Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Mangum, Dana W
One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer
The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…
Rebeca Nunes Guedes De Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension.
Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard
Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.
Gonzalez-Guarda, R M; Cummings, A M; Becerra, M; Fernandez, M C; Mesa, I
Research suggest that Hispanics in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by the consequences of intimate partner violence. Nevertheless, few intimate partner violence prevention interventions have been developed to address the unique needs and preferences of this population. The Partnership for Domestic Violence Prevention is a community-based participatory research project that assessed the needs and preferences for prevention programs for Hispanics in Miami-Dade County. Nine focus groups with domestic violence service providers, victims and general community members were conducted (N = 76). Four major themes emerged from the focus groups. These included immigrants and teens as the highest priority groups to target in prevention efforts, culture as a double-edged sword, the system that helps and hurts the victim, and the need for wide-scale prevention programs that would reach Hispanics systematically. The results from this study have important implications for the development of intimate violence prevention interventions targeting Hispanics in the U.S.
Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela
According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.
Buser, Juleen K.; Saponara, Erin
Children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) often suffer a range of physical, behavioral, emotional, and familial consequences (Holt, Buckley, & Whelan, 2008). School counselors may be in a key position to implement prevention programs around this issue, identify children who have witnessed IPV, and to engage in intervention efforts.…
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.
The DELTA PREP Project aims to reduce risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). It engaged leadership and staff from 19 statewide domestic violence coalitions in building capacity to prevent IPV before it occurs (rather than solely responding to IPV). This article describes the process and outcomes associated with action planning to create…
Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.
Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…
Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.
Yoshihama, Mieko; Ramakrishnan, Aparna; Hammock, Amy C; Khaliq, Mahmooda
To fill an existing gap in research and practice on intimate partner violence (IPV) in immigrant communities, the authors developed an IPV prevention program, called the Shanti Project, in an Asian Indian community in the Midwest. Building on the notion of shanti (harmony/peace), a cherished value and strength of the community, we created a communications campaign that combined social marketing and community-based participatory approaches. Recognizing the interactive influences of multiple levels of social ecology, campaign activities were designed to bring about changes at the individual, relationship/family, organization, and community levels. This article presents the development of this theoretically, empirically, and community-based IPV prevention program.
Feder, Lynette; Holditch Niolon, Phyllis; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Wallinder, Jan; Nelson, Robin; Larrouy, Hattie
The lack of rigorous evaluations of intimate partner violence (IPV) programs has severely limited our knowledge about what works. However, IPV programs can be rigorously evaluated through randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted ethically and safely. This article provides an example of how a RCT to test an IPV preventive intervention-the Enhanced Nurse Family Partnership Study (ENFPS)-was successfully implemented by a partnership of researchers and practitioners. The article concludes with some recommendations, arrived at by the researchers and practitioners on the ENFPS team, for achieving a successful collaboration thought to be essential in executing a field experiment. © The Author(s) 2011.
Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…
Full Text Available A considerable body of research has demonstrated that women who are abused by their male romantic partners are at substantially elevated risk for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. This article reviews recent literature regarding intimate partner violence (IPV and resultant PTSD symptoms. The article is intended to be an introduction to the topic rather than an exhaustive review of the extensive literature in this area. Factors that enhance and reduce the risk for PTSD, including social support, coping styles, and types of abusive behavior experienced, are described. In addition, the unique risks associated with IPV for women who have children are discussed. Prevention efforts and treatment are briefly reviewed.
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.
Sullivan, Cris M; Bomsta, Heather D; Hacskaylo, Margaret A
The complex interrelationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and housing instability has been well established. Being the victim of IPV is a leading cause of homelessness for women, and once someone is homeless, their lives often spiral downward quickly. While some IPV survivors require extensive and possibly long-term assistance to achieve safe and stable housing (especially if they are contending with multiple complex issues), others could avoid homelessness if provided with immediate, individualized, and flexible assistance. For these survivors, whose housing has been otherwise stable but who face homelessness because of a crisis related to IPV, a brief intervention that includes flexible funding can restore a family's equilibrium and prevent the devastating repercussions associated with homelessness. A longitudinal evaluation of a flexible funding program in Washington, D.C., found that this brief, relatively inexpensive intervention may increase housing stability-94% of clients were housed 6 months after funding was received. Implications for both research and practice are discussed.
Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A.
Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement…
Pamela C. Regan
Full Text Available Aggression and violence are themes which characterize a significant proportion of many close romantic relationships. Both women and men may find themselves caught in a web of intimate terror – controlled, manipulated, and hurt by a coercive and violent partner. In this brief review article, we summarize existing literature on the form of intimate partner violence known as coercive controlling violence (CCV, domestic abuse, or intimate terrorism. We begin by discussing the nature and consequences of CCV relationships. Personal or individual (e.g., biological sex, age, immigrant status, socioeconomic status, attitudes and beliefs, mental health and psychopathology, relational or interpersonal (e.g., relationship type, relationship satisfaction, and environmental (e.g., economic strain, social isolation risk factors associated with the occurrence of domestic abuse are identified. Finally, potential preventative measures at the individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural level that may serve to reduce the likelihood of this pernicious interpersonal phenomenon are considered.
Research on perceptions and attitudes regarding intimate partner violence (IPV), a prominent predictor of IPV, is limited, and surveys on the relationships of the influencing factors are even rarer. Using a convenience sample of 2,057 students and assessed by the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, this study explored Chinese university students' perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV to improve IPV prevention programs. It focused on the existences of the different perceptions and attitudes regarding gender, residence, major, and age under the same condition of educational attainment. Significant gender differences were found, with female students possessing better perceptions, which indicated that with the same education levels, the perceptions of females were better than those of males. Significant differences were also found for the first time in the literature between science students and arts students, with the latter holding better attitudes. No significant differences were seen between students from rural areas and students from urban areas, suggesting that with the same educational attainment, there were no perception differences between rural and urban residents. No significant perception differences were found among freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, which revealed that neither university education nor urban life had a significant effect on perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV for students who had finished high school education. In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that among the other factors such as gender, residence, and age, education was the most powerful factor influencing perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.
Choi, Y Joon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kim, Irang; Ko, Kyung Soon
Intimate partner violence (IPV) among immigrant women is a serious public health problem. Churches and clergy play a fundamental role in their lives, as a form of social organization and alternative to community services. To describe the implementation and evaluation of an intervention for Korean American faith leaders designed to increase knowledge about IPV and about resources to handle IPV, strengthen attitudes that do not support IPV, enhance self-efficacy to handle IPV, and increase prevention and intervention behaviors about IPV. Korean American faith leaders in a Southeastern state of the USA were invited to participate in the study ( n = 55). Participants completed two online assessments: baseline and a 3-month follow-up. After the baseline assessment, participants were randomized to either the intervention ( n = 27) or the control ( n = 28) group. The intervention consisted of three online modules, each taking approximately 30-45 min to complete. Modules were developed based on the researchers' work with Korean American faith leaders. Assessments and interventions were available in Korean and English. Compared to the control group, the intervention group significantly improved their knowledge of resources and enhanced attitudes against IPV. The intervention group increased their self-efficacy and behaviors to prevent IPV more than the control group, but these changes were not statistically significant. The online training provided a safe and convenient environment for the Korean American clergy, for whom anonymity and convenient access were important. Results are promising, but highlight the need to include more specific training of skills, which could be incorporated into the online modules in the form of an avatar. This online training could serve as a template to be adapted for other immigrant groups.
Stevens, Jack; Scribano, Philip V; Marshall, Jessica; Nadkarni, Radha; Hayes, John; Kelleher, Kelly J
We conducted a randomized-controlled trial of telephone support services (TSS) versus enhanced usual care (EUC) for women who had reported intimate partner violence (IPV) within the past year during a visit to a pediatric emergency department. TSS nurse interventionists identified appropriate referrals to community programs, helped participants by problem-solving barriers to obtaining these local services, and provided social support. Three hundred women, ages 18 years and above were recruited. The TSS and EUC groups did not differ on any outcome variable, including IPV victimization, feelings of chronic vulnerability to a perpetrator, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.
Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S
The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway
SUMMARY This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057
... 911 Legal aid: Local shelter: ______________ Trusted friend: Clinic: _______________ Animal shelter: _______________ _______________ _______________ Journal of Midwifery ... Don’t Think That My Partner Means to Hurt Me or ...
Smith, Carolyn A; Greenman, Sarah J; Thornberry, Terence P; Henry, Kimberly L; Ireland, Timothy O
The prevention of intimate partner violence is a desirable individual and public health goal for society. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent risk factors for partner violence in order to inform the development of evidence-based prevention strategies. We utilize data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a two decade long prospective study of a representative community sample of 1000 participants that has extensive measures of adolescent characteristics, contexts, and behaviors that are potential precursors of partner violence. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, we assess self-reported partner violence perpetration in emerging adulthood (ages 20-22) and in adulthood (ages 29-30) utilizing the Conflict Tactics Scale. Our results indicate that risk factors for intimate partner violence span several developmental domains and are substantially similar for both genders. Internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors as well as early intimate relationships are especially salient for both genders. Additionally, cumulative risk across a number of developmental domains places adolescents at particularly high risk of perpetrating partner violence. Implications for prevention include extending existing prevention programs that focus on high risk groups with multiple risks for developmental disruption, as well as focusing on preventing or mitigating identified risk factors across both genders.
Problem drinking and drug use among male partners is a strong determinant of physical intimate partner violence among battered women in South Africa. Intimate partner violence prevention measures should address reduction of problem drinking and drug use among men. Keywords: physical violence, psychological ...
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health concern. While community-level gender norms and attitudes to IPV are recognised drivers of IPV risk, there is little evidence on how interventions might tackle these drivers to prevent IPV at the community-level. This secondary analysis of data from the SASA! study explores the pathways through which SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women, achieved community-wide reductions in physical IPV. Methods From 2007 to 2012 a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRT was conducted in eight communities in Kampala, Uganda. Cross-sectional surveys of a random sample of community members, aged 18–49, were undertaken at baseline (n = 1583 and 4 years post intervention implementation (n = 2532. We used cluster-level intention to treat analysis to estimate SASA!’s community-level impact on women’s past year experience of physical IPV and men’s past year perpetration of IPV. The mediating roles of community-, relationship- and individual-level factors in intervention effect on past year physical IPV experience (women/perpetration (men were explored using modified Poisson regression models. Results SASA! was associated with reductions in women’s past year experience of physical IPV (0.48, 95 % CI 0.16–1.39, as well as men’s perpetration of IPV (0.39, 95 % CI 0.20–0.73. Community-level normative attitudes were the most important mediators of intervention impact on physical IPV risk, with norms around the acceptability of IPV explaining 70 % of the intervention effect on women’s experience of IPV and 95 % of the effect on men’s perpetration. The strongest relationship-level mediators were men’s reduced suspicion of partner infidelity (explaining 22 % of effect on men’s perpetration, and improved communication around sex (explaining 16 % of effect on women’s experience. Reduced acceptability of IPV
Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador. Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S.) currency rate. Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003-2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events. The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV prevention.
Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Godin, Katelyn; Pham, Ngan K.; Bhandari, Mohit; Goslings, J. C.
Background: Health care providers play a vital role in the detection of intimate partner violence among their patients. Despite the recommendations for routine intimate partner violence screening in various medical settings, health care providers do not routinely screen for intimate partner
This review focuses specifically on Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women, as opposed to Violence against women and girls (VAWG) more broadly, for several reasons. Partner violence is the most prevalent form of violence against women globally: a woman is at the greatest risk for suffering violence in her own home by someone she knows. A recent systematic review found that most of ...
Wall, Kristin M; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kleinbaum, David; Stephenson, Rob
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and coercion have been associated with negative health outcomes, including increased HIV risk behaviors, among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is the first study to describe the prevalence and factors associated with experiencing IPV or coercion among US MSM dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), an analytic framework to describe interdependent outcomes within dyads. Among MSM couples enrolled as dyads in an HIV prevention randomized controlled trial (RCT), two outcomes are examined in this cross-sectional analysis: 1) the actor experiencing physical or sexual IPV from the study partner in the past 3-months and 2) the actor feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by the study partner. Two multilevel APIM logistic regression models evaluated the association between each outcome and actor, partner, and dyad-level factors. Of 190 individuals (95 MSM couples), 14 reported experiencing physical or sexual IPV from their study partner in the past 3 months (7.3%) and 12 reported feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by their study partner (6.3%). Results of multivariate APIM analyses indicated that reporting experienced IPV was associated (p coercion was associated (p coercion to participate in the research study, indicating the need for screening tools and support services for these behaviors. The identification of factors associated with IPV and coercion demonstrate the importance of considering actor and partner effects, as well as dyadic-level effects, to improve development of screening tools and support services for these outcomes.
Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay
Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…
Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador.Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S. currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events.Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV
Full Text Available The most alarming type of intimate partner violence is homicide. Violence risk assessment of intimate partner violent offenders is a common topic in police and prison contexts with the aim of preventing recidivism and fatal results. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether men who kill their intimate partner (intimate partner homicide - IPH present different risk factors from those who kill women outside of a relationship (non-intimate partner homicide - non-IPH. The crime characteristics of 30 attempted or completed IPHs that were sentenced in Catalonia (Spain between 2004 and 2009 are described. Moreover, the risk factors of 21 completed IPHs and 20 non-IPHs were compared using the RisCanvi, an actuarial risk assessment tool used in the Catalan prison context to manage inmates. Results show differences between the two types of offenders in the criminal role and recklessness, more prevalent among non-IPHs, which is consistent with research indicating that IPH offenders are similar to other homicide offenders. The difficulties faced seeking to assess and manage the risk of IPH are discussed.
Full Text Available Indashyikirwa is a Rwandan intimate partner violence (IPV prevention program being implemented by CARE International Rwanda, Rwanda Women’s Network (RWN, and Rwanda Men’s Resource Centre (RWAMREC. A central aspect of the programme is a 20-session curriculum for heterosexual couples designed to support healthy, non-violent relationships. This paper draws on qualitative interviews with 15 couples (before and after the curriculum and 9 field staff to assess couples’ impressions, comprehension of, and engagement with this innovative training. Thematic analysis was conducted to compare key findings from both data sources. Couples and staff offered positive assessments of the curriculum including the contextual relevance, the participatory approach, and a high level of dedication to the training was shown by the majority of couples. Many couples appreciated being trained together, and although some men dominated the first few sessions, participation gradually became more gender-balanced, and facilitators emphasized creating a safe environment for equal participation. Curriculum content that was initially resisted or difficult reportedly became easier through couples learning and trying new skills and experiencing relationship benefits first-hand, which emphasizes the value of the skills building component and take home exercises. Important insights for couples-based, educational approaches to IPV prevention are identified from this process review.
Wagman, Jennifer A; Gray, Ronald H; Nakyanjo, Neema; McClendon, Katherine A; Bonnevie, Erika; Namatovu, Fredinah; Kigozi, Grace; Kagaayi, Joseph; Wawer, Maria J; Nalugoda, Fred
The Safe Homes And Respect for Everyone (SHARE) intervention introduced an intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention approach into Rakai Health Sciences Program, an established HIV research and service organization in Uganda. A trial found exposure to SHARE was associated with reductions in IPV and HIV incidence. This mixed methods process evaluation was conducted between August 2007 and December 2009, with people living in SHARE intervention clusters, to assess awareness about/participation in SHARE, motivators and barriers to involvement, and perceptions of how SHARE contributed to behavior change. Surveys were conducted with 1407 Rakai Community Cohort Study participants. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 key informants. Most (77%) were aware of SHARE, among whom 73% participated in intervention activities. Two-thirds of those who participated in SHARE felt it influenced behavior change related to IPV. While some felt confident to take part in new IPV-focused activities of a well-established program, others were suspicious of SHARE's motivations, implying awareness raising is critical. Many activities appealed to the majority (e.g., community drama) while interest in some activities was limited to men (e.g., film shows), suggesting multiple intervention components is ideal for wide-reaching programming. The SHARE model offers a promising, acceptable approach for integrating IPV prevention into HIV and other established health programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The WHO has declared that violence is a leading worldwide public health problem with intimate partner violence one of the most common forms of violence against women (2002). Health care providers are frequently among the first to see victims of intimate partner violence and must strive to provide appropriate and effective care to abused women. Violence by intimate partners can be prevented. Occupational health nurses have a unique opportunity to intervene with abused women. Routine screening for intimate partner violence increases the likelihood of violence identification, leading to early intervention that may prevent trauma and injury. Occupational health nurses can foster a caring and confidential workplace where abused women feel safe to disclose the violence in their lives and trust that the nurse will provide treatment. A safe and healthy workplace, where abused women feel comfortable disclosing intimate partner violence and seeking treatment may also protect coworkers from the stress and violence that may potentially affect them. Occupational health nurses need to add screening for and treatment of intimate partner violence to their current health promotion and prevention activities to benefit all employees.
Banks, Laura; Crandall, Cameron; Sklar, David; Bauer, Michael
The authors compare cases of female intimate partner homicide-suicide to female intimate partner homicide alone to describe risk factors and suggest prevention strategies, including strategies in the medical setting. Differences are found between the types of cases in marital relationship, age, blood alcohol, and the use of firearms. Physicians and other health care providers who treat victims of intimate partner violence and patients at risk for suicide should be aware of the interwoven risk factors within these populations. Interventions aimed at suicide prevention as well as targeted removal of firearms should be investigated as tools in the prevention of intimate partner homicide.
Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Robinson, LaShun S; Raiford, Jerris L; DiClemente, Ralph J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risky sexual behavior and STIs among diverse groups of women. IPV was examined as a moderator of efficacy for an HIV/STI intervention. 848 African American women, 18-29, were randomly assigned to an HIV/STI intervention or control condition. Participants completed measures on sociodemographics, IPV, risky sexual behavior and received STI testing. IPV predicted inconsistent condom use and a risky sexual partner over 12-month follow-up. A significant interaction indicated that among women who experienced IPV, those in the intervention were more likely to test positive for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Among intervention participants, those who experienced IPV were more likely to test TV-positive than those who did not. In an HIV intervention that did not specifically address IPV, women in the control condition were less likely to acquire TV than those in the intervention. Consideration of contextual/interpersonal factors is essential when developing HIV intervention programs.
Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Cole, Heather; Willie, Tiara; Xuan, Ziming; Raj, Anita; Gupta, Jhumka
Little is known about whether effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programming varies for women who were married as child brides, given their additional social vulnerabilities. This subanalysis sought to assess treatment heterogeneity based on child marriage status for an intervention seeking to reduce intimate partner violence. A randomized controlled trial assessing the incremental effectiveness of gender dialogue groups in addition to group savings on changing past-year intimate partner violence was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire (2010-2012). Stratified models were constructed based on child marriage status to assess for effect modification. Analysis was restricted to married women with data on age at marriage (n = 682). For child brides (N = 202), there were no statistically or marginally significant decreases in physical and/or sexual violence, physical violence, or sexual violence. The odds of reporting economic abuse in the past year were lower in the intervention arm for child brides relative to control group child brides (odds ratio [OR] = .33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .13-.85; p = .02). For nonchild brides (N = 480), women were less likely to report physical and/or sexual violence (OR = .54; 95% CI = .28-1.04; p = .06), emotional violence (OR = .44; 95% CI = .25-.77; p = .004), and economic abuse (OR = .36; 95% CI = .20-.66; p = .001) in the combined intervention arm than their group savings-only counterparts. Findings suggest that intervention participants with a history of child marriage may have greater difficulty benefiting from interventions that seek to reduce intimate partner violence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Falb, Kathryn L.; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Cole, Heather; Willie, Tiara; Xuan, Ziming; Raj, Anita; Gupta, Jhumka
Purpose Little is known about whether effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programming varies for women who were married as child brides, given their additional social vulnerabilities. This subanalysis sought to assess treatment heterogeneity based on child marriage status for an intervention seeking to reduce intimate partner violence. Methods A randomized controlled trial assessing the incremental effectiveness of gender dialogue groups in addition to group savings on changing past-year intimate partner violence was conducted in Côte d’Ivoire (2010–2012). Stratified models were constructed based on child marriage status to assess for effect modification. Analysis was restricted to married women with data on age at marriage (n=682). Results For child brides (N = 202), there were no statistically or marginally significant decreases in physical and/or sexual violence, physical violence, or sexual violence. The odds of reporting economic abuse in the past year were lower in the intervention arm for child brides relative to control group child brides (odds ratio [OR] = .33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .13–.85; p = .02). For nonchild brides (N =480), women were less likely to report physical and/or sexual violence (OR =.54; 95% CI =.28–1.04; p = .06), emotional violence (OR = .44; 95% CI = .25–.77; p = .004), and economic abuse (OR = .36; 95% CI = .20–.66; p = .001) in the combined intervention arm than their group savings–only counterparts. Conclusions Findings suggest that intervention participants with a history of child marriage may have greater difficulty benefiting from interventions that seek to reduce intimate partner violence. PMID:26372368
Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia
. Strategies to reduce homicide risk include increased investment in intimate partner violence prevention, risk assessments at different points of care, support for women experiencing intimate partner violence, and control of gun ownership for people with a history of violence. Improvements in country-level data collection and monitoring systems are also essential, because data availability and quality varied strongly across regions. WHO, Sigrid Rausing Trust, and the UK Economic and Social Research Council. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
AJRH Managing Editor
Intimate Partner Violence. African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2016; 20 (1): 31 child?”, and 2) “Have you ever been sexually abused as a child?” Response options were 'yes' and 'No'40. Sexual risk behaviour and reproductive health. Items included 'How many sexual partners have you had in the past 12 months ...
South Africa has a number of locally evaluated interventions that have been designed to prevent sexual and intimate partner violence before it occurs. This article describes such programmes that have been evaluated and found to be promising or effective. Seven locally evaluated primary prevention interventions are ...
Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M
In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives.
McMahon, James M; Chimenti, Ruth; Trabold, Nicole; Fedor, Theresa; Mittal, Mona; Tortu, Stephanie
Heterosexual transmission of HIV often occurs in the context of intimate sexual partnerships. There is mounting evidence that couple-based HIV prevention interventions may be more effective than individual-based interventions for promoting risk reduction within such relationships. Yet, concerns have been raised about the safety of couple-based prevention approaches, especially with regard to the risk of intimate partner violence against women. Although several international studies have examined the potential for adverse consequences associated with couple-based interventions, with inconsistent results, there is little data from U.S. studies to shed light on this issue. The current study analyzed data from a randomized trial conducted in New York City with 330 heterosexual couples to examine whether participation in couple-based or relationship-focused HIV counseling and testing (HIV-CT) interventions resulted in an increased likelihood of post-intervention breakups, relationship conflicts, or emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, compared with standard individual HIV-CT. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the odds of experiencing change in partner violence from baseline to follow-up by treatment condition. A high prevalence of partner-perpetrated violence was reported by both male and female partners across treatment conditions, but there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in relationship dissolution or partner violence subsequent to participation in either the couple-based HIV-CT intervention or relationship-focused HIV-CT intervention compared with controls. Qualitative data collected from the same participants support this interpretation. HIV prevention interventions involving persons in primary sexual partnerships should be sensitive to relationship dynamics and the potential for conflict, and take precautions to protect the safety of both male and female participants. © The Author(s) 2015.
Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra
This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.
Ending intimate partner violence (IPV) and reducing gender inequalities are recognised as critical to “'ending AIDS” by 2030. Amongst women, experiencing IPV has been shown to increase HIV acquisition, reduce women's ability to use HIV prevention strategies and reduce adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South African Stress and Health Study, we assessed exposure to intimate partner ..... Other drug use. 0.77. 0.11. 5.51. 0.795. Health-seeking behaviours. Partner stability. 0.95. 0.64. 1.42. 0.815. Sexual precautions. 0.86. 0.61. 1.22. 0.404. AIDS test.
Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret
Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD and depression symptoms reduces risk for future intimate partner violence among interpersonal trauma survivors. J Consult Clin Psychol 2011;79(2):193-202. DOI:10.1037/a0022512. 17. Joyner K, Theunissen L, de Villiers L, et al. Emergency care provision for, and psychological ...
Sillito, Carrie LeFevre
Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...
Intimate partner violence is a social problem which continues to plague the nation. In the past, in many cultures, intimate partner violence was not viewed a serious problem. However, in recent years, it has begun to be viewed as a criminal problem. This paper explains the concepts of intimate partner violence. It discusses ...
Kevin M. Swartout
Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.
Jan, Stephen; Ferrari, Giulia; Watts, Charlotte H; Hargreaves, James R; Kim, Julia C; Phetla, Godfrey; Morison, Linda A; Porter, John D; Barnett, Tony; Pronyk, Paul M
Assess the cost-effectiveness of an intervention combining microfinance with gender and HIV training for the prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) in South Africa. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a cluster-randomized trial. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in both the trial and initial scale-up phase. We estimated the cost per DALY gained as US$7688 for the trial phase and US$2307 for the initial scale-up. The findings were sensitive to the statistical uncertainty in effect estimates but otherwise robust to other key assumptions employed in the analysis. The findings suggest that this combined economic and health intervention was cost-effective in its trial phase and highly cost-effective in scale-up. These estimates are probably conservative, as they do not include the health and development benefits of the intervention beyond IPV reduction.
Nectoux, Marc; Mugnier, Claude; Baffert, Sandrine; Albagly, Maité; Thélot, Bertrand
This study aims to carry out an economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France. Using published data, institutional sources, field studies and expert opinions, the cost of intimate partner violence is estimated in terms of the overall cost to society. A range of different economic approaches are used (micro-economic, meso-economic and macro-economic approaches). The total cost of intimate partner violence in France is estimated at 2.5 billion Euros per year (between 1.7 and 3.5 billion Euros). The total cost of intimate partner violence includes healthcare costs (483 ? million), social and justice services (355 ? million), production losses as a result of deaths, imprisonments and absenteeism (1099 ? million), and the human costs of rape and prejudice (535 ? million). By increasing the budget allocated to the prevention of domestic violence by one euro, it is estimated that the state, health insurance and local authorities could make savings of up to 87 Euros of social spending, including 30 Euros of direct expenses.
KARAKOÇ, Berna; GÜLSEREN, Leyla; ÇAM, Birmay; GÜLSEREN, Şeref; TENEKECİ, Nermin; METE, Levent
Introduction The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner physical violence among depressive Turkish women, as well as the association of intimate partner physical violence with attachment patterns, childhood traumas, and socio-demographic factors. Methods The study included 100 women diagnosed with depressive disorder and 30 healthy women. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV axis I disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (AASQ), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were used for clinical assessment. Results It was found that 64% of the women diagnosed with depression were suffering from intimate partner physical violence. In these women, the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms was higher, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more common, and the diagnosis of double depression was more prevalent. These women also achieved higher scores in the avoidant and ambivalent subscales of AASQ and higher total scores and higher scores in the physical abuse subscale of CTQ. The partner’s and the woman’s experiences of physical violence in their families during their childhood predicted intimate partner physical violence for women suffering from depression. Conclusion The investigation of domestic violence contributes to the treatment of depression and also to the recognition and prevention of domestic violence that has profound effects on successive generations. PMID:28360734
Martin, Sandra L; Macy, Rebecca J; Sullivan, Kristen; Magee, Melissa L
This literature review examines intimate partner violence in relation to pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide. Empirical publications were eligible for review if they included information on intimate partner violence and examined females who were pregnant/postpartum and who were victims of femicide/attempted femicide and/or suicide/attempted suicide. Nine publications met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results suggest that intimate partners perpetrate one- to two-thirds of the pregnancy-associated femicides in the United States and that pregnant women make up 5% of urban intimate partner femicides. Intimate partner abuse during pregnancy appears to be a risk factor for severe intimate partner violence, including attempted/completed femicide. So little information exists concerning intimate partner violence in pregnancy-associated suicides that it is impossible to draw conclusions regarding this topic; however, a hospital-based study suggests that intimate partner violence may be a risk factor for attempting suicide while pregnant. More research is needed concerning intimate partner pregnancy-associated femicide and suicide so that evidenced-based preventive/therapeutic interventions may be developed.
Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda
The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased...
Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura
To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Bertagnolli, Liana; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Redondo-Pedraza, Rosa; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración
Describe gender-based violence by intimate partners against female nurses in a sample of nurses in Andalucia, Spain. Descriptive transversal study. Hospitals and primary health care districts in Andalucia. Six hundred and twenty-two female nurses that work as nurses in the eight provinces in Andalucia (Spain). Social-demographic characteristics and presence of abuse (psychological, physical and sexual). 78.5% of the nurses were married or with a regular partner and had the economic income based on both salaries; 71.1% had a child or an elderly dependent person. It was proved that there can be a statistical association between abuse and: marital status; life together; familiar economic support and children and/or dependent elderly person. The average age was 42.5±8.1 years old (22-62 years) and presented statistical age differences comparing both groups: abused (average 44 years) and non-abused (average 41.8 years). Between the married couples studied, 21.7% of them belong to the social class I and 16.9% to the social class II. Between all studied nurses, 33.0% suffered abuse, among which 75.1% were psychologically abused. Of all the abuse cases 60% were less severe and 40% more serious. It was confirmed the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against nurses, which was predominantly psychological abuse, but others classes of abuse were present too. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Stewart, Donna Eileen; Vigod, Simone Natalie
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common worldwide and occurs in more than one-third of American women and psychiatric patients. As well as physical injuries, it may cause mental health sequelae, such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosis, inability to trust others, self-harm, and a host of psychosomatic conditions, that may be referred to psychiatrists. It is imperative that psychiatrists know the risk factors, how to assist disclosure of IPV, and how to safely respond. Psychiatrists must know the best evidence-based management of IPV and its mental health sequelae to best assist patients who have been exposed to IPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth
Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…
Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob
Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men.
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574
José M. Pozueco-Romero
Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.
Walsh, Sabrina; Hemenway, David
Homicides followed by suicides are rare yet devastating events. This study, for the first time, details the problem in Kentucky by linking coroner, medical examiner, vital statistics and administrative judicial data. In the three-year period 1998-2000, there were 492 firearm homicides in Kentucky, of which 32 (6.5%) were followed by a firearm suicide. All perpetrators who followed their homicide by killing themselves were males. Just or 9% of firearm homicides (46/492) were intimate partner-related but the majority of these (54%) were followed by a suicide. Although we found that only a small percentage of firearm homicides a followed by firearm suicide, when women were shot and killed by their intimate partners, the perpetrator shot himself in two thirds of cases. Continued research about violent deaths might provide a better understanding of homicides followed by suicides--critical for surveillance and prevention efforts.
