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Sample records for prevent colorectal adenoma

  1. Coffee prevents proximal colorectal adenomas in Japanese men: a prospective cohort study.

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    Nakamura, Tomiyo; Ishikawa, Hideki; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Kawano, Atsuko; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2016-09-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to show that coffee prevents the recurrence of colorectal tumors (adenomas, precursors of colorectal cancer, and early-stage colorectal cancers) as well as colorectal cancer. The present study included 307 patients who participated in a clinical study that required endoscopy to remove a colorectal tumor. The amount of coffee consumed by the patients at study inclusion and the frequency of colorectal tumors, as detected by colonoscopy over the subsequent 4 years, were assessed. Coffee consumption was determined using a diet survey that included 3-consecutive-day food records. The risk of colorectal tumor recurrence was significantly lower (odds ratio=0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.74) in patients who consumed more than three cups of coffee per day compared with those who consumed no coffee. No correlation was observed between the examined factors, including green tea and black tea intake and the amount of caffeine consumed. In subanalysis divided by the tumor location within the colorectum, the odds ratio of colorectal tumor recurrence in the proximal colon showed a tendency toward reduction as coffee consumption increased; however, increased coffee consumption significantly increased colorectal tumor recurrence in the distal colon. We showed that high coffee consumption reduced the overall occurrence of colorectal tumors, affected by the reduction in the proximal colon.

  2. Endoscopic management of colorectal adenomas.

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    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Fischer, Andreas; Schmidt, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal adenomas are well known precursors of invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for adenoma detection. Colonoscopy is far more than a diagnostic tool, as it allows effective treatment of colorectal adenomas. Endoscopic resection of colorectal adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Difficult resection techniques are available, such as endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic full-thickness resection. This review aims to provide an overview of the different endoscopic resection techniques and their indications, and summarizes the current recommendations in the recently published guideline of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

  3. Prevalence of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in mismatch repair mutation carriers among CAPP2 participants: report by the colorectal adenoma/carcinoma prevention programme 2

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    Liljegren, Annelie; Barker, Gail; Elliott, Faye

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in a large cohort of individuals with a germline mutation in a mismatch repair (MMR) gene, the major genetic determinant of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). These prevalences have been estimated previously...... in smaller studies, and the results have been found to be variable. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme 2 trial is a chemoprevention trial in people classified as having HNPCC. The 695 patients with a proven germline MMR mutation and documented screening history before...

  4. The effect of metformin on the recurrence of colorectal adenoma in diabetic patients with previous colorectal adenoma.

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    Han, Min Seok; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Tae Il

    2017-08-01

    Existing studies suggest that metformin lowers the risk and mortality of colorectal cancer. However, the effect of metformin on the suppression and prevention of colorectal adenomas is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metformin on the recurrence of colorectal adenoma in diabetic patients with previous colorectal adenoma. Among 423 diabetic patients who underwent surveillance colonoscopy after resection of colorectal adenoma between 2005 and 2011, 257 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: one group comprising 106 patients who took metformin and another group comprising 151 patients who did not take metformin. The clinical characteristics, colorectal adenoma recurrence, and valuable factors for adenoma recurrence were analyzed. At surveillance colonoscopy after colonoscopic polypectomy for adenoma, 38 patients (35.8%) exhibited colorectal adenoma among 106 patients who took metformin, compared with 85 patients (56.3%) with colorectal adenoma among 151 patients who did not take metformin (odds ratio 0.434, 95% confidence interval 0.260-0.723, P = 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that metformin was associated with decreased recurrence of colorectal adenoma (hazard ratio 0.572, 95% confidence interval 0.385-0.852, P = 0.006) in diabetic patients with previous colorectal adenoma. The cumulative probability of colorectal adenoma recurrence was significantly lower in the metformin group than in the non-metformin group (P = 0.001). Metformin use in diabetic patients with previous colorectal adenoma is associated with a lower risk of colorectal adenoma recurrence.

  5. The somatic mutation landscape of premalignant colorectal adenoma.

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    Lin, Shu-Hong; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Huff, Chad; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Han; Menter, David G; Morris, Jeffery; Hawk, Ernest; Stroehlein, John R; Futreal, Andrew; Kopetz, Scott; Mishra, Lopa; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-06-12

    There are few studies which characterised the molecular alterations in premalignant colorectal adenomas. Our major goal was to establish colorectal adenoma genome atlas and identify molecular markers of progression from colorectal adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing were carried out in 149 adenoma samples and paired blood from patients with conventional adenoma or sessile serrated adenoma to characterise the somatic mutation landscape for premalignant colorectal lesions. The identified somatic mutations were compared with those in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A supervised random forest model was employed to identify gene panels differentiating adenoma from CRC. Similar somatic mutation frequencies, but distinctive driver mutations, were observed in sessile serrated adenomas and conventional adenomas. The final model included 20 genes and was able to separate the somatic mutation profile of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma with an area under the curve of 0.941. The findings of this project hold potential to better identify patients with adenoma who may be candidates for targeted surveillance programmes and preventive interventions to reduce the incidence of CRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. The association between location, age and advanced colorectal adenoma characteristics

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    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evidence supports an association between certain colorectal adenoma characteristics and predisposition to cancer. The association between anatomical location of colorectal adenoma, age and advanced adenomas needs attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible....... Inclusion criteria for patients were one adenoma of >1 cm in diameter or multiple adenomas of any size, or an adenoma of any size and familial disposition for colorectal cancer. Multivariate regression and propensity score-matched analyses were used to correlate location of adenomas and age with advanced...... adenoma features. RESULTS: In this study, 2149 adenomas were removed in 1215 patients. Advanced colorectal adenomas primarily occurred in the anal part of the colon. Older age was associated with more adenomas and more oral occurrence of adenomas, as well as a higher risk of advanced adenomas...

  7. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal adenomas: the Black Women's Health Study.

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    Makambi, Kepher H; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Bright-Gbebry, Mireille; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2011-05-01

    Colorectal adenomas are benign lesions that may be precursors to colorectal cancer. No studies of African American women have investigated dietary patterns and the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. We examined data from the Black Women's Health Study to determine whether dietary patterns are associated with the risk of developing colorectal adenomas. This is a prospective cohort study of 59,000 participants followed biennially since 1995. During 155,414 person-years of follow-up from 1997 to 2007 among women who had had at least one screening colonoscopy, 620 incident cases of colorectal adenomas were identified. By using Cox regression models, we obtained incidence rate ratios (IRR) for colorectal adenoma in relation to quintiles of each of two dietary patterns, adjusting for other colorectal adenoma risk factors. Two dietary patterns, Western and prudent, were utilized to assess the association between dietary intake and adenoma risk. The highest quintile of prudent diet, relative to the lowest quintile, was significantly associated with 34% lower colorectal adenoma risk overall (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.88; P(trend) pattern were associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal adenoma (IRR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.85 for the highest quintile relative to the lowest; P(trend) = 0.01). Our findings suggest that African American women may be able to reduce their risk of developing colorectal adenomas by following a prudent dietary pattern and avoiding a more Western pattern. A dietary modification could have a strong impact in colorectal adenoma prevention in African American women. ©2011 AACR.

  8. Colorectal adenoma stem-like cell populations: associations with adenoma characteristics and metachronous colorectal neoplasia.

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    Bartley, Angela N; Parikh, Nila; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Roe, Denise J; Buckmeier, Julie A; Corley, Lynda; Phipps, Ron A; Gallick, Gary; Lance, Peter; Thompson, Patricia A; Hamilton, Stanley R

    2013-11-01

    Cancer stem cells have tumor-initiation and tumor-maintenance capabilities. Stem-like cells are present in colorectal adenomas, but their relationship to adenoma pathology and patient characteristics, including metachronous development of an additional adenoma ("recurrence"), has not been studied extensively. We evaluated the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a putative stem cell marker, in baseline adenomas from the placebo arm of chemoprevention trial participants with colonoscopic follow-up. An exploratory set of 20 baseline adenomas was analyzed by ALDH1A1 immunohistochemistry with morphometry, and a replication set of 89 adenomas from 76 high-risk participants was evaluated by computerized image analysis. ALDH1A1-labeling indices (ALI) were similar across patient characteristics and in advanced and nonadvanced adenomas. There was a trend toward higher ALIs in adenomas occurring in the right than left colon (P = 0.09). ALIs of synchronous adenomas were correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.67). Participants in both sample sets who developed a metachronous adenoma had significantly higher ALIs in their baseline adenoma than participants who remained adenoma free. In the replication set, the adjusted odds for metachronous adenoma increased 1.46 for each 10% increase in ALIs (P = 0.03). A best-fit algorithm-based cutoff point of 22.4% had specificity of 75.0% and positive predictive value of 70.0% for metachronous adenoma development. A larger population of ALDH1A1-expressing cells in an adenoma is associated with a higher risk for metachronous adenoma, independent of adenoma size or histopathology. If confirmed, ALDH1A1 has potential as a novel biomarker in risk assessment and as a potential stem cell target for chemoprevention. ©2013 AACR

  9. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

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    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  10.  Immunohistochemical Expression of ki-67 and p53 in Colorectal Adenomas: A Clinicopathological Study

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    Hussam Hasson Ali

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: To evaluate the significance of P53 and Ki-67 expression as immunohistochemical markers in early detection of premalignant changes in different types of colorectal adenomas. Also, to correlate immunohistochemical expression of the two markers with different clinicopathological parameters including; age, and sex of the patient, type, site, size and grade of dysplasia of colorectal adenomas.Methods: Forty-seven polypectomy specimens of colorectal adenomas were retrieved from the archival materials of the Gastrointestinal and Hepatic Diseases Teaching Hospital in Baghdad from 2009 - 2010. Four µm section specimens were stained by immunohistochemical technique with Ki-67 and P53 tumor markers. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Immunohistochemical expressions of Ki-67 and P53 had a significant correlation with the size and grade of dysplasia in colorectal adenomas. However, there was no significant correlation among the immunohistochemical expression of Ki-67 and P53 with the age and gender of the patient, and the type and site of colorectal adenomas. There was no significant correlation between Ki-67 and P53 expressions in colorectal adenomas. Villous adenomas of colorectum showed a significant correlation with the grade of dysplasia, while there was no significant correlation between size and site of colorectal adenoma with the grade of dysplasia.Conclusion: High grade dysplasia with significant positive immunohistochemical markers of Ki-67 and P53 could be valuable parameters for selecting from the total colorectal adenoma population, those most deserving of close surveillance in follow-up cancer prevention programs. It is closely linked with increasing age particularly in patients with a large size adenoma of villous component in their histology.

  11. Characteristics of adenomas detected by fecal immunochemical test in colorectal cancer screening.

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    Cubiella, Joaquín; Castro, Inés; Hernandez, Vicent; González-Mao, Carmen; Rivera, Concepción; Iglesias, Felipe; Cid, Lucía; Soto, Santiago; de-Castro, Luisa; Vega, Pablo; Hermo, Jose Antonio; Macenlle, Ramiro; Martínez, Alfonso; Martínez-Ares, David; Estevez, Pamela; Cid, Estela; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Portillo, Isabel; Bujanda, Luis; Fernández-Seara, Javier

    2014-09-01

    Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) diagnostic accuracy for colorectal adenoma detection in colorectal cancer screening is limited. We analyzed 474 asymptomatic subjects with adenomas detected on colonoscopy in two blinded diagnostic tests studies designed to assess FIT diagnostic accuracy. We determined the characteristics of adenomas (number, size, histology, morphology, and location) and the risk of metachronous lesions (according to European guidelines). Finally, we performed a logistic regression to identify those variables independently associated with a positive result. Advanced adenomas were found in 145 patients (75.6% distal and 24.3% only proximal to splenic flexure). Patients were classified as low (59.5%), intermediate (30.2%), and high risk (10.3%) according to European guidelines. At a 100-ng/mL threshold, FIT was positive in 61 patients (12.8%). Patients with advanced adenomas [odds ratio (OR), 8.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.76-16.25], distal advanced adenomas (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.9-8.8), high risk (OR, 20.1; 95% CI, 8.8-45.8), or intermediate risk lesions (OR, 6; 95% CI, 2.9-12.4) had more probabilities to have a positive test. The characteristics of adenomas independently associated were number of adenomas (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.42), distal flat adenomas (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.96), pedunculated adenomas (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.48-3.5), and maximum size of distal adenomas (mm; OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.16-1.32). European guidelines classification and adenoma location correlates with the likelihood of a positive FIT result. This information allows us to understand the FIT impact in colorectal cancer prevention. Likewise, it should be taken into account in the development of new colorectal adenomas biomarkers. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Unmetabolized Folic Acid, Tetrahydrofolate, and Colorectal Adenoma Risk.

