; Maurer, Stefanie; Kranczioch, Cornelia


    The mental practice of movements has been suggested as a promising add-on therapy to facilitate motor recovery after stroke. In the case of mentally practised movements, electroencephalogram (EEG) can be utilized to provide feedback about an otherwise covert act. The main target group for such an intervention are elderly patients, though research so far is largely focused on young populations (study therefore aimed to examine the influence of age on the neural correlates of covert movements (CMs) in a real-time EEG neurofeedback framework. CM-induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) was studied in young (mean age: 23.6 years) and elderly (mean age: 62.7 years) healthy adults. Participants performed covert and overt hand movements. CMs were based on kinesthetic motor imagery (MI) or quasi-movements (QM). Based on previous studies investigating QM in the mu frequency range (8-13Hz) QM were expected to result in more lateralized ERD% patterns and accordingly higher classification accuracies. Independent of CM strategy the elderly were characterized by a significantly reduced lateralization of ERD%, due to stronger ipsilateral ERD%, and in consequence, reduced classification accuracies. QM were generally perceived as more vivid, but no differences were evident between MI and QM in ERD% or classification accuracies. EEG feedback enhanced task-related activity independently of strategy and age. ERD% measures of overt and covert movements were strongly related in young adults, whereas in the elderly ERD% lateralization is dissociated. In summary, we did not find evidence in support of more pronounced ERD% lateralization patterns in QM. Our finding of a less lateralized activation pattern in the elderly is in accordance to previous research and with the idea that compensatory processes help to overcome neurodegenerative changes related to normal ageing. Importantly, it indicates that EEG neurofeedback studies should place more emphasis on the age of the potential end

  13. Speech Movement Measures as Markers of Bulbar Disease in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    Shellikeri, Sanjana; Green, Jordan R.; Kulkarni, Madhura; Rong, Panying; Martino, Rosemary; Zinman, Lorne; Yunusova, Yana


    Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify the effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on tongue and jaw control, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The data were examined in the context of their utility as a diagnostic marker of bulbar disease. Method: Tongue and jaw movements were recorded cross-sectionally (n = 33…

  14. Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI (United States)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha


    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

  15. The Reasons for Activisation of Separatism Movements in Xinjiang Later in XX and XXI Centuries

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    Анна Сергеевна Мавлонова


    Full Text Available The article includes analysis of the main reasons for activization of separatism movements in Xinjiang later in XX and earlier in XXI centuries. The author comes into conclusion that the following reasons caused the process of active politicization of ethnicity in Central Asian region and wide territories of Xinjiang: changes in the territory of former Soviet Union countries; economic recession in former Soviet Union countries which led to activization of radical movements; economic reforms in China leading to liberalization of social and political spheres; influence of external global factors. The mentioned changes resulted in serious activization of separatist tendencies which was not the case in earlier periods.

  16. Laterality of repetitive finger movement performance and clinical features of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Zaman, Andrew; MacKinnon, Colum D; Tillman, Mark D; Hass, Chris J; Okun, Michael S


    Impairments in acoustically cued repetitive finger movement often emerge at rates near to and above 2Hz in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD) in which some patients move faster (hastening) and others move slower (bradykinetic). The clinical features impacting this differential performance of repetitive finger movement remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare repetitive finger movement performance between the more and less affected side, and the difference in clinical ratings among performance groups. Forty-one participants diagnosed with idiopathic PD completed an acoustically cued repetitive finger movement task while "on" medication. Eighteen participants moved faster, 10 moved slower, and 13 were able to maintain the appropriate rate at rates above 2Hz. Clinical measures of laterality, disease severity, and the UPDRS were obtained. There were no significant differences between the more and less affected sides regardless of performance group. Comparison of disease severity, tremor, and rigidity among performance groups revealed no significant differences. Comparison of posture and postural instability scores revealed that the participants that demonstrated hastening had worse posture and postural instability scores. Consideration of movement rate during the clinical evaluation of repetitive finger movement may provide additional insight into varying disease features in persons with PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Remifentanil Prevents Withdrawal Movements Caused by Intravenous Injection of Rocuronium (United States)

    Choi, Byung In; Choi, Seung Ho; Shin, Yang-Sik; Lee, Sung Jin; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Shin, Seo Kyung


    Purpose The incidence of pain induced withdrawal movement following intravenous injection of rocuronium is high. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the effect of pretreatment of remifentanil on the withdrawal movements due to intravenous injection of rocuronium during anesthetic induction. Materials and Methods Ninety adult female patients undergoing thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to three groups. Each patient intravenously received one of three solutions of equal volume (4 mL): normal saline (Group I, n = 30), 0.5 µg/kg remifentanil (Group II, n = 30) or 1 µg/kg remifentanil (Group III, n = 30). Thirty seconds after remifentanil administration, anesthesia was induced with 5 mg/kg IV thiopental. Twenty seconds after thiopental injection, 0.6 mg/kg IV rocuronium was administered (injection rate of 0.5 mL/sec) and patients' withdrawal movements were assessed. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were assessed on arrival in the operation room, before the tracheal intubation and immediately, 1 and 2 min after the tracheal intubation. Results The incidence of withdrawal movements was significantly lower in both of the remifentanil groups (3 and 0% in Group II and III, respectively) than in the saline group (70%). Remifentanil attenuated the increase of heart rate and MAP immediately and 1 min after the tracheal intubation. Conclusion The pretreatment with 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg remifentanil of bolus doses prevented the withdrawal movements caused by rocuronium injection, and effectively blunted cardiovascular activation following tracheal intubation. PMID:18452256

  18. Potential of a precrash lateral occupant movement in side collisions of (electric) minicars. (United States)

    Hierlinger, T; Lienkamp, M; Unger, J; Unselt, T


    In minicars, the survival space between the side structure and occupant is smaller than in conventional cars. This is an issue in side collisions. Therefore, in this article a solution is studied in which a lateral seat movement is imposed in the precrash phase. It generates a pre-acceleration and an initial velocity of the occupant, thus reducing the loads due to the side impact. The assessment of the potential is done by numerical simulations and a full-vehicle crash test. The optimal parameters of the restraint system including the precrash movement, time-to-fire of head and side airbag, etc., are found using metamodel-based optimization methods by minimizing occupant loads according to European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP). The metamodel-based optimization approach is able to tune the restraint system parameters. The numerical simulations show a significant averaged reduction of 22.3% in occupant loads. The results show that the lateral precrash occupant movement offers better occupant protection in side collisions.

  19. The effect of lateral banking on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during lateral cutting movements. (United States)

    Wannop, John W; Graf, Eveline S; Stefanyshyn, Darren J


    There are many aspects of cutting movements that can limit performance, however, the implementation of lateral banking may reduce some of these limitations. Banking could provide a protective mechanism, placing the foot and ankle in orientations that keep them out of dangerous positions. This study sought to determine the effect of two banking angles on the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremity during two athletic maneuvers. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected on 10 recreational athletes performing v-cuts and side shuffle movements on different banked surfaces (0°, 10°, 20°). Each sample surface was rigidly attached to the force platform. Joint moments were calculated and compared between conditions using a repeated measures ANOVA. Banking had a pronounced effect on the ankle joint. As banking increased, the amount of joint loading in the transverse and frontal planes decreased likely leading to a reduction in injury risk. Also an increase in knee joint loading in the frontal plane was seen during the 20° bank during the v-cut. Conversely loading in the sagittal plane at the ankle joint increased with banking and coupled with a reorientation of the ground reaction vector may facilitate a performance increase. The current study indicates that the 10° bank may be the optimal bank, in that it decreases ankle joint loading, as well as increases specific performance variables while not increasing frontal plane knee joint loading. If banking could be incorporated in footwear it may be able to provide a protective mechanism for athletes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fault offsets and lateral crustal movement on Europa - Evidence for a mobile ice shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, P.M.; Mckinnon, W.B.


    An examination is conducted of Europa's cross-cutting structural relationships between various lineament types, in order to constrain the type of structure involved in each such case and, where possible, to also constrain the degree of extension across the lineaments. Evidence is adduced for significant lateral crustal movement, allowing alternative models and mechanisms for lineament formation to be discussed, as well as plausible lithospheric and crustal models. The question as to whether any of the water-ice layer has been, or currently is, liquid, is also treated in light of the evidence obtained. 53 refs

  1. Hemispheric Lateralization of Event-Related Brain Potentials in Different Processing Phases during Unimanual Finger Movements

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    Yi-Wen Li


    Full Text Available Previous functional MRI and brain electrophysiology studies have studied the left-right differences during the tapping tasks and found that the activation of left hemisphere was more significant than that of right hemisphere. In this study, we wanted to delineate this lateralization phenomenon not only in the execution phase but also in other processing phases, such as early visual, pre-executive and post-executive phases. We have designed a finger-tapping task to delineate the left-right differences of event related potentials (ERPs to right finger movement in sixteen right handed college students. The mean amplitudes of ERPs were analyzed to examine the left-right dominance of cortical activity in the phase of early visual process (75-120ms, pre-execution (175-260ms, execution (310-420ms and post-execution (420-620ms. In the execution phase, ERPs at the left electrodes were significantly more pronounced than those at the right electrodes (F3 > F4, C3 > C4, P3 > P4, O1 > O2 under the situation without comparing the central electrodes (Fz, Cz, Pz, and Oz. No difference was found between left and right electrodes in other three phases except the C3 electrode still showed more dominant than C4 in the pre- and post-execution phase. In conclusion, the phenomenon of brain lateralization occur major in the execution phase. The central area also showed the lateralization in the pre- and post-execution to demonstrate its unique lateralized contributions to unilateral simple finger movements.

  2. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.


    prevented sediment sampling. Movement of these materials might require higher critical shear stresses than estimated in this report. Characterization of sediment sizes in the center of the stream and observation of bed-material movement for a range of streamflows could provide information to help refine the Shields parameter and critical-shear stress estimates for bed materials in the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake. Furthermore, resurveying cross sections and water-surface elevations more frequently (either annually or after high streamflows) could better define the relation between streamflow and lateral and vertical channel movement.

  3. Can use of walkers or canes impede lateral compensatory stepping movements? (United States)

    Bateni, Hamid; Heung, Evelyn; Zettel, John; McLlroy, William E; Maki, Brian E


    Although assistive devices, such as walkers and canes are often prescribed to aid in balance control, recent studies have suggested that such devices may actually increase risk of falling. In this study, we investigated one possible mechanism: the potential for walkers or canes to interfere with, or constrain, lateral movement of the feet and thereby impede execution of compensatory stepping reactions during lateral loss of balance. Lateral stepping reactions were evoked, in 10 healthy young adults (ages 22-27 years), by means of sudden unpredictable medio-lateral support surface translation. Subjects were tested while holding and loading a standard pickup walker or single-tip cane or while using no assistive device (hands free or holding an object). Results supported the hypothesis that using a walker or cane can interfere with compensatory stepping. Collisions between the swing-foot and mobility aid were remarkably frequent when using the walker (60% of stepping reactions) and also occurred in cane trials (11% of stepping reactions). Furthermore, such collisions were associated with a significant reduction (26-37%) in lateral step length. It appeared that subjects were sometimes able to avoid collision by increasing the forward or backward displacement of the swing-foot or by moving the cane; however, attempts to lift the walker out of the way occurred rarely and were usually impeded due to collision between the contralateral walker post and stance foot. The fact that compensatory stepping behavior was altered significantly in such a healthy cohort clearly demonstrates some of the safety limitations inherent to these assistive devices, as currently designed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Influence of stimulant medication and response speed on lateralization of movement-related potentials in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Stephan Bender

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperactivity is one of the core symptoms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, it remains unclear in which way the motor system itself and its development are affected by the disorder. Movement-related potentials (MRP can separate different stages of movement execution, from the programming of a movement to motor post-processing and memory traces. Pre-movement MRP are absent or positive during early childhood and display a developmental increase of negativity. METHODS: We examined the influences of response-speed, an indicator of the level of attention, and stimulant medication on lateralized MRP in 16 children with combined type ADHD compared to 20 matched healthy controls. RESULTS: We detected a significantly diminished lateralisation of MRP over the pre-motor and primary motor cortex during movement execution (initial motor potential peak, iMP in patients with ADHD. Fast reactions (indicating increased visuo-motor attention led to increased lateralized negativity during movement execution only in healthy controls, while in children with ADHD faster reaction times were associated with more positive amplitudes. Even though stimulant medication had some effect on attenuating group differences in lateralized MRP, this effect was insufficient to normalize lateralized iMP amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS: A reduced focal (lateralized motor cortex activation during the command to muscle contraction points towards an immature motor system and a maturation delay of the (pre- motor cortex in children with ADHD. A delayed maturation of the neuronal circuitry, which involves primary motor cortex, may contribute to ADHD pathophysiology.

  5. Numerical calculation on a two-step subdiffusion behavior of lateral protein movement in plasma membranes (United States)

    Sumi, Tomonari; Okumoto, Atsushi; Goto, Hitoshi; Sekino, Hideo


    A two-step subdiffusion behavior of lateral movement of transmembrane proteins in plasma membranes has been observed by using single-molecule experiments. A nested double-compartment model where large compartments are divided into several smaller ones has been proposed in order to explain this observation. These compartments are considered to be delimited by membrane-skeleton "fences" and membrane-protein "pickets" bound to the fences. We perform numerical simulations of a master equation using a simple two-dimensional lattice model to investigate the heterogeneous diffusion dynamics behavior of transmembrane proteins within plasma membranes. We show that the experimentally observed two-step subdiffusion process can be described using fence and picket models combined with decreased local diffusivity of transmembrane proteins in the vicinity of the pickets. This allows us to explain the two-step subdiffusion behavior without explicitly introducing nested double compartments.

  6. Medio-lateral knee fluency in anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes during dynamic movement trials. (United States)

    Panos, Joseph A; Hoffman, Joshua T; Wordeman, Samuel C; Hewett, Timothy E


    Correction of neuromuscular impairments after anterior cruciate ligament injury is vital to successful return to sport. Frontal plane knee control during landing is a common measure of lower-extremity neuromuscular control and asymmetries in neuromuscular control of the knee can predispose injured athletes to additional injury and associated morbidities. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament injury on knee biomechanics during landing. Two-dimensional frontal plane video of single leg drop, cross over drop, and drop vertical jump dynamic movement trials was analyzed for twenty injured and reconstructed athletes. The position of the knee joint center was tracked in ImageJ software for 500 milliseconds after landing to calculate medio-lateral knee motion velocities and determine normal fluency, the number of times per second knee velocity changed direction. The inverse of this calculation, analytical fluency, was used to associate larger numerical values with fluent movement. Analytical fluency was decreased in involved limbs for single leg drop trials (P=0.0018). Importantly, analytical fluency for single leg drop differed compared to cross over drop trials for involved (Pinjury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Objective Functional Characterisation of Head Movement Impairment in Individuals with Neck Muscle Weakness Due to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

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    Silvia Pancani

    Full Text Available Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls.We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively. We quantified the differences between the two groups from the sensor data using indices of velocity, smoothness and movement coupling (intended as a measure of undesired out of plane movements.Results confirmed a general limitation in the ability of the ALS patients to perform and control head movements. High inter-patient variability was observed due to a wide range of observed functional impairment levels. The ability to extend the head backward and flex it laterally were the most compromised, with significantly lower angular velocity (P 0.8, reduced smoothness and greater presence of coupled movements with respect to the controls. A significant reduction of angular velocity (P 0.8 in extension, axial rotation and lateral flexion was observed when patients were asked to perform the movements as fast as possible.This pilot study is the first study providing a functional objective quantification of head movements in ALS. Further work involving different body areas and correlation with existing methods of evaluating neuromuscular function, such as dynamometry and EMG, is needed to explore the use of this approach as a marker of disease progression in ALS.

  8. Increasing Lateralized Motor Activity in Younger and Older Adults using Real-time fMRI during Executed Movements


    Neyedli, Heather F.; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Kirkman, Matthew A; Havard, David; Lührs, Michael; Ramsden, Katie; Flitney, David D; Clare, Stuart; Goebel, Rainer; Johansen-Berg, Heidi


    Neurofeedback training involves presenting an individual with a representation of their brain activity and instructing them to alter the activity using the feedback. One potential application of neurofeedback is for patients to alter neural activity to improve function. For example, there is evidence that greater laterality of movement-related activity is associated with better motor outcomes after stroke; so using neurofeedback to increase laterality may provide a novel route for improving o...

  9. Passive movements for the treatment and prevention of contractures. (United States)

    Prabhu, Rama K R; Swaminathan, Narasimman; Harvey, Lisa A


    Contractures, a common complication following immobility, lead to restricted joint range of motion. Passive movements (PMs) are widely used for the treatment and prevention of contractures; however, it is not clear whether they are effective. The aim of this review was to determine the effects of PMs on persons with contractures or at risk of developing contractures. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether PMs increase joint mobility. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid SP), EMBASE (Ovid SP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED; SSCI; CPCI-S; CPCI-SSH), PEDro and PsycINFO (Ovid SP). The search was run on 21 November 2013. Randomised controlled trials of PMs administered for the treatment or prevention of contractures were included. Studies were included if they compared the effectiveness of PMs versus no intervention, sham intervention or placebo in people with or at risk of contracture. Studies that involved other co-interventions were included, provided the co-interventions were administered in the same way to all groups. Interventions administered through mechanical devices and interventions that involved sustained stretch were excluded. Three independent review authors screened studies for inclusion. Two review authors then extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes were joint mobility and occurrence of adverse events such as joint subluxations or dislocations, heterotopic ossification, autonomic dysreflexia and fractures or muscle tears. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, pain, spasticity, activity limitations and participation restrictions. We used standard methodological procedures as advocated by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two identified studies randomly assigned a total of 122 participants with neurological conditions comparing PMs versus no PMs. Data from 121 participants were available for

  10. Assessment of errors associated with plot size and lateral movement of nitrogen-15 when studying fertilizer recovery under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.A.; Blackmer, A.M.; Horton, R.; Timmons, D.R.


    The high cost of 15 N-labeled fertilizers encourages the use of field plots having minimum size. If plot size is reduced too much, however, lateral movement of N near the plots by mass flow or diffusion within the soil or by translocation through plant roots can become a significant source of error in determinations of fertilizer N recovery. This study was initiated to assess the importance of lateral movement of labeled fertilizer when unconfined plots are used to determine recovery of fertilizer. Corn grain samples were collected at various positions inside and outside 15 N plots, and the 15 N contents of these samples were determined. The data were fit to mathematical models to estimate the extent to which lateral movement of fertilizer N caused errors in determined values of fertilizer recovery for the first, second, and third crops following fertilization. These models also were used to predict the plot size needed for similar 15 N-tracer studies in the future. The results of these studies indicate that 15 N plots having a size of 2 by 2 m are sufficiently large for determining recovery of fertilizer N for corn crops under most conditions. Where lateral movement of fertilizer N in soils is suspected to be a problem, we recommend collection of a few plant samples outside the 15 N plots as insurance against misleading conclusions concerning fertilizer N recovery

  11. Suicidal behaviour and suicide prevention in later life. (United States)

    Draper, Brian M


    Despite a general decline in late life suicide rates over the last 30 years, older people have the highest rates of suicide in most countries. In contrast, non-fatal suicidal behaviour declines with age and more closely resembles suicide than in younger age groups. There are difficulties in the detection and determination of pathological suicidal ideation in older people. Multiple factors increase suicide risk ranging from distal early and mid-life issues such as child abuse, parental death, substance misuse and traumatic life experiences to proximal precipitants in late life such as social isolation and health-related concerns. Clinical depression is the most frequently identified proximal mental health concern and in many cases is a first episode of major depression. Recent studies have identified changes on neuroimaging and neurocognitive factors that might distinguish suicidal from non-suicidal depression in older people. Strategies for suicide prevention need to be 'whole of life' and, as no single prevention strategy is likely to be successful alone, a multi-faceted, multi-layered approach is required. This should include optimal detection and management of depression and of high risk individuals as available evidence indicates that this can reduce suicidal behaviour. How best to improve the quality of depression management in primary and secondary care requires further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Chronic Ankle Instability be Prevented? Rethinking Management of Lateral Ankle Sprains. (United States)

    Denegar, Craig R.; Miller, Sayers J., III


    Investigates whether chronic ankle instability can be prevented, discussing: the relationship between mechanical and functional instability; normal ankle mechanics, sequelae to lateral ankle sprains, and abnormal ankle mechanics; and tissue healing, joint dysfunction, and acute lateral ankle sprain management. The paper describes a treatment model…

  13. A legal primer for the obesity prevention movement. (United States)

    Mermin, Seth E; Graff, Samantha K


    Public health advocates and scientists working on obesity prevention policy face challenges in balancing legal rights, individual freedom, and societal health goals. In particular, the US Constitution and the 50 state constitutions place limits on the ability of government to act, even in the best interests of the public. To help policymakers avoid crossing constitutional boundaries, we distilled the legal concepts most relevant to formulating policies aimed at preventing obesity: police power; allocation of power among federal, state, and local governments; freedom of speech; property rights; privacy; equal protection; and contract rights. The goal is to allow policymakers to avoid potential constitutional problems in the formation of obesity prevention policy.

  14. Profiles of Motor Laterality in Young Athletes' Performance of Complex Movements: Merging the MOTORLAT and PATHoops Tools (United States)

    Castañer, Marta; Andueza, Juan; Hileno, Raúl; Puigarnau, Silvia; Prat, Queralt; Camerino, Oleguer


    Laterality is a key aspect of the analysis of basic and specific motor skills. It is relevant to sports because it involves motor laterality profiles beyond left-right preference and spatial orientation of the body. The aim of this study was to obtain the laterality profiles of young athletes, taking into account the synergies between the support and precision functions of limbs and body parts in the performance of complex motor skills. We applied two instruments: (a) MOTORLAT, a motor laterality inventory comprising 30 items of basic, specific, and combined motor skills, and (b) the Precision and Agility Tapping over Hoops (PATHoops) task, in which participants had to perform a path by stepping in each of 14 hoops arranged on the floor, allowing the observation of their feet, left-right preference and spatial orientation. A total of 96 young athletes performed the PATHoops task and the 30 MOTORLAT items, allowing us to obtain data about limb dominance and spatial orientation of the body in the performance of complex motor skills. Laterality profiles were obtained by means of a cluster analysis and a correlational analysis and a contingency analysis were applied between the motor skills and spatial orientation actions performed. The results obtained using MOTORLAT show that the combined motor skills criterion (for example, turning while jumping) differentiates athletes' uses of laterality, showing a clear tendency toward mixed laterality profiles in the performance of complex movements. In the PATHoops task, the best spatial orientation strategy was “same way” (same foot and spatial wing) followed by “opposite way” (opposite foot and spatial wing), in keeping with the research assumption that actions unfolding in a horizontal direction in front of an observer's eyes are common in a variety of sports. PMID:29930527

  15. The Relationship between Reduplicated Babble Onset and Laterality Biases in Infant Rhythmic Arm Movements (United States)

    Iverson, Jana M.; Hall, Amanda J.; Nickel, Lindsay; Wozniak, Robert H.


    This study examined changes in rhythmic arm shaking and laterality biases in infants observed longitudinally at three points: just prior to, at, and just following reduplicated babble onset. Infants (ranging in age from 4 to 9 months at babble onset) were videotaped at home as they played with two visually identical audible and silent rattles…

  16. Lateralized EEG components with direction information for the preparation of saccades versus finger movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Wascher, Edmund; Niehoff, Torsten; Kömpf, Detlef; Verleger, Rolf


    During preparation of horizontal saccades in humans, several lateralized (relative to saccade direction), event-related EEG components occur that have been interpreted as reflecting activity of frontal and parietal eye fields. We investigated to what degree these components are specific to saccade

  17. Lateral spread as a special form of soil movement in Dolina area in municipality Puconci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Čarman


    Full Text Available The paper presents a particular form of soil instability, which is rarely observed in Slovenia. This is a lateral spread of the soil, which appeared some years ago in the central part of Dolina area in the municipality of Puconci. The area is mainly build up from clay and sandy sediments of the Pannonian Sea, predominantly Pliocene age. A significant damage of building has begun several years ago. According to data from research carried out, we suggest that the flat area is disintegrated into individual blocks, moving in different directions. These led to such extensive damage to buildings. Possible cause could be erosion of Dolinski stream at the eastern edge of the area or seismic survey (blasting, vibrations, which were carried out here about 20 years ago. Determination the exact cause of the formation of the soil lateral spread, its extent and dynamics, remain a challenge for the future.

  18. The effect of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of strip footing supported on reinforced sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa El Sawwaf


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests on the influence of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of a model strip footing adjacent to the excavation and supported on reinforced granular soil. Initially, the response of the strip footings supported on un-reinforced sand and subjected to vertical loads (which were constant during the test due to adjacent deep excavation-induced lateral soil movement were obtained. Then, the effects of the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in supporting soil on the model footing behavior under the same conditions were investigated. The studied factors include the value of the sustained footing loads, the location of footing relative to the excavation, the affected depth of soil due to deep excavation, and the relative density of sand. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the supporting sand significantly decreases both vertical settlements and the tilts of the footings due to the nearby excavation. However, the improvements in the footing behavior were found to be very dependent on the location of the footing relative to excavation. Based on the test results, the variation of the footing measured vertical settlements with different parameters are presented and discussed.

  19. Retention of movement technique : Implications for primary prevention of ACL injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, Wouter; Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Otten, Bert


    Background: Retention of movement technique is crucial in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs. It is unknown if specific instructions or video instructions result in changes in kinematic and kinetic measures during a relatively short training session, and in a retention test

  20. The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Procedure Prevents Defensive Processing in Health Persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine


    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a

  1. Dynamics of Passive Lateral Pressure in Granular Mass during Discontinual Movement of Retaining Structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelka, Petr; Valach, Jaroslav


    Roč. 10, I (2006), s. 271-276 ISSN 1335-2393. [ICE Experimental stress analysis 2006. Červený Kláštor, xx.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/05/2130; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2071302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913; CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : dynamics of passive lateral (earth) pressure * rotation about the top * retaining structure * history of both pressure component Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  2. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  3. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  4. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  5. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  6. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  7. Eye Movement Deficits Are Consistent with a Staging Model of pTDP-43 Pathology in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gorges

    Full Text Available The neuropathological process underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS can be traced as a four-stage progression scheme of sequential corticofugal axonal spread. The examination of eye movement control gains deep insights into brain network pathology and provides the opportunity to detect both disturbance of the brainstem oculomotor circuitry as well as executive deficits of oculomotor function associated with higher brain networks.To study systematically oculomotor characteristics in ALS and its underlying network pathology in order to determine whether eye movement deterioration can be categorized within a staging system of oculomotor decline that corresponds to the neuropathological model.Sixty-eight ALS patients and 31 controls underwent video-oculographic, clinical and neuropsychological assessments.Oculomotor examinations revealed increased anti- and delayed saccades' errors, gaze-palsy and a cerebellary type of smooth pursuit disturbance. The oculomotor disturbances occurred in a sequential manner: Stage 1, only executive control of eye movements was affected. Stage 2 indicates disturbed executive control plus 'genuine' oculomotor dysfunctions such as gaze-paly. We found high correlations (p<0.001 between the oculomotor stages and both, the clinical presentation as assessed by the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS score, and cognitive scores from the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS.Dysfunction of eye movement control in ALS can be characterized by a two-staged sequential pattern comprising executive deficits in Stage 1 and additional impaired infratentorial oculomotor control pathways in Stage 2. This pattern parallels the neuropathological staging of ALS and may serve as a technical marker of the neuropathological spreading.

  8. Lateralization of visually guided detour behaviour in the common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon, a reptile with highly independent eye movements. (United States)

    Lustig, Avichai; Ketter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi


    Chameleons (Chamaeleonidae, reptilia), in common with most ectotherms, show full optic nerve decussation and sparse inter-hemispheric commissures. Chameleons are unique in their capacity for highly independent, large-amplitude eye movements. We address the question: Do common chameleons, Chamaeleo chameleon, during detour, show patterns of lateralization of motion and of eye use that differ from those shown by other ectotherms? To reach a target (prey) in passing an obstacle in a Y-maze, chameleons were required to make a left or a right detour. We analyzed the direction of detours and eye use and found that: (i) individuals differed in their preferred detour direction, (ii) eye use was lateralized at the group level, with significantly longer durations of viewing the target with the right eye, compared with the left eye, (iii) during left side, but not during right side, detours the durations of viewing the target with the right eye were significantly longer than the durations with the left eye. Thus, despite the uniqueness of chameleons' visual system, they display patterns of lateralization of motion and of eye use, typical of other ectotherms. These findings are discussed in relation to hemispheric functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Slovenian National Landslide DataBase – A promising approach to slope mass movement prevention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ribičič


    Full Text Available The Slovenian territory is, geologically speaking, very diverse and mainly composed of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Slope mass movements occur almost in all parts of the country. In the Alpine carbonate areas of the northern part of Slovenia rock falls, rock slides and even debris flows can be triggered.In the mountainous regions of central Slovenia composed from different clastic rocks, large soil landslides are quite usual, and in the young soil sediments of eastern part of Slovenia there is a large density of small soil landslides.The damage caused by slope mass movements is high, but still no common strategy and regulations to tackle this unwanted event, especially from the aspect of prevention, have been developed. One of the first steps towards an effective strategy of struggling against landslides and other slope mass movements is a central landslide database, where (ideally all known landslide occurrences would be reported, and described in as much detail as possible. At the end of the project of National Landslide Database construction which ended in May 2005 there were more than 6600 registered landslides, of which almost half occurred at a known location and were accompanied with the main characteristic descriptions.The erected database is a chance for Slovenia to once and for all start a solid slope mass movement prevention plan. The only part which is missing and which is the most important one is adopting a legal act that will legalise the obligation of reporting slope mass movement events to the database.