Ford, Chandra L; Slavin, Terra; Hilton, Karin L; Holt, Susan L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is as prevalent in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) relationships as it is in heterosexual ones; however, the issues, needs, and challenges associated with assisting or advocating on behalf of LGBT persons are poorly understood. Using community-based participatory approaches, we conducted a brief survey of professionals (e.g., shelter staff, domestic violence prevention and intervention programs, law enforcement) affiliated with one or more domestic violence prevention and/or intervention networks in Los Angeles, California. The sample, which included professionals (N = 54) from diverse programs/agencies, was obtained using purposive and snowball sampling. Participants self-administered a 33-item, online questionnaire. Analyses primarily involved descriptive statistics (frequencies, proportions). Most respondents had little or no training in LGBT IPV; nevertheless, nearly 50% of them reported having assisted LGBTs "sometimes" or "often" in the past year. Nearly all (92%) reported that their agencies/programs lack staff with dedicated responsibilities to LGBT IPV. The most frequent requests for assistance respondents reported receiving from LGBTs were for counseling, safe housing, legal assistance, and assistance navigating the medical system. The findings suggest that staff believe their agencies/programs inadequately address LGBT IPV but that many of the inadequacies (e.g., lack of staff training on LGBT IPV) are remediable.
Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hatcher, Abigail M; Colvin, Christopher J; Ndlovu, Nkuli; Dworkin, Shari L
Nearly one-third of South African men report enacting intimate partner violence. Beyond the direct health consequences for women, intimate partner violence is also linked to varied risk behaviours among men who enact it, including alcohol abuse, risky sex, and poor healthcare uptake. Little is known about how to reduce violence perpetration among men. We conducted retrospective, in-depth interviews with men (n = 53) who participated in a rural South African programme that targeted masculinities, HIV risk, and intimate partner violence. We conducted computer-assisted thematic qualitative coding alongside a simple rubric to understand how the programme may lead to changes in men's use of intimate partner violence. Many men described new patterns of reduced alcohol intake and improved partner communication, allowing them to respond in ways that did not lead to the escalation of violence. Sexual decision-making changed via reduced sexual entitlement and increased mutuality about whether to have sex. Men articulated the intertwined nature of each of these topics, suggesting that a syndemic lens may be useful for understanding intimate partner violence. These data suggest that alcohol and sexual relationship skills may be useful levers for future violence prevention efforts, and that intimate partner violence may be a tractable issue as men learn new skills for enacting masculinities in their household and in intimate relationships.
Barros, Claudia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; França-Junior, Ivan
To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 women aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System) units of the Greater São Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering repeated and severe violence was more closely associated with confirmed HIV infection (PR = 1.91). Violence independent from severity and recurrence of episodes showed greater association with suspected HIV infection (PR = 1.29). Intimate partner violence against women has a key role in situations of suspected and confirmed HIV infection. Thus, it is essential to include its detection, control and prevention as part of the comprehensive care provided for women's health.
Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Blanco-Prieto, Pilar; Vives-Cases, Carmen
The present study aims to review the problem of intimate partner violence, as well as its causes and consequences. It will also specifically analyze the role of health professionals. In opposition to the classical epidemiological view of risk factors, Heise proposes an ecological framework to study violence against women. This framework analyzes the interplay among the personal, situational and sociocultural factors that combine to cause abuse. Regarding the frequency of intimate partner violence in Spain, in January 2003 there were 2.519 formal complaints and 69 women died between January and November 2003. No geographical patterns in mortality or the incidence of formal complaints of intimate partner violence or among the provinces with the highest incidence of formal complains and those with highest mortality were observed. The only national survey published in Spain was performed by the Women's Institute in 1999, which reported a prevalence of domestic violence of 9.2%. A frequency of 22.8% was found in a primary health care center in Granada. Health services can play a key role in helping victims of domestic violence, since most women contact the health services at some time in their lives. Professionals in administrative or managerial positions can contribute to raising awareness of this health problem, which is one of the main causes of poor health and disability. Evidently, beyond consciousness-raising and early detection campaigns, public health strategies should be designed to prevent this serious health problem the causes of which can be changed.
Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina
Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide.
Yoshihama, Mieko; Blazevski, Juliane; Bybee, Deborah
This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community participation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, religious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV-supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were positively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation construct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. "Enculturation-values" had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. However, "enculturation-community participation" was negatively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting the importance of community-based prevention of IPV among this immigrant population group.
Tiplady, C M; Walsh, D B; Phillips, C J C
To investigate the effect of intimate partner violence (IPV) on companion animal welfare. Self-selected telephone survey of people meeting the criteria. Members of the Australian public with experience of IPV and concurrent companion animal ownership were invited to telephone a researcher for a semi-structured interview. In total, 26 Australian women reported one or more companion animals in the household being verbally and/or physically abused by their male partner, usually with prolonged effects on animal behaviour; 92% indicated that they had been unwilling to discuss the animal abuse with a veterinarian. Many were unaware of animal accommodation services for people fleeing violence and those who did know about these were unwilling to use them, citing their bond with the animals as the main reason. Animals targeted for abuse were most likely to be dogs and owned by women rather than men, children or both partners. Animals can be severely affected by domestic violence situations and many people experiencing violence are unwilling to confide in veterinarians or seek help from animal shelters. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. Methods This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Results Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60 times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89 times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial
Silva, Josianne Maria Mattos da; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda
The objective of this study is to analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and maternal educational practice directed to children at the beginning of formal education. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out between 2013 and 2014, with 631 mother/child pairs, registered in the Family Health Strategy of the Health District II of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It integrates a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the consequences of exposure to intimate partner violence in relation to the child who was born between 2005 and 2006. The maternal educational practice has been assessed by the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale and the intimate partner violence by a questionnaire adapted from the Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence of the World Health Organization. Intimate partner violence referred to the last 12 months and was defined by specific acts of psychological, physical, and sexual violence inflicted to women by the partner. The crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated for the association studied, using log-binomial regression. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was 24.4%, and violent maternal educational practice was 93.8%. The use of non-violent discipline was mentioned by 97.6% of the women, coexisting with violent strategies of discipline. Children whose mothers reported intimate partner violence presented a higher chance of suffering psychological aggression (PR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.0-4.7). The violence suffered by the mother interferes in the parental education. The findings show high prevalence of violent maternal educational practice, pointing to the need for interventions that minimize the damage of violence in women and children. Analisar a associação entre a violência pelo parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e a prática educativa materna direcionada às crianças no início da escolaridade formal. Estudo transversal, realizado entre 2013 e 2014, com
The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) opposes laws and other policies that require nurses to report the results of screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) to law enforcement or other regulatory agencies without the consent of the woman who experiences the IPV. Nurses and other health care professionals, however, should become familiar with laws on mandatory reporting in their states and comply as applicable. Women should be universally screened for IPV in private, safe settings where health care is provided. Nurses are ideally positioned to screen for IPV for the purpose of initiating a referral for services and support when applicable. To protect the woman's safety, AWHONN supports policies that require a woman's consent before reporting occurs.
Background: Violence by intimate partner during pregnancy has many adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, that's why we sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 183 recently ...
Conclusion: HIV-positive status predisposes pregnant women to increased intimate partner violence more of emotional nature further underlying the enormity of social rejection suffered as a result of HIV infection. Intimate partner violence screening should form part of their routine antenatal care. Key words. HIV-Related ...
Wortham, Thomasine T.
Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…
Gregory L. Stuart
Full Text Available There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided.
The high level of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in many population groups in Ethiopia and the risk factors associated with the practice is not well understood among scholars and decision makers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with intimate partner violence in Sidama, ...
Background. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, emotional or stalking abuse by an intimate partner. Despite the high prevalence of IPV in South Africa (SA), there is a paucity of data on university students training in fields where they are likely to have to manage the ...
... on sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization of adult women and men in the United States. The survey ... of this violence, the im- mediate impacts of victimization, and the lifelong health ... are disproportionally affected by sexual violence, intimate partner ...
Guruge, Sepali; Bender, Amy; Aga, Fekadu; Hyman, Ilene; Tamiru, Melesse; Hailemariam, Damen; Kassa, Andargachew; Refaie-Shirpak, Khosro
Background. Intimate partner violence is a global health issue and is associated with a range of health problems for women. Nurses, as the largest health workforce globally, are well positioned to provide care for abused women. Objectives. This nursing-led interdisciplinary project was conducted to understand the current state of knowledge about intimate partner violence in Ethiopia and make recommendations for country-specific activities to improve response to intimate partner violence through practice changes, education, and research. Methods. The project involved two phases: review of relevant literature and an interdisciplinary stakeholder forum and a meeting with nurse educators. Findings. The literature review identified the pervasiveness and complexity of intimate partner violence and its sociocultural determinants in the Ethiopian context. Two significant themes emerged from the forum and the meeting: the value of bringing multiple disciplines together to address the complex issue of intimate partner violence and the need for health care professionals to better understand their roles and responsibilities in actively addressing intimate partner violence. Conclusions. Further research on the topic is needed, including studies of prevention and resilience and "best practices" for education and intervention. Interdisciplinary and international research networks can support local efforts to address and prevent intimate partner violence.
Lenahan, Patricia M
Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics.
Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel
Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that South Africa
Full Text Available Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart.We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5, compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6 in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84 reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02, indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08 and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42. The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99 in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]. Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points.Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.
The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655
Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Sorrentino, Anneliese E; Cusack, Meagan C; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Medvedeva, Elina; Roberts, Christopher B; Dichter, Melissa E
Women Veterans are at increased risk of both housing instability and intimate partner violence compared with their non-Veteran counterparts. The objectives of the present study were (1) to assess the relationship between women Veterans' experience of intimate partner violence and various indicators of housing instability, and (2) to assess what correlates help to explain experiences of housing instability among women Veterans who experienced past-year intimate partner violence. Data were collected from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs electronic medical records for 8,427 women Veterans who were screened for past-year intimate partner violence between April 2014 and April 2016 at 13 Veterans Affairs' facilities. Logistic regressions performed during 2017 assessed the relationship between past-year intimate partner violence and housing instability. A total of 8.4% of the sample screened positive for intimate partner violence and 11.3% for housing instability. Controlling for age and race, a positive intimate partner violence screen increased odds of housing instability by a factor of 3. Women Veterans with past-year intimate partner violence were more likely to have an indicator of housing instability if they identified as African American, had screened positive for military sexual trauma, or had a substance use disorder; receiving compensation for a disability incurred during military service and being married were protective. For women Veterans, intimate partner violence interventions should assess for both physical and psychological housing needs, and housing interventions should coordinate with intimate partner violence programs to address common barriers to resources. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Marital control behaviours by husband and parental IPV were associated with past 12-month physical IPV violence perpetration. IPV prevention programmes should include the reduction of violent gender norms, male control of female behaviour and problem drinking among men. Keywords: psychological partner violence, ...
Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C
Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships ( N =648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type.
Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.
Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829
Dekel, Bianca; Andipatin, Michelle
In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed...
Anderson, Melissa L; Leigh, Irene W
It has been estimated that roughly 25% of all Deaf women in the United States are victims of intimate partner violence (Abused Deaf Women's Advocacy Services [ADWAS]), a figure similar to annual prevalence rates of 16% to 30% for intimate partners in the general population. One goal of the present study was to ascertain the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization in a sample of Deaf female college students. When comparing the prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion victimization to hearing female undergraduates, the current sample was approximately two times as likely to have experienced victimization in the past year.
Yoshihama, Mieko; Horrocks, Julie; Kamano, Saori
We estimated rates of intimate partner violence and related injuries in a sample of 1371 women aged 18 to 49 years in Yokohama, Japan. By the age of 30 years, 14.3% of women who had ever had a partner had experienced violence from that partner, and 3.3% had suffered injuries related to such violence. By the time women had reached the age of 49 years, these percentages were 19% and 4%, respectively. In addition to the need for increased prevention efforts, our findings indicate the need for an expanded legal definition of intimate partner violence in Japan given that the current definition excludes premarital violence. PMID:17194862
Grest, Carolina Villamil; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Gilreath, Tamika; Unger, Jennifer B
While there are known developmental consequences and correlates of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, research focused on bidirectional and multiple forms of partner violence among Latino emerging adults is needed. This longitudinal study identified latent classes of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization patterns among emerging adult Latinos (N = 1060; 60.6% female). A second aim examined acculturation and cumulative substance use correlates in high school, as predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization classes in emerging adulthood. Average age of participants was 15.5 years in 10th grade and 22.7 years in emerging adulthood. We identified four distinct subgroups of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, with 22% of individuals identified in a violence perpetration and victimization subgroup. Cumulative heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use in high school predicted belonging to the psychological bidirectional intimate partner violence group rather than the group with no violence. Cumulative marijuana use in high school, predicted belonging to the sexual bidirectional partner violence group compared to the no violence group. Our study extends the literature across developmental periods among Latino youth. The findings have implications for early adolescent prevention strategies and promotion of healthy intimate relationships.
Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.
Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner…
Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender, socioeconomic factors and the school. AJ Mason-Jones, P De Koker, SM Eggers, C Mathews, M Temmerman, E Leye, PJ de Vries, H de Vries ...
Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.
Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting,...
Cools, Sara; Kotsadam, Andreas
Combining DHS data for 580,000 women from 30 different countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, we analyze how both the incidence and the acceptance of intimate partner violence vary across time and space, in a region with record high levels of violence against women. We review the existing literature regarding the impact of resources on intimate partner violence, extracting testable and often conflicting hypotheses at the micro and macro level, and on the interaction across levels. We propose to ext...
Full Text Available Objectives: This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Results: Sample size (n was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220 or income of women (P = 0.250. Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001. Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019 and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040 were significantly protective. Conclusion: IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were.
Pavao, Joanne; Alvarez, Jennifer; Baumrind, Nikki; Induni, Marta; Kimerling, Rachel
The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman's ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk for housing instability as evidenced by: (1) late rent or mortgage, (2) frequent moves because of difficulty obtaining affordable housing, and/or (3) without their own housing. Data were taken from the 2003 California Women's Health Survey, a population-based, random-digit-dial, annual probability survey of adult California women (N=3619). Logistic regressions were used to predict housing instability in the past 12 months, adjusting for the following covariates; age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, children in the household, and past year IPV. In the multivariate model, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, and IPV were significant predictors of housing instability. After adjusting for all covariates, women who experienced IPV in the last year had almost four times the odds of reporting housing instability than women who did not experience IPV (adjusted odds ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval: 2.94-5.39). This study found that IPV was associated with housing instability among California women. Future prospective studies are needed to learn more about the nature and direction of the relationship between IPV and housing instability and the possible associated negative health consequences.
Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R
Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15-49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease
Smith, Sharon G; Fowler, Katherine A; Niolon, Phyllis H
We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence-related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm.
Fowler, Katherine A.; Niolon, Phyllis H.
Objectives. We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. Methods. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Results. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence–related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Conclusions. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm. PMID:24432943
Breiding, Matthew J; Basile, Kathleen C; Klevens, Joanne; Smith, Sharon G
Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables. Data were from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adults. In 2016, multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between food and housing insecurity and multiple forms of IPV and SV victimization. Robust associations were found between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV experienced in the preceding 12 months, for women and men, even after controlling for age, family income, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Food and housing insecurity may be important considerations for the prevention of SV and IPV or the reductions of their consequences, although future research is needed to disentangle the direction of the association. Strategies aimed at buffering economic insecurity may reduce vulnerability to IPV and SV victimization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mancera, Bibiana M.; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias
The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors. PMID:25891392
Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias
The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.
Grest, Carolina Villamil; Amaro, Hortensia; Unger, Jennifer
Despite the prevalence of intimate partner violence in emerging adulthood, literature focused on this life stage among Latinos remains limited. This longitudinal study examined acculturation; traditional gender role attitudes; use of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco; and depressive symptoms in 10th grade as predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization among Latino emerging adults (N = 823; 58% female). Average age of participants was 15.5 years in 10th grade and 22.7 years in emerging adulthood. The results indicate important gender differences in intimate partner violence outcomes for Latino emerging adults. Higher U.S. acculturation predicted physical intimate partner violence perpetration among young men. More traditional gender role attitudes were significantly associated with psychological and physical intimate partner violence perpetration among male Latino emerging adults. Among Latinas, alcohol use in 10th grade predicted psychological perpetration and victimization in emerging adulthood. The findings have implications for developing gender- and ethnic-relevant prevention interventions focused on intimate partner violence among Latino adolescents and emerging adults.
Idoko, Patrick; Ogbe, Emmanuel; Jallow, Oley; Ocheke, Amaka
Intimate partner violence is an important public health problem that cuts across geographic and cultural barriers. Intimate partner violence refers to the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against women by current or former male intimate partners. The frequency and severity of violence varies greatly but the main goal is usually to control the victims through fear and intimidation. About 80% of Gambian women believe it is acceptable for a man to beat his wife thus encouraging the perpetuation of violence against women. The objective was to ascertain the burden of intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Gambia. A cross sectional survey was carried out at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia, on antenatal clinic attendees between October and December 2012, using a pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. All pregnant women were informed about the study at the antenatal booking clinic. Of the 161 pregnant women informed, 136 (84.5%) consented to take part and were recruited in the study. Descriptive analysis was done using the Epi info statistical software. Any pregnant woman booking for the first time during the period of the study was eligible to be recruited into the study. Majority of enrolled participants (61.8%) reported intimate partner violence. Verbal forms of intimate partner violence were the commonest forms, with 12% requiring medical care on account of intimate partner violence and 3% prevented from seeking healthcare as a result of such violence. Intimate partner violence is common in The Gambia, West Africa and is a threat to women's health.
Debono, Christie; Borg Xuereb, Rita; Scerri, Josianne; Camilleri, Liberato
To examine the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse, as well as to determine which of these variables are predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue, with severe implications to both mother and foetus. However, much of the research to date focuses on the outcomes of physical abuse. This article addresses the dearth in the literature by examining the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. A survey research design was used. Three hundred postnatal women were recruited by convenience, nonproportional quota sampling technique. The WHO Violence Against Women Instrument was self-administered by participants. The association between categorical variables was assessed using Pearson's chi-square test, the strength of association using Cramer's V and the phi coefficient, and the identification of predictor variables for psychological and verbal abuse using logistic regression analysis. Four predictors were identified for psychological abuse, namely low education level in women, an unplanned pregnancy, experiencing two or more pregnancy-related health problems and living with an unemployed partner. However, unemployment in women, an unplanned pregnancy, fear of partner and a low education level of partner were identified as the predictors of verbal abuse. This study identified a number of variables that strongly predict psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy; however, it extends the available literature by identifying a low standard of education in males, unemployment and fear of the intimate partner as the significant predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the predictors predisposing pregnant women to abuse. This
Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon
This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p conflict more strongly among girls than boys. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.
SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC
This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620
Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic
This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jan 12, 2012 ... e.g. stalking, name calling, intimidation or not allowing a partner see friends or family. Intimate partner violence is the third highest cause of death among people 15-44 years of age,5 and the most common form of violence against women. Its negative effects on women's health are serious enough to be rec-.
Intimate partner violence was not significantly associated with chronic physical illness, although rates of headache, heart attack and high blood pressure reached near-significance. Conclusions. Partner violence against women is a significant public health problem in South Africa, associated with healthrisk behaviours and ...
McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.
This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…
This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a ...
Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Oyo East Local Government, Nigeria. ... South African Family Practice ... Results: Of 252 (72.0%) women who had been exposed to violence by their partner in pregnancy, 72 (28.6%) disclosed their IPV experience.
Sep 3, 2017 ... sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A ... partner violence was not associated with still birth, pre-term birth and Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes. Conclusion: ..... Besides, the wide confidence intervals were observed ...
Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander
Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a psychometrically sound instrument to assess intimate partner violence offenders’ responsibility attributions: the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale. The scale was administrated to 423 adult male intimate partner violence offenders court-mandated to a community-based intervention program. A three factor structure (responsibility attribution to the legal system, responsibility attribution to the victim, and responsibility attribution to the offender personal context was supported using confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability of the scales in this study was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha, ρ and greatest lower bound. The Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale correlated in theoretically expected ways with variables used to assess construct validity (system blaming, problems with partner, and responsibility assumption and with variables used to assess criterion-related validity (satisfaction with legal system, victim-blaming attitudes, alcohol consumption, hostile sexism, stressful life events, social desirability, impulsivity and household income. Results support the validity and reliability of the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale
Schaffer, Bradley J
The prominence and incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) with male military veterans vary, but generally there is consensus that screening and intervention does help reduce IPV. Intervention is generally provided in the community via Batterer Intervention Programs. However, at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) intervention is provided via the Domestic Relations Clinic. Nationally the VA has limited treatment for male IPV. An aggregate sample (n = 178) of participants was assessed using the Domestic Violence/Abuse Screen to measure covariate pre-test and post-test outcomes, program failure, and recidivism. The treatment approach is psycho-educationally based to meet the challenging and unique needs of the military veteran population. The results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of IPV and highlight the need for more intervention and prevention approaches.
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.
Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Franchek-Roa, Kathy
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health threat and causes mental as well as physical health problems. Depression is a common mental health consequence of IPV. While Iran has a high prevalence of IPV and depression, the association between IPV and depression has not been well examined. The Iranian data from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) 2001-2006 (ICPSR 29583) were analyzed. Twenty-three male and 75 female college students were selected in the IDVS Iranian data. Nearly all of the participants, male and female, reported being victims and perpetrators of IPV. Female participants were more likely to report depression compared to male participants. Participants who had experienced sexual IPV reported significantly higher levels of depression compared to those who did not experience sexual IPV. However, when substance abuse and partner conflict were analyzed, the contribution of sexual IPV on depression was no longer significant. This study suggests that IPV prevention and intervention programs should take into consideration that college-aged men and women frequently experience and use violence in dating relationships. Depression interventions should be included for female students. Substance abuse and partner conflict are important risk factors for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stöckl, Heidi; Filippi, Veronique; Watts, Charlotte; Mbwambo, Jessie K K
Violence by an intimate partner is increasingly recognized as an important public and reproductive health issue. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence is associated with induced abortion and pregnancy loss from other causes and to compare this with other, more commonly recognized explanatory factors. This study analyzes the data of the Tanzania section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence, a large population-based cross-sectional survey of women of reproductive age in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania, conducted from 2001 to 2002. All women who answered positively to at least one of the questions about specific acts of physical or sexual violence committed by a partner towards her at any point in her life were considered to have experienced intimate partner violence. Associations between self reported induced abortion and pregnancy loss with intimate partner violence were analysed using multiple regression models. Lifetime physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence was reported by 41% and 56% of ever partnered, ever pregnant women in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya respectively. Among the ever pregnant, ever partnered women, 23% experienced involuntary pregnancy loss, while 7% reported induced abortion. Even after adjusting for other explanatory factors, women who experienced intimate partner violence were 1.6 (95%CI: 1.06,1.60) times more likely to report an pregnancy loss and 1.9 (95%CI: 1.30,2.89) times more likely to report an induced abortion. Intimate partner violence had a stronger influence on induced abortion and pregnancy loss than women's age, socio-economic status, and number of live born children. Intimate partner violence is likely to be an important influence on levels of induced abortion and pregnancy loss in Tanzania. Preventing intimate partner violence may therefore be beneficial for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. © 2012 Stöckl et al
Tiesman, Hope M; Gurka, Kelly K; Konda, Srinivas; Coben, Jeffrey H; Amandus, Harlan E
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue with serious consequences for the workplace. Workplace homicides occurring to U.S. women over a 6-year period, including those perpetrated by an intimate partner, are described. Workplace homicides among U.S. women from 2003 to 2008 were categorized into type I (criminal intent), type II (customer/client), type III (co-worker), or type IV (personal relations) events using the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. Fatality rates were calculated and compared among workplace violence (WPV) types, occupations, and characteristics including location of homicide, type of workplace, time of day, and weapon used. Between 2003 and 2008, 648 women were feloniously killed on the job. The leading cause of workplace homicide for U.S. women was criminal intent, such as robbing a store (n = 212; 39%), followed by homicides perpetrated by a personal relation (n = 181; 33%). The majority of these personal relations were intimate partners (n = 142; 78%). Over half of workplace homicides perpetrated by intimate partners occurred in parking lots and public buildings (n = 91; 51%). A large percentage of homicides occurring to women at work are perpetrated by intimate partners. WPV prevention programs should incorporate strategies to prevent and respond to IPV. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee
Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web.
Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W
We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa
In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women
Crane, Cory A; Easton, Caroline J
Male-to-female intimate partner violence remains a worldwide public health issue with adverse physical and psychological consequences for victims, perpetrators and children. Personality disorders, addiction, trauma and mood symptoms are established risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and factor prominently into a recovery-oriented treatment approach. We reviewed the partner violence literature for detailed reports of traditional as well as innovative, integrated treatment approaches. Empirically based recommendations for intervention programs and the policies that guide intervention efforts are offered. Nascent research suggests that integrated treatment models utilising a holistic approach to account for psychological comorbidity and interventions that involve a motivational interviewing component appear promising in terms of significantly improving intimate partner violence treatment compliance and reducing subsequent acts of physical partner violence. Further, methodologically rigorous research is required to fully assess the benefits of traditional and integrated treatment options. We have advanced several recommendations, including the development of and exclusive reliance upon empirically supported treatments, conducting a thorough risk and needs assessment of the offender and the immediate family to facilitate appropriate treatment referrals, integrating content to foster the offender's internal motivation to change maladaptive behaviours, and attempting to minimise offender treatment burdens through the strategic use of integrated treatment models. Intimate partner violence is a complicated and nuanced problem that is perpetrated by a heterogeneous population and requires greater variability in integrated treatment options. [Crane CA, Easton CJ. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:24-33]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Bergen, Raquel Kennedy; Bukovec, Paul
This article explores men's use of sexual violence against their intimate partner. Although there is a growing body of information about men's use of physical violence, there is less data about men's sexual violence in intimate partnerships. Data were collected from 229 men who were enrolled in an intervention program for men who abuse. Of men in…
Nelson, Atiba; Lewy, Robin; Ricardo, Francine; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Hunter, Amber; Mitchell, Ashley; Loe, Claire; Kugel, Candace
Designed by Migrant Clinicians Network, the Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar (Men United Against Family Violence) Project used facilitated discussion groups as the method to encourage self-reflection and behavior change. Male participants were not taught to rectify any past sexual or intimate partner violence (SV/IPV) 'tendencies', rather the discussion facilitation allowed them to reflect on the SV/IPV that was present in their lives and in the Hispanic community. Subsequently, the sessions and self-reflection, coupled with the discussions with other participating males, empowered several participants to have further interactions about SV/IPV with individuals in their community. The discussions led participants to realize that SV/IPV existed in their community, but that there were males within their community that wanted to change. The Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar project demonstrated that behavior change does not need to be actively persuaded, but that self-reflection, which elicits behavior change, can be achieved through facilitated discussion and by permitting the facilitators to become participants. By creating sessions that allow participants to construct their own understanding of the perceived problem while reflecting on their past behavior, true behavior change that is initiated by the participant can be achieved. Through discussion facilitation, a targeted and structured behavior change intervention can assist participants in realizing that their past actions were damaging to themselves and their community, while aiding the participant in employing self-initiated responses, learned within the discussions, to alter their behaviors.
Joshi, Manisha; Childress, Saltanat
Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) can affect the prevalence of IPV, response of victims' to IPV (e.g., whether to seek help), and the response of professionals (e.g., police, social workers, health care professionals) to IPV. Knowledge about IPV-related attitudes is essential for developing effective social work and violence-related programs. Using data from the 2005-2006 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, this study examines attitudes toward IPV and socio-demographic predictors of these attitudes among married women in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. Women were asked whether they approved of a husband beating his wife: if she goes out without telling him, neglects their children, argues, refuses to have sex, and burns food. The prevalence of IPV acceptance for at least one of the five reasons varied from 12.3% in Kazakhstan to 45.3% in Kyrgyzstan and 74.5% in Tajikistan. Women who were less educated, members of Asian ethnic groups, resided in middle-class urban areas, and lived in specific regions were more likely to accept IPV. Few age differences that emerged indicated that young women were more approving of IPV. Proactive efforts are needed to confront attitudes about gender roles and IPV in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext...
Full Text Available Adherence to treatment in intervention programs for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence is one of the most relevant factors of the effectiveness of prevention of intimate partner violence. Despite controversies arising from different studies on this subject, there is unanimity in highlighting the key role that participants' motivation plays in adherence to treatment and program completion. Techniques ensuring participants' motivation in therapeutic programs include proactive retention techniques. In this paper we analyze the effect of proactive retention techniques at the beginning and throughout the treatment sessions in an intervention program for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. The results indicate that both proactive retention techniques and support influence adherence to treatment
Mcdermott, Ryon C.; Lopez, Frederick G.
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence…
Speizer, Ilene S.
This study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and experience among women and men in Uganda to inform IPV-prevention programs in the region. Nationally representative population-based data from women aged 15 to 49 and men aged 15 to 54 were collected between May and October 2006 as part of the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey.…
Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael
Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual's specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics,…
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant yet preventable public health problem that affects millions of women regardless of age, economic status, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or educational background. Individuals who are subjected to IPV may have lifelong consequences, including emotional trauma, lasting physical impairment, chronic health problems, and even death. Although women of all ages may experience IPV, it is most prevalent among women of reproductive age and contributes to gynecologic disorders, pregnancy complications, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Obstetrician–gynecologists are in a unique position to assess and provide support for women who experience IPV because of the nature of the patient–physician relationship and the many opportunities for intervention that occur during the course of pregnancy, family planning, annual examinations, and other women’s health visits. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has recommended that IPV screening and counseling should be a core part of women’s preventive health visits. Physicians should screen all women for IPV at periodic intervals, including during obstetric care (at the first prenatal visit, at least once per trimester, and at the postpartum checkup), offer ongoing support, and review available prevention and referral options. Resources are available in many communities to assist women who experience IPV.
Bekaert, S.; SmithBattle, L.
Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers beco...
Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.
Ana Carolina da C. Azevêdo
Full Text Available This study investigated the association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,054 women, aged 18 to 49, in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2005 to March 2006. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed with a hierarchical strategy for entering variables into the model, according to the conceptual framework defined. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 60.3% (636 women. Intimate partner violence prior to the pregnancy was associated with unintended pregnancy (ORadj = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.17-2.11, even when adjusted for the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the partner's behaviour, and the relationship dynamic. When the association was adjusted for the use of contraception and the partner's refusal to use contraception, the association was no longer significant, suggesting that the effect of partner violence on unintended pregnancy may be mediated by these variables. The findings point to the need of screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health services.
Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.
Purpose This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate 1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization, 2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships, and 3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. Results At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women’s psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women’s severe physical victimization. Conclusions Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women’s IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV. PMID:23053216
Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M
This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV.
Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Hammerton, Joanne
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought...... to identify evidence-based research priorities in IPV and CM, with a focus on resilience, using a modified Delphi consensus development process....
Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve
The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…
Background: Intimate partner and sexual violence are major public health and human right concerns affecting women and girls all round the world. These problems have been part of the fabric of many societies and cultures worldwide, and have thus gone unnoticed despite the devastating physical, psychological, ...
Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.
A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…
Objective: To examine hippocampal volume and white matter tracts in women with and without intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Nineteen women with IPV exposure in the last year, and 21 women without IPV exposure in the last year underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion tensor ...
a combined health and social sector system response to intimate partner violence, this article provides health professionals with insight into domestic violence and current legal and psychosocial support services. It focuses on how to support and advise abused women about practicalities of obtaining protection orders and ...
In this study, the extent to which married women had experienced physical, sexual, psychological and economic forms of violence by their intimate partners was determined. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional. It was conducted in Alimosho Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State. Data were collected using ...