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    Rees, Judy R; Morris, Carolyn B; Peacock, Janet L; Ueland, Per M; Barry, Elizabeth L; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail E; Figueiredo, Jane C; Snover, Dale C; Baron, John A

    2017-08-01

    In a randomized trial of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of colorectal adenomas, we previously found indications of increased risk during later treatment and follow-up. This could have been due to the unmetabolized folic acid (UFA) or natural reduced and methylated folates (mF) to which it is metabolized. In post hoc analyses, we measured mF (the sum of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and 4-alfa-hydroxy-5-methyl-THF) and UFA concentrations in the serum of 924 participants. Using binomial regression models with a log link, we assessed the associations between plasma mF or UFA and adenoma occurrence. We found no association between plasma mF or UFA and overall adenoma risk. However, during later follow-up, the prespecified, composite endpoint of high-risk findings (advanced or multiple adenomas) was positively associated with plasma mF ( P linear trend = 0.009), with a 58% increased risk for participants in the upper versus lowest quartile. An irregular association was seen with plasma UFA, with suggestions of an inverse trend ( P linear trend =0.049). A modest, significant inverse association was also seen between mF and risk of serrated lesions, with a 39% lower risk for upper versus lower quartile participants ( P linear trend = 0.03). In conclusion, during the later follow-up period in which folic acid supplementation was previously seen to increase the risk of advanced and multiple adenomas, higher serum mF was associated with a higher risk of multiple and/or advanced adenomas, but no clear indication that UFA played a direct role. There were indications that higher mF was associated with reduced risk of serrated polyps. Cancer Prev Res; 10(8); 451-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Adult weight gain and colorectal adenomas-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Abar, L; Vieria, A R; Vingeliene, S; Polemiti, E; Stevens, C A T; Greenwood, D C; Chan, D S M; Aune, D; Norat, T

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal adenomas are known as precursors for the majority of colorectal carcinomas. While weight gain during adulthood has been identified as a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the association is less clear for colorectal adenomas. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the evidence on this association. We searched Medline up to September 2016 to identify observational (prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective) studies on weight gain during adulthood and colorectal adenoma occurrence and recurrence. We conducted meta-analysis on high weight gain versus stable weight, linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses to analyze the association. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using a random effects model. For colorectal adenoma occurrence, the summary OR was 1.39 (95% CI: 1.17-1.65; I2: 43%, N = 9 studies, cases = 5507) comparing high (midpoint: 17.4 kg) versus stable weight gain during adulthood and with each 5 kg weight gain the odds increased by 7% (2%-11%; I2: 65%, N = 7 studies). Although there was indication of non-linearity (Pnon-linearity firm conclusions. Even a small amount of adult weight gain was related to a higher odds of colorectal adenoma occurrence. Our findings add to the benefits of weight control in adulthood regarding colorectal adenoma occurrence, which might be relevant for early prevention of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Gut microbiome development along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

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    Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha; Jia, Huijue; Stadlmayr, Andreas; Tang, Longqing; Lan, Zhou; Zhang, Dongya; Xia, Huihua; Xu, Xiaoying; Jie, Zhuye; Su, Lili; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Xin; Li, Junhua; Xiao, Liang; Huber-Schönauer, Ursula; Niederseer, David; Xu, Xun; Al-Aama, Jumana Yousuf; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Kristiansen, Karsten; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Tilg, Herbert; Datz, Christian; Wang, Jun

    2015-03-11

    Colorectal cancer, a commonly diagnosed cancer in the elderly, often develops slowly from benign polyps called adenoma. The gut microbiota is believed to be directly involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The identity and functional capacity of the adenoma- or carcinoma-related gut microbe(s), however, have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. Here we perform a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) on stools from advanced adenoma and carcinoma patients and from healthy subjects, revealing microbial genes, strains and functions enriched in each group. An analysis of potential risk factors indicates that high intake of red meat relative to fruits and vegetables appears to associate with outgrowth of bacteria that might contribute to a more hostile gut environment. These findings suggest that faecal microbiome-based strategies may be useful for early diagnosis and treatment of colorectal adenoma or carcinoma.

  15. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  16. Coffee intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma: The colorectal adenoma study in Tokyo.

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    Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-07-15

    Coffee is a commonly consumed beverage which contains several potential anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive compounds, and has been hypothesized to have protective effects in colorectal neoplasia. However, the limited available data on coffee consumption in relation to colorectal adenoma (CRA), a precursor lesion to most colorectal cancers, remain largely inconsistent. In this study, we evaluated the association of coffee intake with the risk of CRA in a middle-aged Japanese population. Study subjects were selected from examinees who underwent total colonoscopy as part of a cancer screening program and responded to self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. A total of 738 patients with adenoma and 697 controls were included in the study. Coffee intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and divided into quartiles based on the distribution among controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of CRA, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. High coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CRA, with a multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quartile of coffee intake of 0.67 (95% CI = 0.48-0.93; ptrend  = 0.02). The inverse association of coffee intake was limited to proximal (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.44-0.95; ptrend  = 0.04) and distal colon adenoma (OR = 0.62; 95%CI = 0.39-0.99; ptrend  = 0.06), and appeared to be more evident with small (OR = 0.68; 95%CI = 0.49-0.96; ptrend  = 0.04) and single adenomas (OR = 0.65; 95%CI = 0.44-0.95; ptrend  = 0.02). Green tea intake was not found to be associated with CRA risk. This study provides support for the protective effect of coffee drinking on colon adenomas, a precursor of colon cancer. © 2014 UICC.

  17. Gut microbiome development along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha; Jia, Huijue

    2015-01-01

    factors indicates that high intake of red meat relative to fruits and vegetables appears to associate with outgrowth of bacteria that might contribute to a more hostile gut environment. These findings suggest that faecal microbiome-based strategies may be useful for early diagnosis and treatment......Colorectal cancer, a commonly diagnosed cancer in the elderly, often develops slowly from benign polyps called adenoma. The gut microbiota is believed to be directly involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The identity and functional capacity of the adenoma- or carcinoma-related gut microbe...

  18. Advanced colorectal adenoma related gene expression signature may predict prognostic for colorectal cancer patients with adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

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    Li, Bing; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Liao, Dai-Xiang; Cao, Bang-Rong; Luo, Cheng-Hua; Cheng, Shu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    There are still no absolute parameters predicting progression of adenoma into cancer. The present study aimed to characterize functional differences on the multistep carcinogenetic process from the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. All samples were collected and mRNA expression profiling was performed by using Agilent Microarray high-throughput gene-chip technology. Then, the characteristics of mRNA expression profiles of adenoma-carcinoma sequence were described with bioinformatics software, and we analyzed the relationship between gene expression profiles of adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and clinical prognosis of colorectal cancer. The mRNA expressions of adenoma-carcinoma sequence were significantly different between high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia group and adenocarcinoma group. The biological process of gene ontology function enrichment analysis on differentially expressed genes between high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia group and adenocarcinoma group showed that genes enriched in the extracellular structure organization, skeletal system development, biological adhesion and itself regulated growth regulation, with the P value after FDR correction of less than 0.05. In addition, IPR-related protein mainly focused on the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. The variable trends of gene expression profiles for adenoma-carcinoma sequence were mainly concentrated in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma. The differentially expressed genes are significantly correlated between high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia group and adenocarcinoma group. Bioinformatics analysis is an effective way to study the gene expression profiles in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, and may provide an effective tool to involve colorectal cancer research strategy into colorectal adenoma or advanced adenoma.

  19. Rotating night shift work, sleep, and colorectal adenoma in women.

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    Devore, Elizabeth E; Massa, Jennifer; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Schernhammer, Eva S; Wu, Kana; Zhang, Xuehong; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Chan, Andrew T; Ogino, Shuji; Giovannucci, Edward; Wei, Esther K

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the associations of rotating night shift work history and sleep duration with risk of colorectal adenoma. We evaluated 56,275 cancer-free participants of the Nurses' Health Study II, who had their first colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy between 1991 and 2011; rotating night shift work and sleep duration were reported by mailed questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) of colorectal adenoma, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), across categories of rotating night shift work history (none, 1-4, 5-9, and ≥10 years) and sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h/day). We found no association between duration of rotating night shift work and occurrence of colorectal adenoma (p-trend across shift work categories = 0.5). Women with the longest durations of rotating night shift work (≥10 years) had a similar risk of adenoma compared to women without a history of rotating night shift work (multivariable-adjusted RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.83-1.11). Similarly, there were no associations of shorter or longer sleep durations with adenoma risk (p-trend = 0.2 across sleep durations of ≤5 through 7 h/day and p-trend = 0.5 across sleep durations of 7 through ≥9 h/day). Results were similar when we examined associations according to adenoma location and subtype. Our results do not support an association between rotating night shift work or sleep duration and risk of colorectal adenoma in women.

  20. Histochemical alterations in colorectal carcinoma and adenoma in Egyptian patients

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    Saber A Sakr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the histochemical alterations in DNA and total carbohydrates, in colorectal cancer cells. Methods: This study was carried out on 48 colorectal carcinoma and 10 adenoma specimens. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was carried out for histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of tumor. Histologic grade and pathologic stage was assessed according to TNM staging system. Staging was also assessed according to original Dukes’ staging system. DNA was demonstrated by Feulgen method and carbohydrates were demonstrated by periodic acid Schiff’s reaction. Results: Adenoma cases showed that the cells lining the glands of the polyp have more crowded, irregular and darker nuclei (hyperchromatic, anisonucleosis, abnormal mitotic figures with prominent nucleoli and variability in the size and shape of nuclei. Colorectal carcinoma cases showed a condensation and reduction in the size of a cell nucleus associated with hyperchromatosis, pyknotic nuclei, abnormal mitotic figures, anisonucleosis, irregular nuclear membrane and inequality in the size of the nuclei (Pleomorphosis. There was a statistical significant differences between adenoma and carcinoma regarding number of mitotic cells (P = 0.03 that was in favour of malignant group. Adenoma and colorectal carcinoma cases showed periodic acid Schiff’s reactivity with different degree. Conclusions: These histochemical alterations can be so characteristic of a given tumor type and stage that they are used in cancer diagnosis and might also be related to the altered functional properties of cancer cells.

  1. Aspirin, Calcitriol, and Calcium Do Not Prevent Adenoma Recurrence in a Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Pommergaard, Hans Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    , and calcium carbonate could prevent colorectal adenoma recurrence. METHODS: We included 1107 patients with 1 or more sporadic adenoma(s) removed from the colon or rectum at centers in Europe, Russia, or the United States, from 2004 through 2010. Inclusion criteria were 1 adenoma greater than 1 cm in diameter...... found no differences between groups in the rate of recurrence (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.48), adverse effects, or secondary outcomes. Subgroup analyses indicated that the treatment effects may be influenced by smoking status (nonsmokers OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.26-1.22 vs...... current smokers OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.70-4.09; P value interaction prevent recurrence of colorectal adenomas over a 3-year period...

  2. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomas.

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    Randi, Giorgia; Edefonti, Valeria; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-07-01

    The association of colorectal cancer risk with select foods has been evaluated by dietary pattern analysis. This review of the literature was conducted to thoroughly examine the available evidence for the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancers and adenomas. A total of 32 articles based on worldwide epidemiological studies were identified. Pattern identification was achieved by exploratory data analyses (principal component, factor, and cluster analyses) in most articles, and only a few used a priori-defined scores. Dietary patterns named as healthy, prudent, fruit and vegetables, fat-reduced/diet foods, vegetable/fish/poultry, fruit/whole grain/dairy, and healthy eating index-2005, recommended food and Mediterranean diet scores were all associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and the risk estimates varied from 0.45 to 0.90. In contrast, diets named Western, pork-processed meat-potatoes, meat-eaters, meat and potatoes, traditional patterns, and dietary risk and life summary scores were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer with risk estimates varying from 1.18 to 11.7. Dietary patterns for adenomas were consistent with those identified for colorectal cancer.