  10. Using respiratory rate and thoracic movement to assess respiratory insufficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siirala Waltteri


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoventilation due to respiratory insufficiency is the most common cause of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and non-invasive ventilation (NIV can be used as a palliative treatment. The current guidelines recommend performing spirometry, and recording nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation and arterial blood gas analysis to assess the severity of the hypoventilation. We examined whether the respiratory rate and thoracic movement were reliable preliminary clinical signs in the development of respiratory insufficiency in patients with ALS. Methods We measured the respiratory rate and thoracic movement, performed respiratory function tests and blood gas analysis, and recorded subjective hypoventilation symptoms in 42 ALS patients over a 7-year period. We recommended NIV if the patient presented with hypoventilation matching the current guidelines. We divided patients retrospectively into two groups: those to whom NIV was recommended within 6 months of the diagnosis (Group 1 and those to whom NIV was recommended 6 months after the diagnosis (Group 2. We used the Mann Whitney U test for comparisons between the two groups. Results The mean partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in the morning in Group 1 was 6.3 (95% confidence interval 5.6–6.9 kPa and in Group 2 5.3 (5.0–5.6 kPa (p = 0.007. The mean respiratory rate at the time of diagnosis in Group 1 was 21 (18–24 breaths per minute and 16 (14–18 breaths per minute in Group 2 (p = 0.005. The mean thoracic movement was 2.9 (2.2–3.6 cm in Group 1 and 4.0 (3.4–4.8 cm in Group 2 (p = 0.01. We observed no other differences between the groups. Conclusions Patients who received NIV within six months of the diagnosis of ALS had higher respiratory rates and smaller thoracic movement compared with patients who received NIV later. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to establish if these measurements can be used as a marker of hypoventilation

  11. Using respiratory rate and thoracic movement to assess respiratory insufficiency in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Siirala, Waltteri; Saaresranta, Tarja; Vuori, Arno; Salanterä, Sanna; Olkkola, Klaus T; Aantaa, Riku


    Hypoventilation due to respiratory insufficiency is the most common cause of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can be used as a palliative treatment. The current guidelines recommend performing spirometry, and recording nocturnal oxyhemoglobin saturation and arterial blood gas analysis to assess the severity of the hypoventilation. We examined whether the respiratory rate and thoracic movement were reliable preliminary clinical signs in the development of respiratory insufficiency in patients with ALS. We measured the respiratory rate and thoracic movement, performed respiratory function tests and blood gas analysis, and recorded subjective hypoventilation symptoms in 42 ALS patients over a 7-year period. We recommended NIV if the patient presented with hypoventilation matching the current guidelines. We divided patients retrospectively into two groups: those to whom NIV was recommended within 6 months of the diagnosis (Group 1) and those to whom NIV was recommended 6 months after the diagnosis (Group 2). We used the Mann Whitney U test for comparisons between the two groups. The mean partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in the morning in Group 1 was 6.3 (95% confidence interval 5.6-6.9) kPa and in Group 2 5.3 (5.0-5.6) kPa (p = 0.007). The mean respiratory rate at the time of diagnosis in Group 1 was 21 (18-24) breaths per minute and 16 (14-18) breaths per minute in Group 2 (p = 0.005). The mean thoracic movement was 2.9 (2.2-3.6) cm in Group 1 and 4.0 (3.4-4.8) cm in Group 2 (p = 0.01). We observed no other differences between the groups. Patients who received NIV within six months of the diagnosis of ALS had higher respiratory rates and smaller thoracic movement compared with patients who received NIV later. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to establish if these measurements can be used as a marker of hypoventilation in ALS.

  12. Cannabidiol as a Promising Strategy to Treat and Prevent Movement Disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F. Peres


    Full Text Available Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and dyskinesia are highly debilitating conditions linked to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. When available, the pharmacological therapies for these disorders are still mainly symptomatic, do not benefit all patients and induce severe side effects. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Although the studies that investigate the effects of this compound on movement disorders are surprisingly few, cannabidiol emerges as a promising compound to treat and/or prevent them. Here, we review these clinical and pre-clinical studies and draw attention to the potential of cannabidiol in this field.

  13. Longitudinal eruptive and posteruptive tooth movements, studied on oblique and lateral cephalograms with implants. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Baumrind, Sheldon; Chen, Gui; Chen, Huizhong; Liang, Yi; Xu, Tianmin


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the eruptive and posteruptive tooth displacements of untreated growing subjects longitudinally and the potential connections between posteruptive displacement of the maxillary and mandibular first molars and skeletal facial growth. The sample comprised 11 series of right 45° oblique cephalograms and lateral cephalograms of untreated children with metallic implants of the Björk type obtained from the archives of a growth study. Cephalograms generated at approximately 2-year intervals between the ages of 8.5 and 16 years were selected and traced. Superimpositions of serial tracings of oblique cephalograms on stable intraosseous implants were made to determine the displacements of buccal segment teeth in both arches, and superimpositions of serial tracings of lateral cephalograms were used to evaluate growth of the jaws. Continuous mesial tipping of the maxillary molars was observed from 8.5 to 16 years of age, averaging 8.2° ± 5.5° for the first molars and 18.3°± 8.5° for the second molars. Compared with the maxillary molars, the mandibular first molars showed less change in angulation except in the later mixed dentition when more than half of the subjects had accelerated forward tipping of the first molar in the late mixed dentition associated with migration into the leeway space. Average amounts of cumulative eruption from 8.5 to 16 years of age were 12.1 ± 2.1 mm downward and 3.8 ± 1.7 mm forward for the maxillary first molar. The mandibular first molar showed 8.6 ± 2.3 mm of eruption and 4.4 ± 1.9 mm of mesial migration. Peak velocity of vertical eruption of the maxillary and mandibular first molars corresponded to the skeletal vertical growth spurt. The maxillary canines and first premolars showed remarkable and continuous uprighting migration during eruption, averaging 9.5° ± 5.0° and 10.5° ± 6.7°, respectively. However, when they erupted into the occlusion, their changes in

  14. Electrical stimulation of the primate lateral habenula suppresses saccadic eye movement through a learning mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure which represents negative motivational value. Neurons in the LHb are excited by unpleasant events such as reward omission and aversive stimuli, and transmit these signals to midbrain dopamine neurons which are involved in learning and motivation. However, it remains unclear whether these phasic changes in LHb neuronal activity actually influence animal behavior. To answer this question, we artificially activated the LHb by electrical stimulation while monkeys were performing a visually guided saccade task. In one block of trials, saccades to one fixed direction (e.g., right direction were followed by electrical stimulation of the LHb while saccades to the other direction (e.g., left direction were not. The direction-stimulation contingency was reversed in the next block. We found that the post-saccadic stimulation of the LHb increased the latencies of saccades in subsequent trials. Notably, the increase of the latency occurred gradually as the saccade was repeatedly followed by the stimulation, suggesting that the effect of the post-saccadic stimulation was accumulated across trials. LHb stimulation starting before saccades, on the other hand, had no effect on saccade latency. Together with previous studies showing LHb activation by reward omission and aversive stimuli, the present stimulation experiment suggests that LHb activity contributes to learning to suppress actions which lead to unpleasant events.

  15. Production of verbs related to body movement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD). (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Ash, Sharon; Grossman, Murray


    Theories of grounded cognition propose that action verb knowledge relies in part on motor processing regions, including premotor cortex. Accordingly, impaired action verb knowledge in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) is thought to be due to motor system degeneration. Upper motor neuron disease in ALS degrades the motor cortex and related pyramidal motor system, while disease in PD is centered in the basal ganglia and can spread to frontostriatal areas that are important to language functioning. These anatomical distinctions in disease may yield subtle differences in the action verb impairment between patient groups. Here we compare verbs where the body is the agent of the action to verbs where the body is the theme. To examine the role of motor functioning in body verb production, we split patient groups into patients with high motor impairment (HMI) and those with low motor impairment (LMI), using disease-specific measures of motor impairment. Regression analyses assessed how verb production in ALS and PD was related to motor system atrophy. We find a dissociation between agent- and theme-body verbs in ALS: ALS HMI were impaired for agent body verbs but not theme verbs, compared to ALS LMI. This dissociation was not present in PD patients, who instead show depressed production for all body verbs. Although patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from this study, cognitive performance significantly correlated with the production of theme verbs in ALS and cognitive/stative verbs in PD. Finally, regression analyses related the agent-theme dissociation in ALS to grey matter atrophy of premotor cortex. These findings support the view that motor dysfunction and disease in premotor cortex contributes to the agent body verb deficit in ALS, and begin to identify some distinct characteristics of impairment for verbs in ALS and PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies 6 months following first-time acute lateral ankle sprain injury. (United States)

    Doherty, C; Bleakley, C; Hertel, J; Caulfield, B; Ryan, J; Delahunt, E


    No research exists predicating a link between acute ankle sprain injury-affiliated movement patterns and those of chronic ankle instability (CAI) populations. The aim of the current study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of participants, 6 months after they sustained a first-time acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury to establish this link. Fifty-seven participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS and 20 noninjured participants completed a single-leg drop landing task on both limbs. Three-dimensional kinematic (angular displacement) and sagittal plane kinetic (moment of force) data were acquired for the joints of the lower extremity, from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC. Individual joint stiffnesses and the peak magnitude of the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) were also computed. LAS participants displayed increases in hip flexion and ankle inversion on their injured limb (P < 0.05); this coincided with a reduction in the net flexion-extension moment at the hip joint, with an increase in its stiffness (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of the peak vertical GRF for either limb compared with controls. These results demonstrate that altered movement strategies persist in participants, 6 months following acute LAS, which may precipitate the onset of CAI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Strategies to prevent positioning-related complications associated with the lateral suboccipital approach. (United States)

    Furuno, Yuichi; Sasajima, Hiroyasu; Goto, Yukihiro; Taniyama, Ichita; Aita, Kazuyasu; Owada, Kei; Tatsuzawa, Kazunori; Mineura, Katsuyoshi


    The lateral positioning used for the lateral suboccipital surgical approach is associated with various pathophysiologic complications. Strategies to avoid complications including an excessive load on the cervical vertebra and countermeasures against pressure ulcer development are needed. We retrospectively investigated positioning-related complications in 71 patients with cerebellopontine angle lesions undergoing surgery in our department between January 2003 and December 2010 using the lateral suboccipital approach. One patient postoperatively developed rhabdomyolysis, and another presented with transient peroneal nerve palsy on the unaffected side. Stage I and II pressure ulcers were noted in 22 and 12 patients, respectively, although neither stage III nor more severe pressure ulcers occurred. No patients experienced cervical vertebra and spinal cord impairments, brachial plexus palsy, or ulnar nerve palsy associated with rotation and flexion of the neck. Strategies to prevent positioning-related complications, associated with lateral positioning for the lateral suboccipital surgical approach, include the following: atraumatic fixation of the neck focusing on jugular venous perfusion and airway pressure, trunk rotation, and sufficient relief of weightbearing and protection of nerves including the peripheral nerves of all four extremities.

  18. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy. (United States)

    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E


    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail undulations and naturally by removing the tail via autotomy. Restricting tail undulations resulted in kinematic adjustments similar to those that occur following tail autotomy, characterized by more flexed hind limb joints. These data suggest that effects of autotomy on locomotion may be linked to the loss of tail movements rather than the loss of mass or a shift in center of mass. We also provide empirical support for the link between lateral tail undulations and step length through the rotation of the pelvic girdle and retraction of the femur. Restriction and autotomy of the tail limits pelvic rotation, which reduces femur retraction and decreases step length. Our findings demonstrate a functional role for tail undulations in geckos, which likely applies to other terrestrial vertebrates.

  19. Preventive lateral ligament tester (PLLT): a novel method to evaluate mechanical properties of lateral ankle joint ligaments in the intact ankle. (United States)

    Best, Raymond; Böhle, Caroline; Mauch, Frieder; Brüggemann, Peter G


    To construct and evaluate an ankle arthrometer that registers inversion joint deflection at standardized inversion loads and that, moreover, allows conclusions about the mechanical strain of intact ankle joint ligaments at these loads. Twelve healthy ankles and 12 lower limb cadaver specimens were tested in a self-developed measuring device monitoring passive ankle inversion movement (Inv-ROM) at standardized application of inversion loads of 5, 10 and 15 N. To adjust in vivo and in vitro conditions, the muscular inactivity of the evertor muscles was assured by EMG in vivo. Preliminary, test-retest and trial-to-trial reliabilities were tested in vivo. To detect lateral ligament strain, the cadaveric calcaneofibular ligament was instrumented with a buckle transducer. After post-test harvesting of the ligament with its bony attachments, previously obtained resistance strain gauge results were then transferred to tensile loads, mounting the specimens with their buckle transducers into a hydraulic material testing machine. ICC reliability considering the Inv-ROM and torsional stiffness varied between 0.80 and 0.90. Inv-ROM ranged from 15.3° (±7.3°) at 5 N to 28.3° (±7.6) at 15 N. The different tests revealed a CFL tensile load of 31.9 (±14.0) N at 5 N, 51.0 (±15.8) at 10 N and 75.4 (±21.3) N at 15 N inversion load. A highly reliable arthrometer was constructed allowing not only the accurate detection of passive joint deflections at standardized inversion loads but also reveals some objective conclusions of the intact CFL properties in correlation with the individual inversion deflections. The detection of individual joint deflections at predefined loads in correlation with the knowledge of tensile ligament loads in the future could enable more individual preventive measures, e.g., in high-level athletes.

  20. Distinct Laterality in Forelimb-Movement Representations of Rat Primary and Secondary Motor Cortical Neurons with Intratelencephalic and Pyramidal Tract Projections. (United States)

    Soma, Shogo; Saiki, Akiko; Yoshida, Junichi; Ríos, Alain; Kawabata, Masanori; Sakai, Yutaka; Isomura, Yoshikazu


    Two distinct motor areas, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2), play crucial roles in voluntary movement in rodents. The aim of this study was to characterize the laterality in motor cortical representations of right and left forelimb movements. To achieve this goal, we developed a novel behavioral task, the Right-Left Pedal task, in which a head-restrained male rat manipulates a right or left pedal with the corresponding forelimb. This task enabled us to monitor independent movements of both forelimbs with high spatiotemporal resolution. We observed phasic movement-related neuronal activity (Go-type) and tonic hold-related activity (Hold-type) in isolated unilateral movements. In both M1 and M2, Go-type neurons exhibited bias toward contralateral preference, whereas Hold-type neurons exhibited no bias. The contralateral bias was weaker in M2 than M1. Moreover, we differentiated between intratelencephalic (IT) and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons using optogenetically evoked spike collision in rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2. Even in identified PT and IT neurons, Hold-type neurons exhibited no lateral bias. Go-type PT neurons exhibited bias toward contralateral preference, whereas IT neurons exhibited no bias. Our findings suggest a different laterality of movement representations of M1 and M2, in each of which IT neurons are involved in cooperation of bilateral movements, whereas PT neurons control contralateral movements. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In rodents, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2) are involved in voluntary movements via distinct projection neurons: intratelencephalic (IT) neurons and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons. However, it remains unclear whether the two motor cortices (M1 vs M2) and the two classes of projection neurons (IT vs PT) have different laterality of movement representations. We optogenetically identified these neurons and analyzed their functional activity using a novel behavioral task to monitor movements

  1. Ultrasound Imaging for Analyzing Lateral Tongue Movements during Mastication in Adults with Cerebral Palsy Compared with Adults without Oral Motor Disabilities. (United States)

    Remijn, Lianne; Weijers, Gert; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Groen, Brenda E; de Korte, Chris L


    Described here is an ultrasound technique used to study tongue movements, particularly lateral tongue movements, during mastication. A method to analyze spatial and temporal tongue movements was developed, and the feasibility of using this method was evaluated. Biplane ultrasound images of tongue movements of four adults without oral motor disability and two adults with oral motor disability as a result of cerebral palsy, were acquired. Tongue movements were analyzed in the coronal and sagittal planes using B-mode and M-mode ultrasonography. Inter-rater and intra-rater agreement for manual tracing of tongue contours was good (ICC = 0.81 and 0.84, respectively). There were significant differences between the two adult groups in movement frequency in the horizontal direction in both coronal and sagittal planes. In the coronal plane, differences in movement frequency and range of vertical movement were detected. Data obtained from sagittal images, with the exception of vertical frequency, indicated no differences between the groups. The protocol developed in this study (using B-mode and M-mode) proved to be valid and reliable. By using this protocol with individuals with and without oral motor disability, we were able to illustrate the clinical application of our protocol to evaluation of differences in tongue movements during mastication. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials in Argentine border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet Duran, Stella M.; Canibano, Javier A.; Menossi, Sergio A.; Rodriguez, Carlos E.


    The inadvertent and illegal movements of radioactive and nuclear materials are issues of increased national and international awareness. States are progressively becoming more conscious of the need to adequately respond to these events. As regards the States' regulatory infrastructure, the design and enforcement of control and verification measures to maintain the continuity of knowledge about possession, use and movements of radioactive and nuclear materials is of critical importance. The existence of an appropriate legislative framework and a regulatory authority empowered to establish effective safety and security measures are essential to prevent inadvertent and illegal movements of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. The events of Sep. 11, 2001 in the US have increased the States' awareness on the need to review their national infrastructure to identify additional measures against inadvertent and illegal movements of radioactive and nuclear materials as well as against sabotage of nuclear facilities. Argentina has more than a half- century- old tradition regarding the control and supervision of all activities involving the use of nuclear and radioactive materials. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina is the organization with federal competence in radiation protection, nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection. It is responsible for issuing licenses and permits to any activity involving radioactive materials and for controlling and verifying that these activities are performed in full compliance with ARN standards and requirements. In the region, Argentina has been playing an important role in the prevention of illicit traffic of nuclear and radioactive materials for the last years within the framework of Security Commission of MERCOSUR. The last goals of this initiative are to define and coordinate actions and to establish a set of common operational procedures in the countries participating in the mentioned multilateral

  3. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies in participants with chronic ankle instability compared with lateral ankle sprain 'copers'. (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn


    To compare the movement patterns and underlying energetics of individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) to ankle sprain 'copers' during a landing task. Twenty-eight (age 23.2 ± 4.9 years; body mass 75.5 ± 13.9 kg; height 1.7 ± 0.1 m) participants with CAI and 42 (age 22.7 ± 1.7 years; body mass 73.4 ± 11.3 kg; height 1.7 ± 0.1 m) ankle sprain 'copers' were evaluated 1 year after incurring a first-time lateral ankle sprain injury. Kinematics and kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle joints from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC, in addition to the vertical component of the landing ground reaction force, were acquired during performance of a drop land task. The CAI group adopted a position of increased hip flexion during the landing descent on their involved limb. This coincided with a reduced post-IC flexor pattern at the hip and increased overall hip joint stiffness compared to copers (-0.01 ± 0.05 vs. 0.02 ± 0.05°/Nm kg(-1), p = 0.03). Individuals with CAI display alterations in hip joint kinematics and energetics during a unipodal landing task compared to LAS 'copers'. These alterations may be responsible for the increased risk of injury experienced by individuals with CAI during landing manoeuvres. Thus, clinicians must recognise the potential for joints proximal to the affected ankle to contribute to impaired function following an acute lateral ankle sprain injury and to develop rehabilitation protocols accordingly. Level III.

  4. Organisational factors of occupational accidents with movement disturbance (OAMD) and prevention. (United States)

    Leclercq, Sylvie


    Workplace design and upkeep, or human factors, are frequently advanced for explaining so-called Occupational Slip, Trip and Fall Accidents (OSTFAs). Despite scientific progress, these accidents, and more broadly Occupational Accidents with Movement Disturbance (OAMDs), are also commonly considered to be "simple". This paper aims to stimulate changes in such perceptions by focusing on organisational factors that often combine with other accident factors to cause movement disturbance and injury in work situations. These factors frequently lead to arbitration between production and safety, which involves implementation of controls by workers. These controls can lead to greater worker exposure to OAMD risk. We propose a model that focuses on such controls to account specifically for the need to confront production and safety logics within a company and to enhance the potential for appropriate prevention action. These are then integrated into the set of controls highlighted by work organisation model developed by the NIOSH.

  5. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  6. The lateral paragigantocellular nucleus modulates parasympathetic cardiac neurons: a mechanism for rapid eye movement sleep-dependent changes in heart rate. (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Wang, Xin; Lovett-Barr, Mary R; Jameson, Heather; Mendelowitz, David


    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is generally associated with a withdrawal of parasympathetic activity and heart rate increases; however, episodic vagally mediated heart rate decelerations also occur during REM sleep. This alternating pattern of autonomic activation provides a physiological basis for REM sleep-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Medullary neurons within the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi) are thought to be active after REM sleep recovery and play a role in REM sleep control. In proximity to the LPGi are parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) within the nucleus ambiguus (NA), which are critical for controlling heart rate. This study examined brain stem pathways that may mediate REM sleep-related reductions in parasympathetic cardiac activity. Electrical stimulation of the LPGi evoked inhibitory GABAergic postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro brain stem slice preparation in rats. Because brain stem cholinergic mechanisms are involved in REM sleep regulation, we also studied the role of nicotinic neurotransmission in modulation of GABAergic pathway from the LGPi to CVNs. Application of nicotine diminished the GABAergic responses evoked by electrical stimulation. This inhibitory effect of nicotine was prevented by the alpha7 nicotinic receptor antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, hypoxia/hypercapnia (H/H) diminished LPGi-evoked GABAergic current in CVNs, and this inhibitory effect was also prevented by alpha-bungarotoxin. In conclusion, stimulation of the LPGi evokes an inhibitory pathway to CVNs, which may constitute a mechanism for the reduced parasympathetic cardiac activity and increase in heart rate during REM sleep. Inhibition of this pathway by nicotinic receptor activation and H/H may play a role in REM sleep-related and apnea-associated bradyarrhythmias.

  7. Method to reduce levitation force decay of the bulk HTSC above the NdFeB guideway due to lateral movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, G T; Lin, Q X; Wang, J S; Wang, S Y; Deng, Z G; Lu, Y Y; Liu, M X; Zheng, J [Applied Superconductivity Lab, Mail Stop 152 Southwestern Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail:


    A magnetic levitation vehicle using bulk high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSC) is considered as a promising transportation type thanks to its lateral inherent stability, but previous studies have found that the levitation force (LF) decays due to lateral movement. In this paper, a pre-load method is presented to reduce the LF decay, and the experimental results indicate that this method is very applicable in supressing this decay in spite of the applied field and material property of the bulk HTSC, and this effect can be ascribed to the reduction of the hysteresis loss in the bulk HTSC, i.e. more trapped magnetic flux after the pre-load case. In the end, experimental results indicate that the Halbach PMG has an advantage to reduce the cost of the PMG, but its rate of LF decay is also larger due to lateral movement.

  8. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts. (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris


    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  9. Forest and Land Fire Prevention Through the Hotspot Movement Pattern Approach (United States)

    Turmudi, T.; Kardono, P.; Hartanto, P.; Ardhitasari, Y.


    Indonesia has experienced a great forest fire disaster in 2015. The losses incurred were enormous. But actually the incidence of forest and land fires occurs almost every year. Various efforts were made to cope with the fire disaster. The appearance of a hotspot becomes an early indication of the fire incident both location and time. By studying the location and time of the hotspot's appearance indicates that the hotspot has certain movement patterns from year to year. This study aims to show the pattern of movement of hotspots from year to year that can be used for the prevention of forest and land fires. The method used is time series analysis of land cover and hotspot distribution. The data used were land cover data from 2005 to 2016, hotspot data from 2005 to 2016. The location of this study is the territory of Meranti Kepulauan District. The results show that the highest hotspot is 425 hotspots occurs in the shrubs and bushes. From year to year, the pattern of hotspot movement occurs in the shrubs and bushes cover. The hotspot pattern follows the direction of unused land for cultivation and is dominated by shrubs. From these results, we need to pay more attentiont for the land with the cover of shrubs adjacent to the cultivated land.

  10. [Rehabilitation evaluation on post-stroke abnormal movement pattern prevented and treated with acupuncture and rehabilitation]. (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-min; Tang, Qiang


    To explore the impacts of acupuncture and rehabilitation on post-stroke abnormal patterns of limb movement and evaluate them via rehabilitation method. Ninety cases of post-stroke movement disorder were randomly divided into an acupuncture-rehabilitation group, a body acupuncture group and a medication group, 30 cases in each group. In medication group, the conventional medication in neurological department was administered. In acupuncture-rehabilitation group and body acupuncture group, on the basis of the therapy as medication group, scalp acupuncture (such as parietal area and anterior parietal area, etc.), rehabilitation training and traditional body acupuncture [such as Jianyu (LI 15) and Fengshi (GB 31),etc.] were supplemented. The continuous electric stimulation was applied in body acupuncture group. The treatment lasted for 8 weeks. The assessment of clinical efficacy, Fugl-Meyer score, Modified Ashworth scale (MAS), range of motion (ROM) and shoulder pain score were taken as observation indices for rehabilitation evaluation before and after treatment in each group. The effective rate was 93.1% (27/29) in acupuncture-rehabilitation group, which was superior to 66.7% (20/30) in body acupuncture group and 57.1% (16/28) in control group (both Prehabilitation group were significantly superior to those in body acupuncture group and medication group (Prehabilitation therapy and traditional body acupuncture remarkably improve in post-stroke movement disorder. But acupuncture and rehabilitation therapy is apparently superior to traditional body acupuncture. This therapy can effectively prevent and treat post-stroke abnormal patterns and it is greatly significant in the improvement of survival quality for the patients.

  11. Prevention of stress-impaired fear extinction through neuropeptide s action in the lateral amygdala. (United States)

    Chauveau, Frédéric; Lange, Maren Denise; Jüngling, Kay; Lesting, Jörg; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian


    Stressful and traumatic events can create aversive memories, which are a predisposing factor for anxiety disorders. The amygdala is critical for transforming such stressful events into anxiety, and the recently discovered neuropeptide S transmitter system represents a promising candidate apt to control these interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that neuropeptide S can regulate stress-induced hyperexcitability in the amygdala, and thereby can interact with stress-induced alterations of fear memory. Mice underwent acute immobilization stress (IS), and neuropeptide S and a receptor antagonist were locally injected into the lateral amygdala (LA) during stress exposure. Ten days later, anxiety-like behavior, fear acquisition, fear memory retrieval, and extinction were tested. Furthermore, patch-clamp recordings were performed in amygdala slices prepared ex vivo to identify synaptic substrates of stress-induced alterations in fear responsiveness. (1) IS increased anxiety-like behavior, and enhanced conditioned fear responses during extinction 10 days after stress, (2) neuropeptide S in the amygdala prevented, while an antagonist aggravated, these stress-induced changes of aversive behaviors, (3) excitatory synaptic activity in LA projection neurons was increased on fear conditioning and returned to pre-conditioning values on fear extinction, and (4) stress resulted in sustained high levels of excitatory synaptic activity during fear extinction, whereas neuropeptide S supported the return of synaptic activity during fear extinction to levels typical of non-stressed animals. Together these results suggest that the neuropeptide S system is capable of interfering with mechanisms in the amygdala that transform stressful events into anxiety and impaired fear extinction.

  12. Patterns of intimate partner homicide suicide in later life: Strategies for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Salari


    Full Text Available Sonia SalariDepartment Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intimate partner homicide suicide (IPHS constitutes the most violent domestic abuse outcome, devastating individuals, families, neighborhoods and communities. This research used content analysis to analyze 225 murder suicide events (444 deaths among dyads with at least one member 60 or older. Data were collected from newspaper articles, television news transcripts, police reports and obituaries published between 1999 and 2005. Findings suggest the most dangerous setting was the home and the majority of perpetrators were men. Firearms were most often employed in the violence. Relationship strife was present in some cases, but only slightly higher than the divorce rate for that age group. Illness was cited in just over half of the cases, but 30% of sick elderly couples had only a perpetrator who was ill. Evidence of suicide pacts and mercy killings were very rare and practitioners are encouraged to properly investigate these events. Suicidal men in this age range must be recognized as a potential threat to others, primarily their partner. Homicide was sometimes the primary motive, and the perpetrators in those cases resembled the “intimate terrorist.” Victims in those cases were often terrorized before the murder. Clinicians are educated about the patterns of fatal violence in later life dyads and provided with strategies for prevention.Keywords: murder-suicide, domestic violence, elder abuse, self abuse

  13. Characterization of the live salmonid movement network in Ireland: Implications for disease prevention and control. (United States)

    Yatabe, T; More, S J; Geoghegan, F; McManus, C; Hill, A E; Martínez-López, B


    Live fish movement is considered as having an important role in the transmission of infectious diseases. For that reason, interventions for cost-effective disease prevention and control rely on a sound understanding of the patterns of live fish movements in a region or country. Here, we characterize the network of live fish movements in the Irish salmonid farming industry during 2013, using social network analysis and spatial epidemiology methods, and identify interventions to limit the risk of disease introduction and spread. In the network there were 62 sites sending and/or receiving fish, with a total of 130 shipments (84 arcs) comprising approx. 17.2 million fish during the year. Atlantic salmon shipments covered longer distances than trout shipments, with some traversing the entire country. The average shipment of Atlantic salmon was 146,186 (SD 194,344) fish, compared to 77,928 (127,009) for trout, however, variability was high. There were 3 periods where shipments peaked (February-April, June-September, and November), which were related to specific stages of fish. The network was disconnected and had two major weak components, the first one with 39 nodes (mostly Atlantic salmon sites), and the second one with 10 nodes (exclusively trout sites). Correlation between in and out-degree at each site and assortativity coefficient were slightly low and non-significant: -0.08 (95% CI: -0.22, 0.06) and -0.13 (95% CI: -0.36, 0.08), respectively, indicating random mixing with regard to node degree. Although competing models also produced a good fit to degree distribution, it is likely that the network possesses both small-world and scale-free topology. This would facilitate the spread and persistence of infection in the salmon production system, but would also facilitate the design of risk-based surveillance strategies by targeting hubs, bridges or cut-points. Using Infomap community detection algorithms, 2 major communities were identified within the giant weak

  14. The circulating air barrier: Effective prevention of liquid contaminant movement through soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.; Towers, T.; Johnson, H.; Overbey, W.


    The environmental cleanup task facing the United States Department of Energy (DOE) presents enormous technical, planning and institutional challenges, including the need to develop new technologies that are faster, better, safer, and cheaper, in order to expedite site cleanup. Characterization of contaminated sediments resulting from past tank leaks, continued safe operations of the tanks, total confinement of leaking materials, secondary waste minimization, and final closure of the single shell tanks are five of the many facets of the storage tank issue at Hanford and elsewhere in the nation. Each of these issues are considered in the development of the Circulating Air Barrier (CAB). The Circulating Air Barrier system is a desiccant-type barrier designed to prevent the movement of liquid contaminants toward the groundwater by using an air circulation and processing system to lower the water saturation in a targeted subsurface zone below the saturation level required for liquid flow. Vertical or horizontal wells can be installed to create a matrix of air injection and production so that air flows across the target barrier zone to the production wells. In the event of a tank leak, the system serves as a tool for early detection and provides a means to withdraw volatile contaminants to the surface for treatment. Demonstration and full-scale CAB systems have been designed for the Hanford Site. This includes chemical and geological characterization; model development, sensitivity analysis and performance optimization; subsurface configuration and surface processing equipment design; and development of a test program with associated cost estimates

  15. Pharmacological prevention of rocuronium-induced injection pain or withdrawal movements: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Beom; Min, Sang Kee; Moon, Bong Ki; Kim, Jong Yeop


    Rocuronium is reported to be associated with injection pain or withdrawal movement (IPWM). This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of different pharmacological treatments used to decrease the incidence of the rocuronium-induced IPWM. We searched the Cochrane Library, Embase and PubMed for randomized controlled trials comparing a pharmacological drug with a placebo to prevent the rocuronium-induced IPWM and found 37 studies with 5,595 patients. Overall incidence of rocuronium-induced IPWM was 74%. Pretreatment with opioids [risk ratio (RR) 0.16; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.09-0.29], lidocaine (0.47; 0.35-0.64), and ketamine (0.41; 0.22-0.77) were effective in decreasing IPWM. Lidocaine pretreatment with venous occlusion (0.40; 0.32-0.49) and opioids pretreatment with venous occlusion (0.77; 0.61-0.96) were also effective. Mixing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) with rocuronium (0.15; 0.06-0.34) was also efficacious in reducing IPWM. Indirect comparison shows that the RR of NaHCO3 admixture and pretreatment with opioids were lower than that of the other four interventions (pretreatments of ketamine or lidocaine, and lidocaine or opioids with venous occlusion). This meta-analysis suggests that opioids, lidocaine, ketamine, and NaHCO3 are effective in decreasing rocuronium-induced IPWM. Considering the efficacy and convenience, pretreatment with opioids without venous occlusion is recommended for reducing rocuronium-induced IPWM.