Intimate partners' violence (IPV) is a topical reproductive health, rights and gender issue. Data on IPV experiences and associated factors were collected from 224 randomly selected married women and 99 men in Ile-Ife through administered questionnaire. Data was analysed through SPSS: chi-square test and binary ...
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews ...
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence against women. It is a major public health problem and violates the fundamental human rights of women. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and consequences of IPV during pregnancy in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and ...
Screening and brief intervention for intimate partner violence among antenatal care attendees at primary healthcare clinics in. Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. G Matseke,1 MPH; K Peltzer,1,2,3 PhD, Dr Habil. 1 HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB (HAST) Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South ...
Wife beating is one of the most common forms of violence against women by husbands or other intimate male partners. Although violence against women is pervasive, there are only few studies documenting the magnitude of the problem especially among the working class. The civil service comprises of persons from all ...
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk forHIV infection. However, there is ...
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are intersecting epidemics in South Africa (SA). Despite recognition that IPV and HIV are bidirectionally linked, less attention has been given to mental health – a key health condition that is at the nexus of both violence and HIV/AIDS. While SA healthcare professionals have made ...
Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo
The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…
To aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and analyze the pattern of intimate partner violence over six months. This was a cohort study undertaken on 207 women aged 18 to 49 years, who consulted in general out-patient and antenatal care clinics in nine hospitals in central Thailand. The women were interviewed ...
Cheng, Tyrone C.
This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…
Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.
This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…
to any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes ... alcohol to perpetrate IPV.17 Witnessing parental violence or being a victim .... physical violence if she said “yes” when asked if a current or past partner ever abused her in any of the following ways: a) Slapped you or threw something at you that could hurt you?
Aug 3, 2016 ... Background: Intimate partner and sexual violence are major public health and human right concerns affecting women and girls all round .... of bullying and social learning of abuse; however, abusers' efforts to dominate their .... delivery and low birth weight babies.. 3. Psychological effect: Violence against.
verbal/psychological, followed by physical abuse, intimidation, economic coercion, harassment, damage to property, sexual, stalking .... home, school, or workplace) developed by Tjaden and Thoennes (2000). Ten items were ..... Prevalence and consequences of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence ...
Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.
This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…
3Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Children's Health, Uppsala. University, Sweden. Abstract. Background: Worldwide Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, affecting all women and ..... women's health and domestic violence: an observational study. Lancet ...
Results: The prevalence of IPV among married women in Nigeria was 29.3%. Majority of the women ... with multiple types of violence. Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), married women, Nigeria. .... richer, richest); marital duration (grouped as 15); number of ...
Kan, Marni L.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents has been linked to negative parenting and child maladjustment, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Based on a theory that violence among parents disrupts the coparental alliance--which has been linked to parenting quality and child adjustment--the authors examined…
RESULTS: The study showed that 52.6% and 30.2% of the respondents experienced intimate partner physical violence in their lifetime and in the 12 months before the survey respectively. Witnessing family violence as a girl child, education, place of residence, parity, duration of marriage, tradition of marriage arrangement ...
A growing body of U.S.-based research demonstrates that reproductive coercion is an important consideration regarding the negative health impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, less work on IPV and reproductive coercion has been done in West African settings. Cross-sectional data of 981 women who ...
Lemmey, D; McFarlane, J; Willson, P; Malecha, A
Intimate partner violence not only affects adults but also the children living within that "war zone." The present study expands our understanding about how children are affected when they observe violence in their own homes, as reported by their mothers. This descriptive study was conducted to describe mothers' perspectives of the impact of the violence on their children. A consecutive sample of 72 mothers attempting to file assault charges were interviewed in a private room by a registered nurse and were asked to describe the effect of witnessing intimate partner violence on their child's behavior. Each response was written verbatim by the interviewer. A majority (72%) of the mothers reported negative behaviors in their children that they believed were as a result of witnessing their mother's violent experiences. The most common negative traits were distress-indicating behaviors such as sleep disturbances, clinging, and fretful behaviors followed by problems with the abuser, problems in school, and problems with mother. Because intimate partner violence affects children, health care providers should become familiar with behaviors indicative of this problem. To promote the well being and development of children, recommendations for assessment and intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence are discussed.
Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.
Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…
Two studies were conducted to examine the relations between both partners' personality and marital quality in married or cohabiting heterosexual couples. In Study 1 (N = 1380, or 690 couples), personality was assessed by means of the Dutch Personality Questionnaire, whereas in Study 2 (N = 564, or
Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D
Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ana Bernarda Ludermir
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS : A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5, even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2. CONCLUSIONS : Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders
Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D
The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences.
Woodyatt, Cory R.; Stephenson, Rob
Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus group discuss...
transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women.Keywords: intimate partner violence, socio-demographic, sexually transmitted disease, Nepal
Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein
Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV.
Sprague, Sheila; Slobogean, Gerard P; Spurr, Hayley; McKay, Paula; Scott, Taryn; Arseneau, Erika; Memon, Muzammil; Bhandari, Mohit; Swaminathan, Aparna
Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available literature evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings to identify key areas for potential evidence-based recommendations and to focus research priorities in the field. We conducted a search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and psycINFO. We used broad eligibility criteria to identify studies that evaluated intimate partner violence identification programs in health care settings. We completed all screening and data extraction independently and in duplicate. We used descriptive statistics to summarize all data. We identified 59 eligible studies evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings. The most commonly reported outcome themes were IPV disclosure (69%, n = 35), number of patients screened (39%, n = 20), HCP opinions towards screening (37%, n = 19), and patient opinions towards screening (29%, n = 15). The majority of studies (36 studies (70.6%)) reported positive program evaluation results. The majority of studies reported positive program evaluation results. This may suggest that many different intimate partner violence identification programs are beneficial for identifying victims of abuse, however, it remains unknown as to whether identification programs prevent future episodes of abuse. Additionally, the substantial heterogeneity of the intervention characteristics
Full Text Available Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available literature evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings to identify key areas for potential evidence-based recommendations and to focus research priorities in the field.We conducted a search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and psycINFO. We used broad eligibility criteria to identify studies that evaluated intimate partner violence identification programs in health care settings. We completed all screening and data extraction independently and in duplicate. We used descriptive statistics to summarize all data.We identified 59 eligible studies evaluating intimate partner violence identification programs within health care settings. The most commonly reported outcome themes were IPV disclosure (69%, n = 35, number of patients screened (39%, n = 20, HCP opinions towards screening (37%, n = 19, and patient opinions towards screening (29%, n = 15. The majority of studies (36 studies (70.6% reported positive program evaluation results.The majority of studies reported positive program evaluation results. This may suggest that many different intimate partner violence identification programs are beneficial for identifying victims of abuse, however, it remains unknown as to whether identification programs prevent future episodes of abuse. Additionally, the substantial heterogeneity of the intervention
Cheng, Diana; Salimi, Shabnam; Terplan, Mishka; Chisolm, Margaret S
To determine the association of intimate partner violence with maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. Data were obtained for 196,391 U.S. mothers who delivered live neonates from 2004-2008 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey 2-9 months postpartum. Intimate partner violence was defined as being physically hurt by a current or expartner in the year before or during pregnancy. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. Compared with nonphysically abused women, those who experienced physical abuse were 2.1 times more likely to smoke before pregnancy (44.0% compared with 21.0%, P<.001) and 2.6 times more likely to smoke during pregnancy (29.6% compared with 11.4%, P<.001). Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was highest for abused women who were non-Hispanic white (42.3% smoked) and lowest for nonabused college graduates (2.2% smoked). Smoking rates more than tripled for college graduates in abusive relationships (2.2% compared with 7.1%). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, abused women were significantly more likely to smoke during pregnancy than nonabused women (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, P<.001, 95% confidence interval 1.80-2.12). Women who experienced intimate partner violence had significantly higher rates of smoking before pregnancy and were less likely to quit during pregnancy than women who did not experience intimate partner violence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Public Services Task Force recommend routine intimate partner violence screening with appropriate interventions to prevent violence against women, optimize safety, and improve health. Additional and targeted intimate partner violence assessment of women who smoke during pregnancy may prove especially beneficial.
Al-Natour, Ahlam; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Felblinger, Dianne
Intimate partner violence is a serious international problem. It is not known if the extent of intimate partner violence for Jordanian nurses is similar to that of Jordanian women. Until the rate is known, implementation of nursing interventions for Jordanian women may be thwarted. The study purpose was to determine the rate of intimate partner violence among Jordanian nurses working in governmental health settings in a northern city of Jordan and to compare the rate to published statistics for a community sample of Jordanian women. A cross-sectional survey design was used for this study. A stratified random sample of 80 Jordanian nurses working in governmental women's health centers and public hospitals in a northern city of Jordan was invited to participate. Institutional review board approval was granted. Participants completed the Woman Abuse Screening Tool in a private room at their work site. No identifiers were added to the survey forms. Chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests were computed to compare the rate of intimate partner violence between the study sample and reported statistics for Jordanian women. Approximately 59% of participants experienced psychological violence, 12.5% experienced physical violence, and 5.1% experienced sexual violence. No significant differences were found in the rates of violence for the study sample and published data for a community sample of Jordanian women. Intimate partner violence is as prevalent against Jordanian nurses as it is for Jordanian women. Intimate partner violence needs to be addressed to prevent potential sequelae such as decreased work productivity and an inability to provide safe patient care.
de Barros, Érika Neves; Silva, Maria Arleide; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Lucena, Sara Gomes; Ponzo, Lucas; Pimentel, Amanda Patrícia
Intimate partner violence is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Although there are no official statistics, data reveal a high prevalence worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence among women in a community in Recife, Pernambuco. A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted with 245 women in the 15 to 49-year age bracket. A questionnaire with sociodemographic variables was used, together with the WHO Violence Against Women (VAW) study tools and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The participants all signed an informed consent form. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was classified by type of violence: emotional - 52.7%; physical - 46.1 %; and sexual - 13.6%. Bivariate analysis revealed an association between experiencing violence with not having a partner (p = 0.001) and drug use (p ≤ 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the variables were strongly associated with the outcome: sexual intercourse for fear (OR 5.58); depressive-anxious mood (OR 2.69); drug use (OR 2.57). A high prevalence of intimate partner violence in the community, especially emotional violence, emerges as an important finding, indicating the need for care in prevention and the overall health of this population.
Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara
In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship.
Renzetti, Claire M; Lynch, Kellie R; DeWall, C Nathan
Research on risk factors for men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol-IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol-IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol-IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L
Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.
Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; Nana, Philip N; Clayton, Heather B; Mbah, Alfred K; Marty, Phillip J
To examine the association between intimate partner violence (IPV; physical, sexual, and emotional violence) and induced abortion in Cameroon. We used data from the 2004 Cameroon Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and hierarchic multivariate modeling to compare the rates of induced abortion by IPV type. In 2004, 2570 women were administered the domestic violence module of the DHS. Of those women, 126 (4.9%) reported having had at least 1 induced abortion. Cameroonian women reported high rates of IPV: physical violence (995 [38.7%]); emotional violence (789 [30.7%]); and sexual violence (381 [14.8%]). After adjusting for covariates, physical and sexual IPV increased the risk for induced abortion, whereas the association between emotional violence and induced abortion was not significant in multivariate models. Given the increased risk for maternal morbidity and mortality following unsafe induced abortions in Cameroon, the association between induced abortion and IPV is of interest in terms of public health. Programs targeted at preventing IPV might reduce the rate of maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gage, Anastasia J; Thomas, Nicholas J
The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment.
Islam, Towfiqua Mahfuza; Tareque, Md Ismail; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul
A number of individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) have been identified in Bangladesh. However, the etiology of IPV, intergenerational transmission, has never been tested in Bangladesh. We examined whether witnessing inter-parental physical violence (IPPV) was associated with IPV to identify whether IPV passes across generations in Bangladesh. We used nationally representative data of currently married women from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey-2007. Variations in experiencing IPV were assessed by Chi-square tests. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the association between witnessing IPPV and different types of IPV against women. One-fourth of women witnessed IPPV and experienced IPV. After adjusting for the covariates, women who witnessed IPPV were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-2.8) times more likely to experience any kind of IPV, 2.5 (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) times more likely to experience moderate physical IPV, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.8-3.0) times more likely to experience severe physical IPV, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3) times more likely to experience sexual IPV. Age, age at first marriage, literacy, work status, wealth, justified wife beating, and women's autonomy were also identified as significant correlates of IPV. This study's results indicate that IPV passes from one generation to another. We make recommendations for preventing IPPV so that subsequent generations can enjoy healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships in married life without exposure to IPV in Bangladesh.
Gracia, Enrique; López-Quílez, Antonio; Marco, Miriam; Lladosa, Silvia; Lila, Marisol
We examined whether neighborhood-level characteristics influence spatial variations in the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). Geocoded data on IPV cases with associated protection orders (n = 1,623) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2013), were used for the analyses. Neighborhood units were 552 census block groups. Drawing from social disorganization theory, we explored 3 types of contextual influences: concentrated disadvantage, concentration of immigrants, and residential instability. A Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach was used to analyze influences of neighborhood-level characteristics on small-area variations in IPV risk. Disease mapping methods were also used to visualize areas of excess IPV risk. Results indicated that IPV risk was higher in physically disordered and decaying neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with low educational and economic status levels, high levels of public disorder and crime, and high concentrations of immigrants. Results also revealed spatially structured remaining variability in IPV risk that was not explained by the covariates. In this study, neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and immigrant concentration emerged as significant ecological risk factors explaining IPV. Addressing neighborhood-level risk factors should be considered for better targeting of IPV prevention. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Bell, Kathryn M; Naugle, Amy E
Several theories have been developed to provide a conceptual understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) episodes. Although each of these theories has found some degree of empirical support, they are limited in their explanatory power of IPV episodes and their ability to significantly impact the efficacy of IPV prevention and treatment programs. The current paper provides a review and critique of current IPV theories and highlights strategies for improving upon these theories. An alternative theoretical conceptualization is introduced that incorporates existing IPV and functional analytic literature into a contextual framework for conceptualizing IPV episodes. Components of the IPV contextual framework include distal, static and proximal antecedents; motivating factors; behavioral repertoire; discriminative stimuli (i.e. environmental cues/signals); verbal rules; and IPV consequences. The proposed theoretical framework offers two primary advantages over former IPV theories. First, it provides a comprehensive conceptualization of IPV by integrating components of previous IPV theories and their related empirical findings into one, cohesive conceptual framework. Additionally, it allows for a more fine-grained analysis of more proximal variables potentially related to discrete IPV episodes. A discussion of how the proposed theoretical framework may influence future IPV research and clinical practice is provided.
Zvara, Bharathi J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha
We examined the mediating role of parenting behavior on the relationship between intimate partner violence and child conduct problems, as well as the moderating role of maternal gatekeeping to these associations. The sample (N = 395) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty in the eastern United States, exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape child development over time. Study findings indicate that a father's harsh-intrusive parenting behavior may be a key mediating pathway linking intimate partner violence and child conduct problems. Study findings further provide evidence for problematic outcomes for children when mothers encourage fathers with high levels of harsh-intrusive parenting to interact with their children.
Vizcarra Larrañaga, Maria Beatriz; Universidad de La Frontera; Póo Figueroa, Ana María; Universidad de la Frontera
The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV) in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having exper...
Pells, K.; Wilson, E.; Thi Thu Hang, N.
Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vi...
Leah Okenwa-Emegwa; Stephen Lawoko; Bjarne Jansson
Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian...
Swanberg, Jennifer E; Macke, Caroline; Logan, T K
Intimate partner violence is a significant health problem for women, with consequences extending to work as well as society at large. This article describes workplace interference tactics, how women cope with violence at work, and workplace supports for a sample of recently employed women with domestic violence orders (DVO; n = 518). Results indicate that violent partners used a wide range of work interference tactics, that women were more likely to tell someone at work about the victimization than they were to hide the information, and that coworkers and supervisors provided a range of supports to women who did disclose their situation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.
Svec, Joseph; Andic, Tanja
Using the continuous Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2012) for Peru, we employ multinomial logistic regression estimates to assess risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Using empowerment and gender frameworks for IPV, we find that women making more household decisions jointly are less likely to experience physical violence. We also find that education is negatively associated with IPV, unless a woman's attainment exceeds her partner's. Although women earning more than their partners are more likely to experience violence, joint decision-makers have a lower risk of moderate physical violence even when their status exceeds that of a male partner. By adding measures for relationship dynamics, we highlight the ways decision-making within the household contributes to violence risk for women. While deviating from male-breadwinning norms can result in violence, risk factors are conditioned on the nature of cooperation within a partnership. Our findings suggest that shared power within the household reduces IPV risk.
Klostermann Keith C
Full Text Available Abstract Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1 most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2 among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3 available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages.
Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).
Slep, Amy M Smith; Foran, Heather M; Heyman, Richard E; Snarr, Jeffery D; Usaf Family Advocacy Research Program
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. To date, risk factor research has not differentiated physical violence that leads to injury and/or fear (i.e., clinically significant IPV; CS-IPV) from general physical IPV. Isolating risk relations is necessary to best inform prevention and treatment efforts. The current study used an ecological framework and evaluated relations of likely risk factors within individual, family, workplace, and community levels with both CS-IPV and general IPV to determine whether they were related to one type of IPV, both, or neither for both men and women. Probable risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence were selected from the literature and assessed, along with CS-IPV and general IPV, via an anonymous, web-based survey. The sample comprised US Air Force (AF) active duty members and civilian spouses (total N = 36,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide. Relationship satisfaction, age, and alcohol problems were identified as unique risk factors (in the context of the 23 other risk factors examined) across IPV and CS-IPV for men and women. Other unique risk factors were identified that differed in prediction of IPV and CS-IPV. The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential foci for indirectly targeting partner aggression and clinically-significant IPV by improving people's risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. Aggr. Behav. 41:227-241, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Muldoon, Katherine; Deering, Kathleen N.; Feng, Cindy X.; Shoveller, Jean S.; Shannon, Kate
There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, ‘AESHA’ (An Evaluation of Sex Workers’ Health Access), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence Against Women scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI:0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for gender-focused and coupled-based interventions tailored to noncommercial intimate partnerships of sex workers. PMID:25402720
The Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV-risk behaviours in Durban, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomized control trial, and baseline characteristics
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions. However, few of these interventions have been done in urban informal settlements, and almost none have included men as direct recipients of these interventions. Methods Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention is a participatory gender transformative and livelihoods strengthening intervention. It is being evaluated through a cluster randomized control trial amongst young women and men (18–30 living in urban informal settlements in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. The evaluation includes a qualitative process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis. A comparison of baseline characteristics of participants is also included. Discussion This is one of the first large trials to prevent IPV and HIV-vulnerability amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements. Given the mixed methods evaluation, the results of this trial have the ability to develop a stronger understanding of what works to prevent violence against women and the processes of change in interventions. Trial registration NCT03022370 . Registered 13 January 2017, retrospectively registered.
The Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV-risk behaviours in Durban, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomized control trial, and baseline characteristics.
Gibbs, Andrew; Washington, Laura; Willan, Samantha; Ntini, Nolwazi; Khumalo, Thobani; Mbatha, Nompumelelo; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Shai, Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat; Strauss, Michael; Ferrari, Giulia; Jewkes, Rachel
Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions. However, few of these interventions have been done in urban informal settlements, and almost none have included men as direct recipients of these interventions. Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention is a participatory gender transformative and livelihoods strengthening intervention. It is being evaluated through a cluster randomized control trial amongst young women and men (18-30) living in urban informal settlements in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa. The evaluation includes a qualitative process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis. A comparison of baseline characteristics of participants is also included. This is one of the first large trials to prevent IPV and HIV-vulnerability amongst young women and men in urban informal settlements. Given the mixed methods evaluation, the results of this trial have the ability to develop a stronger understanding of what works to prevent violence against women and the processes of change in interventions. NCT03022370 . Registered 13 January 2017, retrospectively registered.
Full Text Available In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed gendered identities, which reflected contradictory and ambiguous subjective experiences. The women's understandings were filtered through the particular social context in which their abusive experiences occurred. The findings highlighted that contemplating femicide was too threatening, and consequently participants drew on discourses of femininity, romantic love, and others to justify their remaining in their violence-ridden relationships. It emphasizes the need for additional engagement in women's understandings of intimate femicide, as women who live in abusive relationships have largely been consigned to the periphery. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160196
van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M
Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Kelley, Michelle L; Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B
This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women ( N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner's alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner's physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners' alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples.
Evalina van Wijk
Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Brown, Monique J.; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.
Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285
Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A
Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. Results The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age, relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. Conclusion The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.
Laisser, Rose M; Nyström, Lennarth; Lugina, Helen I; Emmelin, Maria
Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to
Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey
While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths' experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = -2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. © The Author(s) 2014.
Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M
This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles
Evalina van Wijk
Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.
Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela
In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support f...
In this article, I examine how gender-based violence has been framed in Spanish legal, social and cultural discourses since the fall of the dictatorship. Prior to 1997, far less attention was paid to intimate partner abuse than in most other democratic states. In the last ten years, this situation has been reversed. There has been heavy media coverage, and new legislation that adopts an holistic approach to the problem. I will attempt to place these changes in context and to provide extensive bibliographical information for those readers seeking information in more specialised fields.
Rogathi, Jane J.; Manongi, Rachael; Mushi, Declare
BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression (PPD) in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, is not well recognized, and the underlying predictors and causes of PPD remain unclear. Results from previous studies suggest that PPD is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced during...... the perinatal period. In the present study, we assessed the relationship between IPV and PPD among women attending antenatal services in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study from March 1, 2014 to May 30, 2015, in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, among pregnant women of less than 24 weeks...
Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender, socioeconomic factors and the school. A J Mason-Jones,1,2 PhD, MPH, MSc, RGN, RHV; P De Koker,2,3 MA; S M Eggers,4 MSc; C Mathews,5,2 PhD;. M Temmerman,3,6 MB ChB, PhD; E Leye,3 PhD; P J de Vries,2 MB ChB, MRCPsych, PhD; H de Vries,4 ...
Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi
This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…
Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy
Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.
Smith, Marilyn; Nunley, Barbara; Martin, Evelyn
Despite physical, emotional, verbal, and sexual abuse from their partner, many women remain in an abusive relationship, often proclaiming to love the one who is hurting them. Nineteen females who had experienced intimate partner violence were interviewed and asked to share their experiences and describe their meaning of love. An analysis of the transcripts was done using qualitative content analysis. With this approach, the contents of the verbal data were summarized and arranged in three major categories: (1) What love is not; (2) Attributes of a loving relationship; and (3) Attachment to the relationship. The findings demonstrate a woman's clear recognition of being in an abusive relationship, yearning to be truly loved, but often finding herself unable to detach from the relationship.
Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be
Samuel, Laura J; Tudor, Carrie; Weinstein, Marc; Moss, Helen; Glass, Nancy
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global public health concern, affecting 5.3 million US individuals annually. An estimated 1 in 3 women globally are abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime, and the effects carry over into the workplace. This article examines employers' perceptions of IPV in the workplace, targeting supervisors of Latina employees. Fourteen employers and supervisors of small service-sector companies in Oregon were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretive description was used to identify themes. These qualitative interviews preceded and helped to formulate a larger workplace intervention study. THE FOLLOWING THEMES WERE FOUND AND ARE DETAILED: (1) factors associated with recognizing IPV in the workplace, (2) effects of IPV on the work environment and (3) supervisors' responses to IPV-active vs. passive involvement. Also, supervisors' suggestions for addressing IPV in the workplace are summarized. These findings demonstrate the need for more IPV-related resources in the workplace to be available to supervisors as well as survivors and their coworkers. The needs of supervisors and workplaces vary by site, demonstrating the need for tailored interventions, and culturally appropriate workplace interventions are needed for Latinas and other racially and ethnically diverse populations.
Anyikwa, Victoria A
Trauma leads to deleterious effects on individuals and families causing many to seek treatment from social work practitioners across systems of care. Trauma comes in all forms, from community violence to domestic violence, including physical and sexual abuse of children and violence among intimate partners that leaves its victims devastatingly impacted. Women make up the majority of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) with studies revealing significant associated mental health problems. Social workers are bound to work with survivors of IPV and must be prepared to deliver effective trauma-informed services. While trauma-specific services exist for specific populations, researchers are finding that negative events in childhood and in family functioning can impact individuals' lives in negative ways thus having implications for treatment across systems. For women survivors of IPV, the traumatic stress may be cumulative with varied emotional and mental health impacts that may force them to seek services across systems, not just domestic violence specific systems. As such it is imperative that social workers increase awareness of trauma, its impact on women, and the importance of the approach and environment in which they provide services. In this article the author aims to broaden social workers knowledge of the use of a TIC approach developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration that's applicable across systems of care, particularly when working with women survivors of IPV.
Chiesa, Antonia E; Kallechey, Leigh; Harlaar, Nicole; Rashaan Ford, C; Garrido, Edward F; Betts, William R; Maguire, Sabine
Early studies examining parenting in the setting of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focus on abuse by the IPV perpetrator or effects of long term exposure. This review addresses how intimate partner violence impacts victim parenting. Seven databases were searched for the time period 1970-2015. Included were comparative studies involving children 11 years or younger. Quality ranking was based on: confirmation of victim status, consideration of co-perpetration, heterogeneity of the population, and standardization of measurements. Of 13,038 studies reviewed, 33 included studies showed that victimization is associated with negative parenting practices. Based on data presented within individual studies, 21 studies were eligible for meta-analysis which demonstrated modest effect sizes with high levels of heterogeneity. There was a negative correlation between IPV and positive parenting (r = -0.08; 95% CI: -.12, - .04); positive correlation between IPV and physical aggression (r = .17; 95% CI: .11, .23) and neglect (r = .12; 95% CI: .01, .23); and a trend toward positive correlation between IPV and psychological aggression (r = .23; 95% CI: -.94, .47). A synthesis of studies unsuitable for meta-analysis reinforced these findings. The review demonstrated ongoing methodological issues with extant literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhandari, Mohit; Dosanjh, Sonia; Tornetta, Paul; Matthews, David
Domestic violence is the most common cause of nonfatal injury to women in the United States, with an estimated cost of $50 billion annually. Little is known about the spectrum of musculoskeletal injuries in victims of domestic violence. We examined the characteristics of abused women, the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, and the variables associated with increasing frequency of physical violence against women. We identified all female survivors of intimate partner violence who were referred to the Minnesota Domestic Abuse Program from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. Characteristics of each woman's background, abuse history, and injuries were obtained by a trained program therapist in an in-depth, 2-hour intake interview. Specific data forms were completed for each interview. Five forms of experienced abuse were explored (physical, emotional, psychological, sexual, and financial). Injuries were subcategorized as (1) head and neck, (2) musculoskeletal, (3) chest, (4) abdomen, and (5) skin (integumentary system). We conducted regression analyses to determine factors associated with the frequency of physical abuse. Of 270 potentially eligible women, 263 (97%) with complete records were included. Women were commonly Caucasian (62%) in their third decade of life with one or more children (87%). A history of abuse was recalled by over half of the women (54%). The most prevalent forms of abuse were emotional (84%), psychological (68%), physical (43%), sexual (41%), and financial (38%). Child protective services were concomitantly involved in half of the women living in abusive relationships. Among those women who reported physical abuse, 36% sought medical attention. We identified 144 injuries in 218 physically abused women. Head and neck injuries were the most prevalent after intimate partner violence (40%). Musculoskeletal injuries were the second most common manifestation of intimate partner violence (28%). The spectrum of injuries included sprains (n
José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández
Full Text Available Etiological models of intimate partner violence (IPV identify general risk factors in delinquency (sociodemographic, delinquent, and psychopathological and specific factors in this type of aggression (characteristics of the couple relationship and attitudes favoring IPV. The goal of the present work is to study these factors in individuals convicted for drug trafficking and/or theft, so-called common delinquents (n = 89, comparing them with a group of partner aggressors (n = 50. Assessment was carried out with a mixed method, reviewing case files, clinical interviews for personality disorders, and self-reports. The results show a similar profile in sociodemographic and criminal characteristics and in attitudes favoring IPV. The differences emerge in variables of the couple relationship and psychopathological variables, finding higher prevalence of the antisocial disorder in common delinquents and of the borderline disorder in aggressors. The final model identifies the level of relationship satisfaction, control over the partner, blaming female victims, and incidence of borderline personality disorder as relevant variables. The implications of these results for penitentiary treatment as a preventive measure of IPV, both in IPV aggressors and in the general prison population, are discussed. Los modelos etiológicos de la violencia contra la pareja (VCP identifican factores de riesgo generales en delincuencia (sociodemográficos, delictivos y psicopatológicos y factores específicos en este tipo de agresión (características en la relación de pareja y actitudes que facilitan la VCP. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar estos factores en sujetos condenados por tráfico de drogas y/o robo, denominados delincuentes comunes (n = 89, comparándolos con un grupo de agresores contra la pareja (n = 50. La evaluación se ha realizado a través de un método mixto, con supervisión de expedientes penitenciarios y entrevistas clínicas para los
Cechova-Vayleux, E; Leveillee, S; Lhuillier, J-P; Garre, J-B; Senon, J-L; Richard-Devantoy, S
Female intimate partner homicide (FIPH) is a fatal complication of domestic violence. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of male perpetrators of FIPH and to compare them to the perpetrators of extrafamilial homicide and the perpetrators of intrafamilial homicide other than FIPH. Between 1975 and 2005, 32 FIPH were perpetrated in the region of Angers (France), and these were compared to 26 intrafamilial homicides other than FIPH and to 97 extrafamilial homicides perpetrated in the same period, in the same region. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological data were collected from psychiatric expert reports and medical files. The mean age of the FIPH perpetrators was 37.8years. They were professionally active, in majority as manual workers. They had a psychiatric record (69%), a previous criminal record (31%), and a history of violence against others (47%). Half of these perpetrators also had experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18. Compared to extrafamilial homicide perpetrators, FIPH perpetrators occupied more frequently a manual job and had prior criminal records less frequently. In the majority of cases of FIPH and intrafamilial homicide, the murder occurred in the evening, at the victim's home, and while the perpetrator was intoxicated. FIPH was mostly premeditated and was accompanied four times less frequently by another criminal behaviour compared to extrafamilial homicide. The FIPH perpetrators had more depressive symptoms and suicidal ideations when committing the crime and remained on the crime scene more often than extrafamilial homicide perpetrators who mostly attempted to flee the crime scene. FIPH perpetrators and extra- and intrafamilial homicide perpetrators were found criminally responsible in half of the cases. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of FIPH perpetrators were not statistically different from those of perpetrators of
Breiding, Matthew J; Armour, Brian S
Prior research has shown that people with disabilities are at greater risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. This study seeks to examine the link between disability and IPV in a nationally representative sample of U.S. women and men. Also, by establishing that disability preceded recent IPV victimization, this study allows for a more thorough understanding of whether people with disabilities are at greater risk of victimization subsequent to having a disability. Data were analyzed from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, an ongoing, national random digit dial telephone survey of U.S. adults. Estimates of age-adjusted 12-month IPV prevalence by disability status were calculated. Compared to women without a disability, women with a disability were significantly more likely to report experiencing each form of IPV measured, which includes rape, sexual violence other than rape, physical violence, stalking, psychological aggression, and control of reproductive or sexual health. For men, significant associations were found with respect to stalking and psychological aggression by an intimate partner. The results suggest that people with a disability are at greater risk of victimization and that primary and secondary prevention efforts might be targeted to those with a disability. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Intimate partner violence, sometimes referred to as domestic violence, is a prevalent problem in the United States and across the world. Emergency nurses are often the first health care providers to ask individuals about this health issue and are often the first to offer intervention and prevention measures. This study used a phenomenological qualitative approach to examine the role of the registered nurse in the emergency setting as it relates to intimate partner violence. Thirteen emergency nurses from the South Central United States were interviewed for this study. Four major themes emerged during analysis of the interviews. The 4 themes were (1) myths, stereotypes, and fears; (2) demeanor; (3) frustrations; and (4) safety benefits. This study suggests that emergency nurses are not screening for intimate partner violence based on a protocol as suggested by many professional organizations but rather are screening certain patients for violence based on the nurses' perception of whether particular patients are likely to be victims of violence. Copyright © 2010 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.