  3. Potential targets for colorectal cancer prevention.

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    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the "proof of principle" that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  4. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Multiple Colorectal Adenoma Patients Without Germline APC or MYH Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieu, Alan H; Edelstein, Daniel; Axilbund, Jennifer; Romans, Katharine E; Brosens, Lodewijk; Wiley, Elizabeth; Hylind, Linda; Giardiello, Francis M

    BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple colorectal adenomas (MCRA) without genetic cause are increasingly being diagnosed. The characteristics and natural history of this condition are not well studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with MCRA, with cumulatively 10 to 99 colorectal adenomas

  6. Abdominal obesity as the colorectal adenomas risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Mylytsya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases, including colorectal cancer. Aim: to study association of the constitutional features (height, weight, waist circumference with detection of colon polyps on the screening colonoscopy. Materials and methods: Constitutional features (height, weight, waist circumference of 145 patients were assessed with detection of colon polyps on the screening colonoscopy for the period from 2013to 2015. Exclusion criteria were: cancer of any location in history, surgery within the past two years, the inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, HIV, AIDS, SLE, diabetes, chronic liver or kidney disease, family polyposis. Results: the presence of adenomas (OR = 6.0 CI: 2,2-16,7; multiplicity of polyps (the possibility that there will be ≥ 3 polyps was 6.4, CI: 1,4-29,9 were significantly higher in obese patients than in those with normal weight. Subjects with a waist circumference in the highest tertile (>115 cm, were 4.6 times more likely to identify ≥ 3 polyps than those with waist circumference in the lowest tertile (<96 cm . The probability of detection of adenomas in patients with a waist circumference in the highest tertile were 6.2 times higher than in the lowest tertile. Conclusions. Visceral obesity is associated with a morphological type and number of colon polyps. The presence of visceral obesity significantly increases the risk of colon adenomas. Increased visceral fat layer is an indication for colonoscopy especially of the right half of the colon examination. Screening colonoscopy should be recommended for the obese patients after 50 y.o. in order to diagnose adenomas of the colon and colorectal cancer.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the progression of colorectal adenoma to carcinoma : Matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in the colorectal adenoma and carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira K; Abdel-Aziz, Azza

    2014-06-01

    Most colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) are considered to arise from conventional adenoma based on the concept of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be overexpressed as normal mucosa progresses to adenomas and carcinomas. There has been little previous investigation about MMP-13 expression in adenoma-carcinoma sequence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of MMP-13 in colorectal adenoma and CRC specimens using tissue microarray (TMA) technique. A total of 40 cases of CRC associated with adenoma were collected from files of the Pathology laboratory at Mansoura Gastroenterology Center between January 2007 and January 2012. Sections from TMA blocks were prepared and stained for MMP-13. Immunoreactivity to MMP-13 staining was localized to the cytoplasm of mildly, moderately, and severely dysplatic cells of adenomas and CRC tumor cells that were either homogenous or heterogeneous. There was no significant difference in MMP-13 expression between adenomas and CRCs either non-mucinous or mucinous. Adenomas with high MMP-13 expression were significantly associated with moderate to marked degree of inflammatory cellular infiltrate and presence of familial adenomatous polyps. In conclusion, MMP-13 may be a potential biological marker of early tumorigenesis in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.

  8. Promoter methylation of Wnt-antagonists in polypoid and nonpolypoid colorectal adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorham, Quirinus JM; Mulder, Chris JJ; Engeland, Manon van; Meijer, Gerrit A; Steenbergen, Renske DM; Carvalho, Beatriz; Janssen, Jerry; Tijssen, Marianne; Snellenberg, Suzanne; Mongera, Sandra; Grieken, Nicole CT van; Grabsch, Heike; Kliment, Martin; Rembacken, Bjorn J

    2013-01-01

    Nonpolypoid adenomas are a subgroup of colorectal adenomas that have been associated with a more aggressive clinical behaviour compared to their polypoid counterparts. A substantial proportion of nonpolypoid and polypoid adenomas lack APC mutations, APC methylation or chromosomal loss of the APC locus on chromosome 5q, suggesting the involvement of other Wnt-pathway genes. The present study investigated promoter methylation of several Wnt-pathway antagonists in both nonpolypoid and polypoid adenomas. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) was used to evaluate methylation of four Wnt-antagonists, SFRP2, WIF-1, DKK3 and SOX17 in 18 normal colorectal mucosa samples, 9 colorectal cancer cell lines, 18 carcinomas, 44 nonpolypoid and 44 polypoid adenomas. Results were integrated with previously obtained data on APC mutation, methylation and chromosome 5q status from the same samples. Increased methylation of all genes was found in the majority of cell lines, adenomas and carcinomas compared to normal controls. WIF-1 and DKK3 showed a significantly lower level of methylation in nonpolypoid compared to polypoid adenomas (p < 0.01). Combining both adenoma types, a positive trend between APC mutation and both WIF-1 and DKK3 methylation was observed (p < 0.05). Methylation of Wnt-pathway antagonists represents an additional mechanism of constitutive Wnt-pathway activation in colorectal adenomas. Current results further substantiate the existence of partially alternative Wnt-pathway disruption mechanisms in nonpolypoid compared to polypoid adenomas, in line with previous observations

  9. Identification of an epigenetic biomarker panel with high sensitivity and specificity for colorectal cancer and adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Guro E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of cancer-specific DNA methylation patterns in epithelial colorectal cells in human feces provides the prospect of a simple, non-invasive screening test for colorectal cancer and its precursor, the adenoma. This study investigates a panel of epigenetic markers for the detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas. Methods Candidate biomarkers were subjected to quantitative methylation analysis in test sets of tissue samples from colorectal cancers, adenomas, and normal colonic mucosa. All findings were verified in independent clinical validation series. A total of 523 human samples were included in the study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the biomarker panel. Results Promoter hypermethylation of the genes CNRIP1, FBN1, INA, MAL, SNCA, and SPG20 was frequent in both colorectal cancers (65-94% and adenomas (35-91%, whereas normal mucosa samples were rarely (0-5% methylated. The combined sensitivity of at least two positives among the six markers was 94% for colorectal cancers and 93% for adenoma samples, with a specificity of 98%. The resulting areas under the ROC curve were 0.984 for cancers and 0.968 for adenomas versus normal mucosa. Conclusions The novel epigenetic marker panel shows very high sensitivity and specificity for both colorectal cancers and adenomas. Our findings suggest this biomarker panel to be highly suitable for early tumor detection.

  10. Mismatch repair deficiency commonly precedes adenoma formation in Lynch Syndrome-Associated colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Shigeki; Mori, Taisuke; Ogawa, Reiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Takeshi; Sugano, Kokichi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kato, Mamoru; Furukawa, Eisaku; Ochiai, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Lynch syndrome is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency is a ubiquitous feature of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenocarcinomas; however, it remains unclear when the MMR-deficient phenotype is acquired during tumorigenesis. To probe this issue, the present study examined genetic alterations and MMR statuses in Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas, in comparison with sporadic adenomas. Among the Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal tumors, 68 of 86 adenomas (79%) and all adenocarcinomas were MMR-deficient, whereas all the sporadic adenomas were MMR-proficient, as determined by microsatellite instability testing and immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins. Sequencing analyses identified APC or CTNNB1 mutations in the majority of sporadic adenomas (58/84, 69%) and MMR-proficient Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas (13/18, 72%). However, MMR-deficient Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas had less APC or CTNNB1 mutations (25/68, 37%) and frequent frameshift RNF43 mutations involving mononucleotide repeats (45/68, 66%). Furthermore, frameshift mutations affecting repeat sequences constituted 14 of 26 APC mutations (54%) in MMR-deficient adenomas whereas these frameshift mutations were rare in MMR-proficient adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome (1/12, 8%) and in sporadic adenomas (3/52, 6%). Lynch syndrome-associated adenocarcinomas exhibited mutation profiles similar to those of MMR-deficient adenomas. Considering that WNT pathway activation sufficiently drives colorectal adenoma formation, the distinct mutation profiles of WNT pathway genes in Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas suggest that MMR deficiency commonly precedes adenoma formation.

  11. The prevalence of colorectal adenomas in asymptomatic Korean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Moon Hee; Rampal, Sanjay; Sung, Jidong; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Son, Hee Jung; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Young-Ho; Chang, Dong Kyung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Rhee, Jong Chul; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence is rapidly rising in many Asian countries, with rates approaching those of Western countries. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and trends of colorectal adenomas by age, sex, and risk strata in asymptomatic Koreans. Cross-sectional study of 19,372 consecutive participants aged 20 to 79 years undergoing screening colonoscopy at the Center for Health Promotion of the Samsung Medical Center in Korea from January 2006 to June 2009. Among participants at average risk, those without a history of colorectal polyps or a family history of colorectal cancer, the prevalence of colorectal adenomas and advanced adenomas were 34.5% and 3.1%, respectively, in men and 20.0% and 1.6%, respectively, in women. The prevalence of adenomas increased with age in both men and women, with a more marked increase for advanced adenoma. Participants with a family history of colorectal cancer or with a history of colorectal polyps had significantly higher prevalence of adenomas compared with participants of average risk (36.9% vs. 26.9%; age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.22). The prevalence of adenomas increased annually in both men and women. In this large study of asymptomatic Korean men and women participating in a colonoscopy screening program, the prevalence of colorectal adenomas was comparable and possibly higher than previously reported in Western countries. Cost-effectiveness studies investigating the optimal age for starting colonoscopy screening and etiological studies to identify the reasons for the increasing trend in colorectal adenomas in Koreans are needed. ©2014 AACR.

  12. Dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas in Lynch syndrome: the GEOLynch cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.; Vasen, H.F.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing colorectal cancer due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Because dietary factors, alone and in combination, influence sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, the association of dietary patterns with colorectal adenomas in

  13. Dietary Patterns and Colorectal Adenomas in Lynch Syndrome: The GEOLynch Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.; Vasen, H.F.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing colorectal cancer due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Because dietary factors, alone and in combination, influence sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, the association of dietary patterns with colorectal adenomas in

  14. Dietary Patterns and Colorectal Adenomas in Lynch Syndrome The GEOLynch Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, Akke; Vasen, Hans F. A.; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kampman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing colorectal cancer due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Because dietary factors, alone and in combination, influence sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, the association of dietary patterns with colorectal adenomas in

  15. Dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas in Lynch syndrome: the GEOLynch cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botma, Akke; Vasen, Hans F A; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Nagengast, Fokko M; Kampman, Ellen

    2013-02-01

    Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing colorectal cancer due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Because dietary factors, alone and in combination, influence sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, the association of dietary patterns with colorectal adenomas in LS patients was assessed. In the GEOLynch cohort of 486 persons with LS, dietary information was collected, using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary pattern scores were obtained by principal components analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas were calculated using Cox regression models. Robust sandwich variance estimates were used to control for dependency within families. Final models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking habits, colorectal adenoma history, and extent of colon resection. During a median follow-up of 20 months, colorectal adenomas were detected in 58 persons. Four dietary patterns were identified: a "Prudent," "Meat," "Snack," and "Cosmopolitan" pattern. Individuals within the highest tertile of the "Prudent" pattern had a HR of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-1.66) for colorectal adenomas, compared with the lowest tertile. Those with high "Meat" pattern scores had a HR of 1.70 (95% CI, 0.83-3.52). A high "Snack" pattern was associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.03-4.49). A HR of 1.25 (95% CI, 0.61-2.55) was observed for persons in the highest tertile of the "Cosmopolitan" pattern. These findings suggest that dietary patterns may be associated with development of colorectal adenoma in patients with Lynch syndrome. The directions of these findings are corroborative with those observed in studies investigating sporadic colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  16. Genetic variation in the base excision repair pathway, environmental risk factors, and colorectal adenoma risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Corral

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking, high alcohol intake, and low dietary folate levels are risk factors for colorectal adenomas. Oxidative damage caused by these three factors can be repaired through the base excision repair pathway (BER. We hypothesized that genetic variation in BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. In a sigmoidoscopy-based study, we examined associations between 182 haplotype tagging SNPs in 14 BER genes, and colorectal adenoma risk, and examined their potential role as modifiers of the effect cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and dietary folate levels. Among all individuals, no statistically significant associations between BER SNPs and adenoma risk persisted after correction for multiple comparisons. However, among Asian-Pacific Islanders we observed two SNPs in FEN1 and one in NTHL1, and among African-Americans one SNP in APEX1 that were associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Significant associations were also observed between SNPs in the NEIL2 gene and rectal adenoma risk. Three SNPS modified the effect of smoking (MUTYH interaction p = 0.002; OGG1 interaction p = 0.013; FEN1 interaction p = 0.013, one SNP in LIG3 modified the effect of alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.024 and two SNPs in LIG3 modified the effect of dietary folate (interaction p = 0.001 and p = 0.08 on colorectal adenoma risk. These findings support a role for genetic variants in the BER pathway as potential modifiers of colorectal adenoma risk. Our findings strengthen the role of oxidative damage induced by key lifestyle and dietary risk factors in colorectal adenoma formation.