  16. The eye movement desensitization and reprocessing procedure prevents defensive processing in health persuasion. (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; van Asten, Regine


    In the present study, the method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is studied to understand and prevent defensive reactions with regard to a negatively framed message advocating fruit and vegetable consumption. EMDR has been shown to tax the working memory. Participants from a university sample (n = 124) listened to the persuasive message in a randomized laboratory experiment. In the EMDR condition, they were also instructed to follow with their eyes a dot on the computer screen. The dot constantly moved from one side of the screen to the other in 2 seconds. In addition, a self-affirmation procedure was applied in half of the participants. EMDR led to a significant increase in persuasion, only in recipients in whom the persuasive message could be expected to activate defensive self-regulation (in participants with a moderate health value and in participants with low self-esteem). In those with a moderate health value, EMDR increased persuasion, but only when recipients were not affirmed. In addition, EMDR increased persuasion only in recipients with low self-esteem, not in those with high self-esteem. These results showed that EMDR influenced persuasion and in some way lowered defensive reactions. The similarities and differences in effects of EMDR and self-affirmation further increased our insight into the psychology of defensiveness.

  17. Comparison of randomized preemptive dexketoprofen trometamol or placebo tablets to prevent withdrawal movement caused by rocuronium injection. (United States)

    Aydın, Gözde Bumin; Polat, Reyhan; Ergil, Julide; Sayın, Murat; Caparlar, Ceyda Ozhan


    Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent which is associated with injection pain and induces withdrawal movement of the injected hand or arm or generalized movements of the body after intravenous injection. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with oral dexketoprofen trometamol (Arvelles(®); Group A) with placebo (Group P) without tourniquet to prevent the withdrawal response caused by rocuronium injection. The study cohort comprised 150 American Society of Anaesthesiologists class I-III patients aged 18-75 years who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery with general anesthesia. The patients response to rocuronium was graded using a 4-point scale [0 = no response; 1 = movement/withdrawal at the wrist only, 2 = movement/withdrawal involving the arm only (elbow/shoulder); 3 = generalized response]. The overall incidence of withdrawal movement after rocuronium injection was significantly lower in Group A (30.1 %) than in Group P (64.6 %) (p  0.05). These results demonstrate that the preemptive administration of dexketoprofen trometamol can attenuate the degree of withdrawal movements caused by the pain of the rocuronium injection.

  18. Inertia system for permitting or preventing any movement between two components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelat, Patrice; Le Pierres, Gildas.


    This impact jamming device allows relative movement between two parts with respect to each other so long as the relative acceleration remains under a given preset figure. On the other hand, it locks to stop this relative movement as soon as this acceleration exceeds this figure. Such a mechanism can be used, in particular, the holding the pipes in nuclear power stations so as to permit a slow movement of the pipes with respect to the structure, for example under the effect of expansion, but to check any relative movement in the event of significant acceleration, for example during an earthquake [fr

  19. Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy


    Jagnandan, Kevin; Higham, Timothy E.


    Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail un...

  20. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.


    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  1. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs. (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen


    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  2. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy 25 years later: complications and their prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Alivizatos, Gerasimos; de la Rosette, Jean


    OBJECTIVE: We review the pathophysiology and possible prevention measures of complications after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). METHODS: A literature search was performed with the Medline database on ESWL between 1980 and 2004. RESULTS: ESWL application has been intuitively connected

  3. Effect of fentanyl on the induction dose and minimum infusion rate of propofol preventing movement in dogs. (United States)

    Davis, Carrie A; Seddighi, Reza; Cox, Sherry K; Sun, Xiaocun; Egger, Christine M; Doherty, Thomas J


    To determine the effect of fentanyl on the induction dose of propofol and minimum infusion rate required to prevent movement in response to noxious stimulation (MIR NM ) in dogs. Crossover experimental design. Six healthy, adult intact male Beagle dogs, mean±standard deviation 12.6±0.4 kg. Dogs were administered 0.9% saline (treatment P), fentanyl (5 μg kg -1 ) (treatment PLDF) or fentanyl (10 μg kg -1 ) (treatment PHDF) intravenously over 5 minutes. Five minutes later, anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg kg -1 , followed by 1 mg kg -1 every 15 seconds to achieve intubation) and maintained for 90 minutes by constant rate infusions (CRIs) of propofol alone or with fentanyl: P, propofol (0.5 mg kg -1  minute -1 ); PLDF, propofol (0.35 mg kg -1  minute -1 ) and fentanyl (0.1 μg kg -1  minute -1 ); PHDF, propofol (0.3 mg kg -1  minute -1 ) and fentanyl (0.2 μg kg -1  minute -1 ). Propofol CRI was increased or decreased based on the response to stimulation (50 V, 50 Hz, 10 mA), with 20 minutes between adjustments. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model anova and presented as mean±standard error. ropofol induction doses were 6.16±0.31, 3.67±0.21 and 3.33±0.42 mg kg -1 for P, PLDF and PHDF, respectively. Doses for PLDF and PHDF were significantly decreased from P (pFentanyl, at the doses studied, caused statistically significant and clinically important decreases in the propofol induction dose and MIR NM . Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Continental slope sea level and flow variability induced by lateral movements of the Gulf Stream in the Middle Atlantic Bight (United States)

    Böhm, E.; Hopkins, T. S.; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Churchill, J. H.


    As described by [Csanady, G.T., Hamilton, P., 1988. Circulation of slope water. Continental Shelf Research 8, 565-624], the flow regime over the slope of the southern Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) includes a current reversal in which southwestward flow over the upper and middle slope becomes entrained in the northeastward current adjacent to the Gulf Stream. In this paper we use satellite-derived data to quantify how lateral motions of the Gulf Stream impact this current system. In our analysis, the Gulf Stream’s thermal front is delineated using a two-year time series of sea surface temperature derived from NOAA/AVHRR satellite data. Lateral motions of the Gulf Stream are represented in terms of temporal variations of the area, east of 73°W, between the Gulf Stream thermal front and the shelf edge. Variations of slope water flow within this area are represented by anomalies of geostrophic velocity as derived from the time series of the sea level anomaly determined from TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter data. A strong statistical relationship is found between Gulf Stream displacements and parabathic flow over the continental slope. It is such that the southwestward flow over the slope is accelerated when the Gulf Stream is relatively far from the shelf edge, and is decelerated (and perhaps even reversed) when the Gulf Stream is close to the shelf edge. This relationship between Gulf Stream displacements and parabathic flow is also observed in numerical simulations produced by the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Model. In qualitative terms, it is consistent with the notion that when the Gulf Stream is closer to the 200-m isobath, it is capable of entraining a larger fraction of shelf water masses. Alternatively, when the Gulf Stream is far from the shelf-break, more water is advected into the MAB slope region from the northeast. Analysis of the diabathic flow indicates that much of the cross-slope transport by which the southwestward flow entering the study region is

  5. Encouraging responses in sexual and relationship violence prevention: what program effects remain 1 year later? (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G


    Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Evaluation of a Community-Based Program That Integrates Joyful Movement Into Fall Prevention for Older Adults (United States)

    Carlucci, Celeste; Kardachi, Julie; Bradley, Sara M.; Prager, Jason; Wyka, Katarzyna


    Background: Despite the development of evidence-based fall-prevention programs, there remains a need for programming that will engage older adults in real-world settings. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a community-based group program that integrates joyful movement into fall prevention. The curriculum emphasizes a positive experience of movement, cultivating a healthy body image, and retraining of biomechanics. Design: Program evaluation was conducted using a one-group pre–post test study design. Key outcomes were functional balance and confidence. Qualitative feedback was gathered at the final class sessions. Results: Two hundred fifteen older adults enrolled at four sites over the period from 2010 to 2014. Among 86 participants who provided feedback, most credited the program for an increased sense of optimism and/or confidence (70%), and better walking ability (50%). Among 102 participants who completed both initial and final assessments, there was evidence of significant improvements on the Functional Reach Test (d = .60, p Falls Efficacy Scale (d = .17, p balance and confidence. Future research should examine whether the positive changes encouraged by joyful movement lead to lasting reductions in fall risk and additional health benefits. PMID:29796405

  7. Breast radiotherapy in the lateral decubitus position: A technique to prevent lung and heart irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Francois; Kirova, Youlia M.; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude; Dendale, Remi; Vilcoq, Jacques R.; Dreyfus, Helene; Fourquet, Alain


    Purpose: To present an original technique for breast radiotherapy, with the aim of limiting lung and heart irradiation, satisfying quality assurance criteria. Methods and Material: An original radiotherapy technique for breast irradiation has been developed at the Institute Curie in January 1996. It consists of isocentric breast irradiation in the lateral decubitus position (isocentric lateral decubitus [ILD]). This technique is indicated for voluminous or pendulous breasts needing breast irradiation only. Thin carbon fiber supports and special patient positioning devices have been developed especially for this technique. In vivo measurements were performed to check the dose distribution before the routine use of the technique. Results: ILD has been successfully implemented in routine practice, and 500 patients have been already treated. Breast radiotherapy is performed using a dose of 50 Gy at ICRU point in 25 fractions. ILD shows good homogeneity of the dose in breast treatment volume, treatment fields are perpendicular to the skin ensuring its protection, and extremely low dose is delivered to the underlying lung and heart. Conclusion: In cases of voluminous breasts or patients with a history of lung and heart disease, our technique provides several advantages over the conventional technique with opposing tangential fields. This technique improves the dose homogeneity according to the ICRU recommendations

  8. Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later. (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun


    We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects.

  9. The prevention of falls in later life. A report of the Kellogg International Work Group on the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly. (United States)


    Although falls among the elderly carry high costs to individuals and society, the prevention of falls in later life has not received adequate attention from health care professionals. The prevalence of falls appears to involve roughly one-third of persons aged 65 and over, and the risk of falling and suffering serious injury increases substantially up to the eighth decade of life. The proportion of falls which result in fracture is low, but the absolute number of older people who suffer fractures is high and places heavy demands on health care systems. Even falls which result in no physical injury often have serious social and psychological consequences for the elderly, including loss of confidence and restrictions in mobility, and high proportions of older people report fears of falling. There is a need to provide accurate information about the causes and prevention of falls in later life. Falls are not part of the normal aging process. Rather, they are due to underlying physical illnesses, medications, and environmental hazards, often in interaction. This report provides an overview of the elderly population at risk of falling and suffering serious injury, some of the reasons older people fall, and the methods to prevent falls which have been developed in both community and institutional settings. In addition, it suggests some of the practical steps which can be taken by health and social care professionals and by older people and their families in order to prevent falls. Empirical knowledge about the causes of falls by the elderly and the most effective methods of prevention remains limited. Major barriers to research have been the lack of a clear definition of a fall and the fact that falls are not included in medical diagnostic indices. It is recommended that falls be recorded as a disease entity in Index Medicus and in the International Classification of Diseases Xth Revision. To facilitate future comparisons of research findings on falls, a definition of a

  10. Effects of special exercise programs on functional movement screen scores and injury prevention in preprofessional young football players. (United States)

    Dinc, Engin; Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Bulat, Muge; Erten, Yunus Turgay; Bayraktar, Bülent


    To increase movement capacity and to reduce injury risk in young soccer players by implementing a special functional exercise program based on functional movement screen (FMS) and correctives. 67 young male athletes 14-19 years of age from a Super League Football Club Academy participated in the study. Functional movement patterns were evaluated with FMS assessment protocol. Deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability were examined in FMS. Considering the FMS scores the number of intervention and control groups were defined as 24 and 43, respectively. Intervention program was composed of 1 hr twice a week sessions in total of 12 weeks with 4 weeks of mobility, 4 weeks of stability, and 4 weeks of integration exercises. At the end of 12-week intervention and control groups were re-evaluated with FMS protocol. Contact and noncontact sports injuries recorded during one season. In intervention group there was statistically significant difference in increase in total FMS scores ( P effective injury prevention.

  11. Intervention development for the indicated prevention of depression in later life: The “DIL” protocol in Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Dias, MD


    Full Text Available Because depression is a major source of the global burden of illness-related disability, developing effective strategies for reducing its incidence is an important public health priority, especially in low-income countries, where resources for treating depression are scarce. We describe in this report an intervention development project, funded by the US National Institute of Mental Health, to address “indicated” prevention of depression in older adults attending rural and urban primary care clinics in Goa, India. Specifically, participants in the “DIL” (“Depression in Later Life” trial were older adults living with mild, subsyndromal symptoms of depression and anxiety and thus at substantial risk for transitioning to fully syndromal major depression and anxiety disorders. Building upon the MANAS treatment trial (“Promoting Mental Health” led by Patel et al. in the same locale, we present here lessons learned in the development and implementation of a protocol utilizing lay health counsellors (LHCs who deliver a multi-component depression prevention intervention organized conceptually around Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care (PST, with additional components addressing brief behavioural treatment of sleep disturbances such as insomnia, meeting basic social casework needs, and education in self-management of prevalent comorbid chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, DIL is the first randomized clinical trial addressing the prevention of depressive disorders ever conducted in a low- or middle-income country.

  12. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta


    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  13. Bauhinia forficata prevents vacuous chewing movements induced by haloperidol in rats and has antioxidant potential in vitro. (United States)

    Peroza, Luis Ricardo; Busanello, Alcindo; Leal, Caroline Queiroz; Röpke, Jivago; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Meinerz, Daiane; Libardoni, Milena; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Fachinetto, Roselei


    Classical antipsychotics can produce motor disturbances like tardive dyskinesia in humans and orofacial dyskinesia in rodents. These motor side effects have been associated with oxidative stress production in specific brain areas. Thus, some studies have proposed the use of natural compounds with antioxidant properties against involuntary movements induced by antipsychotics. Here, we examined the possible antioxidant activity of Bauhinia forficata (B. forficata), a plant used in folk medicine as a hypoglycemic, on brain lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidants. B. forficata prevented the formation of lipid peroxidation induced by both pro-oxidants tested. However, it was effective against lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside (IC50 = 12.08 μg/mL) and Fe(2+)/EDTA (IC50 = 41.19 μg/mL). Moreover, the effects of B. forficata were analyzed on an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol, where rats received haloperidol each 28 days (38 mg/kg) and/or B. forficata decoction daily (2.5 g/L) for 16 weeks. Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor and exploratory activities were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment induced VCMs, and co-treatment with B. forficata partially prevented this effect. Haloperidol reduced the locomotor and exploratory activities of animals in the open field test, which was not modified by B. forficata treatment. Our present data showed that B. forficata has antioxidant potential and partially protects against VCMs induced by haloperidol in rats. Taken together, our data suggest the protection by natural compounds against VCMs induced by haloperidol in rats.

  14. A home program of strength training, movement strategy training and education did not prevent falls in people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg E Morris


    Conclusion: A home program of strength and movement strategy training and falls education does not prevent falls when applied at the dose used in this study. Arguably, the dosage of therapy was insufficient. Future trials need to explore further therapy content, repetitions and duration, in order to optimise outcomes and cost-effectiveness. [Morris ME, Taylor NF, Watts JJ, Evans A, Horne M, Kempster P, Danoudis M, McGinley J, Martin C, Menz HB (2017 A home program of strength training, movement strategy training and education did not prevent falls in people with Parkinson’s disease: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 94–100

  15. Injury/Fatality-Causing Incidents Involving the Rearward Movement of Agricultural Machinery: Types, Causes, and Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn G. Ehlers


    Full Text Available The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might lead to the development, improvement, and/or better utilization of safety procedures, design principles, and technologies that would prevent—or at least markedly reduce—their occurrence. Thus, the scope of this study focused only on rearward-travel (not mechanical malfunction incidents, and principally on agricultural equipment (although cases involving similar equipment in industrial or construction settings were also drawn upon. Applying these two criteria, a search of published and online sources uncovered more than 100 documented cases, 35 of which could clearly be identified as rearward-movement incidents, of which 28 (80% were fatal. Each of these 35 cases were then assessed, based on the type of machine, type of worksite, and type/description of incident (i.e., ‘scenario’, which fell into one of three distinct categories or classifications—(1 co-worker run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with co-worker; (2 bystander run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator is unaware of bystander’s presence; and (3 operator run over/crushed/otherwise injured because operator loses visual contact with, or is unaware of, a stationary object or a hazard. Then, from each scenario, a representative incident (i.e., case study was selected for a more in-depth analysis. The collective findings, from these three case studies and all 35 machinery rearward-movement incidents, were as follows: (1 The ‘victim’ could be the machine operator as well as a co-worker or a bystander; (2 The specific site of the co-worker or bystander injury/fatality was at the base of the machine’s rear tires or tracks, at the hitching point, or behind a towed implement; (3

  16. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men's community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A


    Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men's collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men's community rugby union players. 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected 'normal practice' exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises.Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  17. How does lateral tilting affect the internal strains in the sacral region of bed ridden patients? : a contribution to pressure ulcer prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, C.W.J.; Broek, M.; Hemmes, B.; Bader, D.L.


    Background Repositioning of individuals with reduced mobility and at risk of pressure ulcers is an essential preventive step. Manual or automatic lateral tilting is a way of doing this and the international guidelines propose a 30° to 40°side lying position. The goal of the present study was to

  18. Randomized, multicenter trial of lateral Trendelenburg versus semirecumbent body position for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. (United States)

    Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Panigada, Mauro; Ranzani, Otavio T; Zanella, Alberto; Berra, Lorenzo; Cressoni, Massimo; Parrini, Vieri; Kandil, Hassan; Salati, Giovanni; Selvaggi, Paola; Amatu, Alessandro; Sanz-Moncosi, Miquel; Biagioni, Emanuela; Tagliaferri, Fernanda; Furia, Mirella; Mercurio, Giovanna; Costa, Antonietta; Manca, Tullio; Lindau, Simone; Babel, Jaksa; Cavana, Marco; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Marti, Joan-Daniel; Consonni, Dario; Gattinoni, Luciano; Pesenti, Antonio; Wiener-Kronish, Janine; Bruschi, Cecilia; Ballotta, Andrea; Salsi, Pierpaolo; Livigni, Sergio; Iotti, Giorgio; Fernandez, Javier; Girardis, Massimo; Barbagallo, Maria; Moise, Gabriella; Antonelli, Massimo; Caspani, Maria Luisa; Vezzani, Antonella; Meybohm, Patrick; Gasparovic, Vladimir; Geat, Edoardo; Amato, Marcelo; Niederman, Michael; Kolobow, Theodor; Torres, Antoni


    The lateral Trendelenburg position (LTP) may hinder the primary pathophysiologic mechanism of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We investigated whether placing patients in the LTP would reduce the incidence of VAP in comparison with the semirecumbent position (SRP). This was a randomized, multicenter, controlled study in invasively ventilated critically ill patients. Two preplanned interim analyses were performed. Patients were randomized to be placed in the LTP or the SRP. The primary outcome, assessed by intention-to-treat analysis, was incidence of microbiologically confirmed VAP. Major secondary outcomes included mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit length of stay. At the second interim analysis, the trial was stopped because of low incidence of VAP, lack of benefit in secondary outcomes, and occurrence of adverse events. A total of 194 patients in the LTP group and 201 in the SRP group were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. The incidence of microbiologically confirmed VAP was 0.5% (1/194) and 4.0% (8/201) in LTP and SRP patients, respectively (relative risk 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-1.03, p = 0.04). The 28-day mortality was 30.9% (60/194) and 26.4% (53/201) in LTP and SRP patients, respectively (relative risk 1.17, 95% CI 0.86-1.60, p = 0.32). Likewise, no differences were found in other secondary outcomes. Six serious adverse events were described in LTP patients (p = 0.01 vs. SRP). The LTP slightly decreased the incidence of microbiologically confirmed VAP. Nevertheless, given the early termination of the trial, the low incidence of VAP, and the adverse events associated with the LTP, the study failed to prove any significant benefit. Further clinical investigation is strongly warranted; however, at this time, the LTP cannot be recommended as a VAP preventive measure. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01138540.

  19. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fernández-Crespo


    Full Text Available Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  20. Effect of fentanyl and lidocaine on the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration preventing motor movement in dogs. (United States)

    Suarez, Martin A; Seddighi, Reza; Egger, Christine M; Rohrbach, Barton W; Cox, Sherry K; KuKanich, Butch K; Doherty, Thomas J


    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of fentanyl, lidocaine, and a fentanyl-lidocaine combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane preventing motor movement (MAC NM ) in dogs. ANIMALS 6 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen 3 times (1-week intervals). Baseline MAC NM (MAC NM-B ) was determined starting 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Dogs then received 1 of 3 treatments IV: fentanyl (loading dose, 15 μg/kg; constant rate infusion [CRI], 6 μg/kg/h), lidocaine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 6 mg/kg/h), and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the same doses. Determination of treatment MAC NM (MAC NM-T ) was initiated 90 minutes after start of the CRI. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of each treatment MAC NM measurement for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl and lidocaine. RESULTS Mean ± SEM overall MAC NM-B for the 3 treatments was 2.70 ± 0.27 vol%. The MAC NM decreased from MAC NM-B to MAC NM-T by 39%, 21%, and 55% for fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. This decrease differed significantly among treatments. Plasma fentanyl concentration was 3.25 and 2.94 ng/mL for fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma lidocaine concentration was 2,570 and 2,417 ng/mL for lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination, respectively. Plasma fentanyl and lidocaine concentrations did not differ significantly between fentanyl and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination or between lidocaine and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CRIs of fentanyl, lidocaine, and the fentanyl-lidocaine combination at the doses used were associated with clinically important and significant decreases in the MAC NM of sevoflurane in dogs.

  1. Can fitness and movement quality prevent back injury in elite task force police officers? A 5-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    McGill, Stuart; Frost, David; Lam, Thomas; Finlay, Tim; Darby, Kevin; Cannon, Jordan


    Elite police work has bursts of intense physically demanding work requiring high levels of fitness, or capacity, and movement competency; which are assumed to increase one's injury resilience. The purpose of this study was to follow members of an elite police force (N = 53) to test whether back injuries (N = 14) could be predicted from measures of fitness and movement quality. Measures of torso endurance, relative and absolute strength, hip ROM and movement quality using the Functional Movement Screen(TM) and other dynamic movement tests were obtained from every officer at baseline. When variables were grouped and considered holistically, rather than individually, back injury could be predicted. Seven variables best predicted those who would suffer a back injury (64% sensitivity and 95% specificity for an overall concordance of 87%). Overall, the ability to predict back injury was not high, suggesting that there is more complexity to this relationship than is explained with the variables tested here. Practitioner Summary: Members of elite police forces have exposure to intense physically demanding work. Increased levels of fitness and movement competency have been assumed to increase injury resilience. However, complexity in the interactions between exposure, movement competency, training, fitness and injury may occlude the true relationship between these variables.

  2. Internet Use and Preventive Health Behaviors Among Couples in Later Life: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study. (United States)

    Nam, Sangbo; Han, Sae Hwang; Gilligan, Megan


    The aim of this study was to examine the link between internet use and preventive health behaviors. We focused on couples to examine whether there were cross-partner associations between internet use and preventive health behaviors. The data for this study came from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study and the sample consisted of 5,143 pairs of coupled-individuals. Preventive health behaviors included cancer screenings (mammogram and prostate tests), cholesterol tests, and flu shots. Logistic multilevel actor-partner interdependence models were employed to test the study hypotheses. Internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving prostate exams and cholesterol tests for husbands, net of demographic and health characteristics, and insurance status. We found that wives' internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving flu shots and prostate exams for husbands, but husbands' internet use was not associated with wives' preventive health behaviors. Research linking internet use and preventive health behaviors is important because such behaviors are associated not only with health of the older population but also with substantial reductions in health care expenditures. Our findings suggested that internet use of older adults is associated with their own preventive health behaviors, as well as their spouses' preventive health behaviors. Interventions and programs to facilitate older adults' preventive health behaviors should consider couple-based approaches.

  3. Integrating manual and movement therapy with philosophical counseling for treatment of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case study that explores the principles of holistic intervention. (United States)

    Cottingham, J T; Maitland, J


    A patient (Travis) suffering from ALS received a holistic principle-based protocol that combined manual-movement techniques with philosophical counseling. After 4 sessions, he exhibited a remarkable improvement in head-neck alignment, balance/mobility, autonomic activity, and worldview for a 2-month span. These changes occurred only after his worldview underwent a shift from a dualistic split of mind and body to a nondualistic orientation. After this 2-month period of improvement, Travis' structural alignment and balance/mobility suddenly deteriorated rapidly. Yet, his enhanced worldview and autonomic tone continued through a final follow-up taken 17 weeks after the initial evaluation.

  4. Clustering of Nuclei in Multinucleated Hyphae Is Prevented by Dynein-Driven Bidirectional Nuclear Movements and Microtubule Growth Control in Ashbya gossypii ▿ † (United States)

    Grava, Sandrine; Keller, Miyako; Voegeli, Sylvia; Seger, Shanon; Lang, Claudia; Philippsen, Peter


    During filamentous fungus development, multinucleated hyphae employ a system for long-range nuclear migration to maintain an equal nuclear density. A decade ago the microtubule motor dynein was shown to play a central role in this process. Previous studies with Ashbya gossypii revealed extensive bidirectional movements and bypassings of nuclei, an autonomous cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT) cytoskeleton emanating from each nucleus, and pulling of nuclei by sliding of cMTs along the cortex. Here, we show that dynein is the sole motor for bidirectional movements and bypassing because these movements are concomitantly decreased in mutants carrying truncations of the dynein heavy-chain DYN1 promoter. The dynactin component Jnm1, the accessory proteins Dyn2 and Ndl1, and the potential dynein cortical anchor Num1 are also involved in the dynamic distribution of nuclei. In their absence, nuclei aggregate to different degrees, whereby the mutants with dense nuclear clusters grow extremely long cMTs. As in budding yeast, we found that dynein is delivered to cMT plus ends, and its activity or processivity is probably controlled by dynactin and Num1. Together with its role in powering nuclear movements, we propose that dynein also plays (directly or indirectly) a role in the control of cMT length. Those combined dynein actions prevent nuclear clustering in A. gossypii and thus reveal a novel cellular role for dynein. PMID:21642510


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Kakati


    Full Text Available Background: There are various studies using Mulligan’s MWM with or without combining with electrotherapy modalities and proved the efficacy of the technique in immediately decreasing pain and improving grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Orthotic as a treatment is also proved to be beneficial in decreasing pain and improving grip strength. There is evidence that housewives are prone to develop lateral epicondylitis due to their routine household work. But there is lack of evidence which compare initial effects of MWM and orthosis in housewives bringing up better outcome measures. The purpose of this study is to compare the initial effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis on pain and grip strength in housewives with lateral epicondylitis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM technique versus counterforce elbow orthosis in immediately reducing pain and improving grip strength in lateral epicondylitis in housewives. Methodos: All subjects underwent a pre-treatment examination to assess pain and pain free hand grip strength with the help of outcome measures. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, A and B respectively; having 25 subjects in each group. Group A was treated with one session of Mulligan’s MWM technique. Group B was treated with Counterforce elbow strap orthosis. Data was assessed pre-treatment and immediately after treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hand grip on Hand Grip Dynamometer (HGD were used as outcome measures. Results: Independent t-test was performed to see the effectiveness between Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis. For VAS, t = - 2.243 which is significant at 5% level of significance. It has been inferred that VAS decreases more when Mulligan’s MWM was applied. For HGD, t = 0.878 which is not significant implying that increase in HGD do not differ remarkably for the two treatments. Conclusion: It has been recorded from the study that

  6. Large-Scale Preventive Chemotherapy for the Control of Helminth Infection in Western Pacific Countries: Six Years Later (United States)

    Montresor, Antonio; Cong, Dai Tran; Sinuon, Mouth; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Chanthavisouk, Chitsavang; Strandgaard, Hanne; Velayudhan, Raman; Capuano, Corinne M.; Le Anh, Tuan; Tee Dató, Ah S.