Recent research has documented that substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may underlie their substance use and that treatment that addresses these schemas may result in improved outcomes. Research has also shown that intimate partners of substance users have a number of mental and physical health problems, although no known research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of these relationship partners. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance use treatment patients and their intimate partners (N = 80). Findings showed that both patients and intimate partners had a number of problematic early maladaptive schemas; that patients scored significantly higher than their intimate partners on a few early maladaptive schemas; and that patient and intimate partner schemas may be interrelated. Implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22745593
Gerber, Megan R; Fried, Lise E; Pineles, Suzanne L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Bernstein, Carolyn A
Posttraumatic stress disorder has been linked to women's ill health, including headaches. Intimate partner violence, which may result in posttraumatic stress disorder, is often reported by women with headaches. Prior studies of intimate partner violence and headache have estimated lifetime but not 12-month prevalence. The researchers in this study examined the relationship between headache and posttraumatic stress disorder in a novel population, and estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of intimate partner violence. Patients were recruited from a women's headache center (n = 92) during 2006-07 and completed the Migraine Disability Assessment measure of headache severity. Posttraumatic stress disorder was measured using a modified Breslau scale. Twelve-month and lifetime physical intimate partner violence were measured with the Partner Violence Screen and the STaT ("slapped, threatened and throw") measure. Multivariable regression determined factors independently associated with headache severity. Among all participants, 28.3% screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder; 9.8% and 36.9% of women endorsed recent and lifetime intimate partner violence. Posttraumatic stress disorder was strongly associated with headache severity (β = 34.12, p = 0.01). Patients reporting lifetime intimate partner violence exhibited a trend of nine additional days of disability due to headache over 90 days. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence occur among a sizable proportion of women referred for headache. The authors' findings reaffirm that clinicians treating women with headaches must be aware of the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in such patients.
Swanberg, Jennifer E; Logan, Tk; Macke, Caroline
The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on violence against women and employment. After a brief discussion of the definition and consequences of intimate partner violence, the article reviews the research and related literatures to describe the (a) types of job interference tactics used by abusers, (b) employee-level consequences of partner violence, (c) victimized employee responses to intimate partner violence, (d) organizational-level consequences of partner violence, and (e) employer responses to intimate partner violence. Future research directions and workplace implications are discussed.
Ross, Jody M; Drouin, Michelle; Coupe, Amanda
We examined the role of sexting coercion as a component of the intimate partner abuse (IPA) construct among young adults to determine whether sexting coercion would emerge alongside other forms of partner aggression as a cumulative risk factor for psychological, sexual, and attachment problems. In a sample of 885 undergraduates (301 men and 584 women), 40% had experienced some type of coercion. Although there was some overlap between sexual coercion and sexting coercion (21% of participants had experienced both), some individuals had experienced only sexting coercion (8%) and some only sexual coercion (11%). Women were more likely than men to be coerced into sexting. Both sexting coercion and sexual coercion were significantly and independently related to negative mental health symptoms, sexual problems, and attachment dysfunction, and, notably, sexting coercion was found to be a cumulative risk factor for nearly all of these negative effects. These data support the idea that digital sexual victimization is a new component of IPA polyvictimization, potentially increasing the negative effects experienced by victims of multiple forms of partner aggression.
Wang, Ling; Wu, Qinglu; Choi, Anna Wai-Man
In this study, we examined the unique contributions of negative emotions (i.e., anger, depression, and shame) for two different types of self-directed violence (i.e., nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] and suicidality) and three different types of intimate partner violence perpetration (i.e., physical, sexual, and psychological violence) in a college sample. We investigated the moderating role of gender in any link between the negative emotions and the violent behaviors. We also examined an association between self-directed violence and intimate partner violence perpetration. We collected the survey data from a convenience sample of 752 Chinese college students (408 women and 344 men) ranging from 18 to 23 years of age. The questionnaires were filled out during class time. Analyses revealed that anger was associated with increased intimate partner physical, sexual, and psychological violence perpetration but not self-directed violence, underscoring its relevance for engaging in violence directed toward others. Our analyses also showed that, conversely, shame was associated with increased NSSI and suicidality but not intimate partner violence. Depression was associated with increased risk of engaging in self-directed violence as well as intimate partner physical and psychological violence. Moderation analysis showed that gender moderates the relationship of shame with NSSI. Women appear more susceptible to NSSI influenced by shame. Furthermore, the results found self-directed violence and intimate partner physical violence perpetration to be associated. The findings highlight the importance of targeting negative emotions in treatment with high-risk individuals. Integrated violence prevention programs would make it possible to treat co-occurring violence against self and intimate others in a more effective way.
Fonseca-Machado, Mariana de Oliveira; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina dos Santos; Haas, Vanderlei José; Abrão, Ana Cristina Freitas de Vilhena; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia
to identify the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, trait and state anxiety, and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. observational, cross-sectional study developed with 358 pregnant women. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version was used, as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and an adapted version of the instrument used in the World Health Organization Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence. after adjusting to the multiple logistic regression model, intimate partner violence, occurred during pregnancy, was associated with the indication of posttraumatic stress disorder. The adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that the victims of violence, in the current pregnancy, had higher symptom scores of trait and state anxiety than non-victims. recognizing the intimate partner violence as a clinically relevant and identifiable risk factor for the occurrence of anxiety disorders during pregnancy can be a first step in the prevention thereof.
Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya
caregiver, whereas additional risk factors for female victims are low educational attainment, childhood physical abuse, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence and intermittent explosive disorder. Intimate partner violence is a significant public health issue in South Africa, strongly linked to intergenerational cycling of violence and risk exposure across the life course. These findings indicate that gender differences in risk and common predictive factors, such as alcohol abuse and exposure to childhood violence, should inform the design of future violence-prevention programs and policies.
Petering, Robin; Rhoades, Harmony; Rice, Eric; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda
Intimate partner violence (IPV) among homeless youth (HY) is common, yet it has continuously been understudied, especially in relation to substance use. As part of a longitudinal study of Los Angeles area HY, drop-in service seeking youth completed a self-administered questionnaire. The presented results are from the third panel of data collection (N = 238), and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) was used to assess IPV behavior regarding the participant's most recent intimate relationship. Approximately 38% of participants reported IPV behavior in their most recent relationship, and the majority of this behavior was bidirectional. It was unlikely that a HY was only a victim or only a perpetrator. Multivariable models revealed that bidirectional IPV was related to increased odds of recent methamphetamine; whereas sole perpetration was associated with an increased likelihood of ecstasy use. Specific substance use and IPV are closely related to risk behaviors for HY. Comprehensive interventions should be developed to address both these risk behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rempel, Ebony; Donelle, Lorie; Hall, Jodi; Rodger, Susan
Violence against women (VAW) is a global social issue affecting health, social, and legal systems. VAW contributes to the inequities with respect to the social determinants of health that many women face today. The onus on self-care in the face of violence remains almost singularly with the victims. Access to information and services in support of women's health and safety is fundamental. However, research gaps exist regarding how women access health information across all stages of an abusive intimate relationship. Given the ubiquity of online access to information, the purpose of this scoping review was to provide an overview of online interventions available to women within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Research literature published between 2000 and 2016, inclusive, was reviewed: 11 interventions were identified. Findings suggest that online interventions focused on the act of leaving with less emphasis on the experiences that occur after a woman has left the relationship. In addition, the online interventions concentrated on the individual capacity of the survivor to leave an abusive relationship and demonstrated limited understanding of IPV in relation to the broader social-contextual factors. Findings from this research highlight information gaps for women who require significant support after leaving an abusive relationship.
The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."
Pells, Kirrily; Wilson, Emma; Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen
Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vietnam. We illustrate how women's agency is both enabled and constrained by their relationships with their children, as well as by wider structural processes, and examine how gender and generation intersect. In marginalised settings where few formal services exist or strong social norms preclude women from accessing support, understanding these informal coping strategies and the processes by which these are negotiated is essential for developing more effective policy responses.
Djikanovic, B.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Stevanovic, S.; Celik, H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use health care services more often than non-abused women, but it is unclear what they expect from physicians in relation to their intimate partner violence experience. In this study the authors explored whether women in Serbia expect physicians
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to attract much attention and awareness as an increasing social problem in the U.S. While intimate partner violence scholars and experts have developed an inclusive conceptualization of IPV, research highlights the need to construct a framework of IPV incorporating the sociocultural and sociohistorical…
Saltzman, Linda E.; Mahendra, Reshma R.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Ingram, Eben M.
The authors examine 12 months of emergency department visit data (N = 2,521) from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program and explore its utility for measuring and studying intimate partner violence. Given the dearth of national data on intimate partner violence-related injury and its potential value for public health…
Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Webster, Daniel W.; Glass, Nancy
The Danger Assessment (DA) is an instrument designed to assess the likelihood of lethality or near lethality occurring in a case of intimate partner violence. This article describes the development, psychometric validation, and suggestions for use of the DA. An 11-city study of intimate partner femicide used multivariate analysis to test the…
Nabors, Erin L.
College students experience an extremely high level of violence among intimate partners during their college careers, with prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 50%. Because intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students is such a widespread problem, it is important to understand the factors that contribute to this type of abuse.…
Filson, Jennifer; Ulloa, Emilio; Runfola, Cristin; Hokoda, Audrey
The current study aimed to test whether relationship power could act as a mediator of the relationship between intimate partner violence and depression. The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power and on previous research of intimate partner violence and depression. Survey results from a sample of 327 single…
Kuijpers, Karlijn F.; Van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Winkel, Frans Willem
Research has reported that not only characteristics of the perpetrator but also characteristics of the victim influence risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This would suggest that prevention of repeat abuse could benefit from a focus on both perpetrator and victim characteristics. Knowledge on factors that are within victims' sphere of…
Kopčavar Guček Nena
Full Text Available In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors.
Han, Young Ran; Jeong, Geum Hee; Kim, Shin-Jeong
This study aimed to identify factors influencing beliefs about intimate partner violence among Korean adults. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that analyzed data from 466 adults. Beliefs about intimate partner violence were measured using a self-report questionnaire with a total of 28 items consisting of four subscales: perpetrator's justification for beating women, blaming women for violence against them, perpetrator's responsibility for violence, and giving help to victims. Men and women had significantly different beliefs about intimate partner violence (t = -7.19, p South Korea, men, older individuals, and those with less formal education or who have witnessed parental violence need education to foster healthier beliefs about intimate partner violence. Nurses can play a vital role in efforts to decrease intimate partner violence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ezeanochie, Michael C; Olagbuji, Biodun N; Ande, Adedapo B; Kubeyinje, Weyinmi E; Okonofua, Friday E
To evaluate the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among HIV-positive pregnant Nigerian women. Cross-sectional study using an anonymous semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The antenatal clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, from June 2008 to December 2009. 305 HIV-positive women receiving antenatal care. An anonymous semi-structured World Health Organization modified questionnaire that elicited information on the experiences of intimate partner violence, was administered to the women by trained female interviewers. Prevalence, pattern and risk factors associated with experiencing intimate partner violence. The prevalence of intimate partner violence among the women was 32.5%, with psychological violence being the most common form of violence reported (27.5%) and physical violence the least reported (5.9%). Identified risk factors for experiencing violence were multiparity (Odds ratio 9.4; CI 1.23-71.33), respondents with an HIV-positive child (Odds ratio 9.2; CI 4.53-18.84), experience of violence before they were diagnosed HIV-positive (Odds ratio 44.4; 10.33-190.42) and women with partners without post-secondary education (Odds ratio 2.3; CI 1.40-3.91). Intimate partner violence is a prevalent public health problem among HIV-infected pregnant women in our community and it may hinder efforts to scale up prevention of mother-child transmission programs, especially in developing countries. Screening for intimate partner violence to identify abused women should be incorporated into these programs to offer these women optimal care. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G
to identify the prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) against South Asian women (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Bhutanese, Nepalese, Maldive Islanders) residing in Greater Boston; to identify forms of abuse, abuse-related injuries, and help-seeking behaviors of South Asian women reporting IPV; and to assess the relationship between current IPV victimization and history of nonpartner abuse, acculturation, and victim-blaming attitudes. A community-based volunteer sample of South Asian women (n=160) in relationships with male partners participated in a cross-sectional study of women's health. Participants were recruited via community outreach (eg, fliers, snowball sampling, referrals) and were interviewed in person by trained South Asian women. Participants were 18 to 62 years old (mean age=31.6) and predominantly immigrant (87.5%); 74.4% were married, 51.6% had children, and 71.9% had family incomes of more than $2100 per month. Forty percent of the sample reported physical IPV, sexual IPV, or injury/need for medical services due to IPV from current male partners; few women (9.4%) who reported ever experiencing IPV from current male partners reported no abuse in the past year. Twice as many participants reported needing to see a doctor for abuse-related injuries, but not seeing one (6.3%), as actually seeing a doctor (3.1%). Only 11.3% of women reporting IPV reported having received any counseling related to the abuse. Other variables assessed were not related to abuse in current relationships. Domestic violence is a serious and highly prevalent concern among this group of South Asian women. Their knowledge of available services is limited, and victim-blaming attitudes are not uncommon. Culturally tailored domestic violence services and IPV education are needed for this underserved population.
Olowookere, Samuel A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel A
We assessed the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) to women living with HIV/AIDS in an antiretroviral clinic in Nigeria. Three hundred sixty respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Sixty percent were married, of which 24% had disclosed HIV status to their partner. About a quarter (23.6%) had experienced IPV since HIV diagnosis. Types of violence experienced were physical violence (17%), emotional violence (21%), and sexual violence (2%). Predictors of IPV included having a younger aged partner, disclosing status, and partner's alcohol use (p = .001). Suggestions to prevent IPV include increasing public awareness and family counseling. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora
To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.
Stadler, Jonathan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Palanee, Thesla; Rees, Helen
In a context of high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), trials of female-controlled technologies for HIV prevention such as microbicides may increase the possibility of social harms. Seeking to explore the relationship between IPV and microbicide use further, this paper documents women's narratives of participating in the Microbicide Development Program (MDP) trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, and experiences of partner violence and conflict. A social science sub-study, nested within the trial, was conducted between September 2005 and August 2009, and 401 serial in-depth-interviews were undertaken with 150 women. Using coded interview transcripts, we describe the distribution of IPV and the possible association thereof with microbicide gel use and trial participation. More than a third of these 150 women reported IPV, of which half the cases were related to involvement in the trial. In their narratives, those women reporting IPV cast their partners as authoritarian, controlling and suspicious and reported verbal abuse, abandonment, and in some cases, beatings. Shared experiences of everyday violence shaped women's feelings of unease about revealing their participation in the trial to intimate partners and attempted concealment further contributed to strains and conflict within relationships. Our findings point to the role of social scientific enquiry in identifying the less obvious, hidden negative impacts of participation in a clinical trial therefore exposing limitations in the biomedical construction of 'social harms', as well as the implications thereof for potential future use outside the clinical trial setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
Nationally, the rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals are similar to or greater than rates for heterosexuals. Many have experienced psychological and physical abuse as sexual minorities, making it difficult for them to seek help for IPV. Physician behavior, such as not assuming that all patients are heterosexual, being nonjudgmental, and using inclusive language, can empower LGBT patients to disclose IPV. Also, physicians should ascertain the degree to which the patient is out. The threat of being outed can be an aspect of the power and control exerted by an abusive partner and a significant barrier to seeking help. Physicians should screen for IPV and intervene in a similar manner with LGBT and non-LGBT patients, but they should be aware of potential limitations in resources for LGBT patients, such as shelters. As sexual minorities experiencing IPV, LGBT individuals are at greater risk of depression and substance abuse than are non-LGBT individuals. Minority stress, resulting from stigmatization and discrimination, can be exacerbated by IPV. Physicians should learn about legal issues for LGBT individuals and the availability of community or advocacy programs for LGBT perpetrators or victims of IPV. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Full Text Available Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian demographic and health surveys were analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Results show that although larger proportions of women justified physical IPV, certain categories of men such as poor, illiterate men, and men with secondary education justified abuse more than women. Contrary to expectations, access to radio/TV increased the odds of justifying abuse among women thus casting doubts on program content. The gender differences observed for predictors of attitudes to physical IPV suggest a need for gender-tailored interventions to change attitudes toward partner violence in Nigeria.
Wong, Susan P Y; Chang, Judy C
Little is known about altered eating behaviors that are associated with the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Our aim was to explore the experiences and perspectives of IPV victims regarding their eating behaviors and their attitudes toward and use of food. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews with 25 IPV victims identified at a domestic violence agency and asked them about their eating behaviors and how, if at all, these behaviors related to their experience of IPV. Qualitative analysis of the transcribed encounters identified themes explicating the relationship between their eating behaviors and experiences of IPV. All women described altered eating behaviors related to IPV that were categorized into several major themes: (a) somatization (victims experience significant somatic symptoms as a result of abuse); (b) avoiding abuse (victims modify their eating behaviors to avoid abuse); (c) coping (victims use food to handle the psychological effects of abuse); (d) self-harm (victims use food to hurt themselves as a reaction to the abuse); and (e) challenging abusive partners (victims use their eating behaviors to retaliate against their abusers). IPV can provoke altered eating behaviors in victims that may be harmful, comforting, or a source of strength in their abusive relationships. Understanding the complex relationship between IPV and victims' altered eating behaviors is important in promoting healthy eating among victims. © The Author(s) 2015.
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McFarlane, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Watson, Kathy
This study describes the type and extent of intimate partner stalking and threatening behaviors that occurred within 12 months prior to a major assault or attempted or actual partner femicide and specifies which behaviors were associated with an increased risk of potential or actual lethality. The design was a ten-city case-control study of 821 women: 384 abuse victims and 437 attempted or actual femicide informants. Data were derived using a 16-item inventory. Logistic regressions, with adjustments for demographic variables, were used to identify the significant perpetrator behaviors associated with attempted/actual femicide. Women who reported the perpetrator followed or spied on them were more than twice as likely t o become attempted/actual femicide victims. Threats by the perpetrator to harm the children if the woman left or did not return to the relationship place the woman at a ninefold increase in the risk of attempted/actual femicide. Conclusions are that certain stalking and threatening behaviors are strong risk factors for lethality, and women must be so advised.
de Dios, Marcel A; Anderson, Bradley J; Caviness, Celeste M; Stein, Michael
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent and concerning problem among methadone maintenance populations, and previous studies have shown a relationship between a history of IPV and increased substance use and affective disturbances. The current study examined (1) the association between recent IPV victimization and alcohol and cocaine use and (2) the relationship between recent IPV victimization and depression in a sample of smokers (N = 203) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Participants in this study completed a battery of assessments that included standard questionnaires of trauma, alcohol and substance use, and depression. Parallel logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the adjusted association of IPV victimization and depressive symptoms and evaluate the adjusted association of victimization with recent substance use. Participants recently victimized by partners were shown to have significantly higher mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores (b = 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.07; 1.02], P <.05) and were found to have a 6 times greater likelihood of cocaine use (odds ratio [OR] = 6.65, 95% CI: [1.61; 27.46], P <.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, opiate use, and ethnicity. These findings support the notion that IPV victimization can potentially increase depression and other substance use among MMT patients, which can have a deleterious impact on treatment.
Mendonça, Marcela Franklin Salvador de; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda
To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9-4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0-3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively), even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1-4.7) and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7-3.8). Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential. Investigar a associação da violência por parceiros íntimos relatada contra as mulheres nos últimos 12 meses e últimos sete anos com a incidência dos transtornos mentais comuns. Estudo de coorte prospectivo com 390 mulheres de 18 a 49 anos, cadastradas no Programa Saúde da Família da cidade do Recife, PE, entre julho de 2013 e dezembro de 2014. A saúde mental foi avaliada pelo Self Reporting
Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia
No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and gender, race, age, and history of childhood abuse were examined. Results showed that physical violence and verbal abuse were the most commonly reported experiences of IPV in the current sample and ranged from 30.0% to 35.4%. Women and those with a history of childhood abuse were more likely to be victimized by their intimate partners. Specifically, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that women were approximately twice as likely as men to be verbally and physically abused in intimate relationships. Moreover, youth who reported being victims of abuse in childhood were more than twice as likely to experience verbal abuse and physical violence in their relationships. Given the high lifetime occurrence of IPV among homeless youth, intervention efforts should target IPV to prevent future occurrence. Findings also suggest that intervention efforts should consider gender and history of childhood abuse.
Kwagala, Betty; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen
There is dearth of knowledge and research about the role of empowerment, partners' behaviours and intimate partner physical violence (IPPV) among married women in Uganda. This paper examined the influence of women's empowerment and partners' behaviours on IPPV among married women in Uganda. The 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data were used, selecting a weighted sample of 1,307 women in union considered for the domestic violence module. Cross tabulations (chi-square tests) and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with IPPV. The prevalence of IPPV among women in union in Uganda is still high (41%). Women's occupation was the only measure of empowerment that was significantly associated with IPPV, where women in professional employment were less likely to experience IPPV. Women from wealthy households were less likely to experience IPPV. IPPV was more likely to be reported by women who had ever had children and witnessed parental IPPV. IPPV was also more likely to be reported by women whose husbands or partners: accused them of unfaithfulness, did not permit them to meet female friends, insisted on knowing their whereabouts and sometimes or often got drunk. Women who were afraid their partners were also more likely to report IPPV. In the Ugandan context, women's empowerment as assessed by the UDHS has limited mitigating effect on IPPV in the face of partners' negative behaviours and history of witnessing parental violence.
McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A.; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O.; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children’s relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance ...
Al-Natour, A; Qandil, A; Gillespie, G L
To describe Jordanian nurses' roles and practices in screening for intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence is a recognized global health problem with a prevalence of 37% for the Eastern Mediterranean region. Jordanian nurses screening for intimate partner violence is as low as 10.8%. Nurses have encountered institutional and personal barriers hindering their screening practice. A descriptive phenomenological design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 12 male and female Jordanian nurses working at a university hospital in Jordan participated. Participants were interviewed in 2014 using a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. Steps of Colaizzi's phenomenological method were used to analyse the qualitative data. Four themes were derived from the data: (1) screening practices and roles for suspected IPV cases, (2) advantages for screening and disadvantages for not screening for intimate partner violence, (3) factors hindering screening practice and (4) feelings towards screening and not screening for intimate partner violence. Increasing Jordanian nurses' awareness of the need for intimate partner violence screening in this sample was needed. Professional education and training may facilitate the adoption of intimate partner violence screening practices. A key barrier to intimate partner violence screening is Jordanian nurses' personal beliefs. Overcoming these personal beliefs will necessitate a multi-faceted approach starting with schools of nursing and bridging into healthcare settings. Healthcare professionals including nursing and policy makers at health institutions should enforce screening policies and protocols for all receipt of care at first contact. In addition, an emphasis on modelling culturally congruent approaches to develop the trusting nurse-patient relationships and process for screening patients for intimate partner violence. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Cau, Boaventura M
Violence against women is considered a serious public health problem. It is estimated that about 30% of women who have been in a relationship in the world have experienced some form of physical or sexual violence from their intimate partners. In sub-Saharan Africa, one of the regions in the world with the highest prevalence of intimate partner violence, there have been studies of factors associated with intimate partner violence. However, few studies have explicitly examined the influence of the normative social context on women's accepting attitudes toward spousal abuse and their risk of experiencing intimate partner violence in the region. Using data from the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey in Mozambique, we employ multilevel logistic regression to examine the influence of area-level normative social context factors on 4,864 women's accepting attitudes toward spousal abuse and their likelihood of experiencing intimate partner physical violence in Mozambique. Our findings revealed the importance of religious norms in geographic areas as key predictors of women's acceptance of intimate partner violence. Specifically, area-level normative religious predictors were negatively associated with women's acceptance of spousal abuse. The prevalence of early marriages in a given geographic area was positively associated with both acceptance of spousal abuse and experiencing intimate partner physical violence. The level of female education in a geographic area was negatively associated with accepting spousal abuse and having experienced intimate partner physical violence. As intimate partner physical violence in sub-Saharan Africa continues unabated, programs and interventions to address the problem will need to consider the normative context of geographic areas.
Vijana Vijiweni II: a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of a microfinance and peer health leadership intervention for HIV and intimate partner violence prevention among social networks of young men in Dar es Salaam.
Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema Noel; Mwikoko, Gema; Yamanis, Thespina; Mulawa, Marta; Kajuna, Deus; Hill, Lauren; Conserve, Donaldson; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Leatherman, Sheila; Singh, Basant; Maman, Suzanne
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, remain important public health problems with devastating health effects for men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. There have been calls to engage men in prevention efforts, however, we lack effective approaches to reach and engage them. Social network approaches have demonstrated effective and sustained outcomes on changing risk behaviors in the U.S. Our team has identified and engaged naturally occurring social networks comprised mostly of young men in Dar es Salaam in an intervention designed to jointly reduce STI incidence and the perpetration of IPV. These stable networks are locally referred to as "camps." In a pilot study we demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of a combined microfinance and peer health leadership intervention within these camp-based peer networks. We are implementing a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention combining microfinance with health leadership training in 60 camps in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Half of the camps have been randomized to the intervention arm, and half to a control arm. The camps in the intervention arm will receive a combined microfinance and health leadership intervention for a period of two years. The camps in the control arm will receive a delayed intervention. We have enrolled 1,258 men across the 60 study camps. Behavioral surveys will be conducted at baseline, 12-months post intervention launch and 30-month post intervention launch and biological samples will be drawn to test for Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) at baseline and 30-months. The primary endpoints for assessing intervention impact are IPV perpetration and STI incidence. This is the first cluster-randomized trial targeting social networks of men in sub-Saharan Africa that jointly addresses HIV and IPV perpetration and has both biological and behavioral endpoints. Effective
Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Copp, Jennifer E; Giordano, Peggy C
We examined whether the influence of adolescents' sexual partnerships, both dating and casual, carried over to affect emerging adults' relationship satisfaction and experiences of intimate partner aggression. Analyses of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 294) showed that net of control variables (delinquency, depression, family violence, relational and sociodemographic characteristics), adolescents' number of dating, but not casual, sexual partners led to greater odds of intimate partner aggression during emerging adulthood. Further, relationship churning (breaking-up and getting back together) and sexual non-exclusivity during emerging adulthood mediated the influence of adolescents' number of dating sexual partnerships on intimate partner aggression. The positive effect of dating sexual partnerships on intimate partner aggression was stronger for women compared with men. These findings confirm the long reach of adolescent experiences into emerging adulthood.
Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Copp, Jennifer E.; Giordano, Peggy C.
We examined whether the influence of adolescents’ sexual partnerships, both dating and casual, carried over to affect emerging adults’ relationship satisfaction and experiences of intimate partner aggression. Analyses of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 294) showed that net of control variables (delinquency, depression, family violence, relational and sociodemographic characteristics), adolescents’ number of dating, but not casual, sexual partners led to greater odds of intimate partner aggression during emerging adulthood. Further, relationship churning (breaking-up and getting back together) and sexual non-exclusivity during emerging adulthood mediated the influence of adolescents’ number of dating sexual partnerships on intimate partner aggression. The positive effect of dating sexual partnerships on intimate partner aggression was stronger for women compared with men. These findings confirm the long reach of adolescent experiences into emerging adulthood. PMID:28546885
Rafaella Queiroga Souto
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to understand the experiences of intimate partner violence among women from Portuguese-speaking countries living in the Greater Toronto Area. METHOD A social phenomenological study was conducted with ten Portuguese-speaking women who had experienced intimate partner violence who were selected by community centre leaders. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed by categories. RESULTS The consequences of violence included health problems, effects on children, and negative feelings among the victims. Factors preventing the women from leaving abusive partners included religious beliefs, challenging daily jobs, and the need to take care of their husband. Factors that encouraged them to leave included getting support and calling the police. Some women expressed hope for the future either with their husband. Others, desired divorce or revenge. Their plans to rebuild their lives without their husband included being happy, learning English, and being financially stable. CONCLUSION Using these findings can implicate in the improvement of care for these women.
McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A.; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O.; Ascione, Frank R.; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children’s relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree = .90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children’s exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children’s experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. PMID:26520828
McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Collins, Elizabeth A; Nicotera, Nicole; Hageman, Tina O; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A
Cruelty toward companion animals is a well-documented, coercive tactic used by abusive partners to intimidate and control their intimate partners. Experiences of co-occurring violence are common for children living in families with intimate partner violence (IPV) and surveys show that more than half are also exposed to abuse of their pets. Given children's relationships with their pets, witnessing such abuse may be traumatic for them. Yet little is known about the prevalence and significance of this issue for children. The present study examines the experiences of children in families with co-occurring pet abuse and IPV. Using qualitative methods, 58 children ages 7-12 who were exposed to IPV were asked to describe their experiences of threats to and harm of their companion animals. Following the interviews, template analysis was employed to systematically develop codes and themes. Coding reliability was assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa (kfree=.90). Five themes emerged from the qualitative data, the most common being children's exposure to pet abuse as a power and control tactic against their mother in the context of IPV. Other themes were animal maltreatment to discipline or punish the pet, animal cruelty by a sibling, children intervening to prevent pet abuse, and children intervening to protect the pet during a violent episode. Results indicate that children's experiences of pet abuse are multifaceted, potentially traumatic, and may involve multiple family members with diverse motives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An-Sofie Van Parys
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. METHODS: Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support. RESULTS: We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92. Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect
Nemeth, Julianna M; Bonomi, Amy E; Lee, Meghan A; Ludwin, Jennifer M
We conducted a qualitative study to examine acute, situational factors and chronic stressors that triggered severe intimate partner violence (IPV) in women. Our sample consisted of 17 heterosexual couples, where the male was in detention for IPV and made telephone calls to his female victim. We used up to 4 hours of telephone conversational data for each couple to examine the couple's understanding of (1) acute triggers for the violent event and (2) chronic stressors that created the underlying context for violence. Grounded theory guided our robust, iterative data analysis involving audiotape review, narrative summation, and thematic organization. Consistently across couples, violence was acutely triggered by accusations of infidelity, typically within the context of alcohol or drug use. Victims sustained significant injury, including severe head trauma (some resulting in hospitalization/surgery), bite wounds, strangulation complications, and lost pregnancy. Chronic relationship stressors evident across couples included ongoing anxiety about infidelity, preoccupation with heterosexual gender roles and religious expectations, drug and alcohol use, and mental health concerns (depression, anxiety, and suicide ideation/attempts). Disseminated models feature jealousy as a strategy used by perpetrators to control IPV victims and as a red flag for homicidal behavior. Our findings significantly extend this notion by indicating that infidelity concerns, a specific form of jealousy, were the immediate trigger for both the acute violent episode and resulting injuries to victims and were persistently raised by both perpetrators and victims as an ongoing relationship stressor.