  17. Increased rectal microbial richness is associated with the presence of colorectal adenomas in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sanapareddy, Nina; Legge, Ryan M; Jovov, Biljana; McCoy, Amber; Burcal, Lauren; Araujo-Perez, Felix; Randall, Thomas A; Galanko, Joseph; Benson, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S; Rawls, John F; Abdo, Zaid; Fodor, Anthony A; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-01-01

    Differences in the composition of the gut microbial community have been associated with diseases such as obesity, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC). We used 454 titanium pyrosequencing of the V1–V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize adherent bacterial communities in mucosal biopsy samples from 33 subjects with adenomas and 38 subjects without adenomas (controls). Biopsy samples from subjects with adenomas had greater numbers of bacteria fr...

  18. Risk of colorectal adenomas in patients with celiac disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, J; Rausch, A; Zubiaurre, I

    2018-02-05

    Whether celiac disease increases the risk of presenting with colorectal adenoma or not, has not been extensively evaluated. This question becomes relevant when considering early screening methods in patients with the disease. The aim of our article was to determine the risk of colorectal adenomas in celiac disease patients. A computer-assisted search of the MEDLINE-Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases was carried out, encompassing the time frame of 1966 to December 2016. The search strategy consisted of the following MESH terms: 'celiac disease' OR 'celiac sprue' AND 'colorectal' OR 'colorectal neoplasia' OR 'colorectal adenoma'. A fixed-effect model was used for the analyses. The first analysis dealt with the prevalence of all presentations of colorectal adenoma in patients with celiac disease and the second was on the prevalence of advanced adenomas. The outcomes were described as odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals. The search identified 480 bibliographic citations, 17 of which were chosen for evaluation. Fourteen of those studies were rejected, leaving a final total of three for the analysis. Those studies included 367 cases of celiac disease and 682 controls. No significant heterogeneity was observed (I 2 =26%). There was no increased prevalence of colorectal adenomas in the celiac disease patients, when compared with the controls (OR: 0.94 [0.65-1.38]), and no significant difference was observed when assessing the prevalence of advanced adenomas (OR: 0.97 [0.48-1.97]). Celiac disease was not associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas. However, due to the limited evidence available, more studies are necessary to determine whether there is an actual association. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Kininogen 1 as a Serum Protein Marker of Colorectal Adenoma in Patients with a Family History of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiekai; Huang, Yanqin; Lin, Chen; Li, Xiaofen; Fang, Xuefeng; Zhong, Chenhan; Yuan, Ying; Zheng, Shu

    2018-01-01

    The serum protein markers of colorectal adenoma in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer have been rarely reported. Serum samples from colorectal adenoma patients with or without a family history of colorectal cancer and healthy controls were profiled using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The model to distinguish colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer from atypical hereditary colorectal families (CRA-H) and sporadic colorectal adenoma patients without a family history of colorectal cancer (CRA-S) was established with 85.0% accuracy. The model distinguishing CRA-H from healthy individuals was established with 90.0% specificity and 86.7% sensitivity. Additionally, five peaks (2202, 5821, 3260, 2480, and 2218) showing differential expression in advanced colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer were selected. The protein Kininogen 1 (KNG1) was identified in colorectal adenoma patients and validated using Western Blotting. KNG1 may be a biomarker for colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer. PMID:29535795

  20. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen-Ling; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Wan-Ju; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Most cases of colorectal cancer develop via an adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Gallbladder polyps share some risk factors with colorectal polyps. Little is known about the relationship between gallbladder diseases and different status of colorectal polyps by gender. This study was to investigate the association of gallbladder stones and polyps with colorectal adenomas by gender in a Taiwanese population. A total of 7066 eligible subjects who underwent a total colonoscopy as a part of health check-up between January 2001 and August 2009 were recruited. Colonoscopic findings were classified into polyp-free, non-neoplastic polyps and colorectal adenomas. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps were diagnosed based on ultrasonographic findings. There was a significant difference in the status of colon polyps between subjects with and without gallbladder polyps. However, the status of colon polyps was not significantly different between subjects with or without gallbladder stones. After adjusting obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and other variables, there was a positive relationship between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenomas (odds ratio [OR]: 1.396, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.115-1.747) but not non-neoplastic polyps in all subjects. In men, gallbladder polyps (OR: 1.560, 95% CI: 1.204-2.019) and gallbladder stones (OR: 1.465, 95% CI 1.081-1.984) were positively associated with colorectal adenomas. In women, neither gallbladder polyps nor gallbladder stones were significantly related to colon polyps. Both gallbladder polyps and gallbladder stones were associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas in men but not in women. Gender difference was significant for the association between gallbladder lesions and colorectal polyps. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Meat, vegetables and genetic polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, Camilla F; Sæbø, Mona; Hjartåker, Anette; Grotmol, Tom; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Tveit, Kjell M; Hoff, Geir; Kure, Elin H

    2007-01-01

    The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is mainly associated with lifestyle factors, particularly dietary factors. Diets high in red meat and fat and low in fruit and vegetables are associated with an increased risk of CRC. The dietary effects may be modulated by genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation genes. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of dietary factors in combination with genetic factors in the different stages of colorectal carcinogenesis in a Norwegian population. We used a case-control study design (234 carcinomas, 229 high-risk adenomas, 762 low-risk adenomas and 400 controls) to test the association between dietary factors (meat versus fruit, berries and vegetables) genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 Ile 105 Val, EPHX1 Tyr 113 His and EPHX1 His 139 Arg), and risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression. A higher ratio of total meat to total fruit, berry and vegetable intake was positively associated with both high and low-risk adenomas, with approximately twice the higher risk in the 2 nd quartile compared to the lowest quartile. For the high-risk adenomas this positive association was more obvious for the common allele (Tyr allele) of the EPHX1 codon 113 polymorphism. An association was also observed for the EPHX1 codon 113 polymorphism in the low-risk adenomas, although not as obvious. Although, the majority of the comparison groups are not significant, our results suggest an increased risk of colorectal adenomas in individuals for some of the higher ratios of total meat to total fruit, berry and vegetable intake. In addition the study supports the notion that the biotransformation enzymes GSTM1, GSTP1 and EPHX1 may modify the effect of dietary factors on the risk of developing colorectal carcinoma and adenoma

  2. Polymorphisms in heterocyclic aromatic amines metabolism-related genes are associated with colorectal adenoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichholzer, Monika; Rohrmann, Sabine; Barbir, Aline; Hermann, Silke; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal adenoma (CRA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risks have been linked to the intake of red and processed meat. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) formed herein during high temperature cooking, are metabolized by a variety of enzymes, and allelic variation in the coding genes could influence individual CRA risk. Associations of polymorphisms in NAT1, NAT2, GSTA1, SULT1A1, CYP1A2, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, GSTP1 genes with colorectal adenoma risk were investigated in a nested case-control study of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort including 428 cases matched by age, sex and year of recruitment with one or two controls (n=828) with negative colonoscopy per case. Genoyping was preformed with the Sequenom MassArray system and the LightCycler 480. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). For rs15561 (NAT1) and rs1057126 (NAT1), the rarer allel was significantly inversely associated with adenoma risk OR=0.80 (95% CI 0.65-0.97) and (OR=0.81 (95% CI 0.65-0.99) and, respectively). For the combined NAT2 alleles encoding for enzymes with medium (versus slow) activity we also observed a significantly inverse association with adenoma risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.85-0.97). In addition, homozygous carriers of the A allele of rs3957357 (GSTA1), i.e., those with a decreased enzyme activity, had a decreased risk of colorectal adenoma with an OR of 0.68 (95% CI 0.50-0.92; AA versus GG/GA). Polymorphisms in the other tested genes did not modify the risk of colorectal adenomas. In conclusion, polymorphisms in NAT1, NAT2, and GSTA1 are related to colorectal adenoma risk in this German cohort.

  3. Serum Interleukin-6, insulin, and HOMA-IR in male individuals with colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yu; Takeda, Hiroaki; Sato, Takeshi; Orii, Tomohiko; Nishise, Shoichi; Nagino, Ko; Iwano, Daisuke; Yaoita, Takao; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Saito, Hideki; Tanaka, Yasuhisa; Kawata, Sumio

    2012-01-15

    It is widely acknowledged that chronic low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The level of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6), one of the major proinflammatory adipokines, is correlated with obesity and insulin resistance, which are known to be risk factors for colorectal adenoma. We examined the association between the circulating level of IL-6 and the presence of colorectal adenoma. In a total colonoscopy-based cross-sectional study conducted between January and December 2008, serum levels of IL-6 were measured in samples of venous blood obtained from 336 male participants attending health checkups (118 individuals with colorectal adenoma and 218 age-matched controls) after an overnight fast. In the colorectal adenoma group, the median levels of serum IL-6 (1.24 vs. 1.04 pg/mL; P = 0.01), triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were to be significantly higher than those in the control group. When restricted to individuals with adenoma, levels of IL-6 were positively correlated with body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic analyses adjusted to include insulin or HOMA-IR showed that high levels of IL-6 were associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma. There was no significant interaction of IL-6 with HOMA-IR to modify this association. Our findings suggest that increased serum levels of IL-6 are positively associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma in men, independently of insulin and HOMA-IR. ©2011 AACR.

  4. Interobserver agreement in the histologic diagnosis of colorectal polyps. the experience of the multicenter adenoma colorectal study (SMAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Massimo; Sciallero, Stefania; Giannini, Augusto; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Rinaldi, Paolo; Lanzanova, Giuseppe; Bonelli, Luigina; Casetti, Tino; Bertinelli, Elisabetta; Giuliani, Orietta; Castiglione, Guido; Mantellini, Paola; Naldoni, Carlo; Bruzzi, Paolo

    2003-03-01

    Current clinical practice guidelines for patients with colorectal polyps are mainly based on the histologic characteristics of their lesions. However, interobserver variability in the assessment of specific polyp characteristics was evaluated in very few studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interobserver agreement of four pathologists in the diagnosis of histologic type of colorectal polyps and in the degree of dysplasia and of infiltrating carcinoma in adenomas. A stratified random sample of 100 polyps was obtained from the 4,889 polyps resected within the Multicentre Adenoma Colorectal Study (SMAC), and the slides were blindly reviewed by the four pathologists. Agreement was analyzed using kappa statistics. A median kappa of 0.89 (range 0.79-1.0) was estimated for the interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of hyperplastic polyp vs. adenoma. The agreement in the diagnosis of tubular, tubulovillous, and villous type, was given by median kappa values of 0.50, 0.15, and 0.36, respectively. The median kappa for the diagnosis of infiltrating carcinoma was 0.78 (range 0.73-0.84). Agreement on diagnosis of adenoma histologic subtypes, degrees of dysplasia, or infiltrating carcinoma in adenoma was moderate. A simpler classifications might help to better identify patients at different risk of colorectal cancer.