    In 2001, Urbani and Palmer published a review of the epidemiological situation of helminthiases in the countries of the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization indicating the control needs in the region. Six years after this inspiring article, large-scale preventive chemotherapy for the control of helminthiasis has scaled up dramatically in the region. This paper analyzes the most recent published and unpublished country information on large-scale preventive chemotherapy and summarizes the progress made since 2000. Almost 39 million treatments were provided in 2006 in the region for the control of helminthiasis: nearly 14 million for the control of lymphatic filariasis, more than 22 million for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and over 2 million for the control of schistosomiasis. In general, control of these helminthiases is progressing well in the Mekong countries and Pacific Islands. In China, despite harboring the majority of the helminth infections of the region, the control activities have not reached the level of coverage of countries with much more limited financial resources. The control of food-borne trematodes is still limited, but pilot activities have been initiated in China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Vietnam. PMID:18846234

  7. Hypocretin-1 (orexin A) prevents the effects of hypoxia/hypercapnia and enhances the GABAergic pathway from the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. (United States)

    Dergacheva, O; Philbin, K; Bateman, R; Mendelowitz, D


    Hypocretins (orexins) are hypothalamic neuropeptides that play a crucial role in regulating sleep/wake states and autonomic functions including parasympathetic cardiac activity. We have recently demonstrated stimulation of the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), the nucleus which is thought to play a role in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep control, activates an inhibitory pathway to preganglionic cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA). In this study we test the hypothesis that hypocretin-1 modulates the inhibitory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons evoked by stimulation of the LPGi using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in an in vitro brain slice preparation from rats. Activation of hypocretin-1 receptors produced a dose-dependent and long-term facilitation of GABAergic postsynaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation of the LPGi. Hypoxia/hypercapnia diminished LPGi-evoked GABAergic current in cardiac vagal neurons and this inhibition by hypoxia/hypercapnia was prevented by pre-application of hypocretin-1. The action of hypocretin-1 was blocked by the hypocretin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867. Facilitation of LPGi-evoked GABAergic current in cardiac vagal neurons under both normal condition and during hypoxia/hypercapnia could be the mechanism by which hypocretin-1 affects parasympathetic cardiac function and heart rate during REM sleep. Furthermore, our findings indicate a new potential mechanism that might be involved in the cardiac arrhythmias, bradycardia, and sudden cardiac death that can occur during sleep. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Inhibition of H3K27me3 Histone Demethylase Activity Prevents the Proliferative Regeneration of Zebrafish Lateral Line Neuromasts (United States)

    Bao, Beier; He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Li, Huawei


    The H3K27 demethylases are involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death by regulating transcriptional activity. However, the function of H3K27 demethylation in the field of hearing research is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity in hair cell regeneration using an in vivo animal model. Our data showed that pharmacologic inhibition of H3K27 demethylase activity with the specific small-molecule inhibitor GSK-J4 decreased the number of regenerated hair cells in response to neomycin damage. Furthermore, inhibition of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and activated caspase-3 levels in the regenerating neuromasts of the zebrafish lateral line. GSK-J4 administration also increased the expression of p21 and p27 in neuromast cells and inhibited the ERK signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings indicate that H3K27me3 demethylation is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish and suggest that H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hearing loss. PMID:28348517

  9. The utility of bispectral index monitoring for prevention of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement in children: A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Lim, Byung Gun; Lee, Il Ok; Kim, Young Sung; Won, Young Ju; Kim, Heezoo; Kong, Myoung Hoon


    This study was designed to determine whether a deep hypnotic state with a bispectral index (BIS) value less than 40 could alleviate withdrawal movement (WM) upon rocuronium injection during anesthesia induction in children. Finally, 135 healthy children (3-12 years) scheduled for minor elective surgery were studied. Without premedication, anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium 5 mg/kg. Patients were randomized into 2 groups (control vs experimental) and then by virtue of rocuronium injection time, patients in the experimental group were allocated into 2 groups, as follows: in the control group (group C; n = 45), rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered at the loss of eyelash reflex; in the 1st experimental group, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered when BIS fell to less than 40 (group T; n = 45); however, if BIS did not fall below 40 after thiopental sodium administration, manual ventilation was provided with oxygen 6 L/minute using sevoflurane 8% and then rocuronium was administered when BIS fell below 40 (the 2nd experimental group, group S; n = 45). Rocuronium-induced WM was evaluated using a 4-point scale (no movement; movement/withdrawal involving the arm only; generalized response, with movement/withdrawal of more than 1 extremity, but no requirement for restraint of the body; and generalized response which required restraint of the body and caused coughing or breath-holding). No significant differences were found among the groups for patient characteristics including age, sex, height, and location of venous cannula. However, body weight, height, and body mass index in group S were all smaller than those in group T. The incidence of WM caused by rocuronium was 100% in group C, 95.6% in group T, and 80% in group S, and was significantly lower in group S than in group C. The grade of WM was 3.7 ± 0.6 in group C, 3.2 ± 0.9 in group T, and 2.6 ± 1.0 in group S. It was significantly lower in group T than in group C and

  10. G-CSF prevents the progression of structural disintegration of white matter tracts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pilot trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duning


    Full Text Available The hematopoietic protein Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF has neuroprotective and -regenerative properties. The G-CSF receptor is expressed by motoneurons, and G-CSF protects cultured motoneuronal cells from apoptosis. It therefore appears as an attractive and feasible drug candidate for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The current pilot study was performed to determine whether treatment with G-CSF in ALS patients is feasible.Ten patients with definite ALS were entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients received either 10 µg/kg BW G-CSF or placebo subcutaneously for the first 10 days and from day 20 to 25 of the study. Clinical outcome was assessed by changes in the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS, a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, and by examining hand activities of daily living over the course of the study (100 days. The total number of adverse events (AE and treatment-related AEs, discontinuation due to treatment-related AEs, laboratory parameters including leukocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet count, as well as vital signs were examined as safety endpoints. Furthermore, we explored potential effects of G-CSF on structural cerebral abnormalities on the basis of voxel-wise statistics of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, brain volumetry, and voxel-based morphometry.Treatment was well-tolerated. No significant differences were found between groups in clinical tests and brain volumetry from baseline to day 100. However, DTI analysis revealed significant reductions of fractional anisotropy (FA encompassing diffuse areas of the brain when patients were compared to controls. On longitudinal analysis, the placebo group showed significant greater and more widespread decline in FA than the ALS patients treated with G-CSF.Subcutaneous G-CSF treatment in ALS patients appears as feasible approach. Although exploratory analysis of clinical data showed no significant effect

  11. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir


    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  12. Comparative study between two animal models of extrapyramidal movement disorders: prevention and reversion by pecan nut shell aqueous extract. (United States)

    Trevizol, Fabiola; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Pase, Camila S; Segat, Hecson J; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Dolci, Geisa S; Boufleur, Nardeli; Reckziegel, Patrícia; Bürger, Marilise E


    Acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol are animal models of extrapyramidal disorders often used to study parkinsonism, akinesia and tardive dyskinesia. In humans, these usually irreversible and disabling extrapyramidal disorders are developed by typical antipsychotic treatment, whose pathophysiology has been related to oxidative damages development. So far, there is no treatment to prevent these problems of the psychiatric clinic, and therefore further studies are needed. Here we used the animal models of extrapyramidal disorders cited above, which were performed in two distinct experiments: orofacial dyskinesia (OD)/catalepsy induced by acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol after (experiment 1) and before (experiment 2) oral treatment with pecan shell aqueous extract (AE), a natural and promissory antioxidant. When administered previously (exp.1), the AE prevented OD and catalepsy induced by both reserpine and haloperidol. When reserpine and haloperidol were administered before the extract (exp.2), the animals developed OD and catalepsy all the same. However, the orofacial parameter (but not catalepsy) in both animal models was reversed after 7 and 14 days of AE treatment. These results indicate that, acute reserpine and subchronic haloperidol administrations induced similar motor disorders, although through different mechanisms, and therefore are important animal models to study the physiopathology of extrapyramidal disorders. Comparatively, the pecan shell AE was able to both prevent and reverse OD but only to prevent catalepsy. These results reinforce the role of oxidative stress and validate the two animal models used here. Our findings also favor the idea of prevention of extrapyramidal disorders, rather than their reversal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men’s community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A


    Background Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men’s collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men’s community rugby union players. Methods 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected ‘normal practice’ exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises. Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Results Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). Conclusions The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. PMID:29055883

  14. Bowel Movement (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  15. The Irish Women's Movement


    Cullen, Pauline


    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  16. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A


    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  17. Prophylactic clipping for the prevention of bleeding following wide-field endoscopic mucosal resection of laterally spreading colorectal lesions: an economic modeling study. (United States)

    Bahin, Farzan F; Rasouli, Khalid N; Williams, Stephen J; Lee, Eric Y T; Bourke, Michael J


    Clinically significant bleeding (CSPEB) is the most common adverse event following endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large sessile and laterally spreading colorectal lesions (LSLs), and is associated with morbidity and resource utilization. CSPEB occurs more frequently with proximal LSLs. Prophylactic clipping of the post-EMR defect may be beneficial in CSPEB prevention. The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a prophylactic clipping strategy. We hypothesized that prophylactic clipping in the proximal colon was cost-effective. An economic model was applied to outcomes from the Australian Colonic Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (ACE) Study. Clip distances of 3, 5, 8, and 10 mm were analyzed. The cost of treating CSPEB was determined from an independent costing agency. The funds needed to spend (FNS) was the cost incurred in order to prevent one episode of CSPEB. A break-even analysis was performed to determine cost equivalence of the costs of clipping and CSPEB. Outcomes of 1717 LSLs (mean size 35.8 mm; 52.6 % proximal colon) that underwent EMR were analyzed. The overall rate of CSPEB was 6.4 % (proximal 8.9 %; distal 3.7 %). Endoscopic management was required in 45 % of CSPEB episodes. With a clip distance of 3 mm, the expected cost of prophylactic clipping was € 1106 per lesion compared with € 157 per lesion for the expected cost of CSPEB without clipping. At 100 % clipping efficacy, the FNS was € 14 826 (proximal and distal lesions € 9309 and € 29 540, respectively). A clip price of € 10.35 was required for the cost of clipping to offset the cost of CSPEB. A prophylactic clipping strategy is not cost-effective and at present cannot be justified for all lesions or selectively for lesions in the proximal colon. (NCT01368289). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper


    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  19. Movement - uncoordinated (United States)

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  20. Movement - uncontrolled or slow (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  1. Transforniceal Lateral Deep Bone Decompression—A Modified Technique to Prevent Postoperative Diplopia in Patients with Disfiguring Exophthalmos Due to Dysthyroid Orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Lang Liao


    Conclusion: Transforniceal lateral deep bone decompression produces less new-onset, persistent diplopia than traditional inferomedial wall decompression, and provides good cosmesis by using a hidden small incisional wound. This approach appears to be a safe and effective procedure for patients with disfiguring exophthalmos, especially for Asian patients without crease fold.

  2. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.


    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  3. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.


    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  4. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.


    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  5. Exercise-Based Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention for Firefighters: Contrasting the Fitness- and Movement-Related Adaptations to Two Training Methodologies. (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M


    Using exercise to enhance physical fitness may have little impact on performers' movement patterns beyond the gym environment. This study examined the fitness and movement adaptations exhibited by firefighters in response to 2 training methodologies. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to a movement-guided fitness (MOV), conventional fitness (FIT), or control (CON) group. Before and after 12 weeks of training, participants performed a fitness evaluation and laboratory-based test. Three-dimensional lumbar spine and frontal plane knee kinematics were quantified. Five whole-body tasks not included in the interventions were used to evaluate the transfer of training. FIT and MOV groups exhibited significant improvements in all aspects of fitness; however, only MOV exhibited improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control when performing each transfer task (effect sizes [ESs] of 0.2-1.5). FIT exhibited less controlled spine and frontal plane knee motions while squatting, lunging, pushing, and pulling (ES: 0.2-0.7). More MOV participants (43%) exhibited only positive posttraining changes (i.e., improved control), in comparison with FIT (30%) and CON (23%). Fewer negative posttraining changes were also noted (19, 25, and 36% for MOV, FIT, and CON). These findings suggest that placing an emphasis on how participants move while exercising may be an effective training strategy to elicit behavioral changes beyond the gym environment. For occupational athletes such as firefighters, soldiers, and police officers, this implies that exercise programs designed with a movement-oriented approach to periodization could have a direct impact on their safety and effectiveness by engraining desirable movement patterns that transfer to occupational tasks.

  6. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Smit, Filip


    Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic

  7. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention>

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, E.; Smit, H.F.E.


    Background: Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic

  8. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life : design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, Jojanneke; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Smit, Filip


    Background: Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin Apostolov


    Full Text Available The authors represent a distraction external pelvic fixation technique, which they use in pelvic fractures caused by a lateral compression. They consider the indications and mounting techniques. The authors recommend the early movement activities (on the 3rd - 5th day after the external fixator placement. This method had been used in 8 patients and 3 cases are analyzed in details. The priority of this technique over open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF mainly are: (1 the implementation of good reduction of the fracture preventing the risk of ORIF; (2 the possibility for early movement activities for the patient.

  10. Sheep laterality. (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W


    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  11. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia


    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  12. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.


    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  13. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  14. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  15. Stroboscopic image capture: Reducing the dose per frame by a factor of 30 does not prevent beam-induced specimen movement in paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typke, Dieter; Gilpin, Christopher J.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Glaeser, Robert M.


    Beam-induced specimen movement may be the major factor that limits the quality of high-resolution images of organic specimens. One of the possible measures to improve the situation that was proposed by Henderson and Glaeser [Ultramicroscopy 16 (1985) 139-150], which we refer to here as 'stroboscopic image capture', is to divide the normal exposure into many successive frames, thus reducing the amount of electron exposure-and possibly the amount of beam-induced movement-per frame. The frames would then be aligned and summed. We have performed preliminary experiments on stroboscopic imaging using a 200-kV electron microscope that was equipped with a high dynamic range Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for image recording and a liquid N 2 -cooled cryoholder. Single-layer paraffin crystals on carbon film were used as a test specimen. The ratio F(g)/F(0) of paraffin reflections, calculated from the images, serves as our criterion for the image quality. In the series that were evaluated, no significant improvement of the F image (g)/F image (0) ratio was found, even though the electron exposure per frame was reduced by a factor of 30. A frame-to-frame analysis of image distortions showed that considerable beam-induced movement had still occurred during each frame. In addition, the paraffin crystal lattice was observed to move relative to the supporting carbon film, a fact that cannot be explained as being an electron-optical effect caused by specimen charging. We conclude that a significant further reduction of the dose per frame (than was possible with this CCD detector) will be needed in order to test whether the frame-to-frame changes ultimately become small enough for stroboscopic image capture to show its potential

  16. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Filip


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic affordable. Methods and design This paper describes the design of a study evaluating "The stories we live by", a preventive life-review group intervention, which was recently developed for adults of 55 years and over with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both clinical and economic effectiveness will be evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention condition will receive the 8-session preventive intervention. The participants in the control condition will have access to usual care. Clinical end-terms are depressive and anxiety symptoms, current major depressive episode, quality of life and positive mental health post-treatment (3 months after baseline and at follow-ups (6 and 12 months after baseline. Additional goals of this study are to identify groups for whom the intervention is particularly effective and to identify the therapeutic pathways that are vital in inducing clinical change. This will be done by analyzing if treatment response is moderated by demographics, personality, past major depressive episodes, important life events and chronically disease, and mediated by reminiscence functions, perceived control, automatic positive thoughts and meaning in life. Finally the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to care as usual will be assessed by computing incremental costs per case of depression and anxiety avoided (cost-effectiveness and per quality adjusted life year (QALY (cost utility. Discussion It is expected that both the life-review intervention and its evaluation will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. First, the intervention is unique in linking life

  17. Cost-effectiveness and value of information analysis of nutritional support for preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk patients: implement now, research later. (United States)

    Tuffaha, Haitham W; Roberts, Shelley; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A


    Pressure ulcers are a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. Nutritional support may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients who are at risk of pressure ulcer and malnutrition. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutritional support in preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalised patients, and to assess the value of further research to inform the decision to implement this intervention using value of information analysis (VOI). The analysis was from the perspective of Queensland Health, Australia using a decision model with evidence derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resources were valued using 2014 prices and the time horizon of the analysis was one year. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate net monetary benefits (NB) and to calculate VOI measures. Compared with standard hospital diet, nutritional support was cost saving at AU$425 per patient, and more effective with an average 0.005 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. At a willingness-to-pay of AU$50,000 per QALY, the incremental NB was AU$675 per patient, with a probability of 87 % that nutritional support is cost-effective. The expected value of perfect information was AU$5 million and the expected value of perfect parameter information was highest for the relative risk of developing a pressure ulcer at AU$2.5 million. For a future trial investigating the relative effectiveness of the interventions, the expected net benefit of research would be maximised at AU$100,000 with 1,200 patients in each arm if nutritional support was perfectly implemented. The opportunity cost of withholding the decision to implement the intervention until the results of the future study are available would be AU$14 million. Nutritional support is cost-effective in preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalised patients compared with standard diet. Future research to reduce decision uncertainty is worthwhile; however, given the

  18. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte


    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  19. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick


    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  20. Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements. (United States)

    Kagaya, K; Patek, S N


    To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The time scale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high-speed images of strike mechanics and electromyograms of the extensor and flexor muscles that control spring compression and latch release. During spring compression, lateral extensor and flexor units were co-activated. The strike initiated several milliseconds after the flexor units ceased, suggesting that flexor activity prevents spring release and determines the timing of strike initiation. We used linear mixed models and Akaike's information criterion to serially evaluate multiple hypotheses for control mechanisms. We found that variation in spring compression and strike angular velocity were statistically explained by spike activity of the extensor muscle. The results show that mantis shrimp can generate kinematically variable strikes and that their kinematics can be changed through adjustments to motor activity prior to the movement, thus supporting an upstream, central-nervous-system-based control of ultrafast movement. Based on these and other findings, we present a shishiodoshi model that illustrates alternative models of control in biological ballistic systems. The discovery of feed-forward control in mantis shrimp sets the stage for the assessment of targets, strategic variation in kinematics and the role of learning in ultrafast animals. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Review of the thesis: Remnyova S.V. Crime prevention in Leningrad and the Leningrad Region between the later 1950s and the first half of the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vasiliy Vladimirovich


    Full Text Available This article analyses the thesis “Crime prevention in Leningrad and the Leningrad Region between the later 1950s and the first half of the 1960s” (St. Petersburg, 2016. 254 p. for a Candidate Degree in History by S.V. Remneva as well as the structure and logic of work, the validity of the conclusions, the merits of research and its controversial points. Special attention was paid to the analysis of interaction between the public and law enforcement agencies in crime fighting in the second half of the 1950s and the first half of the 1960s. In conclusion the reviewer pays attention on the idea that the presented facts, assessments and results can be used to develop textbooks on the history of crime, the history of law enforcement community, the history of Leningrad and the Leningrad Region.

  2. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality. (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M


    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy versus supportive therapy in affective relapse prevention in bipolar patients with a history of trauma: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Radua, Joaquim; Landín-Romero, Ramon; Blanco, Laura; Madre, Mercè; Reinares, Maria; Comes, Mercè; Jiménez, Esther; Crespo, Jose Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Pérez, Victor; Novo, Patricia; Doñate, Marta; Cortizo, Romina; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Lupo, Walter; McKenna, Peter J; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L


    Up to 60% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have a history of traumatic events, which is associated with greater episode severity, higher risk of comorbidity and higher relapse rates. Trauma-focused treatment strategies for BD are thus necessary but studies are currently scarce. The aim of this study is to examine whether Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy focusing on adherence, insight, de-idealisation of manic symptoms, prodromal symptoms and mood stabilization can reduce episode severity and relapse rates and increase cognitive performance and functioning in patients with BD. This is a single-blind, randomized controlled, multicentre trial in which 82 patients with BD and a history of traumatic events will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two treatment arms: EMDR therapy or supportive therapy. Patients in both groups will receive 20 psychotherapeutic sessions, 60 min each, during 6 months. The primary outcome is a reduction of affective episodes after 12 and 24 months in favour of the EMDR group. As secondary outcome we postulate a greater reduction in affective symptoms in the EMDR group (as measured by the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale modified for BD), and a better performance in cognitive state, social cognition and functioning (as measured by the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry, The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and the Functioning Assessment Short Test, respectively). Traumatic events will be evaluated by The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory, the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale and the Impact of Event Scale. The results of this study will provide evidence whether a specific EMDR protocol for patients with BD is effective in reducing affective episodes, affective symptoms and functional, cognitive and trauma symptoms. The trial is registered at, identifier: NCT02634372 . Registered on

  4. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs]. (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József


    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  5. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eWelniarz


    Full Text Available Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital mirror movements and model rodents with a hopping gait. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the hopping gait. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: i lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and ii unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  6. Breyten Breytenbach in een zijspiegel: Het vizier van H.C. ten Berge Transnationale laterale beweging en particuliere “hetero-images” van een literaire actor/ Breyten Breytenbach Through H.C. ten Berge’s Looking-Glass: Transnational Lateral Movement and Particular “Hetero-Images” of a Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T’Sjoen Yves


    Full Text Available At the end of the 1960s and in the beginning of the 1970s the South African poet Breyten Breytenbach had poetry and drawings published in the leading literary magazine Raster. The editor in charge at the time, H.C. ten Berge, gave the experimental writer and socially engaged Sestiger (the literary modernizing movement in South Africa in the sixties pride of place in the line-ups of the Dutch modernist periodical. In the seventies, Ten Berge contributed to Vingermaan (1980, a collection of poems by Dutch writers (Lucebert, Kopland, Kouwenaar, Schierbeek in support of the anti-apartheid activist. From 1975 Breytenbach was imprisoned in South Africa for political reasons. He served seven years of a nine year sentence. At that time, in the eighties, the Netherlands organized a cultural and economical boycott against the racist regime in Pretoria. Later on, Ten Berge presented his own poems dedicated to Breytenbach in his book of poetry Nieuwe gedichten (1981 and in the collection Materia prima: Gedichten 1963-1993 (1993. Before and during the imprisonment of Breytenbach Ten Berge played an important role in the introduction of the writer in the Low Countries. From a cultural-sociological point of view Breytenbach’s presence in the Dutch language area can be described, in the terminology of Francoise Lionnet and Shu-mei Shih and later on used by Louise Viljoen, as a transnational lateral movement in his writing career. This paper deals with the cultural transmission of an important political and experimental author in the literary system of Afrikaans and English in South Africa into the Dutch system. From a bibliographical viewpoint this paper affords special attention to the publication of Breytenbach’s volume of poetry in Skryt: Om ’n sinkende skip blou te verf ([1972] 1976, Vingermaan (1980 and Nieuwe gedichten ([1981] 1987. Ten Berge played an important role in the introduction of Breytenbach to the Low Countries in the way he presented the

  7. Brownian movement and molecular reality

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Jean


    How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia

  8. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.


    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  9. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.


    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  10. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  11. Injerto columelar extendido angulado. Método para prevenir la rotación cefálica y lateral de los injertos de cartílago en la punta nasal Angulated extended collumelar graft. A method to prevent the cephalic and lateral rotation of the cartilage graft in the nasal tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Castro Govea


    prediction of the position of the grafts of the nasal tip preventing the lateral and cephalic displacement. The surgical protocol included a medical history, development of a surgical plan by analysis of the deformity and the use of pre/and postoperative photographs taken at both intermediate and long time, and long/term follow-up visits for evaluation of the results. Ninety-five patients underwent surgery using this procedure: 75 whit an open technique and 20 with a closed technique. Follow/up ranged from 6 months to 4 years. The results obtained were satisfactory, showing better control and prediction of the shape of the nasal tip. As a conclusion, in our experiencie, the angulated extended collumelar graft provides better control of the proyection and angularity of cartilage grafts pleced in the nasal tip.

  12. Functional Movement Disorder (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  13. Sleep and Fasciculations in Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonka, K.; Fiksa, J.; Horváth, E.; Kemlink, D.; Süssová, J.; Böhm, J.; Šebesta, Václav; Volná, J.; Nevšímalová, S.


    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-30 ISSN 1432-9123 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5999 Keywords : amyothropic lateral sclerosis ALS * fasciculation * fragmentary myoclonus * periodic leg movements in sleep PLMS * polysomnography PSG * electromyography EMG * REM sleep Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  14. The application of mechanical diagnosis and therapy in lateral epicondylalgia (United States)

    Maccio, Joseph R.; Fink, Sarah; Yarznbowicz, Richard; May, Stephen


    Background lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is a musculoskeletal diagnosis that causes pain and dysfunction in the lateral aspect of the elbow. Mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT) is an orthopaedic classification and treatment system based on mechanical and symptomatic response to repeated and sustained end-range movement. There has been no investigation of the association between MDT and patients diagnosed with LE. Case description this report presents three patients matching the currently accepted diagnostic criteria for LE, two with a diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) from a medical doctor. These patients were classified and treated by a diplomat of MDT and two third-year doctoral students of physical therapy using MDT. Outcomes short- and long-term (one year) outcomes were excellent, demonstrating rapid abolishment of symptoms and return to prior levels of function in 3–6 visits between 11–59 days. Patients demonstrated the ability to prevent and manage reoccurrence of symptoms independently without seeking further health care. Discussion this case series raises questions about whether or not the pathologies traditionally associated with the aetiology of LE are actually at fault. Moreover, it raises questions about the utility of special tests typically utilized to identify those structures. The series provides preliminary evidence that MDT may be capable of providing effective short- and long-term outcomes in the management of LE. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:27559286

  15. Dance movement therapy and falls prevention. (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Maggi, Stefania; Schofield, Patricia; Stubbs, Brendon


    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity, healthcare use and mortality. Dance is a popular form of physical activity among older people and previous research has suggested that it may improve various health outcomes in this population, including balance, gait and muscle performance. A systematic review of the potential benefits of dance on falls and fear of falling is lacking. Thus, we conducted a systematic review considering all randomized controls trials (RCTs) investigating if dance can reduce falls and improve fear of falling in older adults. Major databases were searched from inception until 1 March 2017 and a total of 10 RCTs were identified, which included a total of 680 people (n=356 dance, n=324 control). Overall, the mean age of the samples was 69.4 years, and 75.2% were female. Across four RCTs, dance therapy reduced falls versus usual care in only one study. Dance therapy improved fear of falling in two out of three included RCTs. There were no serious adverse events reported in the RCTs. In summary, we found a paucity of studies investigating the effect of dance on falls and fear of falling and the evidence base is preliminary and equivocal. Given the heterogeneity of the included samples and interventions, in addition to the short-term follow-up, no firm conclusions can be drawn. However, dance appears to be safe and, given its popularity and demonstrated benefits on other health/wellbeing outcomes in older adults, it is important that future research considers its potential benefits on falls/fear of falling in older age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo


    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Cystine-Rich Whey Supplement (Immunocal® Delays Disease Onset and Prevents Spinal Cord Glutathione Depletion in the hSOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika K. Ross


    Full Text Available Depletion of the endogenous antioxidant, glutathione (GSH, underlies progression of the devastating neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Thus, strategies aimed at elevating GSH may yield new therapeutics for ALS. Here, we investigated the effects of a unique non-denatured whey protein supplement, Immunocal®, in the transgenic Gly position 93 to Ala (G93A mutant hSOD1 (hSOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. Immunocal® is rich in the GSH precursor, cystine, and is therefore capable of bolstering GSH content. Transgenic hSOD1G93A mice receiving Immunocal® displayed a significant delay in disease onset compared to untreated hSOD1G93A controls. Additionally, Immunocal® treatment significantly decreased the rate of decline in grip strength and prevented disease-associated reductions in whole blood and spinal cord tissue GSH levels in end-stage hSOD1G93A mice. However, Immunocal® did not extend survival, likely due to its inability to preserve the mitochondrial GSH pool in spinal cord. Combination treatment with Immunocal® and the anti-glutamatergic compound, riluzole, delayed disease onset and extended survival in hSOD1G93A mice. These findings demonstrate that sustaining tissue GSH with Immunocal® only modestly delays disease onset and slows the loss of skeletal muscle strength in hSOD1G93A mice. Moreover, the inability of Immunocal® to rescue mitochondrial GSH in spinal cord provides a possible mechanism for its lack of effect on survival and is a limiting factor in the potential utility of this supplement as a therapeutic for ALS.

  18. Lateral collateral ligament (image) (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  19. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33 – 1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5 – 48mm). The experimental campaign involved...... is triggered. This disproportionate increase in the lateral vibration response is caused by a dynamic interaction between the pedestrian and the laterally moving structure, although the governing mechanism which generates the load is still disputed. In this thesis, a comprehensive literature review...... 71 test subjects who covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed on almost 5000 individual tests. An in-depth analysis of the movement of the pedestrians that participated in the experimental campaign reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the ix development of large amplitude...

  20. Stereotypic movement disorder (United States)

    ... this page: // Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  1. Eye Movement Disorders (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  2. Overview of Movement Disorders (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  3. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation. (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W


    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  4. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....

  5. Recent crustal movements (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  6. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew


    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  7. Observational assessment of fundamental movement skill proficiency in preschool children


    佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子


    Fundamental movement skill competency in children has been declining in recent years. Early childhood is a sensitive period for the development of fundamental movement skills ; the mastery of certain of these skills is a prerequisite for daily functioning and participation in later physical or sport-specific activities. Although quantitative methods have been developed for assessing movement development in children, it is also important to qualitatively evaluate such skills in developing chil...

  8. The dynamic behavior of bacterial macrofibers growing with one end prevented from rotating: variation in shaft rotation along the fiber's length, and supercoil movement on a solid surface toward the constrained end

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liling


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial macrofibers twist as they grow, writhe, supercoil and wind up into plectonemic structures (helical forms the individual filaments of which cannot be taken apart without unwinding that eventually carry loops at both of their ends. Terminal loops rotate about the axis of a fiber's shaft in contrary directions at increasing rate as the shaft elongates. Theory suggests that rotation rates should vary linearly along the length of a fiber ranging from maxima at the loop ends to zero at an intermediate point. Blocking rotation at one end of a fiber should lead to a single gradient: zero at the blocked end to maximum at the free end. We tested this conclusion by measuring directly the rotation at various distances along fiber length from the blocked end. The movement of supercoils over a solid surface was also measured in tethered macrofibers. Results Macrofibers that hung down from a floating wire inserted through a terminal loop grew vertically and produced small plectonemic structures by supercoiling along their length. Using these as markers for shaft rotation we observed a uniform gradient of initial rotation rates with slopes of 25.6°/min. mm. and 36.2°/min. mm. in two different fibers. Measurements of the distal tip rotation in a third fiber as a function of length showed increases proportional to increases in length with constant of proportionality 79.2 rad/mm. Another fiber tethered to the floor grew horizontally with a length-doubling time of 74 min, made contact periodically with the floor and supercoiled repeatedly. The supercoils moved over the floor toward the tether at approximately 0.06 mm/min, 4 times faster than the fiber growth rate. Over a period of 800 minutes the fiber grew to 23 mm in length and was entirely retracted back to the tether by a process involving 29 supercoils. Conclusions The rate at which growing bacterial macrofibers rotated about the axis of the fiber shaft measured at various

  9. Movement Structure in Young and Elderly Adults during Goal-Directed Movements of the Left and Right Arm (United States)

    Poston, Brach; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Barduson, Beth; Stelmach, George E.


    Elderly adults often exhibit performance deficits during goal-directed movements of the dominant arm compared with young adults. Recent studies involving hemispheric lateralization have provided evidence that the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere-arm systems are specialized for controlling different movement parameters and that hemispheric…

  10. Effects of dual-task conditions on cervical spine movement variability. (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Vogel, Johanna; Banzer, Winfried


    The potential to accurately perform cervical movements during more challenging tasks might be of importance to prevent dysfunctional motion characteristics. Although sensorimotor function during dual-task conditions are of increasing interest in biomedical and rehabilitation research, effects of such conditions on movement consistency of the neck have not yet been investigated. In this crossover MiSpEx(Medicine in Spine Exercise)-diagnostic study, we aimed to explore differences between single and dual-task conditions on cervical movement variability. Nineteen healthy participants (9 male; 24.5 ± 3.3 y) performed 10 repetitive maximal cervical movements in (1) flexion/extension and (2) lateral flexion, during one single- and during two dual-task test conditions (cognitive, motor) in a randomised and cross-over sequence. Latter consisted of a working memory n-back task (n= 2) and a repetitive ankle movement task. Range of motion (RoM) was assessed using an external three-dimensional ultrasonic movement analysis system. Coefficient of variation (CV) for repetitive RoM was analysed for differences between conditions and controlled for variances in intra-individual movement characteristics. Friedman and post-hoc Bonferroni-adjusted confidence intervals for differences from single- to dual-task values revealed changes in CV in flexion/extension from single-task to motor dual-task (+0.02 ± 0.02 (97.5%CI: 0.01; 0.03); pdual-task condition (+0.01 ± 0.02 (97.5%CI: 0.003; 0.02)) nor for lateral flexion (p> 0.05). Pearson regression analyses revealed a linear negative (pdual-task (R=2 0.55). Results for lateral flexion are comparable, baseline CV negatively impacts differences to cognitive (R=2 0.2) and motor dual-task performance (R=2 0.76; pdual-task conditions while participants with a higher variability remained almost stable or showed a decrease. The results point toward a complex interrelationship of motion patterns and adaptation processes during challenging tasks

  11. Directional asymmetries in human smooth pursuit eye movements. (United States)

    Ke, Sally R; Lam, Jessica; Pai, Dinesh K; Spering, Miriam


    Humans make smooth pursuit eye movements to bring the image of a moving object onto the fovea. Although pursuit accuracy is critical to prevent motion blur, the eye often falls behind the target. Previous studies suggest that pursuit accuracy differs between motion directions. Here, we systematically assess asymmetries in smooth pursuit. In experiment 1, binocular eye movements were recorded while observers (n = 20) tracked a small spot of light moving along one of four cardinal or diagonal axes across a featureless background. We analyzed pursuit latency, acceleration, peak velocity, gain, and catch-up saccade latency, number, and amplitude. In experiment 2 (n = 22), we examined the effects of spatial location and constrained stimulus motion within the upper or lower visual field. Pursuit was significantly faster (higher acceleration, peak velocity, and gain) and smoother (fewer and later catch-up saccades) in response to downward versus upward motion in both the upper and the lower visual fields. Pursuit was also more accurate and smoother in response to horizontal versus vertical motion. CONCLUSIONS. Our study is the first to report a consistent up-down asymmetry in human adults, regardless of visual field. Our findings suggest that pursuit asymmetries are adaptive responses to the requirements of the visual context: preferred motion directions (horizontal and downward) are more critical to our survival than nonpreferred ones.