Gashaw, Bosena Tebeje; Schei, Berit; Magnus, Jeanette H
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy increases adverse pregnancy outcomes. Knowledge of societal, community, family and individual related factors associated with IPV in pregnancy is limited in Ethiopia. Our study examined these factors in an Ethiopian context. A cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal care at governmental health institutions, using a consecutive probability sampling strategy. A total of 720 pregnant women were interviewed by five trained nurses or midwives, using a standardized and /pretested survey questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to assess factors contributing to IPV. We used Akaike's information criteria, to identify the model that best describes the factors influencing IPV in pregnancy. Among the women interviewed, physical IPV was reported by 35.6%, and lifetime emotional or physical abuse by 81.0%. Perceiving violence as a means to settle interpersonal conflicts, presence of supportive attitudes of wife beating in the society, regarding violence as an expression of masculinity, and presence of strict gender role differences in the society, were all positively associated to IPV in pregnancy. The presence of groups legitimizing men's violence in the community, feeling isolated, having no social support for victims, and presence of high unemployment, were the perceived community related factors positively associated with IPV in pregnancy. IPV in pregnancy is very prevalent in Ethiopia and is associated with multiple social ecologic factors. Reduction of IPV in pregnancy calls for cross sectorial efforts from stakeholders at different levels.
Webermann, Aliya R; Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S
Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80-95% and severe dissociative symptoms. DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.
Aliya R. Webermann
Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.
Full Text Available In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.
Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela
In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.
Suheyla Dogan Bulut
Full Text Available Aim: It has been suggested that intimate partner violence (IPV triggers depression. We aim to examine the effect of exposure to IPV on women who experience postpartum depression as compared with postpartum women without depression. Material and Method: The study sample included 128 women whose week 4 postpartum check was done in Family Practice. A psychiatric evaluation was completed for 128 postpartum women with no history of mental illness or drug use. We administered the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS and a sociodemographic form. A statistical analysis of the women%u2019s exposure to IPV was assessed in relation to their levels of depression as measured by the EPDS along with their sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Postpartum depression was detected in 56.3% (n=72 of the women. The average age and length of marriage of the women showing depression were found to be statistically significantly higher than for those that did not score as depressed (respectively p=0.035 and p=0.003. Rates of exposure to emotional and physical abuse were statistically significantly higher for depressed women (respectively p
Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey
While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071
The current study compared working and non-working groups of women in relation to intimate partner violence. The paper aims to explore the relationship between women's economic empowerment, their exposures to IPV and their help seeking behavior using a nationally representative sample in India. This was a cross sectional study of 124,385 ever married women of reproductive age from all 29 member states in India. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions of dependent variables (exposure to IPV) and independent variables. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the independent contribution of the variables of economic empowerment in predicting exposure to IPV. Out of 124,385 women, 69432 (56%) were eligible for this study. Among those that were eligible 35% were working. In general, prevalence of IPV (ever) among women in India were: emotional violence 14%, less severe physical violence 31%, severe physical violence 10% and sexual violence 8%. For working women, the IPV prevalence was: emotional violence 18%, less severe physical violence 37%, severe physical violence 14% and sexual violence 10%; whilst for non-working women the rate was 12, 27, 8 and 8 percents, respectively. Working women seek more help from different sources. Economic empowerment is not the sole protective factor. Economic empowerment, together with higher education and modified cultural norms against women, may protect women from IPV.
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
Children who are exposed to domestic violence (DV) may experience many short- and long-term negative effects. They are up to 3.8 times more likely to become perpetrators or victims in adulthood than are children not exposed to DV. They also are at high risk of health problems, risky health behaviors, violence, and social functioning problems. Girls who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms, and boys exposed to IPV are more likely to exhibit aggression and delinquent behaviors. To prepare the practice to identify and assist children exposed to DV, physicians should undergo training, implement screening protocols, use caution when documenting findings, collaborate with local agencies, and learn about the state's reporting laws. State and local DV service programs or other community resources can provide assessment and intervention assistance. Social workers, mental health professionals, and child and DV advocates can assist in providing treatment for children exposed to violence. Physicians should schedule follow-up appointments for children who need treatment, monitor behavior, and coordinate intervention services. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Ali, Parveen Azam; Naylor, Paul B; Croot, Elizabeth; O'Cathain, Alicia
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major social and public health problem affecting people in various cultures and societies. Though the issue of IPV in Pakistan has been researched since the 1990 s, no attempt has been made systematically to review the available evidence on IPV in Pakistan. This article presents findings of a systematic review of available empirical literature related to IPV in Pakistan. Using various key words, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched to identify relevant studies. This resulted in the identification of 55 potential studies for inclusion. After application of exclusion criteria 23 studies were identified, 20 of which used quantitative research designs, two used qualitative designs and one adopted a mixed method case study approach. All studies reported men as the perpetrators of IPV and women as its victims. Findings are presented and discussed for IPV for its forms, predictors, effects and victims' responses. Pakistani peoples' perceived reasons for and their attitudes towards IPV are also presented and discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lysova, Aleksandra V; Hines, Denise A
This study is the first to provide information on the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and binge drinking among Russian university students. Using data from 500 (58% female) university students from the four Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study, we found gender differences in rates of IPV perpetration and in the association between binge drinking and IPV. Specifically, more females than males perpetrated IPV, and the associations between binge drinking and IPV were stronger for the female students than for the male students. In addition, antisocial traits and behavior (ATSB) were significantly related to both binge drinking and IPV perpetration for males and females. For males, the relatively weak associations between binge drinking and IPV perpetration disappeared once ASTB was accounted for. For females, the relationship decreased but remained significant when ATSB was statistically controlled. Path analyses confirmed that this pattern of relationships would be consistent with ATSB serving as a partial mediator between binge drinking and IPV perpetration. However, other alternative mediation and moderation models for the relationships between binge drinking, IPV perpetration, and ATSB could not be ruled out with this one-wave correlational study.
Snyder, Briana L
Women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) are significantly more likely than other women to experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explicate the experiences of women with DID who experience IPV and describe how they cope. Grounded theory was used to conduct this investigation. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants (N = 5) for face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded and categorized, and reflective memos were developed to explicate substantive categories. Women with DID used coping strategies that were consistent with their diagnoses, such as switching and dissociating. These coping mechanisms reflect past self-preservation strategies that were developed in association with severe childhood maltreatment. Women with DID who experienced IPV sought to mitigate and safeguard themselves from danger using strategies they developed as maltreated children. Nurses can use these findings to better recognize and understand the motivations and behaviors of women with DID who experience IPV. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Cunradi, Carol B.; Bersamin, Melina; Ames, Genevieve
This study assessed agreement level about the occurrence of past-year male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of 897 blue-collar couples. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was measured with the Physical Assault subscale of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Agreement level was…
Sijtsema, J.J.; Baan, L.; Bogaerts, S.
In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples,
Rothman, Emily F; Corso, Phaedra S
It has been demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is costly to employers, but little is known about the economic consequences associated with employing perpetrators. This study investigated propensity for partner abuse as a predictor of missed work time and on-the-job decreases in productivity among a small sample of male employees at a state agency (N=61). Results suggest that greater propensity for abusiveness is positively associated with missing work and experiencing worse productivity on the job, controlling for level of education, income, marital status, age, and part-time versus full-time employment status. Additional research could clarify whether IPV perpetration is a predictor of decreased productivity among larger samples and a wider variety of workplace settings. Employers and IPV advocates should consider responding to potential IPV perpetrators through the workplace in addition to developing victim-oriented policies and prevention initiatives.
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Renner, Lynette M
The prevention of intimate partner violence continues to be a high priority for health practitioners and researchers around the world. Screening practices and intervention efforts utilized within high- and/or middle-income areas may not translate effectively to low-resource areas due to differences in financial, social, and physical context. However, little is known about the evidence-base of intervention efforts in such areas. Using the Arksey and O'Malley framework for scoping reviews, the purpose of this review was to synthesize what is known about intimate partner violence screening, management, and treatment in low-resource areas. A total of 31 programs reported across 34 articles were included in this scoping review. The programs incorporated a range of intervention activities, including group-based education and skill-development combined with microfinance to screening and referral to community resources. Slightly less than half of the studies (n = 14) were randomized controlled trials or clustered randomized controlled trials. Many barriers were common across the programs, including limited financial support, lack of community support, and lack of coordination across programs. Despite considerable barriers related to the limited available resources, the literature base had many strengths, such as strong evaluation methodologies, inclusion of a theoretical or conceptual framework to guide the intervention, and community engagement before and during the intervention implementation. However, insufficient statistical power and barriers related to cultural differences or inadequate cultural sensitivity were also common. With a variety of barriers to program implementation noted within the articles, it is important for researchers and practitioners to consider the geographic, social, cultural, and economic contexts when implementing intimate partner violence programs in low-resource areas. Given the significant differences in context across low-resource areas
McCloskey, Laura Ann; Williams, Corrine; Larsen, Ulla
In Sub-Saharan Africa, where rates of intimate partner violence are high, knowing the prevalence of abuse and associated patterns of risk is crucial to ensuring women's health and development. Intimate partner violence in Tanzania has not been assessed through a population-based survey. A household-based sample of women aged 20-44 in the urban district of Moshi, Tanzania, participated in face-to-face interviews in 2002-2003. The lifetime prevalence of exposure to intimate partner violence and the prevalence of exposure during the past 12 months were assessed among 1,444 women who reported having a current partner. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with intimate partner violence. Twenty-one percent of women reported having experienced intimate partner violence (i.e., having been threatened with physical abuse, subjected to physical abuse or forced into intercourse by a partner) during the previous 12 months; 26% reported such an experience at any time, including the past 12 months. The likelihood of violence in the past year was elevated if the woman had had problems conceiving or had borne five or more children (odds ratios, 1.9 and 2.4, respectively); if her husband or partner had other partners (2.0) or contributed little to expenses for her and her children (3.3); and if she had had no more than a primary education (1.7). Gender inequality within sexual unions is associated with intimate partner violence. Policies and programs that discourage men from blaming women for infertility, promote monogamous unions and expand access to education for women may reduce intimate partner violence in northern urban Tanzania.
Güleç Öyekçin, Demet; Yetim, Dilek; Şahin, Erkan Melih
Intimate partner violence against women is a growing global public health problem that is related to various psychosocial, cultural, mental, and economic factors. In this study, psychosocial factors affecting various types of intimate partner violence against women were investigated based upon affected individuals' statements. Demographic data, exposure to various types of partner violence, individual habits, partner habits, family functioning, and social support were inquired about during face to face interviews with 306 women chosen by stratified sampling to represent adult women living in Edirne, Turkey. Among the participants, 54.5% were exposed to psychological violence, 30.4% were exposed to physical violence, 19.3% were exposed to economic violence, and 6.3% were exposed to sexual violence. Partner's age and the duration of marriage had a protective effect on intimate partner violence while worsening of marital relations, marriage by family decision, marriage against family consent, and the presence of a violent history against women in a partner's family had incremental effects on intimate partner violence. The duration of marriage, the worsening of marital relations and a history of violent exposure during childhood increased physical violence. Additionally, a decreasing family income, increasing economic violence, worsening of marital relations, and a decreasing social support network increased sexual violence against women. Recognizing and defining the effecting factors of intimate partner violence will aid in the understanding of the sources that generate and feed the violent behavior. Risk factors of different types of intimate partner violence vary. Our results indicate that any kind of violent behavior increases intimate partner violence against women.
Clark, Lindsay E; Allen, Rebecca H; Goyal, Vinita; Raker, Christina; Gottlieb, Amy S
Reproductive coercion is male behavior to control contraception and pregnancy outcomes of female partners. We examined the prevalence of reproductive coercion and co-occurring intimate partner violence among women presenting for routine care at a large, urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Women aged 18-44 years completed a self-administered, anonymous survey. Reproductive coercion was defined as a positive response to at least 1 of 14 questions derived from previously published studies. Women who experienced reproductive coercion were also assessed for intimate partner violence in the relationship where reproductive coercion occurred. Of 641 women who completed the survey, 16% reported reproductive coercion currently or in the past. Among women who experienced reproductive coercion, 32% reported that intimate partner violence occurred in the same relationship. Single women were more likely to experience reproductive coercion as well as co-occurring intimate partner violence. Reproductive coercion with co-occurring intimate partner violence is prevalent among women seeking general obstetrics and gynecology care. Health care providers should routinely assess reproductive-age women for reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence and tailor their family planning discussions and recommendations accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Graves, Kelly N.; Sechrist, Stacy M.; White, Jacquelyn W.; Paradise, Matthew J.
Using a longitudinal design, the current study explored intimate partner violence perpetration among 1,300 college women within the context of one's history of physical and sexual victimization across 4 years of college. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual victimization does not predict concurrent use of women's intimate partner…
Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.
This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and
... on interference with birth control. This includes the refusal by an intimate partner to use acondom. For ... for safety, any PTSD symptoms, need for health care, injury, contacting a crisis hotline, need for housing ...
Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Lewis, Glyn; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Araya, Ricardo
Partner violence against women is common during pregnancy and might have an adverse effect on the mental health of women after delivery. We aimed to investigate the association of postnatal depression with psychological, physical, and sexual violence against women by their intimate partners during pregnancy. In a prospective cohort study undertaken in Recife, northeastern Brazil, between July, 2005, and December, 2006, we enrolled pregnant women (aged 18-49 years) in their third trimester of pregnancy who were attending primary health-care clinics. The women were interviewed during pregnancy and after delivery. The form of partner violence in pregnancy was assessed with a validated questionnaire, and the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to measure postnatal depression. Associations were estimated with odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for confounding factors contributing to the association between postnatal depression and intimate partner violence. 1133 pregnant women were eligible for inclusion in the study, of whom 1045 had complete data for all variables and were included in the analysis. 270 women (25.8%, 95% CI 23.2-28.6) had postnatal depression. The most common form of partner violence was psychological (294 [28.1%, 25.4-31.0]). Frequency of psychological violence during pregnancy was positively associated with occurrence of postnatal depression, and although this association was attenuated after adjustment, women reporting the highest frequency of psychological violence were more likely to have postnatal depression even after adjustment (adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.15-4.57). Women who reported physical or sexual violence in pregnancy were more likely to develop postnatal depression (OR 3.28, 2.29-4.70), but this association was substantially reduced after adjustment for psychological violence and confounding factors. Psychological violence during pregnancy by an intimate partner is strongly associated with postnatal depression, independently of
Maquibar Landa, Amaia; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem with devastating effects on young women's health. These negative effects increase when the exposure to IPV lasts for a long time and exposure at an early age increases the risk of adult IPV. Despite efforts made in the last few decades, data show little progress has been made towards its reduction. Thus, the aim of the study reported here is to explore professionals' perceptions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) am...
Kornfeld, Benjamin D; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Frosch, Emily; Solomon, Barry S
To assess the prevalence, timing, and co-occurrence of positive screens for maternal postpartum depression and intimate partner violence and examine their relationships with children's healthcare utilization from birth to 2 years. Between February and March 2008, mothers bringing newborn, 2-, 4-, or 6-month-old children to an urban primary care clinic were screened for postpartum depression and intimate partner violence. A retrospective chart review abstracted demographic data, maternal responses on the postpartum depression/intimate partner violence screen at the initial and subsequent visits, and, from the child's birth to second birthday, adherence with well-child care and use of pediatric acute care and emergency department visits. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. A total of 173 mothers completed at least one postpartum depression/intimate partner violence screening survey. Overall, 26% screened positive for postpartum depression and 7% screened positive for intimate partner violence; most positive screens occurred at the initial visit. About 60% of mothers with a positive intimate partner violence screen also had a positive postpartum depression screen. Well-child care adherence and acute care visit utilization were not associated with maternal postpartum depression/intimate partner violence screening. Children of women with a positive screen for postpartum depression had greater emergency department utilization. The co-occurrence of postpartum depression and intimate partner violence is high in urban mothers. Primary care providers should routinely screen for both problems in this population and recognize the importance of screening for one problem if the other problem is identified. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kovacs, Roxanne J
This study uses multi-level regression analysis to determine the impact of macro-level drivers on intimate partner violence (IPV). It argues that we need to look beyond the usual, individual-level risk factors in order to understand why women experience abuse at the hands of their intimate partners. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 40 developing countries, this paper demonstrates that socio-economic development, beliefs and laws play an important role in explaining IPV.
Sprague, Sheila; Slobogean, Gerard P.; Spurr, Hayley; McKay, Paula; Scott, Taryn; Arseneau, Erika; Memon, Muzammil; Bhandari, Mohit; Swaminathan, Aparna
Introduction Between 38 and 59 percent of women presenting to health care professionals have experienced intimate partner violence. Consequently, multiple intimate partner violence identification or screening programs within health care settings have been developed; however, substantial variations in program content and interpretation of program effectiveness has resulted in conflicting practice guidelines. The purpose of our scoping review is to broadly identify and synthesize the available ...
Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Krauss, Ramona
The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present stud...
Heron, Sheryl L
Full Text Available Objective: To use 360-degree evaluations within an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE to assess medical student comfort level and communication skills with intimate partner violence (IPV patients.Methods: We assessed a cohort of fourth year medical students’ performance using an IPV standardized patient (SP encounter in an OSCE. Blinded pre- and post-tests determined the students’ knowledge and comfort level with core IPV assessment. Students, SPs and investigators completed a 360-degree evaluation that focused on each student’s communication and competency skills. We computed frequencies, means and correlations.Results: Forty-one students participated in the SP exercise during three separate evaluation periods. Results noted insignificant increase in students’ comfort level pre-test (2.7 and post-test (2.9. Although 88% of students screened for IPV and 98% asked about the injury, only 39% asked about verbal abuse, 17% asked if the patient had a safety plan, and 13% communicated to the patient that IPV is illegal. Using Likert scoring on the competency and overall evaluation (1, very poor and 5, very good, the mean score for each evaluator was 4.1 (competency and 3.7 (overall. The correlations between trainee comfort level and the specific competencies of patient care, communication skill and professionalism were positive and significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Students felt somewhat comfortable caring for patients with IPV. OSCEs with SPs can be used to assess student competencies in caring for patients with IPV. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:500-505.
Beyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Anne Baber; Hamberger, L Kevin
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the life span and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking, "what is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?" Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of nonurban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV--such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory that was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-U.S. settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semiurban, and rural settings and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to advance
Castro, Erin D; Nobles, Matt R; Zavala, Egbert
The purpose of this study was to examine the role that control occupies in the motivation for, and development of, intimate partner violence (IPV). The research literature often theorizes about the importance of control in gender-based crimes; however, few studies have empirically tested these assumptions. Given the breath of theoretical approaches in examining IPV and the need for individualized explanations, the current study used concepts from Tittle's control balance theory. This integrated theory accounts for many of the known risk factors, such as self-control and routine activities, while accounting for individual perceptions of control. A college student sample ( N = 401) was used, in accordance with the literature that has found this subpopulation to be at high risk for IPV. An online survey was distributed to potential participants to capture self-reported incidents of victimization and perpetration of IPV within the past year. Statistical analysis using segmented nonlinear regression models was estimated to assess sex difference effects. The results showed no difference in control continuums between the sexes but did find significant associations between control deficits and female victimization and perpetration, as well as significant association between control deficits and male perpetration of IPV. These findings have implications beyond the theoretical confirmation that control is key factor to this type of violence. In addition to greater education regarding dating expectations, control deficits may be particularly important for socially marginalized groups, such as those from the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Efforts can then be made to identify issues with control in IPV counseling, victim services, treatments for offenders, and other gender-based crimes, such as rape, sexual assault, and stalking.
Zacarias Antonio Eugenio
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and “predictors” of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique. Methods Data were collected during a 12 month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once from 1,442 women aged 15–49 years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2, and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R. The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Results The overall experienced IPV during the past 12 months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8 ± 120.9.a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1 ± 9.1-12.8 ± 26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3 ± 117.6 of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7 ± 80.3-64.9 ± 110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in “explaining” the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child. Conclusions In our study
Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Critelli, Filomena M
Using empowerment theory, the current study examines antecedents of lifetime experience of intimate partner violence, intimate partner violence experienced in the last 12 months, emotional violence, and husbands' controlling behaviors toward their wives in Pakistan. Using data from a subsample of 658 women from the nationally representative Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-2013, this study examined whether empowerment variables, such as household decision-making power, economic decision-making power, and adherence to patriarchy, operationalized as justification of wife beating, contribute to intimate partner violence using logistic regression analyses. Results indicate that adherence to patriarchal norms, household decision-making power, and higher education was found to be associated with lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence. Adherence to patriarchal norms, economic decision-making power, and higher education was found significantly associated with intimate partner violence in the past 12 months. Adherence to patriarchal norms was significantly associated with experiencing emotional violence as well as controlling behaviors by husbands. In conclusion, women's adherence to patriarchal norms is a reflection of the patriarchal society in which they live; indeed, this was found to be the most important predictor of women's experience of intimate partner violence, when different types of violence were assessed. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
van der Wath, Annatjie; van Wyk, Neltjie; Janse van Rensburg, Elsie
To report a study of emergency nurses' experiences of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence. Emergency nurses have the opportunity to intervene during the period following exposure to intimate partner violence when survivors are most receptive for interventions. The confrontation with the trauma of intimate partner violence can, however, affect emergency nurses' ability to engage empathetically with survivors, which is fundamental to all interventions. The research was guided by the philosophical foundations of phenomenology as founded by Husserl. A descriptive phenomenological inquiry grounded in Husserlian philosophy was used. The phenomenological reductions were applied throughout data collection and analysis. During 2010, concrete descriptions were obtained from interviewing 11 nurses working in emergency units of two public hospitals in an urban setting in South Africa. To arrive at a description of the essence, the data were analysed by searching for the meaning given to the experience of caring for survivors of intimate partner violence. Emergency nurses in South Africa are often witnesses of the emotional and physical effects of intimate partner violence. Exposure to the vulnerability and suffering of survivors elicits sympathy and emotional distress. Emergency nurses are left with the emotional impact and disruptive and recurrent memories. Exploring the tacit internal experiences related to caring for survivors of intimate partner violence revealed emergency nurses' vulnerability to the effects of secondary traumatic stress. The findings generated an opportunity to develop guidelines through which to support and empower emergency nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Marcela de Freitas Ferreira
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2. A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2. Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7. The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women.
de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep María
Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants were 168 children, aged between 4 and 17, whose mothers experienced IPV. They were assessed using different measures of psychopathology and functioning: Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-IV, Child Behavior Checklists and Child and Adolescent Functioning Assessment Scale. Furthermore, IPV was assessed with the Schedule for Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence Exposure in Children and the Index of Spouse Abuse. Statistical analyses were carried out with regression models adjusted by means of Generalized Estimating Equations. Spurning was the PM subtype with the greatest global effect on the children, as it was significantly associated with internalizing and externalizing problems. Denying emotional responsiveness specifically increased the risk of internalizing psychopathology and impairment in the emotional area. Terrorizing was not significantly associated with a greater number of negative outcomes in children's psychopathology or functioning in this population. The results suggest the importance of taking PM types into account in order to fully understand the problems of children exposed to IPV at home, and for the design of effective treatment and prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salari, Sonia; Maxwell, Christopher D
The aim of this article is to conduct a critical analysis of existing family violence literature related to elder abuse homicide, also known as "eldercide." The focus relates to fatal violence perpetrated by current or former intimates. Men are the most likely victims of homicide but are rarely murdered by partners. Older women are most often killed in the home by a spouse or other family, consistent with the notion of "femicide." The Federal Bureau of Investigation Supplemental Homicide Reports and the Bureau of Justice Statistics National Crime Victimization Survey are utilized to illustrate trends by sex over time. Intimate partner homicide-suicide is examined via news surveillance. Strengths and limitations of data and methods are addressed. Homicide trends among the members of the baby boom cohort are predicted based on current and future patterns as they age. To facilitate prevention, researchers are encouraged to move beyond simple prevalence estimates toward greater understanding of complex trends, distinctions, and motivations of these violent deaths.
Krantz, Gunilla; Nguyen, Dang Vung
Studies in North America and other high-income regions support the distinction between extreme "intimate terrorism" and occasional "situational couple violence", defined conceptually in terms of the presence or absence of controlling behaviour in the violent member of the couple. Relatively little research has been conducted on the different forms intimate partner violence may take in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these expressions of intimate partner violence in one low-income country, Vietnam, adhere to patterns observed in western industrialised countries as well as to investigate the resulting health effects. This cross-sectional study collected structured interview data from 883 married women aged 17-60, using the Women's Health and Life Experiences questionnaire developed by WHO. Intimate partner violence was assessed by past-year experience of physical or sexual violence and control tactics were assessed using six items combined into a scale. Three different health parameters constituted the dependent variables. Bi- and multivariate analyses, including effect modification analyses, were performed. Of the participants, 81 (9.2%) had been exposed to physical or sexual violence during the past 12 months; of these, 26 (32.1%) had been subjected to one or more controlling behaviours by their partners. The risk of ill health associated with combined exposure was elevated eight to 15 times, compared to a two-fourfold risk increase after exposure to only one of the behaviours, i.e. violent acts or control tactics. Physical or sexual violence combined with control tactics acted synergistically to worsen health in rural Vietnamese women. The occurrence of such violence calls for altered policies, increased research and implementation of preventive and curative strategies. The unacceptability of intimate partner violence as a part of normal Vietnamese family life must be recognised in the general debate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem drinking has been identified as a major risk factor for physical intimate partner violence (PIPV in many studies. However, few studies have been carried on the subject in developing countries and even fewer have a nationwide perspective. This paper assesses the patterns and levels of PIPV against women and its association with problem drinking of their sexual partners in a nationwide survey in Uganda. Methods The data came from the women’s dataset in the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey of 2006. Problem drinking among sexual partners was defined by women’s reports that their partner got drunk sometimes or often and served as the main independent variable while experience of PIPV by the women was the main dependent variable. In another aspect problem drinking was treated an ordinal variable with levels ranging from not drinking to getting drunk often. A woman was classified as experiencing PIPV if her partner pushed or shook her; threw something at her; slapped her; pushed her with a fist or a harmful object; kicked or dragged her, tried to strangle or burn her; threatened/attacked her with a knife/gun or other weapon. General chi-square and chi-square for trend analyses were used to assess the significance of the relationship between PIPV and problem drinking. Multivariate analysis was applied to establish the significance of the relationship of the two after controlling for key independent factors. Results Results show that 48% of the women had experienced PIPV while 49.5% reported that their partners got drunk at least sometimes. The prevalence of both PIPV and problem drinking significantly varied by age group, education level, wealth status, and region and to a less extent by occupation, type of residence, education level and occupation of the partner. Women whose partners got drunk often were 6 times more likely to report PIPV (95% CI: 4.6-8.3 compared to those whose partners never drank alcohol. The
Edin, Kerstin; Nilsson, Bo
Women subjected to intimate partner violence (IPV) experience different forms of abuse. Sexual violence is often under-reported because physically abused women, in particular, might see forced sex as an obligatory part of the sexual interplay. Accordingly, abused women have less sexual autonomy and experience unplanned pregnancies more often than other women. To describe and analyse nine Swedish women's retrospective stories about IPV with a focus on power and coping strategies as intimate partners, particularly regarding experiences of sex, contraception, and becoming pregnant. Design : Nine qualitative interviews were carried out with women who had been subjected to very severe violence in their intimate relationships and during at least one pregnancy. The stories were analysed using 'Narrative method' with the emphasis on the women's lived experiences. Despite the violence and many contradictory and ambivalent feelings, two of the women described having sex as desirable, reciprocal and as a respite from the rest of the relationship. The other seven women gave a negative and totally different picture, and they viewed sex either as obligatory or as a necessity to prevent or soothe aggression or referred to it as rape and as something that was physically forced upon them. The women's descriptions of their pregnancies ranged from being carefully planned and mostly wanted to completely unwelcome and including flawed contraceptive efforts with subsequent abortions. Women subjected to IPV have diverse and complex experiences that have effects on all parts of the relationship. Intimacy might for some turn into force and rape, but for others sex does not necessarily exclude pleasure and desire and can be a haven of rest from an otherwise violent relationship. Accordingly, women may tell stories that differ from the ones expected as 'the typical abuse story', and this complexity needs to be recognized and dealt with when women seek healthcare, especially concerning
Full Text Available Objective: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. Methodology: This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural, household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Results: Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73% of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37% and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67–0.78 meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.72. When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Conclusion and recommendations: Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence.
Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural), household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73%) of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37%) and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.78) meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.72). When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence.
Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit
Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…
Ely, Gretchen E.; Otis, Melanie D.
The purpose of this article is to describe an exploratory study examining the relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological stressors in a sample of 188 adult abortion patients. Results indicate the almost 15% of respondents report a history of abuse by the coconceiving partner. In addition, women who reported having had one or…
Romans, Sarah; Forte, Tonia; Cohen, Marsha M.; Du Mont, Janice; Hyman, Ilene
Whole population studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) have given contradictory information about prevalence and risk factors, especially concerning gender. The authors examined the 1999 Canadian General Social Survey data for gender patterns of physical, sexual, emotional, or financial IPV from a current or ex-partner. More women (8.6%) than…
Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.
Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…
Nan Kyi Pyar Si
Full Text Available Some married women are experiencing different types of intimate partner violence by their current or former husband. However, the awareness and services for those women are still needed. This study explored the key informants’ perspectives to provide more comprehensive services to those women. Qualitative feminist method was used and five participants were purposefully selected to interview in depth. Key informants reflected upon intimate partner violence as causes of intimate partner violence, why intimate partner violence cases were underreported, why didn’t women leave their violent partner, what they actually felt for intimate partner violence, gaps with intervention for survivors and planning for better outcome. It was found that awareness among women who experiencing violence and the people around them needed to be raised. And services provided for them also needed to be more concise and updated. Therefore, it is essentially important to extend education session to all people regarding violence against women. Collaboration and cooperation of government and non-governmental organizations is also helpful to decrease various kinds of violence committed to women.