  5. Immunohistochemistry expression of TCF4 protein on carcinoma, adenoma and non neoplastic colorectal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Huber Tauil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect and quantify the immunoreactivity of TCF4 protein in colorectal carci- noma, colorectal adenoma and non-neoplasic colorectal epithelium. Methods: We studied 129 individuals: 40 with colorectal cancer, 52 with colorectal ad- enoma and 37 with non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium. The colorectal adenoma and carcinoma samples were obtained from patients who underwent surgical procedures, and colonoscopies and samples of non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium were taken from patients who died from cardiovascular diseases, without diseases of the large intestine. Samples of different tissues were included in paraffin blocks, and the immunohistochem- ical expression of protein TCF4 was analyzed using the technique of tissue microarray (TMA with polyclonal antibody TCF4. The immunoreactivity was analyzed and classified as positive and negative. Results: The immunohistochemical expression of TCF4 protein was significantly higher (p < 0.01 in colorectal carcinoma than in the non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium and adenoma. There was no difference (p = 0.76 between TCF4 protein immunohistochemical expression in colorectal adenoma and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Conclusions: TCF4 protein showed a more intense expression in colorectal carcinoma than in non-neoplastic colorectal epithelium and adenoma, indicating that this protein is in- volved in colorectal carcinogenesis. Resumo: Objetivos: Detectar e quantificar a imunoexpressão da proteína TCF4 no carcinoma e no adenoma colorretal e no epitélio colorretal não neoplásico. Método: Foram estudados 129 indivíduos: 40 com carcinoma colorretal, 52 com adenoma colorretal e 37 com epitélio colorretal não neoplásico. Os tecidos de adenoma e carcinoma colorretais foram representados por amostras da lesão retirada de doentes submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos e colonoscópicos, e as amostras de epitélio colorretal não neo- plásico foram retiradas de doentes falecidos por

  6. Central obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia in metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk for colorectal adenoma in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tsann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS is composed of cardiovascular risk factors including insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Most of the components of MetS have been linked to the development of neoplasm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual components of MetS and colorectal adenoma. Methods The study subjects were recruited from a pool of 4872 individuals who underwent a health check-up examination during the period January 2006 to May 2008. Each participant fulfilled a structured questionnaire. MetS was defined based on the America Heart Association and National Heart Lung Blood Institute criteria. Subjects with history of colon cancer, colon polyps, colitis, or prior colonic surgery were excluded. Results A total of 4122 subjects were included for final analysis (2367 men and 1755 women; mean age, 49.6 ± 11.7 years. Of them, MetS was diagnosed in 708 men (29.9% and in 367 women (20.9%. Among the patients with MetS, 34.6% had adenoma, 31.7% had hyperplastic polyps and 23.3% were polyp-free (p Conclusions Of the components of MetS analyzed in this study, central obesity and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for colorectal adenoma. With regard to the prevention of colorectal neoplasm, life-style modification such as weight reduction is worthwhile.

  7. Dietary meat intake in relation to colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I; Mayne, Susan T; Ma, Xiaomei; Schatzkin, Arthur; Schoenfeld, Philip S; Cash, Brooks D; Flood, Andrew; Cross, Amanda J

    2009-05-01

    No previous study has concurrently assessed the associations between meat intake, meat-cooking methods and doneness levels, meat mutagens (heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heme iron, and nitrite from meat and colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic women undergoing colonoscopy. Of the 807 eligible women in a cross-sectional multicenter colonoscopy screening study, 158 prevalent colorectal adenoma cases and 649 controls satisfactorily completed the validated food frequency and meat questionnaires. Using an established meat mutagen database and new heme iron and nitrite databases, we comprehensively investigated the components of meat that may be involved in carcinogenesis. Using logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) within quartiles of meat-related variables. Red meat was associated positively with colorectal adenoma (OR fourth vs. first quartile = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.06-3.83; P trend = 0.38). Intake of pan-fried meat (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 0.96-3.07; P trend = 0.01) and the HCA: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) (OR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.05-3.42; P trend = 0.07) were also associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. The new databases yielded lower estimates of heme iron and nitrite than previous assessment methods, although the two methods were highly correlated for both exposures. Although not statistically significant, there were positive associations between iron and heme iron from meat and colorectal adenoma. In asymptomatic women undergoing colonoscopy, colorectal adenomas were associated with high intake of red meat, pan-fried meat, and the HCA MeIQx. Other meat-related exposures require further investigation.

  8. Increased rectal microbial richness is associated with the presence of colorectal adenomas in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanapareddy, Nina; Legge, Ryan M; Jovov, Biljana; McCoy, Amber; Burcal, Lauren; Araujo-Perez, Felix; Randall, Thomas A; Galanko, Joseph; Benson, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S; Rawls, John F; Abdo, Zaid; Fodor, Anthony A; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-10-01

    Differences in the composition of the gut microbial community have been associated with diseases such as obesity, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC). We used 454 titanium pyrosequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize adherent bacterial communities in mucosal biopsy samples from 33 subjects with adenomas and 38 subjects without adenomas (controls). Biopsy samples from subjects with adenomas had greater numbers of bacteria from 87 taxa than controls; only 5 taxa were more abundant in control samples. The magnitude of the differences in the distal gut microbiota between patients with adenomas and controls was more pronounced than that of any other clinical parameters including obesity, diet or family history of CRC. This suggests that sequence analysis of the microbiota could be used to identify patients at risk for developing adenomas.

  9. Dietary protein and fat intake in relation to risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases).The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25-0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history of

  10. Dietary patterns and colorectal adenoma and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Lesko, Samuel M; Muscat, Joshua E; Lazarus, Philip; Hartman, Terryl J

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies exploring associations between individual dietary components and colorectal adenoma or cancer risk have yielded conflicting results. The study of food-based dietary patterns in relation to chronic disease risk represents an alternative approach to the evaluation of single dietary exposures in epidemiological investigations. Results from prospective cohort and population-based case-control studies examining associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer or adenoma risk were evaluated and described in this review. Despite notable differences in population characteristics, study design, and methods used for characterizing dietary patterns across the different studies, two general dietary patterns were found to modestly predict colorectal adenoma and cancer risk. A healthier pattern consisting of greater intakes of fruits and vegetables, and lower intakes of red and processed meat, appeared protective against colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence. Findings also suggest that a less healthy pattern characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meat, as well as potatoes and refined carbohydrates, may increase risk. Continued research efforts are needed to evaluate the cumulative and interactive effects of numerous dietary exposures on colorectal cancer risk.

  11. Investigation into the controversial association of Streptococcus gallolyticus with colorectal cancer and adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulamir, Ahmed S; Hafidh, Rand R; Mahdi, Layla K; Al-jeboori, Tarik; Abubaker, Fatimah

    2009-01-01

    The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus, CIP 105428, was evaluated to investigate the controversial association of S. gallolyticus with colorectal carcinoma and adenoma in attempt to investigate the nature of such association if any, by exploring the mRNA expression of NF-κB and IL-8. Moreover, the serological behavior of S. gallolyticus IgG antibodies was compared to that of an indicator bacterium of bowel, Bacteroides fragilis. ELISA was used to measure IgG antibodies of S. gallolyticus and B. fragilis in sera of 50 colorectal cancer, 14 colorectal adenoma patients, 30 age- and sex- matched apparently healthy volunteers (HV) and 30 age- and sex- matched colonoscopically-proven tumor-free control subjects. NF-κB and IL-8 mRNA expression was evaluated in tumorous and non-tumorous tissue sections of carcinoma and adenoma patients in comparison with that of control subjects by using in situ hybridization assay. Colorectal cancer and adenoma patients were associated with higher levels of serum S. gallolyticus IgG antibodies in comparison with HV and control subjects (P < 0.05) while no similar association was found with serum IgG antibodies of B. fragilis (P > 0.05). ELISA cutoff value for the seropositivity of S. gallolyticus IgG was calculated from tumor-free control group. The expression of NF-κB mRNA was higher in tumorous than non-tumorous tissue sections of adenoma and carcinoma, higher in carcinoma/adenoma sections than in control subjects, higher in tumorous sections of carcinoma than in adenoma patients, and higher in S. gallolyticus IgG seropositive than in seronegative groups in both tumorous and non-tumorous sections (P < 0.05). IL-8 mRNA expression in tumorous sections of adenoma and carcinoma was higher than in non-tumorous sections, higher in carcinoma/adenoma than in control subjects, and higher in S. gallolyticus IgG seropositive than in seronegative groups in tumorous rather than non

  12. A diet high in fruits and low in meats reduces the risk of colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory L; Adair, Linda S; Galanko, Joseph A; Martin, Christopher F; Satia, Jessie A; Sandler, Robert S

    2007-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests overall dietary patterns, rather than specific dietary components, may be a better predictor of colorectal adenomas or cancers. Using cluster analysis, we aimed to assess the association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas and whether adjusting for total energy consumption prior to creating clusters affects this relation. Data from a case-control study of 725 individuals undergoing a colonoscopy were utilized. Cases (n = 203) had > or =1 adenoma on colonoscopy, and controls (n = 522) were those who had no adenomas. Dietary data were obtained from an FFQ. Daily intake for 18 different food groups was calculated. The values were transformed into Z-scores. Participants were first clustered without energy adjustment, then again based on their consumption per 1000 kcal (4187 kJ). There was no association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas without energy adjustment prior to creating dietary clusters, as clusters formed as a by-product of energy consumption. After adjusting for energy consumption, 3 distinct clusters emerged: 1) high fruit-low meat cluster; 2) high vegetable-moderate meat cluster; and 3) high meat cluster. After adjusting for potential confounders, the high vegetable-moderate meat cluster (odds ratio [OR] 2.17: [95% CI] 1.20-3.90) and high meat cluster (OR 1.70: [95% CI] 1.04-2.80) were at significantly increased odds of having had an adenoma compared with the high fruit-low meat cluster. A high-fruit, low-meat diet appears to be protective against colorectal adenomas compared with a dietary pattern of increased vegetable and meat consumption.

  13. Advanced colorectal adenoma related gene expression signature may predict prognostic for colorectal cancer patients with adenoma-carcinoma sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bing; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Liao, Dai-Xiang; Cao, Bang-Rong; Luo, Cheng-Hua; Cheng, Shu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are still no absolute parameters predicting progression of adenoma into cancer. The present study aimed to characterize functional differences on the multistep carcinogenetic process from the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Methods: All samples were collected and mRNA expression profiling was performed by using Agilent Microarray high-throughput gene-chip technology. Then, the characteristics of mRNA expression profiles of adenoma-carcinoma sequence were described with bioinform...

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression is common in serrated and non-serrated colorectal adenoma, but uncommon in hyperplastic polyp and sessile serrated polyp/adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, PTGS2 plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. COX-2 overexpression in colorectal cancer is inversely associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Evidence suggests that MSI/CIMP+ colorectal cancer may arise through the serrated tumorigenic pathway through various forms of serrated neoplasias. Therefore, we hypothesized that COX-2 may play a less important role in the serrated pathway. Methods By immunohistochemistry, we assessed COX-2 expression in 24 hyperplastic polyps, 7 sessile serrated polyp/adenomas (SSA, 5 mixed polyps with SSA and adenoma, 27 traditional serrated adenomas, 515 non-serrated adenomas (tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma and villous adenoma, 33 adenomas with intramucosal carcinomas, 96 adenocarcinomas with serration (corkscrew gland and 111 adenocarcinomas without serration. Results Strong (2+ COX-2 overexpression was more common in non-serrated adenomas (28% = 143/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (4.2% = 1/24, p = 0.008 and serrated polyps (7 SSAs and 5 mixed polyps (0% = 0/12, p = 0.04. Furthermore, any (1+/2+ COX-2 overexpression was more frequent in non-serrated adenomas (60% = 307/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (13% = 3/24, p Conclusion COX-2 overexpression is infrequent in hyperplastic polyp, SSA and mixed polyp with SSA and adenoma, compared to non-serrated and serrated adenoma. COX-2 overexpression becomes more frequent as tumors progress to higher grade neoplasias. Our observations suggest that COX-2 may play a less significant role in the serrated pathway of tumorigenesis; however, COX-2 may still play a role in later stage of the serrated pathway.

  15. Family history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives and metachronous colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Gupta, Samir; Baron, John A; Cross, Amanda J; Lieberman, David A; Murphy, Gwen; Martínez, María Elena

    2018-02-20

    Little is known about the relationship between having a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) and risk for metachronous colorectal adenoma (CRA) following polypectomy. We pooled data from seven prospective studies of 7697 patients with previously resected CRAs to quantify the relationship between having a FDR with CRC and risk for metachronous adenoma. Compared with having no family history of CRC, a positive family history in any FDR was significantly associated with increased odds of developing any metachronous CRA (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.01-1.29). Higher odds of CRA were observed among individuals with an affected mother (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.05-1.53) or sibling (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.11-1.62) as compared with those without, whereas no association was shown for individuals with an affected father. Odds of having a metachronous CRA increased with number of affected FDRs, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.07 (0.93-1.23) for one relative and 1.39 (1.02-1.91) for two or more. Younger age of diagnosis of a sibling was associated with higher odds of metachronous CRA, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.66 (1.08-2.56) for diagnosis at 65 years (p-trend = 0.008). Although limited by sample size, results for advanced metachronous CRA were similar to those for any metachronous CRA. A family history of CRC is related to a modestly increased odds of metachronous CRA. Future research should explore whether having a FDR with CRC, particularly at a young age, should have a role in risk stratification for surveillance colonoscopy.