  12. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  13. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.


    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  14. Classification of movement disorders. (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley


    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  16. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization. (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A


    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  17. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.


    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  18. Characterizing the width of amphibian movements during postbreeding migration. (United States)

    Coster, Stephanie S; Veysey Powell, Jessica S; Babbitt, Kimberly J


    Habitat linkages can help maintain connectivity of animal populations in developed landscapes. However, the lack of empirical data on the width of lateral movements (i.e., the zigzagging of individuals as they move from one point to point another) makes determining the width of such linkages challenging. We used radiotracking data from wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in a managed forest in Maine (U.S.A.) to characterize movement patterns of populations and thus inform planning for the width of wildlife corridors. For each individual, we calculated the polar coordinates of all locations, estimated the vector sum of the polar coordinates, and measured the distance from each location to the vector sum. By fitting a Gaussian distribution over a histogram of these distances, we created a population-level probability density function and estimated the 50th and 95th percentiles to determine the width of lateral movement as individuals progressed from the pond to upland habitat. For spotted salamanders 50% of lateral movements were ≤13 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤39 m wide. For wood frogs, 50% of lateral movements were ≤17 m wide and 95% of movements were ≤ 51 m wide. For both species, those individuals that traveled the farthest from the pond also displayed the greatest lateral movement. Our results serve as a foundation for spatially explicit conservation planning for pond-breeding amphibians in areas undergoing development. Our technique can also be applied to movement data from other taxa to aid in designing habitat linkages. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.


    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging



    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew


    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  1. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative]. (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan


    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  2. [Dance/movement therapy in oncological rehabilitation]. (United States)

    Mannheim, Elana G; Helmes, Almut; Weis, Joachim


    Dance/movement therapy may be defined as a psychosocial and body-oriented art therapy, which uses dance for the expression of emotional and cognitive issues. Dance/movement therapy is an important intervention for cancer patients to enhance coping strategies. There are only few studies investigating dance therapy with cancer patients. The present study investigates effects of dance/movement therapy (n = 115) in the setting of inpatient rehabilitation based on a pre-post design with a control group as well as a follow-up 3 months later. Standardized questionnaires measuring quality of life, anxiety and depression, and self-concept (EORTC QLQ-C30, HADS, FSKN) were used. In addition, at the end of the inpatient rehabilitation program subjective expectations of the dance/movement therapy and the patients' subjective evaluation of the benefits of the intervention were measured by a new developed questionnaire. As process factors of dance/movement therapy, expression of emotions, enhancement of self-esteem, development of the personality, vitality, getting inner balance, and getting in touch with the body have been identified. In terms of quality of life and psychological well-being, the results showed significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes. Even though those effects may not be attributed to the intervention alone, the analysis of the data and the patients' subjective statements help to reveal therapeutic factors and process characteristics of dance/movement therapy within inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.


    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  4. [Dance/Movement Therapy. (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.


    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  5. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.


    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  6. Primary Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    ... Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and rehabilitation may prevent joint immobility and slow muscle ... (PLS) is a rare neuromuscular disease with slowly progressive weakness in voluntary muscle ...

  7. Clinical importance of voluntary and induced Bennett movement. (United States)

    Tupac, R G


    A total of 136 dentulous patients were divided into three groups for purposes of quantitative pantographic comparison of voluntary and induced Bennett movement. The effects of patient age and operator experience on recording the Bennett movement were also studied. The results indicates that for patients studied with Bennett movement iduced in the manner described: 1. Experienced operators can obtain more induced Bennett movement that inexperienced operators. 2. Inducing Bennett movement has a greater effect on the immediate side shift component than it has on the progressive side shift component. 3. For older individuals the amount and direction of induced immediate side shift is greater than for younger patients, statistically highly significant, and therefore clinically important. In conclusion, if the objective of a pantographic survey is to record the complete capacity of the joint to move, *lateral jaw movements must be induced.

  8. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara


    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  9. Music and movement


    Nasev, Lence


    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  10. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle. (United States)

    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi


    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of the soleus MEPs. Only trials in which background EMG level, ankle angle, and ankle velocity were similar among the movement conditions were included for data analysis. In addition, only trials with a similar M-wave were included for data analysis in the experiment evoking H-reflexes. Results showed that H reflex and MEP amplitudes in the soleus muscle during discrete movement were not significantly different from those during rhythmic movement. MEP amplitude in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement was significantly larger than that during the initial cycle of the rhythmic movement or during discrete movement. Higher corticospinal excitability in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement may reflect changes in corticospinal control from the initial cycle to the later cycles of rhythmic movement.

  11. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.


    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  12. Stamina in later life. (United States)

    Colerick, E J


    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  13. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.


    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  14. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.


    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  15. Watching your foot move - an fMRI study of visuomotor interactions during foot movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Nicolas


    are activated during self-generated ankle movements guided by visual feedback as compared with externally generated movements under similar visual and proprioceptive conditions. We found a distinct network, comprising the posterior parietal cortex and lateral cerebellar hemispheres, which showed increased...... activation during visually guided self-generated ankle movements. Furthermore, we found differential activation in the cerebellum depending on the different main effects, that is, whether movements were self- or externally generated regardless of visual feedback, presence or absence of visual feedback...

  16. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard


    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  17. Gravity effects on endogenous movements (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    -ation stimulations (gravitropism reactions). Such a negative feedback can account for gravity initiated transport, resulting in lateral water transport and overall movements. The simulation results indicate that self-sustained oscillations can occur on such a cylinder of cells. It will also be demonstrated that the introduction of feedback in the model results in longer circum-nutation periods. It will be discussed how this generic modeling approach could be applied to discuss oscillatory plant movements in general and how other environmental factors, as for instance light gradients, could couple to the self-sustained movements. The oscillations require weightlessness for proper investigations. References: Antonsen F.: Biophysical studies of plant growth movements in microgravity and under 1 g conditions. PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology 1998. Johnsson A., Solheim BGB, Iversen T.-H.: Gravity amplifies and microgravity decreases cir-cumnutations in Arabidopsis thaliana stems: results from a space experiment.-New Phytologist 182: 621-629. 2009. Turing AM.: The chemical basis for morphogenesis.-Phil Trans. R. Soc. London Ser B237:37 -72. 1952.

  18. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  19. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  20. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders. (United States)

    Lim, Thien Thien


    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear movement in fungi. (United States)

    Xiang, Xin


    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf


    inequity, organize transnationally, and maintain a critical stance toward significant aspects of the state system. For this reason, many supporters favor other terms such as alterglobalization movement, global justice movement , or simply the movement of movements . Critics accuse the movements...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  3. Lateral Attitude Change. (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd


    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film]. (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J


    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  5. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships


    Jacqueline C.


    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  6. Advantages of later motherhood. (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A


    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  7. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy


    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  8. The cortical signature of symptom laterality in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham


    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD often present with unilateral motor symptoms that eventually spread to the other side. This symptom lateralization is diagnostically important, as it serves to distinguish PD from other motor disorders with overlapping symptom profiles. Further, recent studies have shown that the side of symptom onset is important for prognosis, as there are differences in the rate of disease progression and the incidence of secondary symptoms between right- and left-dominant (RD, LD patients. Physiologically, previous studies have shown asymmetrical decline in structure and metabolism throughout the basal ganglia, although connecting this directly to motor function has been difficult. To identify the neurophysiological basis of symptom laterality in PD, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG during left- and right-hand movement paradigms in patients with PD who exhibited either RD or LD symptomatology. The beta oscillations serving these movements were then imaged using beamforming methods, and we extracted the time series of the peak voxel in the left and right primary motor cortices for each movement. In addition, each patient's symptom asymmetry was quantitated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, which allowed the relationship between symptom asymmetry and neural asymmetry to be assessed. We found that LD patients had stronger beta suppression during movement, as well as greater post-movement beta rebound compared to patients with RD symptoms, independent of the hand that was moved. Interestingly, the asymmetry of beta activity during right-hand movement uniquely correlated with symptom asymmetry, such that the more LD the symptom profile, the more left-lateralized (i.e., contralateral to movement the beta response; conversely, the more RD the symptom profile, the more right-lateralized (i.e., ipsilateral to movement the beta response. This study is the first to directly probe the relationship

  9. Analisis Tekuk Lateral Pipa Gas Bawah Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrotul Laeli Hidayaturrohmah


    Full Text Available To prevent solidification on the pipeline, hydrocarbon is transferred in high temperature and high pressure. High presure and temperature lead to axial tension appearence along the pipeline. Interaction between soil and the surface of pipeline trigering frictional resistance which holding axial force on the pipeline and could cause the occurence of global buckling. According to DNV RP F110, global buckling may occur in several directions which one of them is in the lateral direction. Lateral buckling usually occurs only in the exposed pipe which occurs when the compressive force on the pipe imperfection released at one point so that the excess force in the slip zone turn into buckling. According to DNV RP F 110, there are three methods of analysis that can be used to perform the analysis of lateral buckling the pipe. Those are methods of Hobbs, Van GAF, and Spinazle. In this paper, lateral buckling analysis performed on a 7.67 km subsea gas pipeline by using Hobbs method which concluded that the pipeline has the potential to lateral buckling. Analysis by using software ABAQUS was also carried out to determine the location of the lateral buckling which is the location where overstressed occur.

  10. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system. (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco


    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  11. Automatic lateral emergency collision avoidance for a passenger car


    Bevan, G.; Gollee, H.; O'Reilly, J.


    Longitudinal collision avoidance controllers are of limited benefit for preventing head-on collisions between road vehicles travelling at high speed or for preventing rear end collisions when there is insufficient separation between the vehicles. In these circumstances, aggressive lateral vehicle manoeuvres are more appropriate. This paper develops a controller architecture to perform an emergency lateral collision avoidance manoeuvre. Simulation results indicate significant improvements in c...

  12. Laterality of the legs in young female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.

  13. Eye movement identification based on accumulated time feature (United States)

    Guo, Baobao; Wu, Qiang; Sun, Jiande; Yan, Hua


    Eye movement is a new kind of feature for biometrical recognition, it has many advantages compared with other features such as fingerprint, face, and iris. It is not only a sort of static characteristics, but also a combination of brain activity and muscle behavior, which makes it effective to prevent spoofing attack. In addition, eye movements can be incorporated with faces, iris and other features recorded from the face region into multimode systems. In this paper, we do an exploring study on eye movement identification based on the eye movement datasets provided by Komogortsev et al. in 2011 with different classification methods. The time of saccade and fixation are extracted from the eye movement data as the eye movement features. Furthermore, the performance analysis was conducted on different classification methods such as the BP, RBF, ELMAN and SVM in order to provide a reference to the future research in this field.

  14. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick


    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  15. Movement as utopia. (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián


    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  16. White Paper: Movement System Diagnoses in Neurologic Physical Therapy. (United States)

    Hedman, Lois D; Quinn, Lori; Gill-Body, Kathleen; Brown, David A; Quiben, Myla; Riley, Nora; Scheets, Patricia L


    The APTA recently established a vision for physical therapists to transform society by optimizing movement to promote health and wellness, mitigate impairments, and prevent disability. An important element of this vision entails the integration of the movement system into the profession, and necessitates the development of movement system diagnoses by physical therapists. At this point in time, the profession as a whole has not agreed upon diagnostic classifications or guidelines to assist in developing movement system diagnoses that will consistently capture an individual's movement problems. We propose that, going forward, diagnostic classifications of movement system problems need to be developed, tested, and validated. The Academy of Neurologic Physical Therapy's Movement System Task Force was convened to address these issues with respect to management of movement system problems in patients with neurologic conditions. The purpose of this article is to report on the work and recommendations of the Task Force. The Task Force identified 4 essential elements necessary to develop and implement movement system diagnoses for patients with primarily neurologic involvement from existing movement system classifications. The Task Force considered the potential impact of using movement system diagnoses on clinical practice, education and, research. Recommendations were developed and provided recommendations for potential next steps to broaden this discussion and foster the development of movement system diagnostic classifications. The Task Force proposes that diagnostic classifications of movement system problems need to be developed, tested, and validated with the long-range goal to reach consensus on and adoption of a movement system diagnostic framework for clients with neurologic injury or disease states.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at:

  17. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna


    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  18. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred


    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  19. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N


    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  20. Irreducible lateral dislocation of the elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaparwal M


    Full Text Available A rare case of an irreducible post-traumatic lateral dislocation of elbow is presented. The mechanism of injury was fall on a flexed elbow with trauma on its medial aspect resulting in pronation of the forearm. At open reduction, the brachialis muscle was in the form of a tight band which prevented reduction. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in the joint.

  1. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  2. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat


    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  3. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research. (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E


    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  4. [Studies on the standardization of parameters for jaw movement analysis--6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements analysis]. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hisahiro; Bando, Eiichi; Abe, Susumu


    To establish standardized evaluating methods for jaw movements analysis. In this paper, we investigated evaluating parameters for 6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements data. Recorded data of jaw border movements from 20 male adults were employed as basic samples. The main parameters were as follows: 1. The displacement of an intercondylar midpoint: the length of a straight line between 2 positions of this point, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 2. The angle of intercondylar axes: the angle between 2 position of the intercondylar axis, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 3. The angle of incisal-condylar planes: the angle between 2 position of the plane, the intercuspal position and other jaw position (this plane was defined with the incisal point and condylar points of both sides 4. The mandibular motion range index: quantitative values calculated with 2 of 3 parameters described above. The mandibular motion range index showed a close correlation with respective projected areas of the incisal paths, with the projected area of sagittal border movements on the sagittal plane r = 0.82 (p movements on the frontal plane: left lateral border movements r = 0.92 (p movements r = 0.84 (p movements data and relative relationship between the intercuspal position and other jaw position. They were independent of reference coordinate systems and could measure jaw movement quantitatively.

  5. Rationality in Human Movement. (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A


    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  6. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil


    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  7. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.


    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...

  8. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob


    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  9. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf


    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  10. Managing Movement as Partnership (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead


    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  11. Music, Movement, and Poetry. (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  12. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao


    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  13. Morocco's February 20 Movement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 20, 2018 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 ... revolted several times, namely in big cities like Casablanca, Marrakech or .... region in order to take advantage of their experience and acquire a regional ..... Undoubtedly, with social networking, the dynamics of protest movements.

  14. [Architecture and movement]. (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel


    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  15. Reasons for Implementing Movement in Kinetic Architecture (United States)

    Cudzik, Jan; Nyka, Lucyna


    The paper gives insights into different forms of movement in contemporary architecture and examines them based on the reasons for their implementation. The main objective of the paper is to determine: the degree to which the complexity of kinematic architecture results from functional and spatial needs and what other motivations there are. The method adopted to investigate these questions involves theoretical studies and comparative analyses of architectural objects with different forms of movement imbedded in their structure. Using both methods allowed delving into reasons that lie behind the implementation of movement in contemporary kinetic architecture. As research shows, there is a constantly growing range of applications with kinematic solutions inserted in buildings’ structures. The reasons for their implementation are manifold and encompass pursuits of functional qualities, environmental performance, spatial effects, social interactions and new aesthetics. In those early projects based on simple mechanisms, the main motives were focused on functional values and in later experiments - on improving buildings’ environmental performance. Additionally, in recent proposals, a significant quest could be detected toward kinematic solutions that are focused on factors related to alternative aesthetics and innovative spatial effects. Research reveals that the more complicated form of movement, the more often the reason for its implementation goes beyond the traditionally understood “function”. However, research also shows that the effects resulting from investigations on spatial qualities of architecture and new aesthetics often appear to provide creative insights into new functionalities in architecture.

  16. Does a parent-administrated early motor intervention influence general movements and movement character at 3months of age in infants born preterm? (United States)

    Fjørtoft, Toril; Ustad, Tordis; Follestad, Turid; Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Øberg, Gunn Kristin


    Studies of preterm and term-born infants have shown absent fidgety movements and an abnormal movement character to be related to brain lesions and unfavourable neurological outcomes. The present study examines what effect a parent-administered early intervention program applied to preterm infants in a randomised control trial (RCT) between 34 and 36weeks gestational age has on their fidgety movements and overall movement character at three months of age. The study was part of the RCT in an early intervention programme including preterm infants born between 2010 and 2014 at three Norwegian university hospitals. 130 preterm infants participated in the study, with 59 of them in the control group and 71 in the intervention group. Fidgety movements and overall movement character at three months corrected age. No difference was found between the intervention group and the control group in terms of fidgety movements or movement character. Approximately half of the infants in both groups showed an abnormal movement character. No evidence was found in this RCT to suggest that an intervention at 34 to 37weeks gestational age has a significant effect on the fidgety movements or overall movement character of preterm infants. This is in line with the assumption that absent fidgety movements and an abnormal movement character are due to permanent brain injury and are therefore good predictors for later neurological impairments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami


    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  18. WE-A-17A-11: Implanted Brachytherapy Seed Movement Due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Kay, I [Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch (New Zealand)


    Purpose: To characterize the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds due to transrectal ultrasound probe-induced prostate deformation and to estimate the effects on prostate dosimetry. Methods: Implanted probe-in and probe-removed seed distributions were reconstructed for 10 patients using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate was delineated on ultrasound and registered to the fluoroscopy seeds using a visible subset of seeds and residual needle tracks. A linear tensor and shearing model correlated the seed movement with position. The seed movement model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to simulate the prostate contour without probe compression. Changes in prostate and surrogate urethra dosimetry were calculated. Results: Seed movement patterns reflecting elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending were observed. Elastic decompression was characterized by anterior-posterior expansion and superior-inferior and lateral contractions. For lateral shearing, anterior movement up to 6 mm was observed for extraprostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. The average intra-prostatic seed movement was 1.3 mm, and the residual after linear modeling was 0.6 mm. Prostate D90 increased by 4 Gy on average (8 Gy max) and was correlated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing resulted in differential change in D90 of 7 Gy between anterior and posterior quadrants, and increase in whole prostate D90 of 4 Gy. Urethra D10 increased by 4 Gy. Conclusion: Seed movement upon probe removal was characterized. The proposed model captured the linear correlation between seed movement and position. Whole prostate dose coverage increased slightly, due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. Lateral shearing movement increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region, at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect on whole prostate D90 was smaller due to the subset

  19. Lateralization of cortical negative motor areas. (United States)

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Catarino, Claudia B; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Winkler, Peter A; Noachtar, Soheyl


    The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients. Results of electrical stimulation of the cortex were evaluated in a total of 128 patients in whom invasive electrodes were implanted for planning resective epilepsy surgery. Twenty patients, in whom negative motor responses were obtained, were included in the study. Bilateral upper limb negative motor responses were more often elicited from stimulation of the mesial frontal cortex whereas stimulation of the lateral central cortex leads to contralateral upper limb negative motor responses (pfrontal gyrus whereas contralateral negative motor responses localized predominantly in the anterior part of the precentral gyrus (pgyrus and the mesial fronto-central cortex showing functional differences with regard to unilateral and bilateral upper limb representation. The lateral fronto-central negative motor area serves predominantly contralateral upper limb motor control whereas the mesial frontal negative motor area represents bilateral upper limb movement control. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders]. (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra


    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the movement of active faults on buried pipelines | Parish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the earthquake, a buried pipeline may be experienced extreme loading that is the result of the relatively large displacement of the Earth along the pipe. Large movements of ground could occur by faulting, liquefaction, lateral spreading, landslides, and slope failures. Since the pipelines are widely spread, and in ...

  2. Multimodal movement prediction - towards an individual assistance of patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Andrea Kirchner

    Full Text Available Assistive devices, like exoskeletons or orthoses, often make use of physiological data that allow the detection or prediction of movement onset. Movement onset can be detected at the executing site, the skeletal muscles, as by means of electromyography. Movement intention can be detected by the analysis of brain activity, recorded by, e.g., electroencephalography, or in the behavior of the subject by, e.g., eye movement analysis. These different approaches can be used depending on the kind of neuromuscular disorder, state of therapy or assistive device. In this work we conducted experiments with healthy subjects while performing self-initiated and self-paced arm movements. While other studies showed that multimodal signal analysis can improve the performance of predictions, we show that a sensible combination of electroencephalographic and electromyographic data can potentially improve the adaptability of assistive technical devices with respect to the individual demands of, e.g., early and late stages in rehabilitation therapy. In earlier stages for patients with weak muscle or motor related brain activity it is important to achieve high positive detection rates to support self-initiated movements. To detect most movement intentions from electroencephalographic or electromyographic data motivates a patient and can enhance her/his progress in rehabilitation. In a later stage for patients with stronger muscle or brain activity, reliable movement prediction is more important to encourage patients to behave more accurately and to invest more effort in the task. Further, the false detection rate needs to be reduced. We propose that both types of physiological data can be used in an and combination, where both signals must be detected to drive a movement. By this approach the behavior of the patient during later therapy can be controlled better and false positive detections, which can be very annoying for patients who are further advanced in

  3. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  4. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.


    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  5. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children. (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake


    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sleep-related movement disorders. (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi


    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  7. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow). (United States)

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert


    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of Lateral Ankle Sprains in Football Players Based on Clinical Tests and Body Mass Index. (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Terada, Masafumi; Beard, Megan Q; Kosik, Kyle B; Lepley, Adam S; McCann, Ryan S; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Thomas, Abbey C


    The lateral ankle sprain (LAS) is the most common injury suffered in sports, especially in football. While suggested in some studies, a predictive role of clinical tests for LAS has not been established. To determine which clinical tests, focused on potentially modifiable factors of movement patterns and body mass index (BMI), could best demonstrate risk of LAS among high school and collegiate football players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 539 high school and collegiate football players were evaluated during the preseason with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Functional Movement Screen as well as BMI. Results were compared between players who did and did not suffer an LAS during the season. Logistic regression analyses and calculated odds ratios were used to determine which measures predicted risk of LAS. The LAS group performed worse on the SEBT-anterior reaching direction (SEBT-ANT) and had higher BMI as compared with the noninjured group (P football players. BMI was also significantly higher in football players who sustained an LAS. Identifying clinical tools for successful LAS injury risk prediction will be a critical step toward the creation of effective prevention programs to reduce risk of sustaining an LAS during participation in football. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.


    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  10. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho


    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  11. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.


    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  12. Cyclic movement pin mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, J.G.; Martin, Jean.


    This invention concerns a recurring movement pin mechanism for controlling a nuclear reactor by shifting a neutron absorbing assembly, vertically mobile in the nuclear reactor, to adjust the power and for emergency shut-down. This mechanism ensures a continuous movement and accurate shut-down at any level of the travel height of the absorbing assembly in the core. It also prevents the impacts of the pivoting pins in the control rod slots [fr

  13. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.


    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  14. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood. (United States)

    Campbell, Linley


    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  15. Upper Blepharoplasty and Lateral Wound Dehiscence. (United States)

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Jamshidian-Tehrani, Mansooreh; Sharzad, Sahab; Sanjari, Mostafa Soltan


    To report the frequency of lateral wound dehiscence (LWD) after upper blepharoplasty (UB), a technique and its outcome to prevent LWD. A retrospective review was performed for cases of LWD after UB presenting between 2003 and 2009, and then a prospective comparative study was performed between February 2009 and March 2013. For the comparison, subjects were divided into two groups based on intraoperative assessment of lateral wound tension (same technique and surgeon). Group 1 received 1-3 orbicularis/subcutaneous buried sutures (6-0 polyglactin) before interrupted 6-0 nylon skin closure. Group 2 underwent skin closure only. Subjects, who had re-operation, skin healing disorders, and incomplete follow-up (LWD with a mean age of 36.2 years in the audit (2003-2009). The prospective study included 68 subjects (68/293, 23.2%) in Group 1 and 225 in Group 2. Gender and simultaneous forehead and eyebrow procedures were similar between groups (P = 0.3 and P = 0.4 respectively). Group 1 was statistically significantly younger at mean age of 41.4 years, compared to Group 2 at 56.1 years (P = 0.000). The frequency of LWD significantly (P = 0.04) decreased to 0.3% (1/293). In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment), tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD.

  16. Frequent Bowel Movements (United States)

    ... bowel disease (IBD). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed Nov. 15, 2017. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive thyroid). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive ...

  17. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion. (United States)

    Saradjian, A H


    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ampleness of head movements of children and adolescents with sensorineural hearing loss. (United States)

    de Souza Melo, Renato


    Head movements are controlled by the vestibular system. Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present restrictions in ampleness of head movements due to damage in the vestibule-cochlear systems, resulting from injury in the inner ear. To evaluate the ampleness of head movements of children with normal hearing and children with sensorineural hearing loss and compare data between groups. Cross-sectional study that evaluated the ampleness of head movements of 96 students, being 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, of both sexes, with aged between 7 and 18 years old. The performance of ampleness of head movements was analyzed by a manual goniometric evaluation, according the references proposed by Marques. To the statistical analysis we used the t-Student test in case of normality of the data or the Mann-Whitney test when did not applied the suppositions of normality. Hearing loss children showed less mean in ampleness of all movements of head compared to normal hearing children, pointing difference to movements of flexion (p = 0,001), lateral inclination to the right (p = 0,025) and lateral rotation to the left (p = 0,021). Hearing loss children showed reduction in the ampleness of these head movements: flexion, lateral inclination to the right and lateral rotation to the left compared to normal hearing children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Binocular eye movement control and motion perception: What is being tracked?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Steen (Hans); J. Dits (Joyce)


    textabstractPURPOSE. We investigated under what conditions humans can make independent slow phase eye movements. The ability to make independent movements of the two eyes generally is attributed to few specialized lateral eyed animal species, for example chameleons. In our study, we showed that

  20. [Risk factors for tardive movement disorders in schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Tenback, D E; Bakker, P R; van Harten, P N


    Tardive movement disorders are common among patients with schizophrenia. Risk factors for movement disorders are of the utmost importance in the context of preventive strategies. To achieve clearer classification of movement disorders in schizophrenia, to identify the risk factors involved and thereby develop strategies to prevent movement disorders. We searched PubMed for prospective studies which had been performed in homogeneous target populations with schizophrenia and which contained well-defined definitions of the movement disorders. From these we selected studies in which risk factors were repeatedly identified. Tardive dyskinesia is well documented. Risk factors for developing tardive dyskinesia are use of antipsychotics, particularly those belonging to the first generation, 'not belonging to the Caucasian race', early extrapyramidal symptoms and older age. So far, there is very little conclusive evidence regarding the genetics of tardive movement disorders. With regard to tardive dyskinesia, not belonging to the Caucasian race and old age are two risk factors that can be quickly determined for the purpose of prevention. In this case it leads to the choice of medication with a low D2 affinity. Furthermore, it is advisable, after commencing treatment with an antipsychotic drug, to evaluate on a regular basis if the patient is showing (early) signs of TD. If TD does occur, there is a choice between medication with a low D-2 affinity or clozapine.

  1. Identifying Anxiety Through Tracked Head Movements in a Virtual Classroom. (United States)

    Won, Andrea Stevenson; Perone, Brian; Friend, Michelle; Bailenson, Jeremy N


    Virtual reality allows the controlled simulation of complex social settings, such as classrooms, and thus provides an opportunity to test a range of theories in the social sciences in a way that is both naturalistic and controlled. Importantly, virtual environments also allow the body movements of participants in the virtual world to be tracked and recorded. In the following article, we discuss how tracked head movements were correlated with participants' reports of anxiety in a simulation of a classroom. Participants who reported a high sense of awareness of and concern about the other virtual people in the room showed different patterns of head movement (more lateral head movement, indicating scanning behavior) from those who reported a low level of concern. We discuss the implications of this research for understanding nonverbal behavior associated with anxiety and for the design of online educational systems.

  2. Frictional Sound Analysis by Simulating the Human Arm Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosouf Khaldon


    Full Text Available Fabric noise generated by fabric-to-fabric friction is considered as one of the auditory disturbances that can have an impact on the quality of some textile products. For this reason, an instrument has been developed to analyse this phenomenon. The instrument is designed to simulate the relative movement of a human arm when walking. In order to understand the nature of the relative motion of a human arm, films of the upper half of the human body were taken. These films help to define the parameters required for movement simulation. These parameters are movement trajectory, movement velocity, arm pressure applied on the lateral part of the trunk and the friction area. After creating the instrument, a set of soundtracks related to the noise generated by fabric-to-fabric friction was recorded. The recordings were treated with a specific software to extract the sound parameters and the acoustic imprints of fabric were obtained.

  3. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim


    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip


    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  5. Normal movement selectivity in autism. (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J


    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stereotypic movement disorders. (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S


    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The tactile movement aftereffect. (United States)

    Hollins, M; Favorov, O


    The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the

  8. Fetal body movement monitoring. (United States)

    Rayburn, W F


    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  9. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte


    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel


    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  11. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi


    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  12. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.


    makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...

  13. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak


    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: sonographic evaluation of dysphagia. (United States)

    Tamburrini, S; Solazzo, A; Sagnelli, A; Del Vecchio, L; Reginelli, A; Monsorrò, M; Grassi, R


    The authors sought to determine the role of video ultrasonography (VUS) in the diagnostic assessment of dysphagia in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nine patients underwent simultaneous static and dynamic VUS examination and videofluoroscopy (VFS) of swallowing. At the static phase, VUS showed 5/9 patients had lingual atrophy. Abnormal bolus position was observed in 6/9 patients at VUS and 3/9 at VFS. Both techniques identified an inability to keep the bolus in the oral cavity in 4/9 patients. At the dynamic phase, reduced lingual movement was observed in 5/9 patients at VUS and 2/9 at VFS. Disorganised tongue movement was seen in 3/9 patients at VUS and in 2/9 at VFS. Fragmented swallowing was only visualised at VUS. Stagnation of ingested material was never visualised at VUS, whereas it was clearly depicted in 2/9 patients at VFS. VUS can be integrated into the diagnostic protocol for evaluating swallowing in patients with ALS, as it has higher sensitivity than VFS in assessing the dynamic factors that represent the early signs of dysphagia.

  15. [Cortical Areas for Controlling Voluntary Movements]. (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Hoshi, Eiji


    The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal. The supplementary motor area, which occupies the mesial aspect, is involved in planning and executing actions based on internalized or memorized signals. The supplementary motor area plays a central role in bimanual movements, organizing multiple movements, and switching from a routine to a controlled behavior. Thus, Brodmann areas 4 and 6 are considered as central motor areas in the cerebral cortex, in which the idea of an action is transformed to an actual movement in a variety of contexts.

  16. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing (United States)


    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  17. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter


    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Congenital mirror movement disorder Congenital mirror movement disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements ...

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J


    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...... that rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder coexists with cataplexy in narcolepsy due to hypocretin deficiency. In our study, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2nd edition) criteria in 63 narcolepsy patients with or without...

  20. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.