Crombie, Nerissa; Hooker, Leesa; Reisenhofer, Sonia
This scoping review aims to identify the scope of current literature considering nurse/midwife educational practices in the areas of intimate partner violence to inform future nursing/midwifery educational policy and practice. Intimate partner violence is a global issue affecting a significant portion of the community. Healthcare professionals including nurses/midwives in hospital- and community-based environments are likely to encounter affected women and need educational strategies that support best practice and promote positive outcomes for abused women and their families. Scoping review of relevant literature from January 2000 to July 2015. Search of databases: CINHAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROQUEST Central and COCHRANE Library. Reference lists from included articles were searched for relevant literature as were several grey literature sources. This review demonstrates low levels of undergraduate or postregistration intimate partner violence education for nursing/midwifery staff and students. Existing intimate partner violence education strategies are varied in implementation, method and content. Outcomes of these educational programmes are not always rigorously evaluated for staff or client-based outcomes. Further research is needed to evaluate existing intimate partner violence education programmes for nurses/midwives and identify the most effective strategies to promote improved clinical practice and outcomes for abused women and their families. Intimate partner violence has a significant social and public health impact. The World Health Organization has identified the need to ensure that healthcare professionals are adequately trained to meet the needs of abused women. Intimate partner violence education programmes, commencing at undergraduate studies for nurses/midwives, need to be implemented with rigorously evaluated programmes to ensure they meet identified objectives, promote best practice and improve care for abused women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Teixeira, Selma Villas Boas; Moura, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos; Silva, Leila Rangel da; Queiroz, Ana Beatriz Azevedo; Souza, Kleyde Ventura de; Albuquerque, Leônidas Netto
Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.
Selma Villas Boas Teixeira
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyzing the elements that compose the environment of pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the light of Levine's Nursing Theory. METHOD A qualitative, descriptive study conducted from September to January 2012, with nine pregnant women in a Municipal Health Center in Rio de Janeiro. The interviews were semi-structured and individual. The theoretical framework was based on Levine's Nursing Theory. RESULTS Thematic analysis evidenced the elements that composed the external environment, such as violence perpetrated by intimate partners before and during pregnancy, violence in childhood and adolescence, alcohol consumption and drug use by the partner, unemployment, low education and economic dependency, which affected health and posed risks to the pregnancy. CONCLUSION Violence perpetrated by an intimate partner was the main external factor that influenced the internal environment with repercussions on health. This theory represents a tool in nursing care which will aid in detecting cases and the fight against violence.
Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations. Few studies have examined the plausible relationship between minority stress and IPV among men who have sex with men. This study examines the associations between IPV and three indicators of minority stress: internalized homophobia, sexuality-based discrimination, and racism, in a large venue-based sample of gay and bisexual men from Atlanta, USA. Each of the minority stress measures was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of self-reporting any form of receipt of IPV. Significant associations were also identified between perpetration of IPV and minority stressors, with most types of IPV perpetration linked to internalized homophobia. This study confirms findings in a growing body of research supporting the relationship between minority stress and increased prevalence of IPV among men who have sex with men, and points to the need to address structural factors in IPV prevention programs for male-male couples.
María Elena Meza-de-Luna
Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men as the most violent and evaluated the other groups with different degrees of IPV. Physical violence is regarded as natural in men, both gay and heterosexual. To conclude, the results suggest that IPV stereotypes are affected by the sex of the evaluators and by their sexual orientation. It is relevant to expand the scope of prevention programs.
Mugoya, George C T; Witte, Tricia H; Ernst, Kacey C
This study investigates the association between acceptance of intimate partner violence (IPV) and reported IPV victimization among Kenyan women, taking into consideration select sociocultural factors that may also influence acceptance of IPV. Data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional, household survey conducted between November 2008 and February 2009 in Kenya were analyzed. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to estimate the effect of select sociodemographic characteristics and reported IPV victimization on acceptance of IPV. The results showed that while both sociodemographic characteristics and reported IPV victimization were significantly associated with IPV acceptance, sociocultural factors had a greater impact. Programs aimed at empowering women and culturally competent IPV prevention strategies may be the key elements to reducing IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.
Brewer, Nathan; Thomas, Kristie A; Higdon, Julia
To determine the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and academic performance among heterosexual and sexual minority undergraduates, including whether health mediates this relationship. A national sample of undergraduate students aged 18-24 years old who completed the 2011-2014 National College Health Assessment IIb (N = 85,071). We used structural equation modeling to create a latent variable of IPV victimization (stalking, physical, sexual, and emotional violence) in order to test its relationship with health (physical and mental) and two indicators of academic performance (GPA and perceived academic difficulties), according to participants' sexual identity (heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and unsure). Regardless of sexual identity, undergraduates who reported IPV were more likely to have lower GPA and increased academic difficulties. Health mediates this relationship, such that IPV reduces health, which negatively affects performance. IPV poses a serious threat to undergraduates' health and educational success. Findings warrant universal prevention and intervention.
Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Weinberger, Andrea H
The current meta-analytic review represents the first comprehensive empirical evaluation of the strength of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and cigarette smoking. Thirty-nine effect sizes, drawn from 31 peer-reviewed publications, determined the existence of a small to medium composite effect size for the victimization-smoking relationship (d = .41, 95% confidence interval = [.35, .47]). Results indicate that victims of IPV are at greater smoking risk than nonvictims. Subsequent moderator analyses indicated that the association between victimization and smoking is moderately stronger among pregnant compared to nonpregnant victims. The strength of the victimization-smoking relationship did not differ by relationship type or ethnicity. More research is needed on the smoking behavior of male victims, victims of psychological violence, and victims who identify as Latino/Latina. It would be useful for professionals working with IPV victims to assess for smoking and incorporate smoking prevention and cessation skills in intervention settings.
Ernst, Amy A; Weiss, Steven J; Del Castillo, Christie; Aagaard, Jaime; Marvez-Valls, Eduardo; D'Angelo, Juliet; Combs, Shanna; Feuchter, Alexander; Hegyi, Michael; Clark, Ross; Coffman, Brittany
To determine whether adults who witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV) as children would have an increased rate of being victims of ongoing IPV, as measured by the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool (OVAT), compared with adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. The authors also sought to determine whether there were differences in demographics in these two groups. This was a cross sectional cohort study of patients presenting to a high-volume academic emergency department. Emergency department patients presenting from November 16, 2005, to January 5, 2006, during 46 randomized four-hour shifts were included. A confidential computer touch-screen data entry program was used for collecting demographic data, including witnessing IPV as a child and the OVAT. Main outcome measures were witnessing IPV as a child, ongoing IPV, and associated demographics. Assuming a prevalence of IPV of 20% and a clinically significant difference of 20% between adults who witnessed IPV as children and adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, the study was powered at 80%, with 215 subjects included. A total of 280 subjects were entered; 256 had complete data sets. Forty-nine percent of subjects were male, 45% were Hispanic, 72 (28%) were adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 184 (72%) were adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. Sixty-three (23.5%) were positive for ongoing IPV. There was no correlation of adults who witnessed IPV as children with the presence of ongoing IPV, as determined by univariate and bivariate analysis. Twenty-three of 72 (32%) of the adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 39 of 184 (21%) of the adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, were positive for IPV (difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2% to 23%). Significant correlations with having witnessed IPV as a child included age younger than 40 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% CI = 1.7 to 9.1), income less than $20,000/year (OR, 5.1; 95% CI = 1.6 to 12
Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R
Liladhar Dhakal, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Arja R AroUnit of Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkIntroduction: Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health c...
Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: among women, an intimate partner violence screening questionnaire; and among men, a questionnaire that screened for violence in the family environment. RESULTS A total of 1,039 health professionals participated in the study. Of these, 26% had suffered some type of abuse. Among the men, this prevalence was 2.7%, while among the women, it was 33.8%. There were differences in the prevalence of intimate partner violence among different autonomous communities, with the highest percentages in the Canary Islands. In terms of profession, 19.5% of the doctors had been exposed to intimate partner violence, while this percentage was 31% and 48.6% for nurses and nursing professionals, respectively. CONCLUSION The results indicate the presence of intimate partner violence among healthcare personnel in most of the autonomous communities of Spain. The data demonstrate the need to implement action plans, both to support victims and to mitigate the problem.
Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides) in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: among women, an intimate partner violence screening questionnaire; and among men, a questionnaire that screened for violence in the family environment. RESULTS A total of 1,039 health professionals participated in the study. Of these, 26% had suffered some type of abuse. Among the men, this prevalence was 2.7%, while among the women, it was 33.8%. There were differences in the prevalence of intimate partner violence among different autonomous communities, with the highest percentages in the Canary Islands. In terms of profession, 19.5% of the doctors had been exposed to intimate partner violence, while this percentage was 31% and 48.6% for nurses and nursing professionals, respectively. CONCLUSION The results indicate the presence of intimate partner violence among healthcare personnel in most of the autonomous communities of Spain. The data demonstrate the need to implement action plans, both to support victims and to mitigate the problem.
Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise
The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these decisions. We introduce a study protocol to a) systematically describe the demographics, circumstances, mental health and wellbeing of children bereaved by intimate partner homicide and b) build a predictive model of factors associated with children's mental health and wellbeing after intimate partner homicide. This study focuses on children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands over a period of 20 years (1993 - 2012). It involves an incidence study to identify all Dutch intimate partner homicide cases between 1993 and 2012 by which children have been bereaved; systematic case reviews to describe the demographics, circumstances and care trajectories of these children; and a mixed-methods study to assess mental health, wellbeing, and experiences regarding decisions made and care provided. Clinical experience and initial research suggest that the children involved often need long-term intensive mental health and case management. The costs of these services are extensive and the stakes are high. This study lays the foundation for an international dataset and evidence-informed decision making.
Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Spriggs, Aubrey L; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L
To determine the prevalence of patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization from adolescence to young adulthood, and document associations with selected sociodemographic and experiential factors. We used prospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to group 4134 respondents reporting only opposite-sex romantic or sexual relationships in adolescence and young adulthood into four victimization patterns: no IPV victimization, adolescent-limited IPV victimization, young adult onset IPV victimization, and adolescent-young adult persistent IPV victimization. Forty percent of respondents reported physical or sexual victimization by young adulthood. Eight percent experienced IPV only in adolescence, 25% only in young adulthood, and 7% showed persistent victimization. Female sex, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, an atypical family structure (something other than two biologic parents, step-family, single parent), more romantic partners, experiencing childhood abuse, and early sexual debut (before age 16) were each associated with one or more patterns of victimization versus none. Number of romantic partners and early sexual debut were the most consistent predictors of violence, its timing of onset, and whether victimization persisted across developmental periods. These associations did not vary by biological sex. Substantial numbers of young adults have experienced physical or sexual IPV victimization. More research is needed to understand the developmental and experiential mechanisms underlying timing of onset of victimization, whether victimization persists across time and relationships, and whether etiology and temporal patterns vary by type of violence. These additional distinctions would inform the timing, content, and targeting of violence prevention efforts.
McGrane Minton, Heather A; Mittal, Mona; Elder, Heather; Carey, Michael P
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for HIV infection. To further the understanding of the dyadic factors that impact condom use among women, we investigated the impact of three relationship factors (i.e., power, fear, and dependence) on the association between HIV-related information, motivation, and behavioral skills [constructs from the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model] and condom use among abused women. Data from 133 urban, low-income women recruited from several community-based agencies (e.g., domestic violence agencies, women's health organizations, hospitals, Department of Health and Human Services, and Family Court) showed that these women experienced high levels of IPV and that relationship power, fear of abuse, and partner dependence were all associated with condom use. Multivariable models revealed that fear of abuse and partner dependence moderated the association between IMB constructs and condom use but relationship power did not. Results highlight the critical need to incorporate strategies to address relationship factors in HIV prevention programs with abused women.
Iritani, Bonita J.; Waller, Martha W.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Flewelling, Robert L.
This paper examines the relationships between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women in the US. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; N = 4,430 in present analyses). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine occurrence of past year IPV perpetration toward a male partner based on tract-level on-premise and off-premise alcohol outlet density, controlling for individuals’ demographic, alcohol use, and childhood abuse characteristics and neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Higher off-premise alcohol outlet density was found to be associated with young women’s perpetration of physical only IPV, controlling for individual-level and ecological factors. Alcohol use had an independent association with IPV perpetration but was not a mediator of the outlet density-IPV relationship. Findings suggest that considering alcohol-related environmental factors may help efforts aimed at preventing young women’s use of physical violence toward partners. PMID:23914050
Nguyen, Tuyen D
The present study investigated the prevalence of both current and lifetime physical partner abuse among Vietnamese males who reside in Vietnam. Participants (N = 315) were randomly selected to participate in the study. Participants completed the Vietnamese version of the Conflict Tactics Scale-2. A total of 47% (n = 148) of the sampled participants were identified as current physical abusers and 68% (n = 214) as past abusers. Four of the most common abusive tactics abusers exhibited toward their partner were (a) throwing something at their wife (80%), (b) pushing or shoving their partner (78%), (c) beating up their partner (54%), and (d) twisting their partner's arm or hair (60%).
Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach Duc; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane
Poor quality intimate partner relationship is associated with postnatal depression and anxiety among women. Existing scales assessing the quality of this relationship are long and measure stable aspects of the relationship rather than specific behaviours which may respond to targeted interventions. The aim was to develop and investigate the properties of a brief, life stage-specific scale to assess potentially modifiable partner behaviours in the postpartum period. Participants were primiparous women from diverse geographical and socio-economic backgrounds in Victoria, Australia. Seven study-specific items were developed to assess potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship at 6 months postpartum. Women's mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression and generalised anxiety modules. Factor analysis was conducted on the 7 items, and associations calculated between factor scores. Factor scores were compared for women with and without mental health problems. Mean inter-item correlations were computed to assess internal consistency. Factor analysis on data from 355 women revealed two factors with good internal consistency: Caring Partner Behaviours and Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours. Having mental health problems was associated with lower Caring Partner Behaviours and higher Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours scores. Interaction between partners was not observed; thus external criterion validity was not assessed. This brief scale is a promising means of assessing potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ana Bernarda Ludermir
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help
Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira
To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.
Dougherty, Cynthia M; Pyper, Gail P; Benoliel, Jeanne Q
There is limited research that describes the experiences of intimate partners of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survivors. The purposes of this article are to (1) describe the domains of concern of intimate partners of SCA survivors during the first year after internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation and (2) outline strategies used by partners of SCA survivors in dealing with the concerns and demands of recovery in the first year after ICD implantation. This is a secondary analysis of interview data collected for the primary study "Family Experiences Following Sudden Cardiac Arrest." A grounded theory method was used to identify experiences of SCA survivors and their family members from hospitalization through the first year after ICD implantation. Data were collected from the SCA survivor and one intimate partner at 5 times: hospital discharge, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postdischarge. Eight Domains of Concern were identified for intimate partners following SCA and ICD implantation during the first year. These included (1) Care of the survivor, (2) My (partner) self-care, (3) Relationship, (4) ICD, (5) Money, (6) Uncertain future, (7) Health care providers, and (8) Family. Five categories of strategies to deal with the Domains of Concerns were identified (1) Care of the survivor, (2) My (partner) self-care, (3) Relationship, (4) Uncertain future, and (5) Controlling the environment. Nursing intervention programs should include the intimate partner of SCA survivors and contain education and support in the following areas: (1) information on the function of the ICD, (2) normal progression of physical and emotional recovery experiences, (3) safety and maintenance of the ICD, (4) activities of daily living after an ICD, (5) strategies to assist with the survivors care, and (6) strategies to assist with partner self care.
Dubowitz, Howard; Prescott, Leslie; Feigelman, Susan; Lane, Wendy; Kim, Jeongeun
To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence among parents at a pediatric primary care clinic and to evaluate the stability, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios of a very brief screen for intimate partner violence. A total of 200 parents (mostly mothers) bringing in children less than 6 years of age for child health supervision completed the Parent Screening Questionnaire in a primary care clinic. The Parent Screening Questionnaire, a brief screen for psychosocial problems developed for the study, includes 3 questions on intimate partner violence. Mothers then completed the computerized study protocol within 2 months. This included the Parent Screening Questionnaire as well as the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Different combinations of the intimate partner violence questions were evaluated against the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. A total of 12.0% of the mothers answered "yes" to at least one of the screening questions. On the standardized Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, responses ranged from 9% reporting a physical injury in the past year to 76% reporting psychological aggression. There was moderate stability of the screening questions. A single question, "Have you ever been in a relationship in which you were physically hurt or threatened by a partner?" in relation to the "physically injured" Revised Conflict Tactics Scale subscale was most effective. Sensitivity was 29%, specificity was 92%, positive predictive value was 41%, and negative predictive value was 88%. The positive likelihood ratio was 3.8, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.77. Intimate partner violence is a prevalent problem. A very brief screen can reasonably identify some mothers who could benefit from additional evaluation and possible services. Additional research is needed to find a more sensitive screen and to examine whether identifying intimate partner violence leads to interventions that benefit mothers, families, and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69, and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34. In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and
SA's female homicide rate is six times higher than global estimatesand the high- est reported intimate femicide rate internationally.[5,6] IPV harms sexual and reproductive health, ... patient's concerns; Relevant clinical assessment; Risk assessment; cRisis plan; and Refer as needed for medical, social, psychological and/or.
A cross sectional descriptive study was done of 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health center in Ile-Ife. The objective of this study was to determine, among a sample of women attending a primary health center in Ile-Ife, the socio-demographic factors associated with intimate ...
Edwards, Katie M; Banyard, Victoria L; Moschella, Elizabeth A; Seavey, Katherine M
This study qualitatively examined rural emerging adults' ways of thinking (i.e., lay theories) about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and ideas on how to prevent IPV most effectively. Participants were 74 individuals (majority Caucasian, heterosexual, low income) between the ages of 18 and 24 who resided in one of 16 rural communities. Participants' perceptions of the causes of IPV included (a) individual-level pathology, stress, and lack of education; (b) intergenerational transmission of violence and early-life factors; (c) relationship stressors and challenges; and (d) community factors. Furthermore, participants felt that IPV could most effectively be prevented through (a) education and awareness; (b) victim-focused efforts (e.g., teaching self-esteem); and (c) job creation. Overall, participants identified a number of established risk factors for IPV perpetration across the social ecological model, although a number were never or rarely mentioned (e.g., peer group norms, positive bystander action, and collective efficacy). Future research should examine if and how perceptions of the causes of IPV impact IPV prevention engagement and impact. Further, prevention initiatives that take into account understandings of lay theories about IPV may be more impactful in reducing IPV than prevention initiatives that do not. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Brancaglioni, Bianca de Cássia Alvarez; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da
to analyze the intimate partner violence in adolescence from the perspective of gender and generation. Quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory research. 111 adolescents participated in this study, with ages from 15 to 19 years old. We found that 91% of participants have perpetrated and 90.1% have undergone at least one of the natures of violence. The intimate partner violence in adolescence constitutes a form of gender violence, and gender constructions have determined the suffered and perpetrated aggressions, possibly also determining the naturalization and legitimization of such aggressions. The inequality of power between generations may determine greater vulnerability of youngsters to the phenomenon. The historical and social construction of masculinity and femininity and the power inequalities set by these constructions converge with the power inequality between generations. Thus, gender and generation are determinants of intimate partner violence in adolescence, as well as of the vulnerability of adolescents to this phenomenon.
The present study investigated the scope, nature, and determinants of intimate partner femicide-suicides (IPFS) that occurred in Ghana during 1990 to 2009. All 35 reported cases of intimate partner homicide-suicides with female homicide victims that occurred during the study period were extracted from a major Ghanaian daily newspaper. Findings indicate that offenders were of lower socioeconomic background and tended to be older than their victims. The results further show that shooting with a firearm and hacking with a machete were the primary homicide methods, whereas self-inflicted gunshots and hanging were the dominant suicide methods. Results showed that suspicion of infidelity and sexual jealousy were core contributing factors in arguments, disputes, and altercations that preceded the femicide-suicides. Furthermore, estrangement and threatened divorce or separation by the female intimate partner was a major precipitant of femicide-suicides. © The Author(s) 2014.
Olson, L; Huyler, F; Lynch, A W; Fullerton, L; Werenko, D; Sklar, D; Zumwalt, R
Suicide is among the leading causes of death in the United States, and in women the second leading cause of injury death overall. Previous studies have suggested links between intimate partner violence and suicide in women. We examined female suicide deaths to identify and describe associated risk factors. We reviewed all reports from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator for female suicide deaths occurring in New Mexico from 1990 to 1994. Information abstracted included demographics, mechanism of death, presence of alcohol/drugs, clinical depression, intimate partner violence, health problems, and other variables. Annual rates were calculated based on the 1990 census. The New Mexico female suicide death rate was 8.2/100,000 persons per year (n = 313), nearly twice the U.S. rate of 4.5/100,000. Non-Hispanic whites were overrepresented compared to Hispanics and American Indians. Decedents ranged in age from 14 to 93 years (median = 43 years). Firearms accounted for 45.7% of the suicide deaths, followed by ingested poisons (29.1%), hanging (10.5%), other (7.7%), and inhaled poisons (7.0%). Intimate partner violence was documented in 5.1% of female suicide deaths; in an additional 22.1% of cases, a male intimate partner fought with or separated from the decedent immediately preceding the suicide. Nearly two-thirds (65.5%) of the decedents had alcohol or drugs present in their blood at autopsy. Among decedents who had alcohol present (34.5%), blood alcohol levels were far higher among American Indians compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (p = .01). Interpersonal conflict was documented in over 25% of cases, indicating that studies of the mortality of intimate partner violence should include victims of both suicide and homicide deaths to fully characterize the mortality patterns of intimate partner violence.
Overall, 12.9% of women reported to having ever experienced physical partner violence and 11.9% emotional partner violence in the past 12 months. In bivariate logistic regression, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (other than HIV) in the past 12 months and having had two or more sexual ...
West, Jean Jaymes
This study investigates unintended negative effects of health communication campaigns surrounding intimate-partner violence. Major health organizations have identified this issue as an urgent health problem for women, but the effects of these campaigns have rarely been tested with the target audience most affected by the issue. Using qualitative methodology, 10 focus groups were conducted with female survivors of intimate-partner violence. It was found that this group viewed the campaigns as emotionally harmful, inaccurate, and misleading. The results of this research suggest these campaigns may do more harm than good for the audience most severely affected by this issue.
Beck, J Gayle; Clapp, Joshua D; Jacobs-Lentz, Jason; McNiff, Judiann; Avery, Megan; Olsen, Shira A
This study explored the associations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and depressive symptoms with employment, social support, and subjective functioning in 100 women who were seeking mental health assistance after intimate partner violence. Depressive disorders showed significant associations with low levels of social support, diminished self-esteem, reduced quality of life, and elevated negative social problem-solving orientation. PTSD severity was significantly associated with low self-esteem and elevated negative problem orientation, while severity of GAD was only associated with negative problem orientation. Results are discussed in light of current service models for women who have experienced intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Al-Atrushi, Hazha H; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S
Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against women in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan region. This study assessed the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women and the impact of physical violence in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 800 Kurdish ever married women. Women (aged 16 to 65 years) attending two public hospitals in Erbil city for reproductive health problems were included in the study. The study was conducted between 1st of October 2009 and 30th of March 2011. Each woman was seen only once. Intimate partner violence was assessed by administering a modified version of the World Health Organization's domestic violence questionnaire through direct interview by a female doctor. Prevalence of intimate partner violence was assessed by timing (lifetime or past year), frequency (once, 2-5 times, > 5 times), and type (emotional, physical, and sexual violence). Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted with calculation of frequencies and percentages of women who reported different types, severities and impact of intimate partner violence. The prevalence of the overall lifetime and the overall past year intimate partner violence against women was 58.6% and 45.3%, respectively. The proportions of women experienced at least one form of lifetime intimate partner violence were: 52.6% for emotional abuse; 38.9% for physical violence; and 21.1% for sexual violence, while 43.3%, 15.1%, and 12.1% of women experienced at least one form of past year emotional, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Among those with lifetime physical violence, 11.6% were subjected to more serious injuries like stab wound, broken teeth or broken bones. There is a high prevalence of
Crann, Sara E; Barata, Paula C
While resilience research in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasing, there remains little known about women's lived experience of resilience. Using a phenomenological approach, this study examined the experience of resilience for adult female survivors of IPV. Sixteen women who were currently experiencing or had previously experienced abuse by an intimate partner participated in semi-structured interviews. Resilience was experienced as multiple cognitive, emotional, and behavioral shifts across three theme areas: toward resistance, in the experience of control, and toward positivity. The results of this study suggest a number of applications for clinical practice and intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kulwicki, Anahid; Ballout, Suha; Kilgore, Colleen; Hammad, Adnan; Dervartanian, Hermine
How intimate partner violence (IPV), depression, and barriers to services affect Arab American women in the United States is not very well documented. This cross-sectional exploratory descriptive study examines (a) the relationship between depression and IPV and (b) whether living in the United States 10 or more years decreases barriers to reporting intimate partner violence and depression in a sample (N = 312) of Arab American women 19 years and older. Findings demonstrate significant relationships between women who were at risk for IPV and depression scores (r = .44, p Arab American women experiencing IPV and depression. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sullivan, Tami P; Weiss, Nicole H; Flanagan, Julianne C; Willie, Tiara C; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard
People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at high risk for substance use, and PTSD is common among women experiencing intimate partner violence. Considering the effects of both PTSD and substance use, such as poorer treatment outcomes and greater health/behavior problems, women experiencing intimate partner violence are a high-risk, under-researched group. We utilized a micro-longitudinal study design to assess daily drug and alcohol use over 21 days among 41 women experiencing intimate partner violence recruited from the community. Participants were about 45 years old (M = 45.1, SD = 8.5) and mostly African American (n = 32, 78%). Co-occurrence of drug and alcohol use was reported on 19.0% of days, while drug use alone occurred on 13.4% of days and alcohol use on 12.1%. Fifteen percent of participants met current PTSD criteria, with a mean symptom severity rating of 15.90 (SD = 10.94, range 0 to 47). Women with PTSD, compared to those without, were nearly 15 times more likely to have days of co-occurrence of drug and alcohol use (p = .037) and nearly 7 times more likely to have days of drug use alone (p = .044). These findings indicate that the combination of intimate partner violence and PTSD may make women especially prone to daily co-occurring drug and alcohol use or drug use alone. Further research is needed to explore this association and examine the need for integrated programs to support victims' health, prevent the development of substance use problems, and facilitate recovery from PTSD and substance use.
Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan
This article aims to provide insights into men's accounts of infertility in the context of their intimate partnerships. Although we are beginning to understand that men experience the emotions of infertility acutely, little is known about how such emotions impact on men's intimate partner relationships. Evidence suggests that infertility can impact intimate partner relationships (both positively and negatively), but there is a paucity of research around how men talk about such relationship impacts, and how they share their stories with other men. Men are often viewed as the silent supporting partner within infertility contexts, with women narrated as taking the burden within the relationship. The paper draws on data from a general discussion board on an online men-only forum. Inductive thematic analysis was utilised to identify key themes across the men's online posts. Men's posts demonstrate that infertility challenges relationships, and that men use the forum examined to offer each other advice on coping with infertility in their relationships. Men highlighted a sense of having less agency than their female partners in relation to infertility and that they were less able to access support for themselves as a result. We argue that infertility can be a challenging and complex time within intimate partner relationships and that men construct this situation with reference to gendered norms and constraints within their online accounts. Consideration of both parties in couples experiencing infertility is important for supporting relationships during any diagnosis and treatment processes for infertility.
Fernbrant, Cecilia; Emmelin, Maria; Essén, Birgitta; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth
The current aim is to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Thai women residing in Sweden and its association with mental health. We also investigate the potential influence of social isolation and social capital regarding the association between IPV and mental health outcome. A public health questionnaire in Thai was distributed by post to the entire population of Thai women, aged 18-64, residing in two regions in Sweden since 2006. Items included aspects related to IPV (physical/sexual/emotional), sociodemographic background, physical health, mental health (GHQ-12), social isolation, and social capital (i.e. social trust/participation). The response rate was 62.3% (n=804). Prevalence of lifetime reported IPV was 22.1%, with 20.5% by a previous partner and 6.7% by a current partner. Previous IPV exposure was significantly related to current IPV exposure, and all IPV exposure measures were significantly related to poor mental health. However, Thai women experiencing IPV by a current partner were more at risk for poor mental health than Thai women with previous or without any experience of IPV. Also, among all women exposed to IPV, those with trust in others and without exposure to social isolation seemed to have partial protection against the adverse mental health consequences associated with IPV. Most Thai women had never been exposed to IPV, and after migrating to Sweden, women had lower IPV exposure than in Thailand. However, the increased risk for poor mental health among those Thai women exposed to IPV suggests the need for supportive measures and targeted interventions to prevent further injuries and adverse health consequences. Although poor mental health in Thai women represents an obstacle for integration, the potential resilience indicated in the group with high social trust and without exposure to social isolation suggests that such aspects be included in the program designed to facilitate integration.
Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants' mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. © The Author(s) 2014.
Volpe, Ellen M; Hardie, Thomas L; Cerulli, Catherine; Sommers, Marilyn S; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
Adolescent girls with older male main partners are at greater risk for adverse sexual health outcomes than other adolescent girls. One explanation for this finding is that low relationship power occurs with partner age difference. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, we investigated the effect of partner age difference between an adolescent girl and her male partner on sexual risk behavior through the mediators of sexual relationship power, and physical intimate partner violence (IPV), and psychological IPV severity. We chose Blanc's framework to guide this study as it depicts the links among demographic, social, economic, relationship, family and community characteristics, and reproductive health outcomes with gender-based relationship power and violence. Urban adolescent girls (N = 155) completed an anonymous computer-assisted self-interview survey to examine partner and relationship factors' effect on consistent condom use. Our sample had an average age of 16.1 years with a mean partner age of 17.8 years. Partners were predominantly African American (75%), non-Hispanic (74%), and low-income (81%); 24% of participants reported consistent condom use in the last 3 months. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Partner age difference was negatively associated with consistent condom use (-.4292, p sexual risk factors within adolescent sexual relationships. Nonetheless, for clinicians and researchers, these findings underscore the heightened risk associated with partner age differences and impact of relationship dynamics on sexual risk behavior.
E. De la Poza
Full Text Available The fact that women are abused by their male partner is something that happens worldwide in the 21st century. In numerous cases, abuse only becomes publicly known when a fatal event occurs and is beyond any possible remedy, that is, when men murder their female partner. Since 2003, 793 (September 4, 2015 women have been assassinated by their significant other or excouple in Spain. Only 7.2% of murdered women had reported their fear and previous intimate partner violence (IPV to the police. Even when the number of female victims is comparable to the number of victims by terrorism, the Government has not assigned an equal amount of resources to diminish the magnitude of this hidden social problem. In this paper, a mathematical epidemiological model to forecast intimate partner violence in Spain is constructed. Both psychological and physical aggressor subpopulations are predicted and simulated. The model’s robustness versus uncertain parameters is studied by a sensitivity analysis.