  16. Prognostic significance of fascin expression in advanced colorectal cancer: an immunohistochemical study of colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yosuke; Skacel, Marek; Lavery, Ian C; Mukherjee, Abir L; Casey, Graham; Adams, Josephine C

    2006-01-01

    Fascin is an actin bundling protein with roles in the formation of cell protrusions and motility of mesenchymal and neuronal cells. Fascin is normally low or absent from epithelia, but is upregulated in several epithelial neoplasms where it may contribute to an invasive phenotype. Here, we report on the prevalence and potential clinical significance of fascin expression in relation to the progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma and to tumor cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 index. Conventional tissue sections of 107 colorectal adenomas and 35 adenocarcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for fascin and Ki67 expression. Fascin expression and Ki67 proliferation index were also investigated by use of a tissue microarray containing cores from a further 158 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 15 adenomas linked to a CCF, IRB-approved database with a mean of 38 months of clinical follow-up. Survival analysis was carried out by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Fascin was not expressed by the normal colonic epithelium. In conventional sections, 16% of adenomas and 26% of adenocarcinomas showed fascin expression in greater than 10% of the tumor cells. In the clinically-annotated tumors, fascin immunoreactivity was more common in tumors located in the proximal colon (p = 0.009), but was not associated with age, gender, or TNM stage. Patients with stage III/IV adenocarcinomas (n = 62) with strong fascin immunoreactivity had a worse prognosis than patients with low or absent fascin, (3-year overall survival of 11% versus 43% for fascin-negative patients; p = 0.023). In adenomas, fascin and Ki67 tended to be inversely correlated at the cellular level; this trend was less apparent in adenocarcinomas. Fascin is upregulated in a proportion of adenomas, where its expression is often focal. Strong and diffuse expression was seen in a subset of advanced colorectal adenocarcinomas that correlated with shorter survival in stage III and IV patients. Fascin may have

  17. High serum alanine aminotransferase is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chang Mo; Yun, Kyung Eun; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Park, Dong Il

    2017-07-01

    An elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is frequently observed in subjects with metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA). However, the relationship between ALT and CRA remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether high serum ALT is associated with the risk of CRA in a metabolically healthy population. We conducted this cross-sectional study in 27,717 asymptomatic Korean adults who underwent a health checkup. Subjects were categorized as adenoma-free, hyperplastic polyp, low-risk adenoma, or high-risk adenoma. High-risk adenoma was defined as three or more adenomas, any adenoma ≥ 10 mm, or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia or villous features. Among all participants, 10.3% and 1.5% of cases were categorized as low-risk and high-risk adenoma, respectively. In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol intake, regular exercise, aspirin and analgesics use, family history of colon cancer, education level, fatty liver, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, an increase in ALT was positively associated with the prevalence of low-risk and high-risk adenoma (P for trend = 0.029 and 0.027, respectively). The highest quartile group of ALT level showed a significantly increased prevalence in low-risk (odds ratio, 1.17) and high-risk adenoma (odds ratio, 1.48) groups compared with the lowest quartile group. This phenomenon persisted in the subgroup analysis in men, but not in women. In the asymptomatic healthy population, high serum ALT is significantly associated with the risk of CRA. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Current and future molecular diagnostics in colorectal cancer and colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Andy Hin-Fung; Cheng, Ka-Ho; Wong, Apple Siu-Ping; Ng, Simon Siu-Man; Ma, Brigette Buig-Yue; Chan, Charles Ming-Lok; Tsui, Nancy Bo-Yin; Chan, Lawrence Wing-Chi; Yung, Benjamin Yat-Ming; Wong, Sze-Chuen Cesar

    2014-04-14

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in developed countries. On the other hand, CRC is also one of the most curable cancers if it is detected in early stages through regular colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Since CRC develops slowly from precancerous lesions, early detection can reduce both the incidence and mortality of the disease. Fecal occult blood test is a widely used non-invasive screening tool for CRC. Although fecal occult blood test is simple and cost-effective in screening CRC, there is room for improvement in terms of the accuracy of the test. Genetic dysregulations have been found to play an important role in CRC development. With better understanding of the molecular basis of CRC, there is a growing expectation on the development of diagnostic tests based on more sensitive and specific molecular markers and those tests may provide a breakthrough to the limitations of current screening tests for CRC. In this review, the molecular basis of CRC development, the characteristics and applications of different non-invasive molecular biomarkers, as well as the technologies available for the detection were discussed. This review intended to provide a summary on the current and future molecular diagnostics in CRC and its pre-malignant state, colorectal adenoma.

  19. Diet, Lifestyle and risk of K-ras mutation-positive and -negative colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wark, P.A.; Kuil, van der W.; Ploemacher, J.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Mulder, Ch.J.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2006-01-01

    K-ras mutation-positive (K-ras+) and -negative (K-ras-) colorectal adenomas may differ clinically and pathologically. As environmental compounds may cause mutations in the growth-related K-ras oncogene or affect clonal selection depending on mutational status, we evaluated whether the aetiology of

  20. Diet and lifestyle intervention among patients with colorectal adenomas: rationale and design of a Malaysian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Mirnalini; Ramadas, Amutha; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Gul, Yunus Gul Alif

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of the large body of consistent evidence from laboratory, epidemiologic and clinical studies has led to the conclusion that modification of the dietary and lifestyle patterns of populations has considerable potential for reducing cancer risk. This paper describes a randomized-controlled trial involving a diet and lifestyle intervention for patients with history of colorectal adenomas. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention with reference to recurrence of adenomatous polyps over a two year period--the first year being the intervention period and the second year of the study allowing for post-intervention follow-up. Subjects found to fit the inclusion criteria are recruited and randomized to two groups: the intervention group and the control group. The intervention group subjects will attend a monthly lecture-discussion session for 10 months and small group counseling on modification of lifestyle behavior and diet as well as receive educational materials which were adapted from the WCRF Diet and Health Recommendations for Cancer Prevention. Control subjects will be provided with the usual care given to such patients. One hundred and sixteen patients who were diagnosed with colorectal adenomatous polyps in the previous twelve months at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur have already been enrolled in this trial. Baseline data collection is on-going.

  1. Costs of Finding an Advanced Adenoma in Colorectal Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome B Simon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors used computerized decision analysis to estimate the costs of finding and removing an advanced colonic adenoma in patients referred because of a positive fecal occult blood test. An advanced adenoma was defined as a villous adenoma, a tubular adenoma 10 mm or more in size, or a lesion that harboured highgrade dysplasia or cancer. Four strategies were compared: flexible sigmoidoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy plus air contrast barium enema, virtual colonoscopy (CT colography and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy with polypectomy was undertaken if any of the methods detected a polyp. Probabilities and test characteristics were determined from the literature, and costs were estimated from the provincial fee schedule (Ontario and local hospital sources. With an assumed 17% probability of an advanced adenoma being present, sigmoidoscopy was the most cost effective strategy at $1930 to find and clear an advanced lesion, but the procredure missed between one-third and almost one-half of the lesions, depending on the depth of insertion. At $2290, colonoscopy was slightly more expensive than sigmoidoscopy and more cost effective than either sigmoidoscopy plus barium enema ($2840 or virtual colonoscopy ($3681, neither of which detected as many advanced adenomas. The authors concluded that colonoscopy is the preferred investigative strategy and that improved access to colonoscopy is an important goal for occult blood screening programs.

  2. DNA aneuploidy in colorectal adenomas: Role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence Aneuploidía del ADN en adenomas colónicos: Papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alcántara Torres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: aneuploidy has been observed in 6-27% of lesions known to be precursors of colorectal cancer, such as adenomas or ulcerative colitis. It has been suggested that aneuploidy may predispose to malignancy in these cases. However, its role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence has not been definitely established. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of aneuploidy in colon adenomas, as well as to study its possible role in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Material and methods: the study was performed on a series of 57 large bowel adenomas measuring 10 mm or more, collected from 54 consecutive patients. All specimens were obtained either by endoscopic or by surgical resection. There were 49 adenomas with low-grade dysplasia, two with high-grade dysplasia, two intramucous carcinomas, and four microinvasive carcinomas. A flow cytometric DNA analysis was performed in fresh specimens following Vindelov´s method. Results: aneuploid DNA was detected in five out of 49 low-grade dysplasia adenomas (10%, in all four high-grade dysplasia adenomas or intramucous carcinomas (100%, and in three out of four microinvasive carcinomas (75%. The association between aneuploidy and high-grade dysplasia adenomas, intramucous, or microinvasive carcinoma was statistically significant (p Introducción: en patología benigna de intestino grueso precursora del cáncer colorrectal, como adenomas o colitis ulcerosa, se ha observado aneuploidía en el 6-27% de los casos y se ha sugerido que su presencia predispone al desarrollo de malignidad. Sin embargo, su papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma no se ha demostrado de forma concluyente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue valorar la incidencia de aneuploidía en adenomas colónicos, con y sin signos de malignidad, y estudiar su posible papel en la secuencia adenoma-carcinoma. Material y métodos: el estudio se realizó en una serie de 57 adenomas de intestino grueso, de 10 o más mil

  3. The Influence of Smoking, Gender, and Family History on Colorectal Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Onega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (2004–2006, we examined the relation of combined risk factors with adenoma occurrence in 5,395 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Self-reported data on smoking, family history and other factors were linked to pathology reports identifying adenomatous polyps and modeled with multiple logistic regression. In adjusted models a >15 pack-year smoking history increased the likelihood of an adenoma (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.28–1.86, although ≤15 pack-years did not (OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87–1.32. Gender-stratified models showed a significantly increased risk of adenoma at lower smoking exposure even for men (OR=1.32; 95% CI:1.00–1.76, but not for women (OR=0.85; 95% CI:0.61–1.14. An ordered logistic regression model of adenoma occurrence showed a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years associated with 61% higher odds of adenoma at successively larger size categories (95% CI 1.34–1.93. For individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, smoking does not further increase the risk of adenomas. Smoking duration is linked to occurrence and size of adenoma, especially for men.

  4. The Influence of Smoking, Gender, and Family History on Colorectal Adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onega, T.; Goodrich, M.; Dietrich, A.; Onega, T.; Goodrich, M.; Dietrich, A.; Butterly, L.; Butterly, L.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps. Using data from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (2004-2006), we examined the relation of combined risk factors with adenoma occurrence in 5,395 individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy. Self-reported data on smoking, family history and other factors were linked to pathology reports identifying adenomatous polyps and modeled with multiple logistic regression. In adjusted models a >15 pack-year smoking history increased the likelihood of an adenoma (OR=1.54 , 95% CI 1.28-1.86), although ≤15 pack-years did not (OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87-1.32). Gender-stratified models showed a significantly increased risk of adenoma at lower smoking exposure even for men ( OR = 1.32; 95% CI:1.00-1.76. but not for women (OR = 0.85; 95% CI:0.61-1.14). An ordered logistic regression model of adenoma occurrence showed a smoking history of ≥15 pack-years associated with 61% higher odds of adenoma at successively larger size categories (95% CI 1.34-1.93). For individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer, smoking does not further increase the risk of adenomas. Smoking duration is linked to occurrence and size of adenoma, especially for men.

  5. Independent Induction of Caspase-8 and cFLIP Expression during Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Sporadic and HNPCC Adenomas and Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Heijink

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: TNF-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL is a promising agent for the induction of apoptosis in neoplastic tissues. Important determinants of TRAIL sensitivity are two intracellular proteins of the TRAIL pathway, caspase-8 and its anti-apoptotic competitor cellular Flice-Like Inhibitory Protein (cFLIP. Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate basic expression of caspase-8 and cFLIP in normal colorectal epithelium (n = 20, colorectal adenomas (n = 66 and colorectal carcinomas (n = 44 using immunohistochemistry performed on both sporadic and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC or Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas and carcinomas. Results: Expression of both caspase-8 and cFLIP was similar in cases with sporadic and hereditary origin. Expression of caspase-8 in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas was increased when compared to normal colon tissue (P = 0.02. Nuclear, paranuclear as well as cytoplasmic localizations of caspase-8 were detected. Immunohistochemistry revealed an upregulation of cFLIP in colorectal carcinomas in comparison to normal epithelium and colorectal adenomas (P < 0.001. A large variation in the caspase-8/cFLIP ratio was observed between the individual adenomas and carcinomas. Conclusion: Caspase-8 and cFLIP are upregulated during colorectal carcinogenesis. Upregulation of caspase-8 and/or downregulation of cFLIP may be interesting approaches to maximize TRAIL sensitivity in colorectal neoplasms.