    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann`s areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  1. Detection of cortical activities on eye movement using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji; Soulie, D.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Iba-Zizen, M.T.; Cabanis, E.A.


    Cortical activity during eye movement was examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Horizontal saccadic eye movements and smooth pursuit eye movements were elicited in normal subjects. Activity in the frontal eye field was found during both saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements at the posterior margin of the middle frontal gyrus and in parts of the precentral sulcus and precentral gyrus bordering the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 8, 6, and 9). In addition, activity in the parietal eye field was found in the deep, upper margin of the angular gyrus and of the supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 39 and 40) during saccadic eye movement. Activity of V5 was found at the intersection of the ascending limb of the inferior temporal sulcus and the lateral occipital sulcus during smooth pursuit eye movement. Our results suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting cortical activity during eye movement. (author)

  2. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert and the Woman Suffrage Movement, 1870-1896. (United States)

    Buechler, Steven M.


    The Woman Suffrage Movement experienced ideological changes so that earlier and later suffragists had different views. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert was one reformer who first criticized female socialization and the system of separate spheres. Later her views became more sentimental and she idealized the traditional role of women. (VM)

  3. Implications of Lateral Cerebellum in Proactive Control of Saccades. (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Jun; Suzuki, Tomoki W; Tanaka, Masaki


    Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we recorded from single neurons in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum in monkeys performing anti-saccade/pro-saccade tasks. We found that neurons in the posterior part of the dentate nucleus showed higher firing rates during the preparation of anti-saccades compared with pro-saccades. When the animals made erroneous saccades to the visual stimuli in the anti-saccade trials, the firing rate during the preparatory period decreased. Furthermore, local inactivation of the recording sites with muscimol moderately increased the proportion of error trials, while successful anti-saccades were more variable and often had shorter latency during inactivation. Thus, our results show that neuronal activity in the cerebellar dentate nucleus causally regulates anti-saccade performance. Neuronal signals from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal cortex might modulate the proactive control signals in the corticobasal ganglia circuitry that inhibit early reactive responses and possibly optimize the speed and accuracy of anti-saccades. Although the lateral cerebellum is interconnected with the cortical eye fields via the thalamus and the pons, its role in eye movements remains unclear. We found that neurons in the caudal part of the lateral (dentate) nucleus of the cerebellum showed the increased

  4. Quantification of prostate movements during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artignana, X.; Rastkhah, M.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Fourneret, P.; Gilliot, O.


    Decrease treatment uncertainties is one of the most important challenge in radiation oncology. Numerous techniques are available to quantify prostate motion and visualize prostate location day after day before each irradiation: CT-scan, cone-beam-CT-Scan, ultrasound, prostatic markers... The knowledge of prostate motion is necessary to define the minimal margin around the target volume needed to avoid mis-positioning during treatment session. Different kind of prostate movement have been studied and are reported in the present work: namely, those having a large amplitude extending through out the whole treatment period on one hand; and those with a shorter amplitude happening during treatment session one the other hand. The long lasting movement are mostly anterior posterior (3 mm standard deviation), secondary in cranial-caudal (1-2 mm standard deviation) and lateral directions (0.5-1 mm standard deviation). They are mostly due to the rectal state of filling and mildly due to bladder filling or inferior limbs position. On the other hand the shorter movement that occurs during the treatment session is mostly variation of position around a steady point represented by the apex. Ones again, the rectal filling state is the principle cause. This way, during the 20 minutes of a treatment session, including the positioning of the patient, a movement of less than 3 mm could be expected when the rectum is empty. Ideally, real time imaging tools should allow an accurate localisation of the prostate and the adaptation of the dosimetry before each treatment session in a time envelope not exceeding 20 minutes. (author)

  5. Temporomandibular joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.


    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)

  6. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth


    Summary: This article considers the display of posters as a distinctive activity and defining aspect of British modernism between the two wars, looking to a cardinal event, the Exhibition of British and Foreign Posters at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1931. This manifestation was the first...... in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...

  7. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg


    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  8. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén


    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  9. Clinical features of movement disorders. (United States)

    Yung, C Y


    The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.

  10. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.


    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  11. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail:


    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  12. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism


    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.


    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  13. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben


    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....

  14. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward


    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  15. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice (United States)

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander


    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  16. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.


    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  17. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.


    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees ... © 2018 North ...

  19. Kinematic and neuromuscular relationships between lower extremity clinical movement assessments. (United States)

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Cram, Tyler R; Frank, Barnett S; Begalle, Rebecca L; Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A


    Lower extremity injuries have immediate and long-term consequences. Lower extremity movement assessments can assist with identifying individuals at greater injury risk and guide injury prevention interventions. Movement assessments identify similar movement characteristics and evidence suggests large magnitude kinematic relationships exist between movement patterns observed across assessments; however, the magnitude of the relationships for electromyographic (EMG) measures across movement assessments remains largely unknown. This study examined relationships between lower extremity kinematic and EMG measures during jump landings and single leg squats. Lower extremity three-dimensional kinematic and EMG data were sampled from healthy adults (males = 20, females = 20) during the movement assessments. Pearson correlations examined the relationships of the kinematic and EMG measures and paired samples t-tests compared mean kinematic and EMG measures between the assessments. Overall, significant moderate correlations were observed for lower extremity kinematic (r avg  = 0.41, r range  = 0.10-0.61) and EMG (r avg  = 0.47, r range  = 0.32-0.80) measures across assessments. Kinematic and EMG measures were greater during the jump landings. Jump landings and single leg squats place different demands on the body and necessitate different kinematic and EMG patterns, such that these measures are not highly correlated between assessments. Clinicians should, therefore, use multiple assessments to identify aberrant movement and neuromuscular control patterns so that comprehensive interventions can be implemented.

  20. Eye Movements in Darkness Modulate Self-Motion Perception. (United States)

    Clemens, Ivar Adrianus H; Selen, Luc P J; Pomante, Antonella; MacNeilage, Paul R; Medendorp, W Pieter


    During self-motion, humans typically move the eyes to maintain fixation on the stationary environment around them. These eye movements could in principle be used to estimate self-motion, but their impact on perception is unknown. We had participants judge self-motion during different eye-movement conditions in the absence of full-field optic flow. In a two-alternative forced choice task, participants indicated whether the second of two successive passive lateral whole-body translations was longer or shorter than the first. This task was used in two experiments. In the first ( n = 8), eye movements were constrained differently in the two translation intervals by presenting either a world-fixed or body-fixed fixation point or no fixation point at all (allowing free gaze). Results show that perceived translations were shorter with a body-fixed than a world-fixed fixation point. A linear model indicated that eye-movement signals received a weight of ∼25% for the self-motion percept. This model was independently validated in the trials without a fixation point (free gaze). In the second experiment ( n = 10), gaze was free during both translation intervals. Results show that the translation with the larger eye-movement excursion was judged more often to be larger than chance, based on an oculomotor choice probability analysis. We conclude that eye-movement signals influence self-motion perception, even in the absence of visual stimulation.

  1. The Open-Air School Movement in English Education (United States)

    Cruickshank, Marjorie


    Begun in the early 1900s, the open-air school movement marked a new chapter in preventive medicine. The schools took undernourished slum students and provided them with food and a hygienic environment. Within half a century the open-air schools had outlived their usefulness because of a social revolution. (Author/IRT)

  2. Spatial memory and animal movement. (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas


    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin


    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  4. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)


    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  5. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.


    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  6. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop. (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock


    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  7. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others


    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  8. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)


    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.


    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  10. On Biometrics With Eye Movements. (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti


    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  11. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma. (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E


    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  12. Understanding and treating lateral ankle sprains and their consequences: a constraints-based approach. (United States)

    Wikstrom, Erik A; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; McKeon, Patrick O


    Lateral ankle sprains are a common consequence of physical activity. If not managed appropriately, a cascade of negative alterations to both the joint structure and a person's movement patterns continue to stress the injured ligaments. These alterations result in an individual entering a continuum of disability as evidenced by the ~30 % of ankle sprains that develop into chronic ankle instability (CAI) and up to 78 % of CAI cases that develop into post-traumatic ankle osteoarthritis (OA). Despite this knowledge, no significant improvements in treatment efficacy have been made using traditional treatment paradigms. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to (1) provide an overview of the consequences associated with acute lateral ankle sprains, CAI and post-traumatic ankle OA; (2) introduce the patient-, clinician-, laboratory (PCL)-oriented) model that addresses the lateral ankle sprains and their consequences from a constraints perspective; and (3) introduce the dynamic systems theory as the framework to illustrate how multiple post-injury adaptations create a singular pathology that predisposes individuals with lateral ankle sprains to fall into a continuum of disability. The consequences associated with lateral ankle sprains, CAI and ankle OA are similar and encompass alterations to the structure of the ankle joint (e.g. ligament laxity, positional faults, etc.) and the sensorimotor function responsible for proper ankle joint function (e.g. postural control, gait, etc.). Further, the impairments have been quantified across a range of patient-oriented (e.g. self-report questionnaires), clinician-oriented (e.g. bedside measures of range of motion and postural control), and laboratory-oriented (e.g. arthrometry, gait analysis) outcome measures. The interaction of PCL-oriented outcomes is critically important for understanding the phenomenon of CAI across the continuum of disability. Through the integration of all three sources of evidence, we can clearly see that

  13. Dynamical patterns of cattle trade movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bajardi

    Full Text Available Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displacement network hide important patterns of structural changes affecting nodes' centrality and farms' spreading potential, thus limiting the efficiency of interventions based on partial longitudinal information. By fully taking into account the longitudinal dimension, we propose a novel definition of dynamical motifs that is able to uncover the presence of a temporal arrow describing the evolution of the system and the causality patterns of its displacements, shedding light on mechanisms that may play a crucial role in the definition of preventive actions.

  14. Abdominal Hollowing Reduces Lateral Trunk Displacement During Single-Leg Squats in Healthy Females But Does Not Affect Peak Hip Abduction Angle or Knee Abductio Angle/Moment. (United States)

    Linde, Lukas D; Archibald, Jessica; Lampert, Eve C; Srbely, John Z


    Females suffer 4-6 times more non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than males due to neuromuscular control deficits of the hip musculature leading to increases in hip adduction angle, knee abduction angle, and knee abduction moment during dynamic tasks such as single-leg squats. Lateral trunk displacement has been further related to ACL injury risk in females, leading to the incorporation of core strength/stability exercises in ACL preventative training programs. However, the direct mechanism relating lateral trunk displacement and lower limb ACL risk factors is not well established. To assess the relationship between lateral trunk displacement and lower limb measures of ACL injury risk by altering trunk control through abdominal activation techniques during single-leg squats in healthy females. Interventional Study Setting: Movement and Posture Laboratory Participants: 13 healthy females (21.3±0.88y, 1.68±0.07m, 58.27±5.46kg) Intervention: Trunk position and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an optoelectric motion capture system during single-leg squats under differing conditions of abdominal muscle activation (abdominal hollowing, abdominal bracing, control), confirmed via surface electromyography. Lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle, peak knee abduction angle/moment, and average muscle activity from bilateral internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae muscles. No differences were observed for peak lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle or peak knee abduction angle/moment. Abdominal hollowing and bracing elicited greater muscle activation than the control condition, and bracing was greater than hollowing in four of six muscles recorded. The lack of reduction in trunk, hip, and knee measures of ACL injury risk during abdominal hollowing and bracing suggests that these techniques alone may provide minimal benefit in ACL injury prevention training.

  15. "The Civil Rights Movement of the 1990s?": The anti-abortion movement and the struggle for racial justice. (United States)

    Hughes, Richard L


    In 1964, Claude and Jeanne Nolen, who were white, joined an interracial NAACP team intent on desegregating local restaurants in Austin, Texas as a test of the recently passed Civil Rights ACt. Twenty-five years later, the Nolens pleaded "no contest" in a courtroom for their continued social activism. This time the issue was not racial segregation, but rather criminal trespassing for blockading abortion clinics with Operation Rescue. The Nolens served prison sentences for direct action protests that they believe stemmed from the same commitment to Christianity and social justice as the civil rights movements. Despite its relationship to political and cultural conservatism, the anti-abortion movement since Roe v. Wade (1973) was also a product of the progressive social movements of the turbulent sixties. Utilizing oral history interviews and organizational literature, the article explores the historical context of the anti-abortion movement, specifically how the lengthy struggle for racial justice shaped the rhetoric, tactics, and ideology of the anti-abortion activists. Even after political conservatives dominated the movement in the 1980s, the successes and failures of the sixties provided a cultural lens through which grassroots anti-abortion activists forged what was arguably the largest movement of civil disobedience in American history.

  16. Corporate interests, philanthropies, and the peace movement. (United States)

    Wright, T; Rodriguez, F; Waitzkin, H


    Corporate and philanthropic involvement in the peace movement is growing. In considering medical peace groups as examples, we have studied the ways that corporate and philanthropic funding have shaped the course of activism. Our methods have included: review of the Foundations Grant Index from 1974-1983; analysis of corporations' and foundations' criteria for grants in the categories of peace, arms control, and disarmament; interviews with leaders of activist organizations and with foundation officials; and our own experiences in the peace movement. Corporate interests in preventing nuclear war stem from a concern for global stability in which world markets may expand, and from a hope to frame issues posed by the peace movement in a way that will not challenge basic structures of power and finance. Several general features make peace groups respectable and attractive to philanthropies; an uncritical stance toward corporate participation in the arms race; a viewpoint that the main danger of nuclear war stems from a profound, bilateral conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union; and a single-issue focus that does not deal with the many related problems reflecting the injustices of capitalism. The two major medical groups working for peace, Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) and International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), have accomplished many goals; however, their adherence to subtle criteria of respectability and their dependence on philanthropic funding have limited the scope of their activism. The struggle for peace can not succeed without fundamental changes in the corporate system that initiates, maintains, and promotes the arms race.

  17. Femoropatellar gliding movement during active stretching of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossmann, J.; Muhle, C.; Melchert, U.H.; Spielmann, R.P.; Schroeder, C.; Hassenpflug, J.


    By means of motion-triggered MRT it has been possible for the first time to demonstrate movements in the patello-femoral joint by means of MRT. Patello-femoral movement was studied during active extension of the knee between 30deg flexion and complete extension. The knees of 5 normal females and 7 normal males were studied together with 2 women with recurrent lateral patellar luxation. In normal women there was an average 16deg (10 to 18deg), in men an average of 12deg (10 to 14deg) of lateralisation of the patella during complete extension of the knee. In 1 patient there was 10deg medial displacement of the patella before extension. In 2 knees with recurrent lateral subluxation there was a 20 and 24deg displacement of the patella. (orig.) [de

  18. Movement of the external ear in human embryo. (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya


    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Kinematics of the lateral ligamentous constraints of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Dalstra, Michel


    preventer of elbow joint laxity. The LCLC was observed to be a complex structure of ligamentous fibers rather than discreet bands. The LCLC forms a ligamentous constraint between the lateral humeral epicondyle and the ulna, stabilizing the elbow joint and forming a base for radial head stability...




    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  1. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J


    variables were analysed in relation to cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency with uni- and multivariate logistic/linear regression models, controlling for possible rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder biasing factors (age, gender, disease duration, previous anti-cataplexy medication). Only hypocretin......Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...

  2. From photography to cinematography: recording movement and gait in a neurological context. (United States)

    Aubert, Geneviève


    The major challenge of photography has been freezing movement, to transform it into a fixed image or series of images. Very soon, photographers became interested in movement itself and tried to use photography as a tool to analyze movement. At the early stages, physicians interested in movement, perhaps surprisingly, made important technical contributions. Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, by Duchenne, the first book with physiological experiments illustrated by photographs, is a landmark in this historical development. At the Salpêtrière, thanks to Charcot, photography officially entered clinical neurology. Medical journals with photographs were actively developed by Bourneville. Londe established a clinical photographic laboratory and published the first book on medical photography. The study of animal and human movement by Muybridge and Marey in the 1880s led to chronophotography and later cinematography. Clinicians such as Dercum and Richer took advantage of these new techniques to study pathological movement and gait in neurological diseases.

  3. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias. (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen


    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Does the cerebellum initiate movement? (United States)

    Thach, W T


    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  5. The dual trigger study: Rationale and study design of a prospective double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing pregnancy rates after co-administration of low dose hCG at the time of GnRH agonist trigger or 35 h later for the prevention of OHSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Griffin


    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is an iatrogenic complication of controlled ovarian stimulation. The use of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH agonist for the trigger of oocyte maturation is effective in the prevention of OHSS although it may result in a lower pregnancy rate. The use of adjuvant low dose human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG at the time of trigger or at the time of oocyte retrieval may improve pregnancy rates. The goal of this dual trigger study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the use of low dose hCG administered at the time of GnRH agonist trigger or 35 h later as well as the potential impact on pregnancy rates. The population will consist of 82 women undergoing IVF treatment who are at risk of developing OHSS. This study will be a single center prospective randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. The randomization schedule will be administered by the Investigational Drug Services of the University. After controlled ovarian stimulation, induction of oocyte maturation will be achieved using a GnRH agonist and patients will be randomized to receive either low dose hCG 1000 IU at the time of trigger and placebo at oocyte retrieval (Study group or placebo at the time of trigger and hCG 1500 IU at the time of oocyte retrieval (Control group. The main outcomes will be live birth rates and incidence of OHSS. Two ancillary studies will include a quality of life survey and serum assessment of independent corpus luteum function.

  6. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  7. Navigation of the autonomous vehicle reverse movement (United States)

    Rachkov, M.; Petukhov, S.


    The paper presents a mathematical formulation of the vehicle reverse motion along a multi-link polygonal trajectory consisting of rectilinear segments interconnected by nodal points. Relevance of the problem is caused by the need to solve a number of tasks: to save the vehicle in the event of а communication break by returning along the trajectory already passed, to avoid a turn on the ground in constrained obstacles or dangerous conditions, or a partial return stroke for the subsequent bypass of the obstacle and continuation of the forward movement. The method of navigation with direct movement assumes that the reverse path is elaborated by using landmarks. To measure landmarks on board, a block of cameras is placed on a vehicle controlled by the operator through the radio channel. Errors in estimating deviation from the nominal trajectory of motion are determined using the multidimensional correlation analysis apparatus based on the dynamics of a lateral deviation error and a vehicle speed error. The result of the experiment showed a relatively high accuracy in determining the state vector that provides the vehicle reverse motion relative to the reference trajectory with a practically acceptable error while returning to the start point.

  8. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients. (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M


    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  9. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki


    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  10. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao


    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  11. Dance movement therapy for dementia. (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie


    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  12. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn


    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  14. A putative lateral flagella of the cystic fibrosis pathogen Burkholderia dolosa regulates swimming motility and host cytokine production (United States)

    Clark, Bradley S.; Weatherholt, Molly; Renaud, Diane; Scott, David; LiPuma, John J.; Priebe, Gregory; Gerard, Craig


    Burkholderia dolosa caused an outbreak in the cystic fibrosis clinic at Boston Children’s Hospital and was associated with high mortality in these patients. This species is part of a larger complex of opportunistic pathogens known as the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Compared to other species in the Bcc, B. dolosa is highly transmissible; thus understanding its virulence mechanisms is important for preventing future outbreaks. The genome of one of the outbreak strains, AU0158, revealed a homolog of the lafA gene encoding a putative lateral flagellin, which, in other non-Bcc species, is used for movement on solid surfaces, attachment to host cells, or movement inside host cells. Here, we analyzed the conservation of the lafA gene and protein sequences, which are distinct from those of the polar flagella, and found lafA homologs to be present in numerous β-proteobacteria but notably absent from most other Bcc species. A lafA deletion mutant in B. dolosa showed a greater swimming motility than wild-type due to an increase in the number of polar flagella, but did not appear to contribute to biofilm formation, host cell invasion, or murine lung colonization or persistence over time. However, the lafA gene was important for cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting it may have a role in recognition by the human immune response. PMID:29346379

  15. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay


    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  16. Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirout, J.


    An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck.

  17. Rotational synkineses of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirout, J.


    An X-ray analysis was performed with regard to the question of synkinetic rotational movements of occiput and atlas on lateral inclination of the head and neck. It was found that the frequent synkinetic rotation of the head from the side of inclination can be taken for a stereotype that is ten times more frequent than the rotation towards the side of inclination. However, it does not represent an essential or indispensable feature of the synkinetic reaction. The associated rotation of the atlas from the side of inclination cannot be looked upon as a normal and constant element of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination, as it does not occur in nearly one-half of cases. Moreover, these studies have shown that the rotational movement between occiput and atlas is possible not only in the final stage of maximum forced rotation of the head, but that it belongs to normal dynamic features of the synkinetic response on lateral inclination of the head and neck. (orig.)

  18. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality. (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W


    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Expanding Panjabi's stability model to express movement: a theoretical model. (United States)

    Hoffman, J; Gabel, P


    Novel theoretical models of movement have historically inspired the creation of new methods for the application of human movement. The landmark theoretical model of spinal stability by Panjabi in 1992 led to the creation of an exercise approach to spinal stability. This approach however was later challenged, most significantly due to a lack of favourable clinical effect. The concepts explored in this paper address and consider the deficiencies of Panjabi's model then propose an evolution and expansion from a special model of stability to a general one of movement. It is proposed that two body-wide symbiotic elements are present within all movement systems, stability and mobility. The justification for this is derived from the observable clinical environment. It is clinically recognised that these two elements are present and identifiable throughout the body in different joints and muscles, and the neural conduction system. In order to generalise the Panjabi model of stability to include and illustrate movement, a matching parallel mobility system with the same subsystems was conceptually created. In this expanded theoretical model, the new mobility system is placed beside the existing stability system and subsystems. The ability of both stability and mobility systems to work in harmony will subsequently determine the quality of movement. Conversely, malfunction of either system, or their subsystems, will deleteriously affect all other subsystems and consequently overall movement quality. For this reason, in the rehabilitation exercise environment, focus should be placed on the simultaneous involvement of both the stability and mobility systems. It is suggested that the individual's relevant functional harmonious movements should be challenged at the highest possible level without pain or discomfort. It is anticipated that this conceptual expansion of the theoretical model of stability to one with the symbiotic inclusion of mobility, will provide new understandings

  20. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer (United States)

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.


    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  1. Poorer elbow proprioception in patients with lateral epicondylitis than in healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Lund, H.; Hansen, K.


    Two groups of women, 15 patients with lateral epicondylitis and 21 healthy controls, were studied to compare proprioception in the elbows and knees between the groups. Outcome measures were absolute error and variable error for joint position sense and for threshold to detection of a passive...... movement. Both absolute error and variable error of threshold to detection of a passive movement were greater in the lateral epicondylitis-diagnosed elbows than in the controls' elbows (lateral epicondylitis, 1.8 degrees vs controls 1.1 degrees, P = .026; lateral epicondylitis, 0.8 degrees vs controls 0.......3 degrees, P = .015), and there was a tendency toward a greater absolute error of joint position sense compared with the control elbows (lateral epicondylitis, 8.2 degrees vs controls, 5.6 degrees; P = .078). Absolute error of joint position sense was greater in the elbows than in the knees of the lateral...

  2. Characterization of nitride hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory by using a random telegraph signal method (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Cheng-Min; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Wang, Tahui; Tsai, Wen-Jer; Lu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan


    We use a random telegraph signal method to investigate nitride trapped hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory. The concept of this method is to utilize an interface oxide trap and its associated random telegraph signal as an internal probe to detect a local channel potential change resulting from nitride charge lateral movement. We apply different voltages to the drain of a memory cell and vary a bake temperature in retention to study the electric field and temperature dependence of hole lateral movement in a nitride. Thermal energy absorption by trapped holes in lateral transport is characterized. Mechanisms of hole lateral transport in retention are investigated. From the measured and modeled results, we find that thermally assisted trap-to-band tunneling is a major trapped hole emission mechanism in nitride hole lateral transport.

  3. Surgical management of movement disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with ... Stereotactic lesioning of basal ganglia and/or thalamic targets ... and there is some concern related to suicide.

  4. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.


    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  5. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins


    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  6. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics (United States)

    ... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at ... for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source of problems ...

  7. A comparison between flexible electrogoniometers, inclinometers and three-dimensional video analysis system for recording neck movement. (United States)

    Carnaz, Letícia; Moriguchi, Cristiane S; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Santiago, Paulo R P; Caurin, Glauco A P; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice J C Gil


    This study compared neck range of movement recording using three different methods goniometers (EGM), inclinometers (INC) and a three-dimensional video analysis system (IMG) in simultaneous and synchronized data collection. Twelve females performed neck flexion-extension, lateral flexion, rotation and circumduction. The differences between EGM, INC, and IMG were calculated sample by sample. For flexion-extension movement, IMG underestimated the amplitude by 13%; moreover, EGM showed a crosstalk of about 20% for lateral flexion and rotation axes. In lateral flexion movement, all systems showed similar amplitude and the inter-system differences were moderate (4-7%). For rotation movement, EGM showed a high crosstalk (13%) for flexion-extension axis. During the circumduction movement, IMG underestimated the amplitude of flexion-extension movements by about 11%, and the inter-system differences were high (about 17%) except for INC-IMG regarding lateral flexion (7%) and EGM-INC regarding flexion-extension (10%). For application in workplace, INC presents good results compared to IMG and EGM though INC cannot record rotation. EGM should be improved in order to reduce its crosstalk errors and allow recording of the full neck range of movement. Due to non-optimal positioning of the cameras for recording flexion-extension, IMG underestimated the amplitude of these movements. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of β-Adrenergic Blockade on the Degrading Effects of Eye Movements on Negative Autobiographical Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Marianne; Kenemans, J. Leon; Baas, Johanna M.P.; Logemann, H. N.Alexander; Rijken, Nellie; Remijn, Malou; Hassink, Rutger J.; Engelhard, Iris M.; van den Hout, Marcel A.


    Background Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During EMDR, patients make horizontal eye movements (EMs) while simultaneously recalling a traumatic memory, which renders the memory less vivid and emotional when it is later

  9. Development of Infrared Lip Movement Sensor for Spoken Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yoshida


    Full Text Available Lip movement of speaker is very informative for many application of speech signal processing such as multi-modal speech recognition and password authentication without speech signal. However, in collecting multi-modal speech information, we need a video camera, large amount of memory, video interface, and high speed processor to extract lip movement in real time. Such a system tends to be expensive and large. This is one reasons of preventing the use of multi-modal speech processing. In this study, we have developed a simple infrared lip movement sensor mounted on a headset, and made it possible to acquire lip movement by PDA, mobile phone, and notebook PC. The sensor consists of an infrared LED and an infrared photo transistor, and measures the lip movement by the reflected light from the mouth region. From experiment, we achieved 66% successfully word recognition rate only by lip movement features. This experimental result shows that our developed sensor can be utilized as a tool for multi-modal speech processing by combining a microphone mounted on the headset.

  10. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet


    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  11. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting. (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno


    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance.

  12. Automatic Human Movement Assessment With Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance. (United States)

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio P L; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro


    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However, the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and later use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72%-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0%-12%).


    Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Sulavik, Mark


    Although many physical therapists have begun to focus on movement and function in clinical practice, a significant number continue to focus on impairments or pathoanatomic models to direct interventions. This paradigm may be driven by the current models used to direct and guide curricula used for physical therapist education. The methods by which students are educated may contribute to a focus on independent systems, rather than viewing the body as a functional whole. Students who enter practice must be able to integrate information across multiple systems that affect a patient or client's movement and function. Such integration must be taught to students and it is the responsibility of those in physical therapist education to embrace and teach the next generation of students this identifying professional paradigm of the movement system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to describe the current state of the movement system in physical therapy education, suggest strategies for enhancing movement system focus in entry level education, and envision the future of physical therapy education related to the movement system. Contributions by a student author offer depth and perspective to the ideas and suggestions presented. 5.

  14. The movement ecology of seagrasses. (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos


    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  15. Leading and trailing cells cooperate in collective migration of the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium. (United States)

    Dalle Nogare, Damian; Somers, Katherine; Rao, Swetha; Matsuda, Miho; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Raz, Erez; Chitnis, Ajay B


    Collective migration of cells in the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp) along a path defined by Cxcl12a expression depends on Cxcr4b receptors in leading cells and on Cxcr7b in trailing cells. Cxcr7b-mediated degradation of Cxcl12a by trailing cells generates a local gradient of Cxcl12a that guides PLLp migration. Agent-based computer models were built to explore how a polarized response to Cxcl12a, mediated by Cxcr4b in leading cells and prevented by Cxcr7b in trailing cells, determines unidirectional migration of the PLLp. These chemokine signaling-based models effectively recapitulate many behaviors of the PLLp and provide potential explanations for the characteristic behaviors that emerge when the PLLp is severed by laser to generate leading and trailing fragments. As predicted by our models, the bilateral stretching of the leading fragment is lost when chemokine signaling is blocked in the PLLp. However, movement of the trailing fragment toward the leading cells, which was also thought to be chemokine dependent, persists. This suggested that a chemokine-independent mechanism, not accounted for in our models, is responsible for this behavior. Further investigation of trailing cell behavior shows that their movement toward leading cells depends on FGF signaling and it can be re-oriented by exogenous FGF sources. Together, our observations reveal the simple yet elegant manner in which leading and trailing cells coordinate migration; while leading cells steer PLLp migration by following chemokine cues, cells further back play follow-the-leader as they migrate toward FGFs produced by leading cells. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Movement games in sports training of children


    Komoň, Tomáš


    Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...

  17. [Mirror movement due to the medial frontal lobe lesion]. (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Kawamura, M; Hirayama, K


    We reported a case with acquired mirror movement in upper limbs due to the lesion of right medial frontal lobe including supplementary motor area, and also discussed a possible mechanism underlying it. A 59-year-old right-handed woman developed left hemiparesis caused by cerebral hemorrhage in the right frontoparietal lobe, on April 5, 1981. She had right hemiparesis and right hemianopsia due to cerebral hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipital lobe, 13 days later. As the patient was recovering from paresis, mirror movement appeared on upper limbs. The features of the mirror movement of this case are summarized as follows: (1) it appeared when using both proximal and distal region of upper limbs; (2) it appeared on left upper limb when the patient intended to move right upper limb or on right upper limb when intended to move left upper limb, while it appeared predominantly in the former; and (3) it was more remarkably found in habitual movement using gesture and pantomimic movement for the use of objects, and it was found in lower degree when actual object was used or when the patient tried to imitate the gesture of the examiner. The lesions in MRI were found in medial region of right frontal lobe (supplementary motor area, medial region of motor area, and cingulate gyrus), right medial parietal lobe, posterior region of right occipital lobe, and medial regions of left parietal and occipital lobes. There was no apparent abnormality in corpus callosum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Is that really my movement?—Students' experiences of a video-supported interactive learning model for movement awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Backåberg


    Full Text Available Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students’ experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12–18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; “Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness,” “Experiencing changes in one's own movement,” and “Experiencing challenges in the learning process.” The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required.