Stover, Carla Smith; Kiselica, Andrew
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health and economic problem, which also increases the risks for child maltreatment. One attribute that may contribute to both IPV and poor parenting is hostility. Moreover, the link between hostility and these outcomes may be mediated by substance use, such that more hostile individuals are at greater risk for using drugs and alcohol, leading them to engage in more aggressive and rejecting behavior toward their partners and children. We tested this possibility in sample of 132 fathers. Additionally, we explored whether hostility and substance use had interactive effects on IPV and parenting by examining moderated-mediation models. The results show that substance use mediated the relationship between hostility and all IPV and parenting outcomes. Furthermore, this mediated relationship was moderated by substance use level for parenting outcomes, but not IPV. In the case of parenting, the mediated path from hostility to aggressive and rejecting parenting only occurred for those high in substance use. Limitations and implications for prevention and treatment of IPV and aggressive and rejecting parenting are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 41:205-213, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nam, Boyoung; Kim, Jae Yop; Ryu, Wonjung
North Korean refugees in South Korea have been reported as at higher risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, few studies have examined risk factors of IPV among North Korean refugees. This study aimed to report the prevalence of IPV against women among North Korean refugees, and compared the risk factors of IPV against women between South Koreans and North Korean refugees in South Korea. Data from a nationwide survey about domestic violence in South Korea were used. The rate of IPV against women by North Korean refugees was 57.1%, which is considerably higher than that of South Koreans (9.9%). The regression analysis indicated that North Korean refugees perpetrated partner violence against women more frequently than South Koreans, even after controlling for socioeconomic factors. Child abuse victimization and witnessing IPV between parents were the main factors of IPV against women among South Koreans. On the other hand, stress and a tolerant attitude toward using violence were significantly associated with IPV against women among North Korean refugees. The findings suggested that stress management and education on reducing tolerance to violence should be provided to prevent IPV against women among North Korean refugees.
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
The family physician's office is a potentially safe place to discuss intimate partner violence (IPV). RADAR (Remember to ask routinely, Ask directly [in private], Document findings, Assess safety, Review options) is a tool for identifying and responding to IPV. Physicians should ask permission to document abuse, consider using a body map, and ensure confidentiality. They should also assess immediate safety by asking about weapons in the home, children's safety, and the likelihood that the perpetrator will harm him- or herself or others. Federal privacy laws require physicians to inform patients about health information disclosure. Because mandatory reporting varies by state, physicians should communicate clearly the office's responsibilities. Interventions are based on an advocacy model that requires appropriate training and establishment of links to community-based resources. Brief advocacy includes providing information cards, whereas intensive intervention includes IPV education, danger assessment, prevention options, safety planning, and community referrals. The Stages of Change Model may help physicians understand a patient's readiness and ability to make a change. For the IPV survivor who has left an abusive partner, physicians should be aware of the challenges of safety, health, legal, and financial issues; protection orders are a possible safety strategy. The most common intervention for perpetrators is a batterer intervention program. Couples counseling by family physicians is contraindicated. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Orcutt, Holly K; Garcia, Marilyn; Pickett, Scott M
The frequency, severity, and reciprocity of female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and its consequences (i.e., injuries) were investigated in a college sample of women (N = 457). Participants were classified into one of the following four groups on the basis of self-reported physical assault perpetration and victimization against their relationship partners: nonviolent, perpetrator-only, victim-only, and bidirectionally violent. Results showed that females in the bidirectionally violent group had a reportedly higher occurrence (although not always statistically significant) of perpetration and victimization than those in the perpetrator-only and victim-only groups. Additionally, a similar degree of reciprocity was indicated by females in bidirectionally violent relationships in terms of violence severity and the occurrence of injury. Adult romantic attachment style was also examined among a subset of females (N = 328), and bidirectionally violent females were found to have the highest reported levels of attachment anxiety. Further, females high in attachment anxiety and low in attachment avoidance were more likely to report perpetrating violence than females high in both styles. Implications for prevention are discussed.
Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; Van De Putte, Elise
Background: In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all
Sorenson, Susan B; Spear, Devan
Age at first marriage has risen substantially and birth rates are at a record low; people are spending more time in relationships that, by comparison, have fewer emotional, financial, and legal commitments. Little research has examined intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence in current and former adult (vs. adolescent) dating relationships. Such information is relevant to federal firearms policies that are based on the nature of an intimate relationship. We examined assaultive behaviors by the type and status of the relationship - current spouse, former spouse, current boyfriend or girlfriend, and former boyfriend or girlfriend - in 31,206 IPV incidents responded to by Philadelphia police in 2013. Over 80% of the IPV incidents involved individuals in non-marital relationships. Incidents involving current boyfriends or girlfriends had the highest percentage of violent behaviors (e.g., punch, strangle). They also were more likely than current spouses to use bodily weapons (hands, fists, or feet) or non-gun weapons (knives, bats, etc.) (AOR = 1.19 and 1.43, respectively), to injure their victims (AOR = 1.37), and to be arrested (AOR = 1.46). Former unmarried partners had the highest odds of stalking their intimate (AOR = 3.37) and violating a restraining order (AOR = 2.61). Gun use was similar across relationship type. A growing portion of the population is not protected by federal policies designed to keep guns out of the hands of abusers. Current boyfriends and girlfriends are a risk to their intimates. Federal data collection practices and firearm policies merit updating to more fully take into account dating, same-sex marriage, and other partnerships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mejdoubi, J.; van den Heijkant, S.C.C.M.; van Leerdam, F.J.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Hirasing, R.A.; Crijnen, A.A.M.
Background:Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect
Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul
Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the U.S., few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intra-ethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey of couples 18 years of age and older from the 48 contiguous states. Interethnic couples (n = 116) included partners from different ethnic backgrounds, inclu...
Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Copp, Jennifer E.; Giordano, Peggy C.
We examined whether the influence of adolescents’ sexual partnerships, both dating and casual, carried over to affect emerging adults’ relationship satisfaction and experiences of intimate partner aggression. Analyses of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 294) showed that net of control variables (delinquency, depression, family violence, relational and sociodemographic characteristics), adolescents’ number of dating, but not casual, sexual partners led to g...
Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.
We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to comp...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV among South African men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a randomly-selected sample of men. METHODS: We tested hypotheses that perpetration of physical intimate partner violence and rape were associated with prevalent HIV infections in a cross-sectional household study of 1229 South African men aged 18-49. Violence perpetration was elicited in response to a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant and blood samples were tested for HIV. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to identify factors associated with HIV. RESULTS: 18.3% of men had HIV. 29.6% (358/1211 of men disclosed rape perpetration, 5.2% (63/1208 rape in the past year and 30.7% (362/1180 of had been physically violent towards an intimate partner more than once. Overall rape perpetration was not associated with HIV. The model of factors associated with having HIV showed men under 25 years who had been physically violent towards partners were more likely to have HIV than men under 25 who had not (aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.07-4.06, p = 0.03. We failed to detect any association in older men. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of physical IPV is associated with HIV sero-prevalence in young men, after adjusting for other risk factors. This contributes to our understanding of why women who experience violence have a higher HIV prevalence. Rape perpetration was not associated, but the HIV prevalence among men who had raped was very high. HIV prevention in young men must seek to change ideals of masculinity in which male partner violence is rooted.
Coley, Sarah L; McCarthy, Randy J; Milner, Joel S; Ormsby, LaJuana; Travis, Wendy J
Research has demonstrated that perpetrator characteristics (gender, age, and military status) and incident characteristics (perpetrator substance use and initial incident severity) are associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism. This study assessed whether these variables were associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism in U.S. Air Force families during a 16-yr period (1997-2013). During the study period, 21% of the intimate partner maltreatment perpetrators in the U.S. Air Force committed more than one incident of maltreatment. In terms of perpetrator characteristics, male perpetrators reoffended more than female perpetrators, younger perpetrators reoffended more than older perpetrators, and active duty perpetrators reoffended more than civilians. Whether a perpetrator was enlisted or an officer was not associated with the likelihood of recidivism. In terms of incident characteristics, substance use (which was mainly alcohol use) during an initial maltreatment incident was associated with recidivism, but the severity of perpetrators' initial maltreatment incident was not. However, for perpetrators who reoffended, the severity of their initial incident was associated with the severity of subsequent incidents. On the basis of these findings, the need for targeted interventions to reduce intimate partner maltreatment recidivism is discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.
Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…
Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.
We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…
Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.
The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…
Schafer, John; Caetano, Raul; Cunradi, Carol B.
The present study was designed to identify the impact of drinking problems, impulsivity, and a history of childhood physical abuse on both male-to-female (MFIPV) and female-to-male intimate partner violence (FMIPV). The data were collected in 1995 from a representative national sample of couples living in the contiguous 48 states. Using a…
Zaleski, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul
Purpose: To estimate prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Brazilian couples and to assess the contribution of drinking and sociodemographic factors to the risk of IPV. Methods: A sample consisting of 1,445 married or cohabitating males and females in the Brazilian population was interviewed. The survey response rate was 66%.…
Groves, Allison K.; Kagee, Ashraf; Maman, Suzanne; Moodley, Dhayendre; Rouse, Petrica
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy has been associated with multiple negative health outcomes including emotional distress during pregnancy. However, little is known about IPV during pregnancy and its association with emotional distress among South African women. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of both…
Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen
We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…
Jin, Xiaochun; Keat, Jane E.
This study explored how changes in power relations within couples after immigrating from more patriarchal societies contribute to intimate partner violence (IPV). Both subjective decision-making power and objective power bases were examined in Chinese immigrant couples. Batterers and nonviolent men both experienced loss of decision-making power in…
Knous-Westfall, Heather M.; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; MacDonell, Kathleen Watson; Cohen, Patricia
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a major public health concern, with millions of children exposed to parental violence each year. Childhood exposure to parental violence has been linked to both maladaptive parenting practices and a host of adjustment difficulties in the exposed children. The Children in the Community Study…
Lang, Ariel J.; Stein, Murray B.; Kennedy, Colleen M.; Foy, David W.
Childhood maltreatment is associated with psychopathology and revictimization in adulthood. Whether different types of childhood maltreatment have different long-term consequences, however, is largely unknown. The participants in this study included 42 female victims of intimate partner violence and 30 women with no history of serious trauma.…
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…
Findings from previous studies examining the relation between women's employment and the risk of intimate partner violence have been mixed. Some studies find greater violence toward women who are employed, whereas others find the opposite relation or no relation at all. I propose a new framework in which a woman's employment status and her risk of…
Fusco, Rachel A.
The number of interracial couples in the U.S. is growing, but they often receive little support. Although previous studies have explored the relationship between low social support and decreased relationship satisfaction in interracial couples, there are few studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) in these couples. To better understand IPV in…
Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla
The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…
Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia
The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…
Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.
This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…
This study used logistic regression to analyze the 2,830 ever-married or cohabitating women who also answered the violence and spousal traits questionnaire as well as provided blood samples. The logistic regression revealed that women who had experienced any type of intimate partner violence (odds ratio=1.29, ...
Macy, Rebecca J.; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Guo, Shenyang; Ermentrout, Dania M.
Increasingly, female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are charged with IPV perpetration and mandated by courts or child protective services to receive domestic violence services. A critical need exists for evidence-based interventions targeting the needs of this unique population, but such research is scarce. To address this gap, we…
Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Barth, Richard
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among female caregivers of children reported to child protective services. Method: Data were derived from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children investigated for child abuse and…
Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Barth, Richard P.; Landsverk, John A.
The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal course of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female caregivers of children receiving child welfare services. Data are derived from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children investigated for child abuse and neglect in the United…
Background: Gender based violence is found in all races, ethnicities, social and economic status. Violence by an intimate partner is one of the most common forms of violence against women. Method: This is a case of a single mother who had vulva injury inflicted on her by a man who is the father of her child. However, both ...
Echeburua, Enrique; Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; de Corral, Paz; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.
The aim of this study is to develop a scale to predict intimate partner femicide and severe violence. The sample consists of 1,081 batterer men who were reported to the police station. First, the most significant differences between the severe violence group (n = 269) and the less severe violence group (n = 812) in sociodemographic variables are…
Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina
The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…
Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko
Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…
Beck, J. Gayle; McNiff, Judiann; Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Avery, Megan L.; Hagewood, J. Houston
This study explored the association of shame and guilt with PTSD among women who had experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Sixty-three women were assessed by a research clinic serving the mental health needs of women IPV survivors. Results indicated that shame, guilt-related distress, and guilt-related cognitions showed significant…
Maliken, Ashley C.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber
Emerging evidence suggests that fathers, more so than mothers, socialize emotions in a gender-stereotyped manner. Gender-stereotyped emotion socialization may be particularly pronounced in men perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), and may be detrimental to child adjustment, particularly for boys. This study explored the relation between…
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Adams, Adrienne E.; Greeson, Megan R.; Kennedy, Angie C.; Tolman, Richard M.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, widespread problem that negatively affects women's lives, including their economic status. The current study explored whether the financial harm associated with IPV begins as early as adolescence. With longitudinal data from a sample of 498 women currently or formerly receiving welfare, we used latent…
Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N = 620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care…
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…
Full Text Available Context: Intimate partner violence against women has an adverse effect on the health of women. Aims: To estimate the proportion of physical, emotional, economical and sexual violence against women by the husband (intimate partner and to identify factors that may put women at risk of violence by their husbands. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: A convenience consecutive sample of 369 married women (18-49 years age attending the Out Patient Department (OPD of the Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of a Medical College in Pune was interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test and Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to identify the risk factors. Results: Almost half of the study sample had experienced some form of violence. The associated factors with intimate partner violence were drinking alcohol by husband (OR = 4.54, 95% CI = 2.52, 8.18, P < 0.001, aggressive nature of husband (OR = 11.81, 95% CI = 3.53, 39.47, P < 0.001 and family history of domestic violence (OR = 11.0, 95% CI = 3.83, 31.63, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Intimate partner violence was high in our study. Risk factors for domestic violence were alcohol use by husband, aggressive nature of husband and family history of domestic violence.
Antle, Becky F.; Karam, Eli; Christensen, Dana N.; Barbee, Anita P.; Sar, Bibhuti K.
This research evaluated the impact of the Within My Reach healthy relationship education program on intimate partner violence for 419 high-risk adults in an urban area. Key outcomes such as relationship knowledge, communication/conflict resolution skills, relationship quality, and physical and emotional abuse were evaluated through survey research…
Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Lilly, Michelle; DeVoe, Ellen
Children aged 6 to 12 who were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) within the last year participated in an intervention program found to be successful in reducing their internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, little is known about factors that may contribute to this efficacy. Both fixed and modifiable risk factors that…
Georgsson, Anna; Almqvist, Kjerstin; Broberg, Anders G.
Children with experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at risk. Not all children, however, display symptoms, and differences connected to gender and age have been demonstrated. In this exploratory study, children's own reports of symptoms were used. The 41 recruited children, between 7 and 19 years old, were entered into a group program…
Meritxell Pérez Ramírez
Full Text Available Violence against women is a serious social and public health problem that has promoted significant legislative changes in Spain during the last years. Batterer intervention programs are some of the measures adopted by the Government to reduce the impact of this problem. Domestic violence treatment programs have a long trajectory in the Spanish prisons and their effectiveness has been evaluated by several studies. However, in the community services a new court-ordered treatment for intimate partner offenders (PRIA has been implemented recently. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the court-ordered treatment for intimate partner offenders in the community. The sample consists of 770 intimate partner offenders serving a sentence in the community. The subjects were divided in two groups: an experimental group, assessed pre and post intervention, and a control group, assessed in two temporal moments similar to the experimental group. Results show a significant therapeutic change among the intimate partner offenders after the treatment program. These changes are also confirmed by the comparison between the experimental and control group. Finally, the implications and limits of this study are analysed.
Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Lynch, Shannon; Banyard, Victoria; DeVoe, Ellen R.; Halabu, Hilda
A community-based intervention program was tested with 181 children ages 6-12 and their mothers exposed to intimate partner violence during the past year. A sequential assignment procedure allocated participants to 3 conditions: child-only intervention, child-plus-mother intervention (CM), and a wait-list comparison. A 2-level hierarchical linear…
Short, Lynn M.; Surprenant, Zita J.; Harris, John M.
Background: There is a broad need to improve physician continuing medical education (CME) in the management of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, there are only a few examples of successful IPV CME programs and none of these are suitable for widespread distribution.
Todahl, Jeff; Linville, Deanna; Tuttle Shamblin, Abby F.; Ball, David
A handful of clinical trials have concluded that conjoint couples treatment for intimate partner violence is safe and at least as effective as conventional batterer intervention programs, yet very few researchers have explored couples' perspectives on conjoint treatment. Using qualitative narrative analysis methodology, the researchers conducted…
Connor, Pamela D.; Nouer, Simonne S.; Mackey, See Trail N.; Tipton, Nathan G.; Lloyd, Angela K.
Health care professionals have acknowledged intimate partner violence (IPV) as a highly prevalent public health problem necessitating the creation of standardized education programs, survey tools, and well-defined outcome measures. Testing and evaluation of these measures, however, has been limited to specific populations of health care…
Keim, Jeanmarie; Strauser, David R.; Olguin, David L.
Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Many survivors elect to leave abusive relationships and seek treatment to address the abusive cycle and psychiatric symptoms that may result. Programs to assist survivors often include an employment component. This article discusses the use of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (D. R.…
McColgan, Maria D.; Cruz, Mario; McKee, Jessica; Dempsey, Sandra H.; Davis, Martha B.; Barry, Patricia; Yoder, Ana Lisa; Giardino, Angelo P.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices of pediatric residents. Methods: The intervention included: an on-site IPV counselor, IPV training for attending physicians, residents and social workers, and screening prompts. Evaluation included…
Fedina, Lisa; Lee, Joonyup; de Tablan, Dante
The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship among factors affecting social workers' overall readiness to respond to intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of recent MSW graduates (N = 205). Findings suggest MSW IPV education and postgraduate IPV training are significantly associated with perceived preparedness and…
Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use…
Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Willemen, Agnes M.; Visser, Margreet
Objective: This study investigated the relationships among Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in a high risk clinical sample of Dutch children whose mothers were abused by an intimate partner, and the severity of behavioral and emotional problems and trauma symptoms. Methods: The study population comprised 208 children (M = 7.81 years, SD =…
Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P.; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M.
Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate…
Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise
Background: The loss of a parent due to intimate partner homicide has a major impact on children. Professionals involved have to make far-reaching decisions regarding placement, guardianship, mental health care and contact with the perpetrating parent, without an evidence base to guide these
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.
The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…
Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan
Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…
Yount, K.M.; VanderEnde, K.; Zureick-Brown, S.; Hoang, T.A.; Tran, H.M.; Schuler, S.R.
In lower-income settings, women more often than men justify intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, the role of measurement invariance across gender is unstudied. We developed the ATT-IPV scale to measure attitudes about physical violence against wives in 1,055 married men and women ages 18-50 in My
Schuler, S.R.; Lenzi, R.; Hoang, T.A.; Vu, S.H.; Yount, K.M.; Quach, T.T
This qualitative study examines attitudes toward recourse seeking and intervention in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in periurban Vietnam. The data come from 20 open-ended interviews, 4 focus group discussions, and 40 cognitive interviews conducted with married men and women.
Yount, K.M.; Higgins, E.M.; VanderEnde, K.E.; Krause, K.H.; Tran, H.M.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.
Using the survey responses of 522 married men (eighteen to fifty-one years) in Vietnam, we explored how gendered social learning in boyhood and challenges to men’s expected status in marriage may increase the risk that men perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) against their wives. Over
Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…
Djikanovic, B.; Wong, S.L.; Jansen, H.A.; Koso, S.; Simic, S.; Otasevic, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify whom women in Serbia approach for help in case of intimate partner violence (IPV), their reasons for seeking help and their satisfaction with the received help. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based household survey of a random sample of women aged
Hoyt, Tim; Wray, Alisha M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Gerstle, Melissa; Maclean, Peggy C.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious forensic and clinical problem throughout the United States. Research aimed at defining and differentiating subgroups of IPV offenders using standardized personality instruments may eventually help with matching treatments to specific individuals to reduce recidivism. The current study used a convenience…
Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A.
Interviews of women with (n = 193) and without (n = 170) recent exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) were used to examine how IPV and past exposure to child abuse influence self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The measurement of IPV included assessing psychological, physical, escalated physical, and sexual abuse.…
Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde
Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.
Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.
Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…
in both developed and developing countries of the world. The. World Health Organization (WHO) defines IPV as the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against adult and adolescent women by a current or former male partner.. IPV is one of the most important reproductive health and.
The main partner characteristics significantly associated with IPV included age 25-34 years, history of previous violent behaviour with other people and report of extra-marital affairs. Predictors of experience of physical IPV included: being in a polygamous family (OR= 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8), being a skilled worker (OR= 7.2, ...
AJRH Managing Editor
lifetime prevalence for physical violence, sexual violence and psychological violence were 50.5%, 33.8% and 85.0% respectively. Predictive .... Table 1: Socio-demographic Characteristics of. Respondents and Partners. Variable. Frequency (%) n=400. Respondents. Age group(years). 15-24. 19 (4.8). 25-34. 184(46.0).
Maquibar, Amaia; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem with devastating effects on young women's health. These negative effects increase when the exposure to IPV lasts for a long time and exposure at an early age increases the risk of adult IPV. Despite efforts made in the last few decades, data show little progress has been made towards its reduction. Thus, the aim of the study reported here is to explore professionals' perceptions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) among young people, focusing on the characteristics of the phenomenon and their perceptions about existing programmes and campaigns aimed at addressing it. Twelve professionals from education, health and municipal social services were interviewed. All but one of the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to the methodology of inductive thematic analysis, with the support of Atlas.ti software. The transcripts were read several times and coded line by line. Afterwards, codes were grouped into themes. The developed themes were refined into two phases with the participation of all the authors. From the analysis, the following three themes were identified: "A false sense of gender equity", "IPV among young people: subtle, daily and normalized", and "Mass media campaigns do not fit young people's needs". According to the participants, psychological abuse in the form of controlling behaviour by their partners is the most common type of IPV young women are exposed to, although exposure to other types of IPV was also acknowledged. This violence was described as something subtle, daily and normalized and, consequently, not something that is easy to recognize for the girls that are exposed to it, nor for adults working with young people. The study participants showed good knowledge of the characteristics IPV has among young people. This knowledge was reflected in locally implemented IPV prevention projects, which they considered successful in addressing young
Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J
The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.
McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Torralbas-Fernández, Aida; Calcerrada-Gutiérrez, Marybexy
Unified, prevention- and community-oriented, Cuba's National Health System is well positioned to address social problems such as gender violence against women. It is sometimes taken for granted that family doctors, family nurses and psychologists in the health system should be able to deal with such cases. However, some studies among these professionals have revealed misconceptions about intimate partner violence, an insufficient understanding of its causes, and greater tolerance of psychological violence than of physical and sexual violence. Cuba needs to train family doctors and clinical psychologists who are knowledgeable about the subject so that they can take part in the development and implementation of intersectoral education and prevention policies and programs, provide assistance to women who have been victims of violence, and work together with community members to create support networks that serve as monitoring mechanisms. Primary care is the ideal setting for raising awareness of the need for greater intersectoral action to systematically address violence against women. KEYWORDS Professional training, doctors, clinical psychologists, gender, spousal abuse, domestic violence, family violence, family relationships, Cuba.
Razonamiento contrafáctico, responsabilidad y culpa de la violencia contra las mujeres en la pareja: educación y medios de comunicación como factores preventivos (Counterfactual reasoning, responsibility and blame for intimate partner violence against women: education and mass media as preventive factors
Full Text Available This study focused on the perception of death due to intimate partner violence against women. I describe two experiments that analyzed the effects of controllability and perspective on the perceived causality of these events measured by means of counterfactual reasoning about the past and the future as much as attributions of responsibility and blame. The effects of empathy for a victim in the second experiment were also investigated. The participants' replies focused on controllable factors which were classified into four categories: perpetrator, victim, formal authority, and education and mass media. The results show that counterfactual reasoning depends on empathy whereas attributions depend on both empathy and perspective. These results demonstrate an association between these cognitive processes and also help to establish some factors that may prevent these events. Finally, specific implications for education and the mass media are drawn from the study.
Barchi, Francis; Winter, Samantha; Dougherty, Danielle; Ramaphane, Peggie
Factors characterizing intimate partner violence (IPV) against women vary according to setting and must be understood in localized environments if effective interventions are to be identified. This 2009-2010 exploratory study in Maun, Botswana, used semistructured interviews to elicit information from 469 women about their experiences with IPV. Characteristics found to be important included suicide attempts, childhood exposure to familial violence, access to and control over certain tangible assets, number of children, household location and monthly income, controlling behavior by a partner, and alcohol consumption. Controlling behavior by a partner was the single greatest predictor of physical or psychological IPV.
Wilder, Kathleen J.; Guise, Jeane-Marie; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Hernandez, Rebecca; Glass, Nancy
The study examines emergency contraception (EC) knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and prior use and identifies predictors of EC use among a sample of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). The majority (66.2%) of 154 survivors at risk of pregnancy reported EC awareness, only 15.3% reported prior EC use. Logistic regression identified perceived abusive intimate partner approval (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.15–4.41) and lack of moral/religious objections (OR = 12.83; 95% CI = 5.48–30.03) as the strongest predictors of EC use. Health care provider interventions acknowledging barriers to EC use, such as partner approval, and education that improves awareness of and knowledge about EC, may have the impact of empowering survivors in their reproductive choices, reducing unwanted pregnancies. PMID:19960056
Kathleen J. Wilder
Full Text Available The study examines emergency contraception (EC knowledge, awareness, perceptions, and prior use and identifies predictors of EC use among a sample of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV. The majority (66.2% of 154 survivors at risk of pregnancy reported EC awareness, only 15.3% reported prior EC use. Logistic regression identified perceived abusive intimate partner approval (OR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.15–4.41 and lack of moral/religious objections (OR = 12.83; 95% CI = 5.48–30.03 as the strongest predictors of EC use. Health care provider interventions acknowledging barriers to EC use, such as partner approval, and education that improves awareness of and knowledge about EC, may have the impact of empowering survivors in their reproductive choices, reducing unwanted pregnancies.
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.
Guendelman, Maya D; Ahmad, Shaikh; Meza, Jocelyn I; Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with interpersonal dysfunction during childhood and adolescence, yet little is known about the romantic relationships of young women with childhood ADHD. In the present study, we draw from a longitudinal sample of girls followed prospectively into young adulthood, comparing those with (n = 114) and without (n = 79; comparisons) childhood ADHD in terms of their risk for physical victimization by an intimate partner (physical IPV; e.g., slapping, punching) by 17-24 years of age. We examined ADHD both diagnostically and dimensionally, at the same time establishing reliable indicators of young adult physical IPV. Externalizing and internalizing problems, and academic achievement during adolescence, were tested as potential mediators. Overall, participants with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD experienced more physical IPV than did comparisons (30.7% vs. 6.3%). In parallel, IPV was associated with higher levels of childhood ADHD symptomatology (d = 0.73). Young women with persistent ADHD stood the highest risk of experiencing IPV (37.3%), followed by those with transient ADHD (19.0%) and those never-diagnosed (5.9%). Academic achievement measured during adolescence was a significant partial mediator of the childhood ADHD symptomatology-young adult IPV relationship, even with control of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and cognitive factors, including childhood reading and math disorders. Findings indicate that in young women, childhood ADHD is a specific and important predictor of physically violent victimization in their intimate relationships. This vulnerable population requires IPV prevention and intervention, with academic empowerment as a key target.
Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Holditch Niolon, Phyllis; Ghazarian, Sharon R
Exposure to adult intimate partner violence (IPV) places youth at risk for a range of outcomes, including perpetration of adolescent dating violence (ADV). However, there is variability in the effect of IPV exposure, as many youth who are exposed to IPV do not go on to exhibit problems. Thus, research is needed to examine contextual factors, such as parenting practices, to more fully explain heterogeneity in outcomes and better predict ADV perpetration. The current research draws from a multisite study to investigate the predictive power of IPV exposure and parenting practices on subsequent ADV perpetration. Participants included 417 adolescents (48.7% female) drawn from middle schools in high-risk, urban communities. IPV exposure, two types of parenting practices (positive parenting/involvement and parental knowledge of their child's dating), and five types of ADV perpetration (threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse) were assessed at baseline (2012) and approximately 5 months later (2013) via adolescent report. Analyses (conducted in 2015) used a structural equation modeling approach. Structural models indicated that IPV exposure was positively related only to relational abuse at follow-up. Further, adolescents who reported parents having less knowledge of dating partners were more likely to report perpetrating two types of ADV (physical and verbal/emotional abuse) at follow-up. Analyses did not demonstrate any significant interaction effects. Results fill a critical gap in understanding of important targets to prevent ADV in middle school and highlight the important role that parents may play in ADV prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Brignone, Laura; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti
Many intimate partner homicide victims visit emergency departments (EDs) prior to their deaths, yet their lethality risk is not well understood. eHealth interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) improve provider information, tailor care to victim need and link victims to services. We analyzed ED patients' lethality risk using one such intervention, Domestic Violence Report and Referral (DVRR). DVRR records were assessed for 263 female patients aged 16 and older seen for IPV at an urban, high-traffic, Northern California ED in 2014-15. Multiple linear regression was used to test the association of children's presence at home, pregnancy, age, and abuser-victim relationship with victim's lethality risk using the Danger Assessment (DA) score from the Lethality Risk Assessment for Intimate Partner Femicide. Differences in means were assessed using t- and F-tests. The mean DA score indicated high lethality risk, with a third of respondents (33.1%) reporting very high DA scores. Multiple linear regression models indicated that increasing victim age (β=0.20/year; 95% CI: 0.11-0.29), children's presence at home (β=2.61, 95% CI: 0.63-4.58), and perpetrator reported as dating partner (β=4.50, 95% CI: 1.62-7.38) or ex-partner (β=4.38, 95% CI: 1.10-7.66) were significantly associated with the DA score (p<0.05). Use of DA scores as ED risk assessment tools in response to IPV victimization could help hospital staff and IPV advocates direct resources toward highest-need patients, improving health outcomes without additional burden on hospitals. These results also foreground eHealth interventions' utility in linking providers and IPV advocates and reducing the risk of intimate partner homicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence has unwanted effects on the physical and psychological well-being of women, which have been recognized globally as an important public health problem. Violence perpetrated by intimate partner is one form of domestic violence, a serious human rights abuse and a public health issue, among refugees owing to its substantial consequences for women's physical, mental and reproductive health problems. Because the incidents are under-reported, the true scale of the problem is unknown and unexamined among refugee women in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aim to assess the magnitude of intimate partner physical violence and associated factors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 422 refugee women from March to April 2011. A simple random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from seven zones of the refugee camp. Census was done to identify all households with women having an intimate partner. A pre-tested interviewer guided structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done where applicable. A p-value less than 0.05 with 95% CI were set and used as a cut-off point to examine the statistical association between the explanatory and outcome variables. Results The prevalence of physical violence in the last 12 months and lifetime were 107(25.5% and 131(31.0% respectively. The commonest forms of physical violence reported included slapping 101(61.6% and throwing objects 32(19.5%. Significant risk factors associated with experiencing physical violence were being a farmer (AOR = 3.0[95%CI: 1.7, 5.5], knowing women in neighborhood whose husband to beat them (AOR = 1.87[95%CI: 1.0, 3.5], being a Muslim (AOR = 2.4 [95%C.I: 1.107, 5.5], and having a drunkard partner
Franiuk, Renae; Coleman, Jill; Apa, Bethany
In this study, we investigated the effect of songs that offer non-misogynous and ambivalent portrayals of intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants (N = 103) were exposed to a misogynous song about IPV, a song critical of IPV, and a song that offered an ambivalent portrayal of IPV. Our results showed positive effects of the anti-IPV song, and both positive and negative effects of the ambivalent portrayal on participants' beliefs about a violent relationship. These findings suggest that the context in which IPV is portrayed should be considered when evaluating the impact of media depicting IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.