  6. Endoscopic mucosal resection of flat and sessile colorectal adenomas: Our experience with long-term follow-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR or mucosectomy is a removing method of flat or sessile lesions, laterally spreading tumors and carcinoma of the colon or the rectum limited to mucosa or the surface part of the submucosa. The aim of the study was to estimate the efficacy and safety of EMR in removing flat and sessile colorectal adenomas. Methods. This prospective study involved 140 patients during the period of 8 years. A total of 187 colorectal adenomas were removed using the EMR method “inject and cut with snare”. Results. The approximate size of mucosectomised adenomas was 13.6 mm (from 8 mm to 60 mm. There was a total of 48 (25.7% flat adenomas and 139 (74.3% sessile adenomas, (p < 0.01. Using “en bloc” and “piecemeal” resection, 173 (92.5% and 14 (7.5% of colorectal adenomas were removed, respectively. In all the cases, a complete removal of colorectal adenomas was achieved. Two (1.4% patients had adenoma removal with intramucosal carcinoma each. In the average follow-up period of 21.2 ± 17.8 months, 2 (1.4% patients had adenoma relapse after EMR. Considering complications, there was bleeding in 1 (0.7% patient with a big rectum adenoma removed with EMR. Furthermore, one (0.7% patient had a postcoagulation syndrome after cecal adenoma was removed by EMR. Conclusion. EMR is an efficient, safe and minimally invasive technique of removing flat and sessile adenomas in the colon and the rectum, with a very low percentage of adenoma recurrence over a long period of monitoring.

  7. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  8. Risk of colorectal adenomas in relation to meat consumption, meat preparation, and genetic susceptibility in a Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bunschoten, A.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We studied the association between meat consumption and colorectal adenomas, and potential influence of genetic susceptibility to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) formed during meat cooking at high temperatures. Methods: We studied HCA concentration in relation to preparation habits

  9. Cytogenetic analysis of colorectal adenomas: karyotypic comparisons of synchronous tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, L; Bardi, G; Pandis, N

    1998-01-01

    The phenotypic progression of colorectal tumors is driven by their step-by-step acquisition of genomic alterations. These pathogenetically important mutations are at the same time markers of tumor clonality. The aim of this study was to describe the clonal relation among synchronous colorectal ad...

  10. Local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, apoptosis and risk of colorectal adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omofoye Oluwaseun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and has both anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. Elevated plasma IGFBP-3 has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, but the role of tissue IGFBP-3 is not well defined. We evaluated the association between tissue or plasma IGFBP-3 and risk of colorectal adenomas or low apoptosis. Methods Subjects were consenting patients who underwent a clinically indicated colonoscopy at UNC Hospitals and provided information on diet and lifestyle. IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colon was assessed by real time RT-PCR. Plasma IGFBP-3 was measured by ELISA and apoptosis was determined by morphology on H & E slides. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a modest correlation between plasma IGFBP-3 and tissue IGFBP-3 expression (p = 0.007. There was no significant association between plasma IGFBP-3 and adenomas or apoptosis. Tissue IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in cases than controls. Subjects in the lowest three quartiles of tissue IGFBP-3 gene expression were more likely to have adenomas. Consistent with previous reports, low apoptosis was significantly associated with increased risk of adenomas (p = 0.003. Surprisingly, local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was inversely associated with apoptosis. Conclusion Low expression of IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colonic mucosa predicts increased risk of adenomas. Our findings suggest that local IGFBP-3 in the colon may directly increase adenoma risk but IGFBP-3 may act through a pathway other than apoptosis to influence adenoma risk.

  11. Local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, apoptosis and risk of colorectal adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S; Simmons, James G; Galanko, Joseph; Woosley, John T; Proffitt, Michelle; Omofoye, Oluwaseun; McDoom, Maya; Lund, Pauline K

    2008-01-01

    IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and has both anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. Elevated plasma IGFBP-3 has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the role of tissue IGFBP-3 is not well defined. We evaluated the association between tissue or plasma IGFBP-3 and risk of colorectal adenomas or low apoptosis. Subjects were consenting patients who underwent a clinically indicated colonoscopy at UNC Hospitals and provided information on diet and lifestyle. IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colon was assessed by real time RT-PCR. Plasma IGFBP-3 was measured by ELISA and apoptosis was determined by morphology on H & E slides. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. We observed a modest correlation between plasma IGFBP-3 and tissue IGFBP-3 expression (p = 0.007). There was no significant association between plasma IGFBP-3 and adenomas or apoptosis. Tissue IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in cases than controls. Subjects in the lowest three quartiles of tissue IGFBP-3 gene expression were more likely to have adenomas. Consistent with previous reports, low apoptosis was significantly associated with increased risk of adenomas (p = 0.003). Surprisingly, local IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was inversely associated with apoptosis. Low expression of IGFBP-3 mRNA in normal colonic mucosa predicts increased risk of adenomas. Our findings suggest that local IGFBP-3 in the colon may directly increase adenoma risk but IGFBP-3 may act through a pathway other than apoptosis to influence adenoma risk

  12. Dietary intake of folate and riboflavin, MTHFR C677T Genotype, and colorectal adenoma risk: a Dutch case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, van den M.; Buijsse, G.M.; Berg, van den S.W.; Ocké, M.C.; Harryvan, J.L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the associations between dietary intake of folate and vitamin B2, MTHFR C677T genotype, and colorectal adenomas in a Dutch case-control study. Data of cases with at least one histologically confirmed colorectal adenoma (n = 768) and controls with no history of any type of colorectal

  13. Adipokines Do Not Mediate the Association of Obesity and Colorectal Adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcom, H. M. O.; Cannioto, R.; Nie, J.; Millen, A. E.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Chen, Z.; Thompson, C. L.; Li, L.; Tracy, R.

    2014-01-01

    The association between obesity and colon neoplasia is well established but the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. Rates of both obesity and colon cancer differ by race. Adipokines have been postulated as contributors to the observed association; however, few studies have examined the mediating effect of adipokines on the obesity-colon adenoma association with consideration of racial differences. Methods. We determined prediagnostic levels of adiponectin and leptin in Caucasians (217 cases and 650 controls) and African Americans (175 cases and 378 controls) participating in the Case Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer Colon Adenoma Study. We evaluated mediating effects of adiponectin and leptin on the association of abdominal adiposity and colon adenoma separately according to race using mediational pathway analysis. Results. We observed differences in circulating adipokine concentrations by race; African Americans had higher levels of leptin and lower levels of adiponectin than Caucasians for both adenoma cases and controls ( P values <0.001). Leptin and adiponectin did not mediate the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) adenoma association in either group (all Sobel P values >0.27). Conclusions. We found no evidence that leptin or adiponectin mediates the abdominal obesity-colorectal adenoma pathway. Larger studies on how these associations vary by race, sex, and obesity are needed.

  14. The destruction complex of beta-catenin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourroul, Guilherme Muniz; Fragoso, Hélio José; Gomes, José Walter Feitosa; Bourroul, Vivian Sati Oba; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Gomes, Thiago Simão; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Palma, Rogério Tadeu; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the destruction complex of beta-catenin by the expression of the proteins beta-catetenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, GSK3β, axin and ubiquitin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma. Tissue samples from 64 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 53 patients with colonic adenoma were analyzed. Tissue microarray blocks and slides were prepared and subjected to immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies in carcinoma, adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, and adenoma tissues. The immunoreactivity was evaluated by the percentage of positive stained cells and by the intensity assessed through of the stained grade of proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. In the statistical analysis, the Spearman correlation coefficient, Student's t, χ2, Mann-Whitney, and McNemar tests, and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. In colorectal carcinoma, the expressions of beta-catenin and adenomatous polyposis coli proteins were significantly higher than in colonic adenomas (pcitoplasma e no núcleo das células. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, os testes t de Student, χ2, Mann-Whitney e de McNemar, e a análise de regressão logística univariada. No carcinoma colorretal, as expressões da betacatenina e da adenomatous polyposis coli foram significativamente maiores do que em adenomas do colo (p<0,001 e p<0,0001, respectivamente). A imunorreatividade das proteínas GSK3β, axina 1 e ubiquitina foi significativamente maior (p=0,03, p=0,039 e p=0,03, respectivamente) no carcinoma colorretal do que no adenoma e na mucosa não neoplásica adjacente. A coloração imuno-histoquímica dessas proteínas não apresentou diferenças significantes em relação às características clinicopatológicas do câncer colorretal e do adenoma. Em adenomas, as menores expressões de betacatenina, axina 1 e GSK3β indicaram que o complexo de destruição da betacatenina estava conservado, enquanto que, no carcinoma

  15. Circulating folate levels and colorectal adenoma: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong Mi; Youn, Jiyoung; Cho, Chang Ho; Kim, Sung Hi; Lee, Jung Eun

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between folate and colorectal neoplasia remains controversial. We examined the association between serum folate concentrations and colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of Korean adults and conducted a meta-analysis. Our case-control study included 113 pairs of case and control who underwent colonoscopy and provided blood samples. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models to obtain the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CIs). For meta-analysis, we identified the relevant studies by searching the PubMed database up to February 2017, included our case-control study and combined the study-specific relative risks (RRs) using a random-effects model. In this case-control study, we included 58 men and 55 women with colorectal adenomas and sex and fasting status matched the controls. We did not find any significant association between the serum folate levels and colorectal adenomas in either men or women. For meta-analysis, a total of eleven studies were included in our analysis and classified into two groups; polyp clearance group (PC) for the studies that included participants who underwent endoscopies and had their polyps removed at baseline; and no polyp clearance group (NPC) for the studies that included participants whose histories of endoscopies were unknown or who underwent their first endoscopies. Four PC (1,311 cases and 1,672 non-cases) and eight NPC studies (3,501 cases and 11,347 non-cases) were included. The combined RRs (95% CIs) comparing the bottom with the top categories of circulating folate levels were 1.07 (0.97-1.18) for the NPC group but 1.45 (1.16-1.74) for the PC group. Low circulating folate levels were associated with new adenoma formation.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of advanced colorectal adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollub, M.J.; Grewal, R.K.; Panu, N.; Thipphavong, S.; Sohn, M.; Zheng, J.; Moskowitz, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the accuracy of 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) in the detection of advanced colorectal adenomas. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, patient consent was waived by the institutional review board. Combined FDG whole-body PET and computed tomography (CT) images (2000–2009) were re-read and compared with reports of complete colonoscopy performed up to 1 year after the PET examination. One or more areas of focal colonic uptake greater than the background indicated a positive PET result, irrespective of standardized uptake value (SUV). Lesion and patient-level measures of PET accuracy with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: One hundred and eighty patients undergoing colonoscopy with or without biopsy underwent PET within 1 year prior to colonoscopy. There were 92 women and 88 men (mean age 63.3 years). Indications for PET were extent of disease and treatment response in all cases. Patients had non-colorectal cancer (n = 160) or colon cancer (n = 20). One hundred and fourteen FDG-avid lesions were present. In 33, there was no colonoscopic correlate. Two hundred and fifty-eight biopsies revealed tubular adenomas (n = 91, one with intra-mucosal cancer), tubulovillous adenomas (n = 28), adenocarcinoma (n = 37), inflammation (n = 22), hyperplastic polyps (n = 54), serrated adenoma (n = 5), metastatic disease (n = 5), normal/benign mucosa or submucosal benign tumors (n = 13) or miscellaneous (n = 3). Per-lesion performance of PET showed a sensitivity of 38% (95% CI: 31–46; 64/167) for all adenomas and carcinomas and 58% (95% CI: 49–67; 57/98) for lesions ≥10 mm. At the patient level, for all adenomas and carcinomas the sensitivity was 54% (95% CI: 44–63; 61/113), specificity 100% (pre-defined), positive predictive value (PPV) 100% (pre-defined), and negative predictive value (NPV) 56% (95% CI: 47–65; 67/119). For patients with advanced

  17. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  18. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aune, D.; Chan, D.S.M.; Vieira, A.; Navarro Rosenblatt, D.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current evidence indicates that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the association with colorectal adenomas is unclear. Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of red and processed meat intake and

  19. Dietary factors and Truncating APC Mutations in Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Braam, H.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in APC are thought to be early, initiating events in colorectal carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the relationship between diet and inactivating APC mutations, we evaluated associations between dietary factors and the occurrence of these mutations in a Dutch case-control