  19. Is that really my movement? - Students' experiences of a video-supported interactive learning model for movement awareness. (United States)

    Backåberg, Sofia; Gummesson, Christina; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael


    Healthcare staff and students have a great risk of developing musculoskeletal symptoms. One cause of this is heavy load related work activities such as manual handling, in which the quality of individual work technique may play a major role. Preventive interventions and well-defined educational strategies to support movement awareness and long-lasting movement changes need to be developed. The aim of the present study was to explore nursing students' experiences of a newly developed interactive learning model for movement awareness. The learning model, which is based on a life-world perspective with focus on interpersonal interaction, has been used with 11 undergraduate students from the second and final year. Each student participated in three individual video sessions with a facilitator. Two individual interviews were carried out with each student during the learning process and one interview 12-18 months after the last session. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Paul Ricoeur and described by Lindseth and Norberg was used to interpret the interviews and diary notes. The interpretation resulted in three key themes and nine subthemes. The key themes were; "Obtaining better preconditions for bodily awareness," "Experiencing changes in one's own movement," and "Experiencing challenges in the learning process." The interactive learning model entails a powerful and challenging experience that develops movement awareness. The experience of meaningfulness and usefulness emerges increasingly and alternates with a feeling of discomfort. The learning model may contribute to the body of knowledge of well-defined educational strategies in movement awareness and learning in, for example, preventive interventions and ergonomic education. It may also be valuable in other practical learning situations where movement awareness is required.

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes? (United States)

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo


    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  1. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  2. Laterality of basic auditory perception. (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali


    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes. (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS.

  4. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ootani, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tomoda, Kaname; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Mitomo, Masanori.


    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  5. EphrinB1/EphB3b Coordinate Bidirectional Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions Controlling Liver Morphogenesis and Laterality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayuso, Jordi; Dzementsei, Aliaksandr; Fischer, Johanna C


    Positioning organs in the body often requires the movement of multiple tissues, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms coordinating such movements are largely unknown. Here, we show that bidirectional signaling between EphrinB1 and EphB3b coordinates the movements of the hepatic endoderm...... and adjacent lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), resulting in asymmetric positioning of the zebrafish liver. EphrinB1 in hepatoblasts regulates directional migration and mediates interactions with the LPM, where EphB3b controls polarity and movement of the LPM. EphB3b in the LPM concomitantly repels hepatoblasts...

  6. Structural and biomechanical basis of mitochondrial movement in eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M


    Full Text Available Min Wu,1 Aruna Kalyanasundaram,2 Jie Zhu1 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Engineering, Institute of Biophysics, College of Science, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Mitochondria serve as energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells. In addition to providing the energy supply for cells, the mitochondria are also involved in other processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, information transfer, and apoptosis, and play an important role in regulation of cell growth and the cell cycle. In order to achieve these functions, the mitochondria need to move to the corresponding location. Therefore, mitochondrial movement has a crucial role in normal physiologic activity, and any mitochondrial movement disorder will cause irreparable damage to the organism. For example, recent studies have shown that abnormal movement of the mitochondria is likely to be the reason for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. So, in the cell, especially in the particular polarized cell, the appropriate distribution of mitochondria is crucial to the function and survival of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and related proteins. However, those components play different roles according to cell type. In this paper, we summarize the structural basis of mitochondrial movement, including microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, and adaptin, and review studies of the biomechanical mechanisms of mitochondrial movement in different types of cells. Keywords: mitochondrial movement, microtubules, actin filaments, motor proteins, adaptin

  7. Identification and risk estimation of movement strategies during cutting maneuvers. (United States)

    David, Sina; Komnik, Igor; Peters, Markus; Funken, Johannes; Potthast, Wolfgang


    Approximately 70% of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur in non-contact situations during cutting and landing maneuvers. Parameters such as footstrike patterns and trunk orientation were found to influence ACL relevant knee loading, however, the relationship between the whole body movement and injury risk is debated. This study identifies whole body movement strategies that increase injury risk, and provides training recommendations to reduce this risk or enable a save return to sports after injury. Experimental cross-sectional study design. Three dimensional movement analysis was carried out to investigate 50 participants performing anticipated 90° cutting maneuvers. To identify and characterize movement strategies, footstrike pattern, knee valgus moment, knee internal rotation moment, angle of attack, shoulder and pelvis axis were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Three different movement strategies were identified. One strategy included rearfoot striking in combination with a relatively upright body position which generated higher knee joint loads than the second strategy, forefoot striking in combination with more backwards leaning and pre-rotation of the trunk towards the new movement direction. A third strategy combined forefoot striking with less preorientation which increased the ACL relevant knee joint load compared to the second strategy. The identified movement strategies clearly pre-determine the injury risk during non-contact situations with the third strategy as the most unfavorable one. Compared to the study of isolated parameters, the analysis of the whole body movement allowed for detailed separation of more risky from less risky cutting strategies. These results give practical recommendations for the prevention of ACL injury. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions. (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S


    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  9. The effects of practice on movement distance and final position reproduction: implications for the equilibrium-point control of movements. (United States)

    Jaric, S; Corcos, D M; Gottlieb, G L; Ilic, D B; Latash, M L


    Predictions of two views on single-joint motor control, namely programming of muscle force patterns and equilibrium-point control, were compared with the results of experiments with reproduction of movement distance and final location during fast unidirectional elbow flexions. Two groups of subjects were tested. The first group practiced movements over a fixed distance (36 degrees), starting from seven different initial positions (distance group, DG). The second group practiced movements from the same seven initial positions to a fixed final location (location group, LG). Later, all the subjects were tested at the practiced task with their eyes closed, and then, unexpectedly for the subjects, they were tested at the other, unpracticed task. In both groups, the task to reproduce final position had lower indices of final position variability than the task to reproduce movement distance. Analysis of the linear regression lines between initial position and final position (or movement distance) also demonstrated a better (more accurate) performance during final position reproduction than during distance reproduction. The data are in a good correspondence with the predictions of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, but not with the predictions of the force-pattern control approach.

  10. Salmonella Prevention (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  11. Mindful movement and skilled attention (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.


    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  12. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark


    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  13. Relationship of the Functional Movement Screen In-Line Lunge to Power, Speed, and Balance Measures


    Hartigan, Erin H.; Lawrence, Michael; Bisson, Brian M.; Torgerson, Erik; Knight, Ryan C.


    Background: The in-line lunge of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates lateral stability, balance, and movement asymmetries. Athletes who score poorly on the in-line lunge should avoid activities requiring power or speed until scores are improved, yet relationships between the in-line lunge scores and other measures of balance, power, and speed are unknown. Hypothesis: (1) Lunge scores will correlate with center of pressure (COP), maximum jump height (MJH), and 36.6-meter sprint time...

  14. Composite body movements modulate numerical cognition: Evidence from the motion–numerical compatibility effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong eCheng


    Full Text Available A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011 and Fisher (2012, suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher and colleagues (2008 found that participants’ behavior in a random number generation (RNG task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e. a motion–numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion–numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g. arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.'s (2008 finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out.

  15. Focal junctions retard lateral movement and disrupt fluid phase connectivity in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, D.; Wojewodzka, U.; Gniadecki, R.


    ,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI-C-18:0), which specifically partitions to the liquid-disordered (L-d), non-raft phase, was also enriched in focal junctions and its mobility was slightly retarded. Cross-linking of GM(1) by CTB or raft aggregation by methyl...


    Saladin, Lisa; Voight, Michael


    In 2013, the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) adopted an inspiring new vision, "Transforming society by optimizing movement to improve the human experience." This new vision for our profession calls us to action as physical therapists to transform society by using our skills, knowledge, and expertise related to the movement system in order to optimize movement, promote health and wellness, mitigate the progression of impairments, and prevent the development of (additional) disability. The guiding principle of the new vision is "identity," which can be summarized as "The physical therapy profession will define and promote the movement system as the foundation for optimizing movement to improve the health of society." Recognition and validation of the movement system is essential to understand the structure, function, and potential of the human body. As currently defined, the "movement system" represents the collection of systems (cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, integumentary, nervous, and musculoskeletal) that interact to move the body or its component parts. By better characterizing physical therapists as movement system experts, we seek to solidify our professional identity within the medical community and society. The physical therapist will be responsible for evaluating and managing an individual's movement system across the lifespan to promote optimal development; diagnose impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions; and provide interventions targeted at preventing or ameliorating activity limitations and participation restrictions. 5.

  17. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, L.E.


    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  18. Study on the Rule of Super Strata Movement and Subsidence (United States)

    Yao, Shunli; Yuan, Hongyong; Jiang, Fuxing; Chen, Tao; Wu, Peng


    The movement of key strata is related to the safety of the whole earth’s surface for coal mining under super strata. Based on the key strata theory, the paper comprehensively analyzes the characteristics of the subsidence before and after the instability of the super strata by studing through FLAC3D and microseismic dynamic monitoring of the surface rock movement observation. The stability of the super strata movement is analyzed according to the characteristic value of the subsidence. The subsidence law and quantitative indexes under the control of the super rock strata that provides basis for the prevention and control of surface risk, optimize mining area and face layout and reasonably set mining boundary around mining area. It provides basis for the even growth of mine safety production and regional public safety.

  19. Effects of unexpected lateral mass placement on trunk loading in lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, J.C.E.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.


    Study Design. A repeated measurements experiment of spinal loading in healthy subjects. Objectives. To test whether unexpected lateral mass placement increases low back loading and trunk movement when subjects are lifting a mass in upright posture. Summary of Background Data. Epidemiologic studies

  20. Prospective Control in Catching : The Persistent Angle-of-Approach Effect in Lateral Interception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledouit, Simon; Casanova, Remy; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Bootsma, Reinoud J.


    In lateral interception tasks balls converging onto the same interception location via different trajectories give rise to systematic differences in the kinematics of hand movement. While it is generally accepted that this angle-of-approach effect reflects the prospective (on-line) control of

  1. Continuous Auditory Feedback of Eye Movements: An Exploratory Study toward Improving Oculomotor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric O. Boyer


    Full Text Available As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target. We investigated whether real-time auditory feedback of eye movement dynamics might improve learning in both tasks, through a training protocol over 8 days. The results indicate that real-time sonification of eye movements can actually modify the oculomotor behavior, and reinforce intrinsic oculomotor perception. Nevertheless, large inter-individual differences were observed preventing us from reaching a strong conclusion on sensorimotor learning improvements.

  2. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin


    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  3. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler


    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  4. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  5. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre


    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  6. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements. (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  7. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle


    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi


    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of t...

  8. Eye Movement Impairment Recovery in a Gaucher Patient Treated with Miglustat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Accardo


    Two sisters, presenting the same genotype (R353G/R353G, were diagnosed as suffering from GD; one of them later developed neurological alterations identified by quantitative saccadic eye movements analysis. The aim of the study was to quantitatively measure the miglustat effects in this GD neurological patient. Eye movement analysis during subsequent controls was performed by estimating the characteristic parameters of saccadic main sequence. The study demonstrates that the SRT alone can be effective in GD3. Moreover, it confirms that quantitative eye movement analysis is able to precociously identify also slight neurological alterations, permitting more accurate GD classification.

  9. Hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that depict action stem from a left hemispheric system of conceptualization. (United States)

    Helmich, I; Lausberg, H


    The present study addresses the previously discussed controversy on the contribution of the right and left cerebral hemispheres to the production and conceptualization of spontaneous hand movements and gestures. Although it has been shown that each hemisphere contains the ability to produce hand movements, results of left hemispherically lateralized motor functions challenge the view of a contralateral hand movement production system. To examine hemispheric specialization in hand movement and gesture production, ten right-handed participants were tachistoscopically presented pictures of everyday life actions. The participants were asked to demonstrate with their hands, but without speaking what they had seen on the drawing. Two independent blind raters evaluated the videotaped hand movements and gestures employing the Neuropsychological Gesture Coding System. The results showed that the overall frequency of right- and left-hand movements is equal independent of stimulus lateralization. When hand movements were analyzed considering their Structure, the presentation of the action stimuli to the left hemisphere resulted in more hand movements with a phase structure than the presentation to the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the presentation to the left hemisphere resulted in more right and left-hand movements with a phase structure, whereas the presentation to the right hemisphere only increased contralateral left-hand movements with a phase structure as compared to hand movements without a phase structure. Gestures that depict action were primarily displayed in response to stimuli presented in the right visual field than in the left one. The present study shows that both hemispheres possess the faculty to produce hand movements in response to action stimuli. However, the left hemisphere dominates the production of hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that depict action. We therefore conclude that hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that

  10. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar


    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  11. Intra-arterial blood pressure reading in intensive care unit patients in the lateral position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.J.H.; Aslan, A.; Elting, J.W.J.; Stewart, R.E.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; de Keyser, J.; Vroomen, P.C.A.J.

    Background. Routine lateral turning of patients has become an accepted standard of care to prevent complications of immobility. The haemodynamic and oxygenation effects for patients in both lateral positions (45 degrees) are still a matter of debate. We aimed to study the effect of these positions

  12. Masticatory jaw movement of Exaeretodon argentinus (Therapsida: Cynodontia inferred from its dental microwear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dental microwear of four postcanine teeth of Exaeretodon argentinus was analyzed using both two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D methods to infer their masticatory jaw movements. Results of both methods were congruent, showing that linear microwear features (scratches were well aligned and mostly directed to the antero-posterior direction in all four teeth examined. These findings support the palinal masticatory jaw movement, which was inferred in previous studies based on the observation of gross morphology of wear facets. In contrast, the lack of detection of lateral scratches confirmed the absence of the lateral jaw movement that was also proposed by a previous study. Considering previous microwear studies on cynodonts, palinal jaw movements observed in Exaeretodon evolved within cynognathian cynodonts from the fully orthal jaw movement of its basal member. Although there are currently only three studies of dental microwear of non-mammalian cynodonts including the present study, microwear analysis is a useful tool for the reconstruction of masticatory jaw movement and its future application to various cynodonts will shed light on the evolutionary process of jaw movement towards the mammalian condition in more detail.

  13. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe


    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however...... with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic...

  14. Motion energy analysis reveals altered body movement in youth at risk for psychosis. (United States)

    Dean, Derek J; Samson, Alayna T; Newberry, Raeana; Mittal, Vijay A


    Growing evidence suggests that movement abnormalities occur prior to the onset of psychosis. Innovations in technology and software provide the opportunity for a fine-tuned and sensitive measurement of observable behavior that may be particularly useful to detecting the subtle movement aberrations present during the prodromal period. In the present study, 54 youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis and 62 healthy controls participated in structured clinical interviews to assess for an UHR syndrome. The initial 15min of the baseline clinical interview was assessed using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) providing frame-by-frame measures of total movement, amplitude, speed, and variability of both head and body movement separately. Result showed region-specific group differences such that there were no differences in head movement but significant differences in body movement. Specifically, the UHR group showed greater total body movement and speed of body movements, and lower variation in body movement compared to healthy controls. However, there were no significant associations with positive, negative or disorganized symptom domains. This study represents an innovative perspective on gross motor function in the UHR group. Importantly, the automated approach used in this study provides a sensitive and objective measure of body movement abnormalities, potentially guiding novel assessment and prevention of symptom development in those at risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity. (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio


    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  16. Evaluation of Repositioning in Pressure Ulcer Prevention


    Källman, Ulrika


    Introduction: To reduce the risk for pressure ulcers, repositioning of immobile patients is an important standard nursing practice. However, knowledge on how this preventive intervention is carried out among elderly immobile patients is limited and to what extent patients perform minor movements between nursing staff-induced repositionings is largely unknown, but these movements might have implications for the repositioning intervention. Different lying positions are used in repositioning sch...

  17. Threat perception in the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon): evidence for lateralized eye use. (United States)

    Lustig, Avichai; Keter-Katz, Hadas; Katzir, Gadi


    Chameleons are arboreal lizards with highly independent, large amplitude eye movements. In response to an approaching threat, a chameleon on a vertical pole moves so as to keep itself away from the threat. In so doing, it shifts between monocular and binocular scanning of the threat and of the environment. We analyzed eye movements in the Common chameleon, Chamaeleo chameleon, during avoidance response for lateralization, that is, asymmetry at the functional/behavioral levels. The chameleons were exposed to a threat, approaching horizontally from clockwise or anti-clockwise directions, and that could be viewed monocularly or binocularly. Our results show three broad patterns of eye use, as determined by durations spent viewing the threat and by frequency of eye shifts. Under binocular viewing, two of the patterns were found to be both side dependent, that is, lateralized and role dependent ("leading" or "following"). However, under monocular viewing, no such lateralization was detected. We discuss these findings in light of the situation not uncommon in vertebrates, of independent eye movements and a high degree of optic nerve decussation and that lateralization may well occur in organisms that are regularly exposed to critical stimuli from all spatial directions. We point to the need of further investigating lateralization at fine behavioral levels.

  18. Lateral automobile impacts and the risk of traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Fisher, Susan Gross; Flesher, William; Lillis, Robert; Knox, Kerry L; Pearson, Thomas A


    We determine the relative risk and severity of traumatic brain injury among occupants of lateral impacts compared with occupants of nonlateral impacts. This was a secondary analysis of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data Systems for 2000. Analysis was restricted to occupants of vehicles in which at least 1 person experienced an injury with Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 2. Traumatic brain injury was defined as an injury to the head or skull with an Abbreviated Injury Scale score greater than 2. Outcomes were analyzed using the chi2 test and multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment of variance to account for weighted probability sampling. Of the 1,115 occupants available for analysis, impact direction was lateral for 230 (18.42%) occupants and nonlateral for 885 (81.58%) occupants. One hundred eighty-seven (16.07%) occupants experienced a traumatic brain injury, 14.63% after lateral and 16.39% after nonlateral impact. The unadjusted relative risk of traumatic brain injury after lateral impact was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.56). After adjusting for several important crash-related variables, the relative risk of traumatic brain injury was 2.60 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.0). Traumatic brain injuries were more severe after lateral impact according to Abbreviated Injury Scale and Glasgow Coma Scale scores. The proportion of fatal or critical crash-related traumatic brain injuries attributable to lateral impact was 23.5%. Lateral impact is an important independent risk factor for the development of traumatic brain injury after a serious motor vehicle crash. Traumatic brain injuries incurred after lateral impact are more severe than those resulting from nonlateral impact. Vehicle modifications that increase head protection could reduce crash-related severe traumatic brain injuries by up to 61% and prevent up to 2,230 fatal or critical traumatic brain injuries each year

  19. The Importance of Lateral Connections in the Parietal Cortex for Generating Motor Plans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrik E Asher

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has highlighted the significant role of associative brain areas, such as the posterior parietal cortex (PPC in transforming multimodal sensory information into motor plans. However, little is known about how different sensory information, which can have different delays or be absent, combines to produce a motor plan, such as executing a reaching movement. To address these issues, we constructed four biologically plausible network architectures to simulate PPC: 1 feedforward from sensory input to the PPC to a motor output area, 2 feedforward with the addition of an efference copy from the motor area, 3 feedforward with the addition of lateral or recurrent connectivity across PPC neurons, and 4 feedforward plus efference copy, and lateral connections. Using an evolutionary strategy, the connectivity of these network architectures was evolved to execute visually guided movements, where the target stimulus provided visual input for the entirety of each trial. The models were then tested on a memory guided motor task, where the visual target disappeared after a short duration. Sensory input to the neural networks had sensory delays consistent with results from monkey studies. We found that lateral connections within the PPC resulted in smoother movements and were necessary for accurate movements in the absence of visual input. The addition of lateral connections resulted in velocity profiles consistent with those observed in human and non-human primate visually guided studies of reaching, and allowed for smooth, rapid, and accurate movements under all conditions. In contrast, Feedforward or Feedback architectures were insufficient to overcome these challenges. Our results suggest that intrinsic lateral connections are critical for executing accurate, smooth motor plans.

  20. Diagnosis of laterality in the school environment


    Šnajdrová, Veronika


    This bachelor thesis contains theoretical principals of expressions of the dominance of the brain hemispheres - laterality. It solves the development of laterality, its genotype and phenotype, levels, laterality types and species, refers to the educational consequences of the improper educational influence on genotype laterality and subsequent corrections. It also deals with the diagnosis of laterality, especially from a position of a teacher. The basic idea of this work is to support the nat...

  1. Challenges and opportunities for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease. (United States)

    Rassi, A; Dias, J C P; Marin-Neto, J A; Rassi, A


    A century after its discovery, Chagas' disease still represents a major public health challenge in Latin America. Moreover, because of growing population movements, an increasing number of cases of imported Chagas' disease have now been detected in non-endemic areas, such as North America and some European countries. This parasitic zoonosis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted to humans by infected Triatominae insects, or occasionally by non-vectorial mechanisms, such as blood transfusion, mother to fetus, or oral ingestion of materials contaminated with parasites. Following the acute phase of the infection, untreated individuals enter a chronic phase that is initially asymptomatic or clinically unapparent. Usually, a few decades later, 40-50% of patients develop progressive cardiomyopathy and/or motility disturbances of the oesophagus and colon. In the last decades several interventions targeting primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease have been attempted. While control of both vectorial and blood transfusion transmission of T cruzi (primary prevention) has been successful in many regions of Latin America, early detection and aetiological treatment of asymptomatic subjects with Chagas' disease (secondary prevention) have been largely underutilised. At the same time, in patients with established chronic disease, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are currently available and have been increasingly used with the intention of preventing or delaying complications of the disease (tertiary prevention). In this review we discuss in detail each of these issues.

  2. Lateral and vertical distribution of downstream migrating juvenile sea lamprey (United States)

    Sotola, V. Alex; Miehls, Scott M.; Simard, Lee G.; Marsden, J. Ellen


    Sea lamprey is considered an invasive and nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Finger Lakes of New York and is a major focus of control efforts. Currently, management practices focus on limiting the area of infestation using barriers to block migratory adults, and lampricides to kill ammocoetes in infested tributaries. No control efforts currently target the downstream-migrating post-metamorphic life stage which could provide another management opportunity. In order to apply control methods to this life stage, a better understanding of their downstream movement patterns is needed. To quantify spatial distribution of downstream migrants, we deployed fyke and drift nets laterally and vertically across the stream channel in two tributaries of Lake Champlain. Sea lamprey was not randomly distributed across the stream width and lateral distribution showed a significant association with discharge. Results indicated that juvenile sea lamprey is most likely to be present in the thalweg and at midwater depths of the stream channel. Further, a majority of the catch occurred during high flow events, suggesting an increase in downstream movement activity when water levels are higher than base flow. Discharge and flow are strong predictors of the distribution of out-migrating sea lamprey, thus managers will need to either target capture efforts in high discharge areas of streams or develop means to guide sea lamprey away from these areas.

  3. Effects of rearranged vision on event-related lateralizations of the EEG during pointing. (United States)

    Berndt, Isabelle; Franz, Volker H; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Gotz, Karl G; Wascher, Edmund


    We used event-related lateralizations of the EEG (ERLs) and reversed vision to study visuomotor processing with conflicting proprioceptive and visual information during pointing. Reversed vision decreased arm-related lateralization, probably reflecting the simultaneous activity of left and right arm specific neurons: neurons in the hemisphere contralateral to the observed action were probably activated by visual feedback, neurons in the hemisphere contralateral to the response side by the somatomotor feedback. Lateralization related to the target in parietal cortex increased, indicating that visual to motor transformation in parietal cortex required additional time and resources with reversed vision. A short period of adaptation to an additional lateral displacement of the visual field increased arm-contralateral activity in parietal cortex during the movement. This is in agreement with the, which showed that adaptation to a lateral displacement of the visual field is reflected in increased parietal involvement during pointing.

  4. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone


    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  5. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten


    /solch to follow the article. We discuss two possible syntactic derivations, predicate raising (e.g. Corver 1998, Bennis, Corver & den Dikken 1998) and XP movement from an attributive adjective position within the nominal (e.g. Matushansky 2002). The analysis links up with the morphological agreement facts...

  6. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi


    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  7. Population consequences of aggregative movement (United States)

    Peter Turchin


    Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.

  8. Actuating movement in refined wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toeters, M.J.; Feijs, L.M.G.


    Nowadays it is quite possible to deploy textiles as sensors and avoid traditional hard sensors. Actuation (movement) turns out more difficult. It is advantageous to combine sensing and actuation, similar to ecological perception theory. Although several actuators are known: SMA, voice coil, motors,




  10. Movement augmentation to evaluate human control of locomotor stability. (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey; Wu, Mengnan Mary; Huang, Felix C; Gordon, Keith E


    Controlling center of mass (COM) position and velocity within a dynamic base of support is essential for gait stability. This skill is often compromised following neurologic injury, creating a need to develop effective interventions to enhance gait stability. A movement augmentation paradigm applied to walking could potentially be used to improve control of COM dynamics. We have developed a cable robot system, the Agility Trainer, to apply continuous frontal-plane forces to the pelvis during treadmill walking. This cable robot system uses a set of series elastic actuators powered by linear motors to create bilateral forces. Here we use the Agility Trainer to create a negative viscosity force field proportional to the subject's lateral velocity. Two healthy young subjects performed two 10-minute walking trials, Baseline and Negative Viscosity. During the first minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field, participants' lateral COM motion became less controlled when compared to the rhythmic sinusoidal motion observed during Baseline walking. By the 10th minute of walking in the Negative Viscosity field the participants had adapted their gait patterns, decreasing their variation in peak lateral COM speed each stride. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to use the Agility Trainer to apply a movement augmentation paradigm to human walking.

  11. Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H


    Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  13. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 77: Implanted Brachythearpy Seed Movement due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R; Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S; Kay, I


    The study investigated the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds upon transrectal US probe removal, providing insight into the underlying prostate deformation and an estimate of the impact on prostate dosimetry. Implanted seed distributions, one obtained with the prostate under probe compression and another with the probe removed, were reconstructed using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate, delineated on ultrasound images, was registered to the fluoroscopy images using seeds and needle tracks identified on ultrasound. A deformation tensor and shearing model was developed to correlate probe-induced seed movement with position. Changes in prostate TG-43 dosimetry were calculated. The model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to estimate the location of the prostate surface in the absence of probe compression. Seed movement patterns upon probe removal reflected elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending. Elastic decompression was characterized by expansion in the anterior-posterior direction and contraction in the superior-inferior and lateral directions. Lateral shearing resulted in large anterior movement for extra-prostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. Whole prostate D90 increased up to 8 Gy, mainly due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing movement increased prostate D90 by 4 Gy, due to increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect of shearing movement on whole prostate D90 was small compared to elastic decompression due to the subset of peripheral seeds involved, but is expected to have greater consequences for local dose coverage

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  16. Formative factors of the Maria Åkerblom movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Björkstrand


    Full Text Available The Åkerblom movement exemplifies the best known impact on the cultural and religious environment of Swedish Finland, of a geographically and historically extensive phenomenon—the prophet movement. An obvious prerequisite for the emergence of a prophet movement is the prophet figure. The character and development of the movement are, to a great extent, dependent on the background and personality of this figure. The adolescence of Ida Maria Åkerblom (IMÅ, a cottar's daughter, born in Snappertuna in rural West Nyland in 1898, was both materially and spiritually barren. In matter of religion, she grew up in an atmosphere of piety best described as 'traditional and formalistic', with elements of evangelistic and later, also Anglo-Saxon revivalist piety. On the day on which IMÅ's confirmation priest and curate at Snappertuna, Karl-Erik Lindström died, IMÅ assumed the role of prophet and preacher, according to her account, after a severe illness. Lying in bed, she prophesied, while in a somnambulic state, imminent periods of hardship, and depicted her heavenly vision.

  17. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. (United States)

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A


    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as 'tennis elbow', is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

  18. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen


    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  19. An fMRI study during finger movement tasks and recalling finger movement tasks in normal subjects and schizophrenia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takefumi


    Using fMRI, we investigated the region of the brain, which was activated by the finger movement tasks (F1) and the recalling finger movement tasks (F2). Six right-handed age-matched healthy controls and six Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) Schizophrenia patients were included in the study. In healthy controls, contralateral motor area, supplementary motor area and somatosensory area were all activated during F1 and F2. However the contralateral parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus etc) and ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during F2. In schizophrenia patients, the contralateral motor area was activated during F1, but the activated region was smaller than that observed in healthy subjects. During F2, the bilateral parietal lobes (sensorimotor cortices, association cortex) were activated, while the activated regions were smaller than those seen in healthy controls and no laterality was observed. In addition, no laterality of the activated regions was clearly observed. These results suggest that the function of recalling motor tasks can be mapped onto the contralateral motor area, somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, parietal association cortices, and ipsilateral cerebellum. In schizophrenia patients, the activated regions are smaller than those observed in healthy controls, and parietal regions are also activated bilaterally during recalling motor tasks. Schizophrenia patients may therefore process to recall motor task differently from healthy subjects while also demonstrate less laterality of the brain. (author)

  20. Preventative Maintenance. (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  1. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley


    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  2. [Culture and empowerment: health promotion and AIDS prevention among prostitutes in Rio de Janeiro]. (United States)

    De Meis, Carla


    This paper discusses the difficulties that can arise when health promotion projects are developed within marginalized groups. This could be documented using the example of AIDS prevention among prostitutes. We applied questionnaires and focus group interviews were performed with prostitutes in Mangue, Rio de Janeiro in 1989. Later, during the decade of 1990, we accomplished open interviews with prostitutes who frequented São João Square in Niterói and with the leaders of the prostitutes' movement of Rio de Janeiro. During the analysis of the interviews we observed that although, from a public health point of view, prostitutes are considered as a group, they seldomly represent themselves in this way. In other words, while the goal of health promotion agencies and the prostitute movement is to build a prostitutes' grassroots movement able to organize and fight for prostitutes' rights and citizenship, most of the subjects studied believed that prostitution was an evil activity and consequently created narratives which denied their belonging to the prostitutes' community.

  3. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing. (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir


    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  4. The forgotten view: Chest X-ray - Lateral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M. Ittyachen


    Full Text Available With CT (computed tomography chest gaining more importance as a diagnostic tool, chest X-ray especially the lateral view is taken less commonly nowadays. Besides CT chest is also proven to be superior to chest X-ray in patients with major blunt trauma. We are presenting a 68-year old male who was partially treated from outside for a left sided pneumonia. He came to our hospital because of persisting chest pain. Chest X-ray, frontal view (postero-anterior was almost normal except for a mild opacity in the left lower zone. CT scan of the chest revealed a fluid collection posteriorly enclosed within enhancing pleura. Chest X-ray, left lateral view showed a corresponding posterior pleural based opacity. We are presenting this case to highlight the importance of the lateral view of the chest X-ray. In selected cases there is still a role for the lateral view. With the three dimensional visualization provided by the CT, the lateral view of the chest may be easier to understand. Consequent to the initial diagnosis by CT further follow up can be done with the chest X-ray. In a limited way this mitigates unnecessary expenditure and more importantly prevents the patient from exposure to harmful radiation in the form of repeated CT.

  5. The normal range of condylar movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Han Up; Park, Tae Won


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the normal range of condylar movement of normal adults. The author gas observed roentgenographic images of four serial positions of condylar head taken by modified transcranial lateral oblique projection. The serial positions are centric occlusion, rest position, 1 inch open position and maximal open position. The results were obtained as follow; 1. Inter-incisal distance was 46.85 mm in maximal open position. 2. The length between the deepest point of glenoid fossa and summit of condylar head in rest position was wider than that in centric occlusion by 0.8 mm. 3. In 1 inch open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 12.64 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 1.84 mm of vertical direction. 4. In maximal open position, condylar head moved forward from the standard line in 19.06 mm of horizontal direction and moved downwards from the standard line in 0.4 mm of vertical direction. 5. In centric occlusion, the width between glenoid fossa and margin of condylar head was greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior portion by 0.4 mm. 6. Except for estimated figures of 1 inch open position, all of the estimated figures was greater in male than in female.