Jones, Deborah L; Kashy, Deborah; Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M
Few HIV prevention interventions focus on sexual risk reduction as mutual process determined by couple members, though risk behaviors are inter-dependent. This trial examined the impact of substance use, history of sexual trauma, and intimate partner violence on sexual risk associated with participation in a risk reduction intervention. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant multicultural couples in Miami, Florida (n = 216) were randomized to group (n = 112) or individual (n = 104) couple-based interventions. Group intervention participants increased condom use in couples in which women had a history of sexual trauma [F(2,221) = 3.39, p = 0.036] and by partners of alcohol users. History of sexual trauma was a determinant of conflict resolution, predicting negative communication and intimate partner violence. Results emphasize the need for group sexual risk reduction interventions targeting sexual trauma, partner violence, and substance use among HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples.
Annatjie van der Wath
Full Text Available Background: Millennium Developmental Goal 3 (MDG 3 aims at enhancing gender equity and empowerment of women. Emergency nurses who often encounter women injured by their intimate partners are at risk of developing vicarious traumatisation, which may influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence. Aim: This article aims to, (1 describe emergency nurses’ ways of coping with the exposure to survivors of intimate partner violence, and (2 recommend a way towards effective coping that will enhance emergency nurses’ abilities to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence to contribute to the achievement of MDG 3. Setting: The study was conducted in emergency units of two public hospitals in an urban setting in South Africa. Method: A qualitative design and descriptive phenomenological method was used. Emergency nurses working in the setting were purposively sampled and interviewed. The data were analysed by searching for the essence and meaning attached to the exposure of emergency nurses to survivors of intimate partner violence. Results: Emergency nurses’ coping responses were either aimed at avoiding or dealing with their exposure to survivors of intimate partner violence. Coping aimed at dealing with the exposure included seeking support, emotion regulation and accommodative coping. Conclusion: Emergency nurses employ either effective or ineffective ways of coping. Less effective ways of coping may increase their risk of vicarious and secondary traumatisation, which in turn may influence their ability to empower women to move beyond the oppression of intimate partner violence.
Abeya Sileshi G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse directed to spouses. Globally it is the most pervasive yet underestimated human rights violation. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against women in Western Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression. Results Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6% and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%, respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98, literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88, female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76 were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89 more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63, polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73, spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22, spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20, and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56 were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women. Conclusion In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and
Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G
Witnessing inter-parental intimate partner violence has been found to be associated with adolescents' own relationship abuse. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of inter-parental intimate partner verbal and physical violence victimization reported by parents and their children's reports of dating abuse experiences and behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on a sample of 610 parents (42% male and 67% white) and their dating adolescent children (ages 12-21 years; 52% male). Parents reported five types of victimization by their partners in the past year, while youth concurrently reported their own victimization and perpetration within their dating relationships. Three profiles of parents' intimate partner victimization were related to youth relationship abuse experiences and behaviors. Children of parents who experienced verbal abuse were more likely to experience similar patterns in their own relationships, whereas children of parents who report physical and verbal abuse were more likely to report psychological, physical and sexual abusive encounters in their partnerships. Findings indicate that parents' relationship quality and abusive behaviors may have a long lasting effect on their children as they enter mid and late adolescence. Parents should pay attention to their own relationship quality and behavior even as their teen-age children gain independence.
Conroy, Amy A
Extramarital sexual partnerships are a common reason for intimate partner violence (IPV) in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the fact that IPV requires an interaction between two partners, the majority of the research focuses on individuals rather than the broader relationship context where such violence takes place. Using a sample of 422 married couples from rural Malawi, this study examined the dyadic environment of marital infidelity and two types of IPV victimization: sexual coercion and physical abuse. We considered both self-reported marital infidelity and perceived partner infidelity to assess how well partners knew each other and to compare their respective associations with IPV. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between self-reported marital infidelity and IPV. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine actor and partner effects of perceived partner infidelity on an individual's and their partner's experience of IPV. The results show that self-reported marital infidelity was not significantly associated with IPV for men or women. However, the perception of a partner's infidelity was significantly associated with both an individual's and their partner's risk for sexual coercion and physical abuse. Contrary to the "sexual double standard" hypothesis, women were not significantly more likely than men to report being physically abused when their partners suspected infidelity. Future studies should continue to explore the relationship context of IPV in sub-Saharan Africa in order to understand how spouses mutually shape each other's experience of IPV and subsequent health outcomes.
Gonzalez, Jennifer M Reingle; Connell, Nadine M; Businelle, Michael S; Jennings, Wesley G; Chartier, Karen G
More than 12 million women and men are victims of partner violence each year. Although the health outcomes of partner violence have been well documented, we know very little about specific event-level characteristics that may provide implications for prevention and intervention of partner violence situations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate substance abuse and dependence as risk factors for event-level alcohol-related intimate partner violence (IPV). Data were derived from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005). Eligible participants (N = 2,255) reported IPV the year before the survey. Negative binomial and ordinal regression methods were used to assess risk factors for alcohol use during IPV. Respondent PTSD was the only mental health diagnosis related to alcohol use during IPV (OR = 1.45). Marijuana use was related to respondents' use of alcohol during IPV (OR = 2.68). Respondents' meeting the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence was strongly associated with respondent drinking (OR = 10.74) and partner drinking (OR = 2.89) during IPV. Results indicate that PTSD, marijuana use disorders, alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with more frequent alcohol use during IPV. In addition, it is important to consider that the patient who presents in emergency settings (e.g., hospitals or urgent care facilities) may not be immediately identifiable as the victim or the perpetrator of partner violence. Therefore, screening and intervention programs should probe to further assess the event-level characteristics of partner violence situations to ensure the correct service referrals are made to prevent partner violence.
Zeoli, April M; McCourt, Alexander; Buggs, Shani; Frattaroli, Shannon; Lilley, David; Webster, Daniel W
In this research, we estimate the association of firearm restrictions for domestic violence offenders with intimate partner homicides (IPHs), based on the strength of the policies. We posit that the association of firearm laws with IPHs depends on the laws': 1) breadth of coverage of high-risk individuals and situations restricted; 2) power to compel firearm surrender or removal from prohibited persons; and 3) systems of accountability that prevent prohibited persons from obtaining guns. We conducted a quantitative policy evaluation using annual state-level data from 1980 through 2013 for 45 US states. Based on the results of a series of robust negative binomial regression models with state fixed effects, domestic violence restraining order firearm prohibition laws are associated with 9% reductions in IPH. Statistically significant protective associations were evident only when restraining order prohibitions covered dating partners (-10%) and ex parte orders (-12%). Laws prohibiting access to those convicted of non-specific violent misdemeanors were associated with a 23% reduction in IPH rates; there was no association when prohibitions were limited to domestic violence. Permit-to-purchase laws were associated with 10% reductions in IPHs. These findings should inform policymakers considering laws to maximize protections against intimate partner homicide. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cauchois, Aurélie; Paraire, François; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy
We present the case of a reciprocal homicide by stabbing that occurred within an unmarried couple without known history of spousal violence. Each partner killed the other one at the same time and at the same place using kitchen knives. They were both found dead at home lying on the floor after the neighbors heard an argument and screams coming from the couple's apartment, so they called the police and the fire department. The door was locked from the inside, and the fire department was forced to break the door. Two kitchen knives supporting blood traces were found at the scene. At autopsy, both bodies showed multiple stab wounds, and the lethal ones were due to heart injuries. Defense injuries were also found in both bodies. To our knowledge, this is the first case of reciprocal homicide described in the literature. Other manners of death are discussed, including homicide by a third party, homicide-suicide, and suicide pact.
Pollack, Keshia M; Austin, Whitney; Grisso, Jeane Ann
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with significant impact on the workplace. Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are a confidential benefit to assist employees and their families with a variety of problems that may negatively affect their job performance. The purpose of this systematic review is to study the extant literature to identify articles that have explored the role of EAPs in addressing IPV. We searched Medline, PsychINFO, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for English-language papers that have explored how EAPs can address IPV. Articles published through 2008 were included. Our review yielded nine articles, mostly from EAP-centered journals. Nearly all of the studies were published before the year 2000 and primarily describe the need for EAPs to be more engaged in preventing violence against women. Most of the studies were commentaries, often using case reports to support recommendations on how EAPs could address IPV. Results from the two intervention studies revealed close connections between EAP clients being treated for alcoholism and IPV perpetration and the effectiveness of a standardized tool to identify EAP clients experiencing IPV. Research in this area is in its infancy, and more studies are needed to inform the formulation of evidence-based policies and programs that guide the role of EAPs in addressing IPV. The lack of research on how EAPs address IPV is alarming, as many employers state that they often refer employees affected by IPV to the EAP for assistance.
Baldry, Anna Costanza; Pacilli, Maria Giuseppina; Pagliaro, Stefano
This article examines the association between a target's perceived humanness and individuals' willingness to provide help and support in cases of violence against women (VAW), specifically, intimate partner violence (IPV). In an experimental study, undergraduates read a fictitious article from a newspaper describing an IPV episode of a man hitting his wife and accusing her of cheating on him. According to the experimental condition, they then read that the victim either had or had not admitted the infidelity. Participants then judged the victim on an infra-humanization scale and expressed their willingness to provide help and support to the victim herself as if they were a neighbor witnessing the attack. Results showed that a victim admitting an affair with another man (admission condition) elicited lower perceived humanness and lower willingness to provide help than a victim denying such adultery (no admission condition). Moreover, targets' perceived humanness mediated the effect of contextual features on participants' willingness to provide help to the victim. Results are discussed in terms of victim blaming, and practical implications for prevention strategies are presented. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sabri, Bushra; Renner, Lynette M; Stockman, Jamila K; Mittal, Mona; Decker, Michele R
Relying on an ecological framework, we examined risk factors for severe physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and related injuries among a nationally representative sample of women (N = 67,226) in India. Data for this cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey, a nationally representative household-based health surveillance system. Logistic regression analyses were used to generate the study findings. We found that factors related to severe physical IPV and injuries included low or no education, low socioeconomic status, rural residence, greater number of children, and separated or divorced marital status. Husbands' problem drinking, jealousy, suspicion, control, and emotionally and sexually abusive behaviors were also related to an increased likelihood of women experiencing severe IPV and injuries. Other factors included women's exposure to domestic violence in childhood, perpetration of IPV, and adherence to social norms that accept husbands' violence. Practitioners may use these findings to identify women at high risk of being victimized by severe IPV or injuries for prevention and intervention strategies. Policies and programs that focus on empowering abused women and holding perpetrators accountable may protect women at risk for severe IPV or injuries that may result in death.
Khalifeh, Hind; Hargreaves, James; Howard, Louise M; Birdthistle, Isolde
We examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with social deprivation in England. We used multivariable logistic regression to investigate IPV correlates among 21 226 men and women aged 16 to 59 years in the 2008 nationally representative cross-sectional British Crime Survey. Lifetime IPV was reported by 23.8% of women and 11.5% of men. Physical IPV was reported by 16.8% and 7.0%, respectively; emotional-only IPV was reported by 5.8% and 4.2%, respectively. After adjustment for demographic confounders, lifetime physical IPV experienced by women was associated with social housing tenure (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0, 2.7), low household income (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.8, 2.7), poor educational attainment (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.5), low social class (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.3, 1.7), and living in a multiply deprived area (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.7). Physical IPV experienced by men and emotional IPV experienced by either gender were generally not associated with deprivation factors. Physical and emotional IPV are very common among adults in England. Emotional IPV prevention policies may be appropriate across the social spectrum; those for physical IPV should be particularly accessible to disadvantaged women.
Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija
The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of their violent behavior in a heterosexual partnership. The study followed the traditions of Husserlian descriptive phenomenology and the philosophy of existential phenomenology. Twenty-four volunteer Finnish women, aged 19 to 58 years, with a history of different manifestations of intimate partner violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data were analyzed by the method developed by Colaizzi. The findings revealed that some of the women who opposed all violence on ethical grounds did not label their behavior as violent; some others minimized or justified their violent behavior. The findings offer professional insight into women's violent behavior and call for a readjustment in approaches to work in the area. Prevention and early identification of IPV require knowledge of the various manifestations and individual meanings of violence. Helping methods should provide women with the opportunity to talk about their abusive behavior and to confront and address their feelings of guilt, disappointment, and shame.
Kelmendi, Kaltrina; Baumgartner, František
Intimate partner violence (IPV) among university students is a prevalent problem in many countries; however, it is not currently recognized in Kosovo as a social issue in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between violence socialization experiences, approval of violence, and IPV perpetration/victimization among university students in Kosovo. The questionnaires were administrated to a convenience sample of 700 students of University of Prishtina who were in relationship for 1 month or longer. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) was used for measuring physical, psychological, and sexual violence, whereas for measuring violence socialization and violence approval, scales from Personal and Relationships Profile (PRP) were used. Findings from this study show that there were statistically significant gender differences in terms of socialization and approval of violence among university students. Similarly, perpetrators and victims of IPV (physical, psychological, and sexual violence) showed higher rates of socialization of violence and tolerance toward IPV. Besides, findings indicate that approval of violence mediates the relationship between socialization of violence and IPV perpetration and victimization, for both genders. The implications of the current findings within a cultural context are also discussed.
Stults, Christopher B; Javdani, Shabnam; Greenbaum, Chloe A; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N
Among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) few studies have examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration versus victimization and sexual behaviors. Using data from n = 528 urban YMSM, multinomial logistic regression models were built to examine the distinct relationships between any IPV, victimization, and perpetration with condomless sex in the previous 30 days, controlling for key sociodemographic characteristics. In this sample of YMSM, lifetime experience of any IPV was associated with increased odds of recent condomless oral (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-2.72) and anal receptive sex (AOR= 2.29, 95% CI = 1.22-4.31). IPV victimization was associated with a greater likelihood of condomless receptive anal sex (AOR= 2.12, 95% CI = 1.15-3.93) whereas IPV perpetration was associated with increased odds of condomless receptive (AOR= 2.11, 95% CI = 1.14-3.91) and insertive (AOR= 2.21, 95% CI = 1.06-4.59) anal sex. Among YMSM, reports of both IPV perpetration and victimization were associated with increased odds of recent condomless sex. These findings indicate that the need for IPV prevention and intervention programs for this new generation of YMSM is highly warranted. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Madden, Kim; Tai, Kerry; Ali, Zak; Schneider, Patricia; Singh, Mahip; Ghert, Michelle; Bhandari, Mohit
Registering study protocols in a trial registry is important for methodologic transparency and reducing selective reporting bias. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether published studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) that had been registered matched the registration record on key study design elements. We systematically searched three trial registries to identify registered IPV studies and the published literature for the associated publication. Two authors independently determined for each study whether key study elements in the registry matched those in the published paper. We included 66 studies published between 2006 and 2017. Nearly half (29/66, 44%) were registered after study completion. Many (26/66, 39%) had discrepancies regarding the primary outcome, and nearly two-thirds (42/66, 64%) had discrepancies in secondary outcomes. Discrepancies in study design were less frequent (13/66, 20%). However, large changes in sample size (26/66, 39%) and discrepancies in funding source (28/66, 42%) were frequently observed. Trial registries are important tools for research transparency and identifying and preventing outcome switching and selective outcome reporting bias. Published IPV studies often differ from their records in trial registries. Researchers should pay close attention to the accuracy of trial registry records.
Anitha Elizabeth Mathew
Full Text Available Introduction: We assessed the correlation between intimate partner violence (IPV and health behaviors, including seat belt use, smoke alarm in home, handgun access, body mass index, diet, and exercise. We hypothesized that IPV victims would be less likely to have healthy behaviors as compared to women with similar demographics.Methods: All adult female patients who presented to 3 Atlanta-area emergency department waiting rooms on weekdays from 11AM to 7PM were asked to participate in a computer-based survey by trained research assistants. The Universal Violence Prevention Screen was used for IPV identification. The survey also assessed seatbelt use, smoke alarm presence, handgun access, height, weight, exercise, and diet. We used chi-square tests of association, odds ratios, and independent t-tests tomeasure associations between variables.Results: Participants ranged from 18 to 68 years, with a mean of 38 years. Out of 1,452 respondents, 155 patients self-identified as white (10.7%, and 1,218 as black (83.9%; 153 out of 832 women who were in a relationship in the prior year (18.4% screened positive for IPV. We found significant relationships between IPV and not wearing a seatbelt (p,0.01, handgun access (p,0.01, and eating unhealthy foods (p,0.01.Conclusion: Women experiencing IPV are more likely to exhibit risky health behaviors than women who are not IPV victims. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:278–282.
Al-Eissa, Majid A; Saleheen, Hassan N; Almuneef, Maha
Childhood exposure to violence can lead to physical, mental, and emotional harm, whether a child is a direct victim or a witness to violent events. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) and victimization among children. A cross-sectional, national study was conducted in secondary high schools in the five main provinces of Saudi Arabia (SA) using International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) ISPCAN Child Abuse and Neglect Screening Tool-Child: Home version. Boys and girls, public and private schools were selected to participate. Students ( N = 16,939) aged 15 to 18 years completed the survey instrument which included demographics, different types of abuse (physical, psychological, and sexual), neglect, and witnessing IPV. Mean age of the participants was 16.8 ± 0.9 years, and 51% were boys. Eighty-one percent lived with both parents, 6% with single parent, and 2% with step-parent. Fifty-two percent of the participants witnessed IPV. Those who witnessed IPV were more likely to be abused compared with those who did not ( p violence and child protection workers could effectively respond to this problem.
Dichter, Melissa E; Cerulli, Catherine; Bossarte, Robert M
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women in the United States. CVD risk factors, including depression, smoking, heavy drinking, being overweight, and physical inactivity, are associated with stress and may be linked to women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. We know little about IPV and CVD risk factors among veteran women. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between lifetime IPV victimization and CVD risk factors among women, accounting for veteran status. We used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2006 for the eight states that included the IPV module. We explored the associations between veteran status and lifetime IPV victimization and between IPV exposure and CVD risk factors, for veteran and non-veteran women. Veteran women were more likely than non-veteran women to report lifetime IPV victimization (33.0% vs. 23.8%). IPV exposure was associated with depression, smoking, and heavy drinking. We did not find evidence for an association between IPV exposure and lack of exercise or being overweight or obese, when controlling for demographic characteristics and veteran status. Women veterans have particularly high rates of lifetime IPV victimization. In addition, IPV victimization is associated with an increased risk of heart health risk factors. The findings suggest that we should attend to IPV exposure among veteran women and further investigate the link between IPV and military service, and the associated health impacts. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nowotny, Kathryn M; Graves, Jennifer L
The existing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) does not paint a consistent portrait of the impact of race/ethnicity. In addition, although research has clearly demonstrated that there is a relationship between substance use and IPV, the temporal ordering of these variables is not clearly established. This article seeks to examine the temporal ordering of IPV victimization and drug use using longitudinal data with a nationally representative racially and ethnically diverse sample. Data from Wave III (2001-2002) and Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) will serve as Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, to answer three research questions. First, does substance use during early young adulthood (Time 1) predict IPV victimization during young adulthood (Time 2) among women? Second, does IPV victimization during early young adulthood predict substance use during young adulthood for women? Finally, do these bidirectional relationships vary by race/ethnicity (i.e., White, African American, and Latina)? Four different forms of IPV (minor violence, major violence, rape/sexual coercion, and injury) are investigated along with binge drinking, marijuana use, and other drug use. Understanding not only the temporal relationship between substance use, trauma, and IPV but also the racial and ethnic differences in these relationships is critical to developing and refining culturally sensitive trauma-informed prevention and treatment services for women.
Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lagare, Tiffany; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K
Hostage-taking, an overlooked phenomenon in public health, constitutes a severe form of intimate partner violence and may be a precursor to female homicide within relationships characterized by substance use. Criminal justice studies indicate that most hostage incidents are male-driven events with more than half of all cases associated with a prior history of violence and substance use. Methamphetamine use increases a woman's risk of partner violence, with methamphetamine-using individuals being up to nine times more likely to commit homicide. As homicide is the most lethal outcome of partner violence and methamphetamine use, this study aims to characterize the potential role of hostage-taking within these intersecting epidemics. Methamphetamine-using women enrolled in an HIV behavioural intervention trial (FASTLANE-II) who reported experiences of partner violence were purposively selected to participate in qualitative sub-studies (Women's Study I & II). Twenty-nine women, ages 26-57, participated in semi-structured interviews that discussed relationship dynamics, partner violence, drug use and sexual practices. Findings indicated four cases of women being held hostage by a partner, with two women describing two separate hostage experiences. Women discussed partner jealousy, drug withdrawal symptoms, heightened emotional states from methamphetamine use, and escalating violent incidents as factors leading up to hostage-taking. Factors influencing lack of reporting incidents to law enforcement included having a criminal record, fear of partner retaliation, and intentions to terminate the relationship when the partner is incarcerated. Educating women on the warning signs of hostage-taking within the context of methamphetamine use and promoting behaviour change among male perpetrators can contribute to reducing the risk of homicide. Furthermore, bridging the gap between health services and law enforcement agencies and providing comprehensive services that address the
Ağçay, Güler; Yildiz Inanici, Sinem; Çolak, Başar; İnanici, Mehmet Akif
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem in many countries including Turkey, with serious short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences, as well as significant social and public health costs. To understand the violence characteristics and the individual risk factors for both the married women victims and the perpetrator partners are the objectives of this study. 243 married women, who have consulted to hospitals and village clinics between 2008 and 2009 with the mean age of 36.76 (SD = 11.59), accepted to participate in the study voluntarily. Participants were divided into two groups as "victimized" (58.8%, n = 143) and "non-victimized" (41.2%, n = 100) women. Victimized group consisted of women who have had any type of violence from their husbands during their life. A 61-item questionnaire was prepared that included items on demographics, IPV experience, attitudes about IPV and knowledge of legal rights. As compared to non-victimized group, women in victimized group mostly lived in villages than in town/city centers, were illiterate, had bride-price agreement and were younger when married. Place of accommodation, age and number of pregnancies were associated with the risk of victimization. In order to prevent IPV, further qualitative research is required to evaluate the involved risk factors and training programs on how to behave against violence in association with the legal rights should be designed for poorly educated women in their natural settings and hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Connors, Angela D.; Mills, Jeremy F.; Gray, Andrew L.
The following study is an evaluation of the Moderate Intensity Family Violence Prevention Program (MIFVPP). The sample consisted of 298 male federal offenders who participated in the MIFVPP while incarcerated or on release within the community. Participants were assessed pre-, mid-, and postprogram using an assessment battery consisting of…
Full Text Available We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with residents of a domestic violence shelter in a southeastern metropolitan area to understand how low-income women experience mothering within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV. Interview questions explored the women’s feelings about motherhood, their relationships with their children, and the effects of IPV on their children. Despite the difficulties of raising children with an abusive partner, the women did not regret becoming a mother. In fact, respondents identified their children as one of few positives in their lives and mothering as central to their identity. Relationships with their children enabled the women to feel empowered in ways that their intimate partnerships did not and motivated them to escape the violence and persevere.
Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the association between emotion dysregulation and alcohol related intimate partner violence. A systematic review was conducted through a literature research for relevant studies on Medline, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Psycoinfo and PsycArticle from inception through April 11, 2015. Additional articles were retrieved manually searching in reference lists. All relevant articles were accessed in full text. Data on study type; cases; controls; country; effect estimate; adjustments for confounders and quality of publication were extracted. The quality of the publications were scored by adherence to the STROBE and CONSORT 2010 checklists. Four studies satisfied the predefined criteria for inclusion and were included in this review. Results highlighted support for future research on emotion dysregulation and alcohol related intimate partner violence.
Wuerch, Melissa A; Giesbrecht, Crystal J; Price, Jill A B; Knutson, Tracy; Wach, Frances
The current study examined the knowledge and experience of animal welfare and human service providers in urban and rural communities of Saskatchewan, Canada. Nine exploratory qualitative interviews were conducted to gather a more in-depth understanding of whether the concern for animal care and safekeeping impacts the decision to leave situations of intimate partner violence. The interviews were semistructured and guided by four questions, which were designed, reviewed, and revised based on feedback from a community-based research team. Thematic analysis highlighted important findings, allowing for the generation of suggestions for improvement of current supports and services offered. The current study findings suggest that concern for animal care and safekeeping creates significant barriers regarding the decision to leave situations of intimate partner violence and abuse, warranting further research to inform support services and resources within a Canadian context.
Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L
Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the 2 weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.
Ozaki, Reiko; Otis, Melanie D
This study examined the relationship between patriarchal cultural norms and violence perpetration by male partners using a subsample of university students in Asia (n = 784) and Europe (n = 575) from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) data set. Bivariate analyses indicated Asian students scored significantly higher than Europeans on dominance, hostility to women, jealousy, negative attribution, and violence approval as well as perpetration of severe physical assault in dating relationships. Logistic regression models demonstrated that dominance and violence approval were significant predictors of severe physical and psychological aggression against dating partners. Implications for culturally relevant programming for intimate partner violence prevention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ismayilova, Leyla; El-Bassel, Nabila
The article examines the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and unintended pregnancy among nationally representative samples of women in three former Soviet Union countries. Women who experienced physical and/or sexual IPV from their current or most recent husband or living together partner demonstrated higher risks of unintended last pregnancy, either terminated through abortion (in Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Ukraine) or resulting in unintended live birth (in Ukraine). IPV prevention components should be integrated into reproductive health programs to reduce the risk of unintended births and abortions among women living with abusive partners in these former Soviet Union countries. © The Author(s) 2014.
Maciak, B J; Guzman, R; Santiago, A; Villalobos, G; Israel, B A
LA VIDA--the Southwest Detroit Partnership to Prevent Intimate Violence Against Latina Women--evolved in response to community concern about the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the lack of culturally competent preventive and support services for Latino women and men in southwest Detroit. Since 1997, diverse organizations have mobilized as a community-academic partnership to ensure the availability, accessibility, and utilization of IPV services. This article describes and analyzes the evolution of LA VIDA within a community-based participatory research framework using a case study approach that draws on multiple data sources including group and individual interviews and field notes. The challenges and lessons learned in addressing a complex multifaceted problem such as IPV in an ethnic minority community are highlighted in an examination of the process of mobilizing diverse organizations, conducting community diagnosis and needs assessment activities, establishing goals and objectives within a social ecological framework, and integrating evaluation during the development phase.
Wiemann, C M; Agurcia, C A; Berenson, A B; Volk, R J; Rickert, V I
To better understand the experiences and behaviors of battered pregnant adolescents and the characteristics of their intimate partners. As part of a longitudinal multiracial/ethnic study of drug use among pregnant and parenting adolescents, 724 adolescents mothers reported on demographic characteristics, social support and peer contact, level of substance use before and during pregnancy, nonconforming behaviors, and both lifetime and concurrent exposure to violence. Information about the father of her baby included his level of substance use, gang and police involvement, and intimate partner violence. Chi-square and Student's t tests were used to identify victim, partner, and relationship characteristics associated with being assaulted by the father of her baby during the preceding year. Eighty-six (11.9%) adolescents reported being physically assaulted by the fathers of their babies. Assaulted adolescents were significantly more likely than nonassaulted adolescents to have been exposed to other forms of violence over the same 12-month period, including verbal abuse, assault by family members, being in a fight where someone was badly hurt, reporting fear of being hurt by other teens, witnessing violence perpetrated on others, and carrying a weapon for protection. A history of nonconforming behavior and frequent or recent substance use was more common among both battered adolescents and their perpetrator partners. The age and race/ethnicity of the pregnant adolescent and the length of her relationship with the father of her baby were not associated with assault status. Pregnant adolescents who are assaulted by intimate partners appear to live in violence-prone environments and to have partners who engage in substance use and other nonconforming behaviors. Comprehensive assessments are critical for all adolescent females at risk of assault, and direct questions about specific behaviors or situations must be used.
Sandoval-Jurado, Luis; Jiménez-Báez, María Valeria; Rovira Alcocer, Gloria; Vital Hernandez, Omar; Pat Espadas, Fany Guadalupe
To identify the prevalence and type of intimate partner violence in women assigned at primary care health and estimates the risks for violence. Case (incident cases)-control. Primary health care unit in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Women over 18years old living in couple at last 12months. Validated violence scale for Mexican population was evaluated: total partner violence, physical, psychological and sexual violence. History of violence and sociodemographic variables. Chi square for categorical variables and odds ratio (OR) for risk estimate was determined. The total intimate partner violence was 15.05%, psychological violence in 37.3%. Overall violence, age differences, socioeconomic status, marital status, history of violence and alcohol intake by the partner (P<.05) were observed. The risk increased in over 40 years old (OR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.07 to 4.11), history of violence (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.8 to 12.44) and alcohol intake by partner (OR=12.38; 95%CI: 2.15 to 29.59). Low socioeconomic status (OR: 0.384; 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.74) and free union (OR: 0.507; 95%CI: 0.27 to 0.95) were relation factors to lower intimate violence partner. Sexual violence predominated among users of primary health care and the risk that present this behavior increases with the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the couple and a history of violence, but the free union and socioeconomic status were possibility protected for violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra
Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, FL, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around 8 major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. PMID:23790277
Finneran, Catherine; Chard, Anna; Sineath, Craig; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob
Introduction: Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures – namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism– on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paperexami...
Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Hindin, Michelle J
The literature on intimate partner violence in resource-poor contexts relies primarily on cross-sectional studies. Because changes in women's status and empowerment are hypothesized to influence violence vulnerability, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the potential benefits and harms associated with such changes. Data were collected prospectively from a representative cohort of 4,749 married women in rural areas of four socially and demographically diverse states in India in 1998-1999 and 2002-2003. A multinomial regression model including social and demographic characteristics and intersurvey changes and events related to functional autonomy and reproduction was fitted to a categorical outcome measuring the absence (reference), initiation, cessation and continuation of intimate partner violence. Continued freedom of movement, increased freedom of movement and continued financial autonomy between baseline and follow-up were associated with a lower risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (relative risk ratio, 0.7 for each). Having a first child was associated with lower risk of violence initiation and continuation rather than no violence (0.6 and 0.2, respectively). Women who reported that their relative economic contribution to the household decreased or increased and women who experienced an unwanted pregnancy had a higher risk of violence continuation rather than no violence (1.8, 1.8 and 1.5, respectively). The death of a child was associated with higher risk of violence initiation rather than no violence (1.4). Future research to inform interventions to reduce intimate partner violence should consider how changes in women's reproductive experiences and functional autonomy may be linked to changes in intimate partner violence.
Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres; Beatriz Recio-Andrade; María Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego
Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides) in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: am...