  6. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine


    The societal norms of ageing and old age are changing in society today, due to demographic changes that favour a pedagogicalization of society, focusing on the management of human resources throughout the entire lifespan. The discourse on active ageing mot only reveals ‘better’ ways of ageing...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....... but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active...

  7. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings. (United States)

    Kusch, Martin


    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Core Stability Training on Functional Movement Patterns in Collegiate Athletes. (United States)

    Bagherian, Sajad; Ghasempoor, Khodayar; Rahnama, Nader; Wikstrom, Erik A


    Pre-participation examinations are the standard approach for assessing poor movement quality that would increase musculoskeletal injury risk. However, little is known about how core stability influences functional movement patterns. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week core stability program on functional movement patterns in collegiate athletes. The secondary purpose was to determine if the core stability training program would be more effective in those with worse movement quality (i.e. ≤14 baseline FMS score). Quasi-experimental design. Athletic Training Facility. One-hundred collegiate athletes. Functional movement patterns included the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Lateral step down (LSD) and Y balance test (YBT) and were assessed before and after the 8-week program. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control. The intervention group was required to complete a core stability training program that met 3 times per week for 8-week. Significant group x time interactions demonstrated improvements in FMS, LSD and YBT scores in the experimental group relative to the control group (pcore stability training program enhances functional movement patterns and dynamic postural control in collegiate athletes. The benefits are more pronounced in collegiate athletes with poor movement quality.

  9. Binocular eye movement control and motion perception: what is being tracked? (United States)

    van der Steen, Johannes; Dits, Joyce


    We investigated under what conditions humans can make independent slow phase eye movements. The ability to make independent movements of the two eyes generally is attributed to few specialized lateral eyed animal species, for example chameleons. In our study, we showed that humans also can move the eyes in different directions. To maintain binocular retinal correspondence independent slow phase movements of each eye are produced. We used the scleral search coil method to measure binocular eye movements in response to dichoptically viewed visual stimuli oscillating in orthogonal direction. Correlated stimuli led to orthogonal slow eye movements, while the binocularly perceived motion was the vector sum of the motion presented to each eye. The importance of binocular fusion on independency of the movements of the two eyes was investigated with anti-correlated stimuli. The perceived global motion pattern of anti-correlated dichoptic stimuli was perceived as an oblique oscillatory motion, as well as resulted in a conjugate oblique motion of the eyes. We propose that the ability to make independent slow phase eye movements in humans is used to maintain binocular retinal correspondence. Eye-of-origin and binocular information are used during the processing of binocular visual information, and it is decided at an early stage whether binocular or monocular motion information and independent slow phase eye movements of each eye are produced during binocular tracking.

  10. Zero-gravity movement studies (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.


    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  11. Articulatory Movements during Vowels in Speakers with Dysarthria and Healthy Controls (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary; Westbury, John R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.


    Purpose: This study compared movement characteristics of markers attached to the jaw, lower lip, tongue blade, and dorsum during production of selected English vowels by normal speakers and speakers with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson disease (PD). The study asked the following questions: (a) Are movement…

  12. Patterns of auxin and abscisic acid movement in the tips of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (United States)

    Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.


    Because both abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) have been suggested as possible chemical mediators of differential growth during root gravitropism, we compared with redistribution of label from applied 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA during maize root gravitropism and examined the relative basipetal movement of 3H-IAA and 3H-ABA applied to the caps of vertical roots. Lateral movement of 3H-ABA across the tips of vertical roots was non-polar and about 2-fold greater than lateral movement of 3H-IAA (also non-polar). The greater movement of ABA was not due to enhanced uptake since the uptake of 3H-IAA was greater than that of 3H-ABA. Basipetal movement of label from 3H-IAA or 3H-ABA applied to the root cap was determined by measuring radioactivity in successive 1 mm sections behind the tip 90 minutes after application. ABA remained largely in the first mm (point of application) whereas IAA was concentrated in the region 2-4 mm from the tip with substantial levels found 7-8 mm from the tip. Pretreatment with inhibitors of polar auxin transport decreased both gravicurvature and the basipetal movement of IAA. When roots were placed horizontally, the movement of 3H-IAA from top to bottom across the cap was enhanced relative to movement from bottom to top whereas the pattern of movement of label from 3H-ABA was unaffected. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that IAA plays a role in root gravitropism but contrary to the idea that gravi-induced asymmetric distribution of ABA contributes to the response.

  13. Exoskeleton for assisting human movement


    García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto


    [EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...

  14. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi


    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  15. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik


    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  16. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  17. The Saguenay, one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, R.


    The lessons learned from the natural disaster that occurred in the Saguenay region of Quebec in July of 1996 were discussed. A heavy downpour of rain in just a few days raised the water level of the Kenogami Lake reservoir beyond its capacity, creating a huge pressure on its dam, causing it to burst open. A flood of huge proportion resulted. The rising Ha Ha river devastated bridges, residential dwellings and properties. The lesson drawn from this disaster was that the possibility of a dam rupturing always exists, even if every precaution has been taken to prevent it from occurring. 2 figs

  18. Hawk eyes II: diurnal raptors differ in head movement strategies when scanning from perches. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Colleen T; Pitlik, Todd; Hoover, Melissa; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban


    Relatively little is known about the degree of inter-specific variability in visual scanning strategies in species with laterally placed eyes (e.g., birds). This is relevant because many species detect prey while perching; therefore, head movement behavior may be an indicator of prey detection rate, a central parameter in foraging models. We studied head movement strategies in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used behavioral recording of individuals under field and captive conditions to calculate the rate of two types of head movements and the interval between consecutive head movements. Cooper's Hawks had the highest rate of regular head movements, which can facilitate tracking prey items in the visually cluttered environment they inhabit (e.g., forested habitats). On the other hand, Red-tailed Hawks showed long intervals between consecutive head movements, which is consistent with prey searching in less visually obstructed environments (e.g., open habitats) and with detecting prey movement from a distance with their central foveae. Finally, American Kestrels have the highest rates of translational head movements (vertical or frontal displacements of the head keeping the bill in the same direction), which have been associated with depth perception through motion parallax. Higher translational head movement rates may be a strategy to compensate for the reduced degree of eye movement of this species. Cooper's Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and American Kestrels use both regular and translational head movements, but to different extents. We conclude that these diurnal raptors have species-specific strategies to gather visual information while perching. These strategies may optimize prey search and detection with different visual systems in habitat types with different degrees of visual obstruction.

  19. Medio-lateral postural instability in subjects with tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi eKapoula


    Full Text Available Background: Many patients show modulation of tinnitus by gaze, jaw or neck movements, reflecting abnormal sensorimotor integration and interaction between various inputs. Postural control is based on multi-sensory integration (visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and oculomotor and indeed there is now evidence that posture can also be influenced by sound. Perhaps tinnitus influences posture similarly to external sound. This study examines the quality of postural performance in quiet stance in patients with modulated tinnitus.Methods: Twenty-three patients with highly modulated tinnitus were selected in the ENT service. Twelve reported exclusively or predominately left tinnitus, eight right and three bilateral. Eighteen control subjects were also tested. Subjects were asked to fixate a target at 40cm for 51s; posturography was performed with the platform (Technoconcept, 40Hz for both the eyes open and eyes closed conditions.Results: For both conditions, tinnitus subjects showed abnormally high lateral body sway (SDx. This was corroborated by fast Fourrier Transformation (FFTx and wavelet analysis. For patients with left tinnitus only, medio-lateral sway increased significantly when looking away from the center. Conclusions: Similarly to external sound stimulation, tinnitus could influence lateral sway by activating attention shift, and perhaps vestibular responses. Poor integration of sensorimotor signals is another possibility. Such abnormalities would be accentuated in left tinnitus because of the importance of the right cerebral cortex in processing both auditory-tinnitus and attention.

  20. Lateralized discrimination of emotional scenes in peripheral vision. (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Rodríguez-Chinea, Sandra; Fernández-Martín, Andrés


    This study investigates whether there is lateralized processing of emotional scenes in the visual periphery, in the absence of eye fixations; and whether this varies with emotional valence (pleasant vs. unpleasant), specific emotional scene content (babies, erotica, human attack, mutilation, etc.), and sex of the viewer. Pairs of emotional (positive or negative) and neutral photographs were presented for 150 ms peripherally (≥6.5° away from fixation). Observers judged on which side the emotional picture was located. Low-level image properties, scene visual saliency, and eye movements were controlled. Results showed that (a) correct identification of the emotional scene exceeded the chance level; (b) performance was more accurate and faster when the emotional scene appeared in the left than in the right visual field; (c) lateralization was equivalent for females and males for pleasant scenes, but was greater for females and unpleasant scenes; and (d) lateralization occurred similarly for different emotional scene categories. These findings reveal discrimination between emotional and neutral scenes, and right brain hemisphere dominance for emotional processing, which is modulated by sex of the viewer and scene valence, and suggest that coarse affective significance can be extracted in peripheral vision.

  1. Influence of maximum bite force on jaw movement during gummy jelly mastication. (United States)

    Kuninori, T; Tomonari, H; Uehara, S; Kitashima, F; Yagi, T; Miyawaki, S


    It is known that maximum bite force has various influences on chewing function; however, there have not been studies in which the relationships between maximum bite force and masticatory jaw movement have been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maximum bite force on masticatory jaw movement in subjects with normal occlusion. Thirty young adults (22 men and 8 women; mean age, 22.6 years) with good occlusion were divided into two groups based on whether they had a relatively high or low maximum bite force according to the median. The maximum bite force was determined according to the Dental Prescale System using pressure-sensitive sheets. Jaw movement during mastication of hard gummy jelly (each 5.5 g) on the preferred chewing side was recorded using a six degrees of freedom jaw movement recording system. The motion of the lower incisal point of the mandible was computed, and the mean values of 10 cycles (cycles 2-11) were calculated. A masticatory performance test was conducted using gummy jelly. Subjects with a lower maximum bite force showed increased maximum lateral amplitude, closing distance, width and closing angle; wider masticatory jaw movement; and significantly lower masticatory performance. However, no differences in the maximum vertical or maximum anteroposterior amplitudes were observed between the groups. Although other factors, such as individual morphology, may influence masticatory jaw movement, our results suggest that subjects with a lower maximum bite force show increased lateral jaw motion during mastication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  3. Communication Theory and the Consumer Movement- (United States)

    Newsom, Doug


    Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  4. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan


    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal


    Mostaed, Maria F; Werner, David M; Barrios, Joaquin A


    The lateral step-down test is an established clinical evaluation tool to assess quality of movement in patients with knee disorders. However, this test has not been investigated in individuals after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in association with quantitative 3D motion analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of association between visually-assessed quality of movement during the lateral step-down test and 3D lower limb kinematics in patients with history of ACLR. A second purpose was to compare kinematics between subgroups based on the presence or absence of faulty alignments during the task. The final purpose was to compare visually-assessed quality of movement scores between box heights during lateral step-down testing. Twenty subjects at least one year status post-ACLR (18 females, age of 24.5 ± 4.6 years and body mass index of 23.4 ± 2.3 kg/m 2 ) performed the lateral step-down test unilaterally on the surgical limb atop four and six inch boxes. A board-certified orthopedic physical therapist scored overall quality of movement during the lateral step-down test using established criteria during 2D video playback. Lower limb kinematics were simultaneously collected using 3D motion capture. An alpha level of 0.05 was used for all statistical treatments. Overall 2D quality of movement score significantly correlated (r =0.47-0.57) with 3D hip adduction and hip internal rotation across box heights. Across box heights, the presence of faulty pelvic alignment differentiated a subgroup exhibiting less peak knee flexion, and the presence of faulty knee alignment differentiated a subgroup exhibiting greater peak hip adduction. The six inch box elicited worse quality of movement compared to the four inch box. These results suggest that visually-assessed quality of movement is associated with several kinematic variables after ACLR. 2D movement deviations at the pelvis appear to consistently relate to less knee

  6. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee


    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V


    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex ta...

  7. Excessively delayed maternal reaction after their perception of decreased fetal movements in stillbirths: Population-based study in Japan. (United States)

    Koshida, Shigeki; Ono, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Shunichiro; Murakami, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Takahashi, Kentaro


    Fetal movement is the most common method to evaluate fetal well-being. Furthermore, maternal perception of decreased fetal movements is associated with perinatal demise. Previously, we showed that perception of decreased fetal movements was the most common reason for mothers visiting the outpatient department among those who had stillbirths in our region. Further investigation of stillbirths with decreased fetal movements is essential to find a possible way of preventing stillbirth. To investigate maternal reaction time after their perceiving decreased fetal movements among stillbirths in our region of Japan. This is a population-based study of stillbirths in Shiga Prefecture, Japan conducted from 2007 to 2011. We sent a questionnaire to each obstetrician who had submitted the stillbirth certificate. We reviewed and evaluated the questionnaires returned from the obstetricians. There were 66 cases (35%) with decreased fetal movements among 188 stillbirths in Shiga during the study period. The number of maternal visits to outpatient department after perception of decreased fetal movements within 24h was only seven (11%) among 64 stillbirths diagnosed at outpatient department. We conclude that delayed maternal visit after perceiving decreased fetal movements is frequently observed in stillbirths. Promoting more thorough maternal education on fetal movements, including emphasizing earlier visitation after perceiving decreased fetal movements, may prevent stillbirths. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn


    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  10. Preventing Rejection (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  11. Prevent Cyberbullying (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  12. Preventing Suicide (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  15. Preventing accidents (United States)


    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  18. Inhibition of polar calcium movement and gravitropism in roots treated with auxin-transport inhibitors (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.


    Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit strong positive gravitropism. In both species, gravistimulation induces polar movement of calcium across the root tip from the upper side to the lower side. Roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) are not responsive to gravity and gravistimulation induces little or no polar movement of calcium across the root tip. Treatment of maize or pea roots with inhibitors of auxin transport (morphactin, naphthylphthalamic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) prevents both gravitropism and gravity-induced polar movement of calcium across the root tip. The results indicate that calcium movement and auxin movement are closely linked in roots and that gravity-induced redistribution of calcium across the root cap may play an important role in the development of gravitropic curvature.

  19. Medicine against Cold War. Physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 1980ies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, Claudia


    The book on physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 19080ies covers the following issues: (I) Frame of the subject: methodology, research fields and actors; (II) The social dimension of the physician's movement; (III) IPPNW (International physicians for the prevention of nuclear war) - a political idea is medicalized and organized, 1980 - 1984; (IV) Borderlines of the international peace idea during the Cold War - IPPNW 1980 - 1986.

  20. The Analysis of Knee Joint Movement During Golf Swing in Professional and Amateur Golfers


    M.Somjarod; V. Tanawat; l. Weerawat


    The understanding of knee movement during swing importance for golf swing improving and preventing injury. Thirty male professional and amateur golfers were assigned to swing time by time for 3 times. Data from a vedio-based motion capture were used to compute knee joint movement variables. The results showed that professional and amateur golfers were significantly in left knee flexion angle at the impact point and mid follow through phase. Nevertheless, left knee externa...

  1. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  2. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946 (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria


    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  3. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...

  4. 30 CFR 250.602 - Equipment movement. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.602 Section 250.602... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.602 Equipment movement. The movement of well-workover rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well on...

  5. 49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...

  6. 30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250.502... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well...

  7. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...

  8. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  9. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle


    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  10. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia


    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  11. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ! (United States)

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer


    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  12. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper


    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  13. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for efficient movement monitoring. (United States)

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António


    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user.

  14. Extracting information of fixational eye movements through pupil tracking (United States)

    Xiao, JiangWei; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqin; Peng, Li; Han, Peng


    Human eyes are never completely static even when they are fixing a stationary point. These irregular, small movements, which consist of micro-tremors, micro-saccades and drifts, can prevent the fading of the images that enter our eyes. The importance of researching the fixational eye movements has been experimentally demonstrated recently. However, the characteristics of fixational eye movements and their roles in visual process have not been explained clearly, because these signals can hardly be completely extracted by now. In this paper, we developed a new eye movement detection device with a high-speed camera. This device includes a beam splitter mirror, an infrared light source and a high-speed digital video camera with a frame rate of 200Hz. To avoid the influence of head shaking, we made the device wearable by fixing the camera on a safety helmet. Using this device, the experiments of pupil tracking were conducted. By localizing the pupil center and spectrum analysis, the envelope frequency spectrum of micro-saccades, micro-tremors and drifts are shown obviously. The experimental results show that the device is feasible and effective, so that the device can be applied in further characteristic analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli


    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  16. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.


    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  17. Laterality judgments are not impaired in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders. (United States)

    Pedler, Ashley; Motlagh, Helena; Sterling, Michele


    Impaired integration of the body schema with motor processes may contribute to painful and/or restricted movement in chronic pain. Laterality judgment tasks assess this integration of the body schema with motor processes. The purpose of this study was to assess if patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are impaired on laterality judgment tasks. Accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for foot and neck laterality tasks were assessed in 64 (35 female) patients with chronic (>6 months) WAD and 24 (14 female) asymptomatic subjects. Pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms, cold pain thresholds (CPT) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were collected for patients with WAD. The effect of WAD and body part on laterality task performance was assessed. For patients with WAD, the correlations between neck task performance and pain characteristics, post-traumatic stress symptoms and pain thresholds were assessed. There was no effect of group on laterality performance. Subjects showed better RT (p laterality task in patients with WAD. Cervical spine PPT were significantly correlated with accuracy (r = 0.36) and RT (r = 0.29) in patients with WAD. These findings suggest that patients with chronic WAD are not impaired on neck or foot laterality judgment tasks. Laterality training is not indicated in the management of chronic WAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What makes a movement a gesture? (United States)

    Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan


    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MR assessment of movement and morphologic change in the menisci during knee flexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Y.; Uetani, M.; Fuchi, K.; Eguchi, H.; Hayashi, K.


    To examine movement and morphologic alteration in the menisci during knee flexion. Twenty healthy knees were imaged at 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees of passive non-weight-bearing flexion in the sagittal plane with MR. In each meniscus, posterior movement distance during knee flexion and the ratio of anteroposterior (a.p.) diameter at flexion to that at extension were calculated. Each meniscus moved posteriorly during knee flexion. Movement was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn, and greater in the medial meniscus than in the lateral meniscus (p<0.05). The a.p. diameter of each meniscus was reduced at flexion (p<0.05). Knee flexion normally leads to posterior movement and shortening of the a.p. diameter of the menisci, which may be related to the positioning and curvature of femoral condyles at the femorotibial contact point at knee flexion

  20. MR assessment of movement and morphologic change in the menisci during knee flexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Y.; Uetani, M.; Hayashi, K.; Fuchi, K.; Eguchi, H.


    Purpose: To examine movement and morphologic alteration in the menisci during knee flexion. Material and Methods: Twenty healthy knees were imaged at 0 , 45 , and 90 of passive non-weight-bearing flexion in the sagittal plane with MR. In each meniscus, posterior movement distance during knee flexion and the ratio of anteroposterior (a.p.) diameter at flexion to that at extension were calculated. Results: Each meniscus moved posteriorly during knee flexion. Movement was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn, and greater in the medial meniscus than in the lateral meniscus (p<0.05). The a.p. diameter of each meniscus was reduced at flexion (p<0.05). Conclusion: Knee flexion normally leads to posterior movement and shortening of the a.p. diameter of the menisci, which may be related to the positioning and curvature of femoral condyles at the femorotibial contact point at knee flexion. (orig.)

  1. Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana


    Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…

  2. Vertical and lateral forces when a permanent magnet above a superconductor traverses in arbitrary directions (United States)

    Yang, Yong


    In an actual levitation system composed of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) and permanent magnets (PMs), the levitating bodies may traverse in arbitrary directions. Many previous researchers assumed that the levitating bodies moved in a vertical direction or a lateral direction in order to simplify the problem. In this paper, the vertical and lateral forces acting on the PM are calculated by the modified frozen-image method when a PM above an HTS traverses in arbitrary directions. In order to study the effects of the movement directions on the vertical and lateral forces, comparisons of the forces that act on a PM traversing in a tilted direction with those that act on a PM traversing in a vertical direction or a lateral direction have been presented.

  3. Vertical and lateral forces when a permanent magnet above a superconductor traverses in arbitrary directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yong [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail:


    In an actual levitation system composed of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) and permanent magnets (PMs), the levitating bodies may traverse in arbitrary directions. Many previous researchers assumed that the levitating bodies moved in a vertical direction or a lateral direction in order to simplify the problem. In this paper, the vertical and lateral forces acting on the PM are calculated by the modified frozen-image method when a PM above an HTS traverses in arbitrary directions. In order to study the effects of the movement directions on the vertical and lateral forces, comparisons of the forces that act on a PM traversing in a tilted direction with those that act on a PM traversing in a vertical direction or a lateral direction have been presented.

  4. Vertical and lateral forces when a permanent magnet above a superconductor traverses in arbitrary directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong


    In an actual levitation system composed of high temperature superconductors (HTSs) and permanent magnets (PMs), the levitating bodies may traverse in arbitrary directions. Many previous researchers assumed that the levitating bodies moved in a vertical direction or a lateral direction in order to simplify the problem. In this paper, the vertical and lateral forces acting on the PM are calculated by the modified frozen-image method when a PM above an HTS traverses in arbitrary directions. In order to study the effects of the movement directions on the vertical and lateral forces, comparisons of the forces that act on a PM traversing in a tilted direction with those that act on a PM traversing in a vertical direction or a lateral direction have been presented.

  5. Bereitschaftspotentials recorded from the lateral part of the superior frontal gyrus in humans. (United States)

    Ohara, Shinji; Ikeda, Akio; Matsuhashi, Masao; Satow, Takeshi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Baba, Koichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi


    To demonstrate the Bereitschaftspotentials (BPs) over the high lateral convexity in the superior frontal gyrus, movement-related cortical potentials with respect to the middle finger extension were recorded in seven patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent subdural implantation of platinum electrode grids and/or strips covering the high lateral frontal convexity. In two out of the seven patients, BPs were recorded from the electrodes placed on the superior frontal gyrus in the vicinity of the border between the medial and lateral frontal lobes, which were distinct from those recorded from the primary sensorimotor cortex. The results suggest the possible contribution of either the lateral dorsal non-primary motor area or the SMA to the generation of the BPs.

  6. Reach-to-grasp movement as a minimization process. (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Feldman, Anatol G


    It is known that hand transport and grasping are functionally different but spatially coordinated components of reach-to-grasp (RTG) movements. As an extension of this notion, we suggested that body segments involved in RTG movements are controlled as a coherent ensemble by a global minimization process associated with the necessity for the hand to reach the motor goal. Different RTG components emerge following this process without pre-programming. Specifically, the minimization process may result from the tendency of neuromuscular elements to diminish the spatial gap between the actual arm-hand configuration and its virtual (referent) configuration specified by the brain. The referent configuration is specified depending on the object shape, localization, and orientation. Since the minimization process is gradual, it can be interrupted and resumed following mechanical perturbations, at any phase during RTG movements, including hand closure. To test this prediction of the minimization hypothesis, we asked subjects to reach and grasp a cube placed within the reach of the arm. Vision was prevented during movement until the hand returned to its initial position. As predicted, by arresting wrist motion at different points of hand transport in randomly selected trials, it was possible to halt changes in hand aperture at any phase, not only during hand opening but also during hand closure. Aperture changes resumed soon after the wrist was released. Another test of the minimization hypothesis was made in RTG movements to an object placed beyond the reach of the arm. It has previously been shown (Rossi et al. in J Physiol 538:659-671, 2002) that in such movements, the trunk motion begins to contribute to hand transport only after a critical phase when the shifts in the referent arm configuration have finished (at about the time when hand velocity is maximal). The minimization rule suggests that when the virtual contribution of the arm to hand transport is completed

  7. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed. (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan


    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  8. Case vignettes of movement disorders. (United States)

    Yung, C Y


    This paper reports five movement disorders cases to serve as a basis for discussion of the problems encountered in the clinical management of these cases, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these disorders as presented. Case 1 is a description of the subjective experience of a patient with acute orofacial dystonia from promethazine. Case 2 is the use of clonazepam is post-head injury tics. Case 3 is the complication from discontinuation of haloperidol and benztropine mesylate treatment. Case 4 is myoclonus in subacute sclerosing Panencephalitis, and Case 5 is rebound tremor from withdrawal of a beta-adrenergic blocker.

  9. Clavicle hook plate fixation for displaced lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II): a functional outcome study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W


    Controversy exists with the use of the acromioclavicular hook plate for the treatment of lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II). This is thought to stem from problems associated with the hook plate causing impingement symptoms, which can cause long-term limitation of movement and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients with lateral-third clavicle fractures treated with the hook plate.

  10. Cancer prevention. (United States)

    Tubiana, M


    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  11. Movement of the diaphragm during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki; Fujioka, Tomio; Sakurai, Makoto; Nakajima, Toshifumi; Onoyama, Yasuto.


    Movement of the target volume during the exposure to radiation results in decreased accuracy in radiotherapy. We carried out the quantitative evaluation of the movement of the diaphragm during the radiation therapy. Seventy seven patients, who received radiation therapy for lung cancer from December 1988 to February 1990 at the Osaka-prefectural Habikino Hospital, were studied. The movement was recorded with a sonoprinter at the time of treatment planning for radiotherapy, and the length of movement was evaluated at 6 points on the diaphragm. In a study of 402 points in 77 patients, the average movement was 12 mm, and the maximum movement was 40 mm. At the 17% of the points, the movement exceeded 20 mm. The largest movement was observed at the outer point of the right lung. Movement was greater in men than in women. Performance status was not related to the degree of movement. We concluded that in chest and abdominal irradiation, movement caused by respiration is not negligible, and synchronized radiotherapy should be developed in the future. (author)

  12. New ocular movement detector system as a communication tool in ventilator-assisted Werdnig-Hoffmann disease. (United States)

    Kubota, M; Sakakihara, Y; Uchiyama, Y; Nara, A; Nagata, T; Nitta, H; Ishimoto, K; Oka, A; Horio, K; Yanagisawa, M


    A non-contact communication system was developed for a ventilator-assisted patient with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease who had lost all voluntary movements except for those of the eye. The system detects the extraocular movements and converts them to either a 'yes' signal (produced by one lateral eyeball movement) or a 'no' signal (produced by two successive lateral eyeball movements) using a video camera placed outside the patient's visual field. The patient is thus able to concentrate on performing a task without any intrusion from the detection system. Once the setting conditions of the device have been selected, there is no need for any resetting, as the patient is unable to move his body. In addition to playing television games, the child can use the device to select television channels, compose music, and learn written Japanese and Chinese characters. This seems to broaden the patient's daily world and promote mental development.

  13. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T O'Rourke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33° and wide blind areas (∼82°, but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°, which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°, small blind areas (∼60°, and high degree of eye movement (∼8°, which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1° may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that: (a there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats; (c variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence

  14. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Colleen T; Hall, Margaret I; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban


    Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33°) and wide blind areas (∼82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°), small blind areas (∼60°), and high degree of eye movement (∼8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while

  15. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving Movement in Bicycle Riding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Priya


    Full Text Available Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle’s handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  16. Harvesting energy from the counterbalancing (weaving) movement in bicycle riding. (United States)

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank


    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power.

  17. Use of electrical barriers to deter movement of round goby (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Jude, David J.; Kostich, Melissa J.; Coutant, Charles C.


    An electrical barrier was chosen as a possible means to deter movement of round goby Neogobius melanostomus. Feasibility studies in a 2.1-m donut-shaped tank determined the electrical parameters necessary to inhibit round goby from crossing the 1-m stretch of the benthic, electrical barrier. Increasing electrical pulse duration and voltage increased effectiveness of the barrier in deterring round goby movement through the barrier. Differences in activity of round goby during daytime and nocturnal tests did not change the effectiveness of the barrier. In field verification studies, an electrical barrier was placed between two blocking nets in the Shiawassee River, Michigan. The barrier consisted of a 6-m wide canvas on which were laid four cables carrying the electrical current. Seven experiments were conducted, wherein 25 latex paint-marked round goby were introduced upstream of the electrical barrier and recovered 24 h later upstream, on, and downstream of the barrier. During control studies, round goby moved across the barrier within 20 min from release upstream. With the barrier on and using the prescribed electrical settings shown to inhibit passage in the laboratory, the only marked round goby found below the barrier were dead. At reduced pulse durations, a few round goby (mean one/test) were found alive, but debilitated, below the barrier. The electrical barrier could be incorporated as part of a program in reducing movement of adult round goby through artificial connections between watersheds.

  18. The Later Wittgenstein and the Later Husserl on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ricoeur


    Full Text Available This article presents an edited version of lectures given by Paul Ricœur at Johns Hopkins University in April 1966. Ricœur offers a comparative analysis of Wittgenstein’s and Husserl’s late works, taking the problem of language as the common ground of investigation for these two central figures of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Ricœur develops his study in two parts. The first part considers Husserl’s approach to language after the Logical Investigations and concentrates on Formal and Transcendental Logic; leaving a transcendental reflection on language behind it re-examines a phenomenological conception, according to which the sphere of logic is not separable from that of experience. The main focus of the second part is Wittgenstein’s later philosophy as it moved on from the conception of an isomorphic relation between language and the world, as set out in the picture theory in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to the more pragmatic notion of a language-game in the Philosophical Investigations. In order to get beyond the irrevocable differences between the two philosophies and the unresolved theoretical issues on both sides, Ricœur suggests turning to a semiological paradigm based on the Saussurean distinction between “language” and “speaking.” Keywords: Analytic Philosophy, Husserl, Phenomenology, Semiology, Wittgenstein.Résumé Cet article est une version éditée de conférences données par Paul Ricœur à la Johns Hopkins University en avril 1966. Ricœur propose une analyse comparée des dernières œuvres de Wittgenstein et Husserl, avec le problème du langage comme sol commun d’investigations pour ces deux figures centrales de la phénoménologie et la philosophie analytique. Cette analyse de Ricœur se joue à travers deux parties. La première partie revient sur l'approche du langage chez Husserl depuis Recherches logiques avec une attention particulière aux développements de Logique formelle et

  19. Decoding of Human Movements Based on Deep Brain Local Field Potentials Using Ensemble Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam


    Full Text Available Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs for robust movement decoding of Parkinson’s disease (PD and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. Movement-related LFP signal features were extracted by computing instantaneous power related to motor response in different neural frequency bands. An innovative neural network ensemble classifier has been proposed and developed for accurate prediction of finger movement and its forthcoming laterality. The ensemble classifier contains three base neural network classifiers, namely, feedforward, radial basis, and probabilistic neural networks. The majority voting rule is used to fuse the decisions of the three base classifiers to generate the final decision of the ensemble classifier. The overall decoding performance reaches a level of agreement (kappa value at about 0.729±0.16 for decoding movement from the resting state and about 0.671±0.14 for decoding left and right visually cued movements.

  20. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: Does a cultural difference truly exist?


    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M.; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith


    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for...