  20. Dietary factors and truncating APC mutations in sporadic colorectal adenomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Braam, H.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in APC are thought to be early, initiating events in colorectal carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the relationship between diet and inactivating APC mutations, we evaluated associations between dietary factors and the occurrence of these mutations in a Dutch case-control

  1. Colorectal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal polyps; Polyps - colorectal; Adenomatous polyps; Hyperplastic polyps; Villous adenomas; Serrated polyp; Serrated adenoma; Precancerous polyps; Colon cancer - polyps; Bleeding - colorectal polyps

  2. Association between dietary pattern scores and the prevalence of colorectal adenoma considering population subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Wagner Robb, Sara; Hébert, James R; Huang, Hanwen; Ebell, Mark H

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the dietary patterns in a diverse cohort of individuals and to see if the identified dietary patterns predict the prevalence of adenoma in a cross-sectional study. Factor analysis was used to derive both sex- and population subgroup-specific dietary patterns among participants in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between identified factor scores and colorectal adenoma (CRA) in sex-specific subgroups. Three diet patterns were observed in this cohort: 'Fruits and vegetables', 'Western' and 'Sweet and salty'. Foods that loaded on each factor were similar between the racial subgroups. In men, being in the highest quintile of 'Western' dietary scores was associated with higher odds of any (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.42), advanced (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.07-1.63) or multiple (>1; aOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.17-1.94) adenoma, compared to those in the lowest quintile. These results were most notably seen in Caucasian men. In women, having a 'Fruits and vegetable' score in the highest quintile was associated with lower odds of multiple adenoma (>1; aOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.28-1.00). Of the three dietary factors, the 'Western' diet pattern was most strongly associated with prevalent CRA in Caucasian men. Further research is needed to examine the association between dietary factor scores and adenomas in the proximal colon, where there are larger racial disparities in prevalence. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  3. Colorectal Chemoprevention with Calcium and Vitamin D | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this application we propose to complete CA098286, a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of supplementation with vitamin D and/or calcium for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. The study builds on extensive epidemiological and experimental data indicating that both vitamin D and calcium have anti-neoplastic effects in the large bowel and that these agents

  4. Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two

  5. Adherence to the USDA Food Guide, DASH Eating Plan, and Mediterranean dietary pattern reduces risk of colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L Beth; Subar, Amy F; Peters, Ulrike; Weissfeld, Joel L; Bresalier, Robert S; Risch, Adam; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hayes, Richard B

    2007-11-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include quantitative recommendations for 2 eating patterns, the USDA Food Guide and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan, to promote optimal health and reduce disease risk. A Mediterranean dietary pattern has also been promoted for health benefits. Our objective was to determine whether adherence to the USDA Food Guide recommendations, the DASH Eating Plan, or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of distal colorectal adenoma. In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, men and women aged 55-74 y were screened for colorectal cancer by sigmoidoscopy at 10 centers in the U.S. After adjusting for potential confounders, men who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had a 26% reduced risk of colorectal adenoma compared with men who least complied with the recommendations (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. dietary pattern. Women who most complied with the USDA Food Guide recommendations had an 18% reduced risk for colorectal adenoma, but subgroup analyses revealed protective associations only for current smokers (OR USDA score >or= 5 vs. or= 5 vs. dietary recommendations or a Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenoma, especially in men.

  6. Chromosome abnormalities in colorectal adenomas: two cytogenetic subgroups characterized by deletion of 1p and numerical aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, L; Bardi, G; Pandis, N

    1996-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures from 34 benign colorectal polyps, all histologically verified as adenomas, revealed clonal chromosome aberrations in 21 of them. Eight polyps had structural rearrangements, whereas only numerical changes were found in 13. A combination of structural...... and another with a small 1p deletion. In three adenomas, del(1)(p36) was the only cytogenetic aberration, supporting the authors' previous conclusion that loss of one or more gene loci in band 1p36 is a common early change in colorectal tumorigenesis. Chromosome 8 was involved in structural changes in two...... adenomas; in one this led to loss of 8p and in the other to gain of 8q. The cytogenetic findings did not correlate in a statistically significant manner with clinicopathologic parameters, such as grade of dysplasia, macroscopic or microscopic adenoma structure, tumor size and location, or the patients' sex...

  7. Circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 is associated with increased risk for metachronous colorectal adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 is a phosphaturic peptide and a key component of an endocrine feedback loop along with the hormonal vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH 2 D. Vitamin D has been shown to be inversely related to colorectal neoplasia; therefore, we hypothesized that the effect of FGF-23 on vitamin D metabolite concentrations could have implications for the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between circulating concentrations of FGF-23 and the risk of metachronous (recurrent colorectal adenomas. FGF-23 levels were assessed in 100 male and female participants from the Ursodeoxycholic Acid Trial, 50 of whom had a metachronous colorectal adenoma and 50 who did not. Results: Compared to the lowest tertile of FGF-23, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs for the second and third tertiles were 2.80 (0.94 to 8.31 and 3.41 (1.09 to 10.67, respectively (P-trend=.03. In a linear regression model, there was also a statistically significant inverse relationship between FGF-23 and 1,25(OH 2 D (β-coefficient=-1.2; P=.001. In contrast, no statistically significant trend was observed between FGF-23 and 25(OHD concentrations (β-coefficient=0.55; P=.10. Conclusions: The current work presents novel preliminary evidence of a relationship between FGF-23 and the risk for colorectal neoplasia. FGF-23 activity may be mediated through biologic effects on individual serum and colonic 1,25(OH 2 D levels, or it may be independent from the vitamin D pathway. Further studies in larger populations are necessary for confirmation and expansion of these hypothesis-generating results.

  8. The expression and mutation of β-catenin in colorectal traditional serrated adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Dai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Exon 3 mutation of β-catenin is associated with the carcinogenesis. Aims: In this study we aimed to detect the expression of exon 3 mutations of β-catenin in colorectal TSA, TA/VTA, and CRC. Materials and Methods : Immunohistochemistry staining for β-catenin was performed for 30 TSA, 20 tubular adenomas (TA/villous tubular adenomas (VTA, and 21 colorectal carcinoma (CRC cases. DNA sequencing of the exon 3 of β-catenin gene was performed for 8 TSA cases, 6 TA cases, 5 VTA cases, and 10 CRC cases with positive staining in the nuclei and cytoplasm. Statistical Analysis: A Fisher exact test and chi-square test were used to analyze the differentiations of the expression of β-catenin in TSA, TA/VTA, and CRC. Results : The percentages of β-catenin expression in TSA, TA/VTA, and CRC were 76.6% (23/30, 70.0% (14/20, and 95.2% (20/21, respectively, and were significantly different among these three types of tissue specimens (χ2 = 22.805, P < 0.001. Although β-catenin expression levels in TSA were not related to it in TA/VTA, they were significantly different between TSA/TA/VTA and CRC. The degree of dysplasia was well correlated with β-catenin expression (TSA: P < 0.01; TA/VTA: P < 0.05. But β-catenin exon 3 mutations were not detected in any of these tissue specimens. Conclusions : Aberrant β-catenin expression is associated with the degree of dysplasia in TSA. β-catenin likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal TSA and conventional adenomas.

  9. DMBT1 expression and glycosylation during the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robbe, C; Paraskeva, C; Mollenhauer, J

    2005-01-01

    , location and its mode of secretion during malignant transformation in colorectal cancer. Using human colorectal PC/AA cell lines and tissue sections from individual patients, we have examined the expression of DMBT1 and its glycosylation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence leading to the adenocarcinoma......The gene DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumour-1) has been proposed to play a role in brain and epithelial cancer, but shows unusual features for a classical tumour-suppressor gene. On the one hand, DMBT1 has been linked to mucosal protection, whereas, on the other, it potentially plays a role...... in epithelial differentiation. Thus its function in a particular tissue is of mechanistic importance for its role in cancer. Because the former function requires secretion to the lumen and the latter function may depend on its presence in the extracellular matrix, we decided to investigate DMBT1 expression...

  10. Food intake and colorectal adenomas: a case-control study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadas, Amutha; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that almost all colorectal cancers arise from benign, neoplastic adenomatous polyps. In previous studies, intake of fruits, vegetables and legumes were found to decrease the risk for colorectal adenomas (CRA) and colorectal cancer. This case-control study aimed to evaluate the roles of a variety of foods in contributing to the risk of CRA in Malaysian subjects. One hundred and eighteen subjects were recruited into case (n=59) and control (n=59) groups at Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). A pre-tested quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to record the types of food items and frequency consumed. Logistic regression was used to determine the crude and adjusted odds ratios of the independent variables. Soy bean and soy products were associated with a reduced risk for CRA (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.98), while tubers were associated with increase in risk four-fold (OR = 4.14, 95% CI = 1.60-10.70) and red meat intake was found to increase the risk two and a half-fold (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.02-6.28). Higher servings of fruits and vegetables were found to significantly decrease the risk (OR fruits = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.30-0.74; OR vegetables = 0.49, 95% = 0.29-0.80). In conclusion, our data support protective roles for soy, fruits and vegetables in the aetiology of colorectal adenomas and increase in risk in those with high intakes of red meat and tubers. Food intake of an individual may have an influence on one's risk for developing CRA. This finding warrants further investigation before the protective effect of these food items is to be accepted. New studies should explore the possibility of these associations among individuals in the general population especially with regard to different ethnic or other groups in Malaysia with low fruit and vegetable consumption.

  11. Dietary patterns during high school and risk of colorectal adenoma in a cohort of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Malik, Vasanti S; Fung, Teresa T; Pischon, Tobias; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward; Wu, Kana

    2014-05-15

    Adolescent diet may be etiologically relevant for later risk of colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. We aimed to examine associations between adolescent dietary patterns (derived using factor analysis) and risk of colorectal adenoma in middle adulthood. We analyzed data from 17,221 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II, who had completed a validated high school (HS) food frequency questionnaire in 1998 when they were 34-51 years old, and had subsequently undergone at least one lower bowel endoscopy. Between 1998 and 2007, 1,299 women were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenoma. In multivariable models adjusted for adult dietary patterns, a higher "prudent" pattern during HS, characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruit and fish was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of rectal (odds ratio [OR] highest vs. lowest quintile, 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.75, p-trend = 0.005), but not colon adenomas. A higher "Western" pattern during HS, characterized by high consumption of desserts and sweets, snack foods and red and processed meat, was significantly associated with rectal (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.85, p-trend = 0.005) and advanced (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.07-2.33, p-trend = 0.08), but not associated with colon or non-advanced adenomas. This study suggests that overall eating patterns during high school may influence later risk of rectal and advanced adenoma, independent of adult diet. Our results support the hypothesis that diet during early life may influence colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2013 UICC.

  12. Elevated C-peptide and insulin predict increased risk of colorectal adenomas in normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Keku, Temitope O; Lund, Pauline Kay; Hoyo, Cathrine; Galanko, Joseph; Burcal, Lauren; Holston, Rachel; Massa, Berri; Omofoye, Oluwaseun; Sandler, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Lower concentrations of the insulin–like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and elevated concentrations of insulin or C-peptide have been associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk (CRC). However few studies have evaluated IGFBP-1 and C-peptide in relation to adenomatous polyps, the only known precursor for CRC. Between November 2001 and December 2002, we examined associations between circulating concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, IGFBP-1 and apoptosis among 190 individuals with one or more adenomatous polyps and 488 with no adenomatous polyps using logistic regression models. Individuals with the highest concentrations of C-peptide were more likely to have adenomas (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-4.0) than those with the lowest concentrations; associations that appeared to be stronger in men (OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-10.9) than women. Individuals with high insulin concentrations also had a higher risk of adenomas (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.4), whereas higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with a reduced risk of adenomas in men only (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Overweight and obese individuals with higher C-peptide levels (>1 st Q) were at increased risk for lower apoptosis index (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 0.9-7.1), an association that remained strong in overweight and obese men (OR = 6.3, 95% CI 1.0-36.7). Higher levels of IGFBP-1 in overweight and obese individuals were associated with a reduced risk of low apoptosis (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-1.0). Associations between these peptides and the apoptosis index in overweight and obese individuals, suggest that the mechanism by which C-peptide could induce adenomas may include its anti-apoptotic properties. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia and IGF hormones predict adenoma risk, and that outcomes associated with colorectal carcinogenesis maybe modified by gender

  13. Association between cigarette smoking, APC mutations and the risk of developing sporadic colorectal adenomas and carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sæbø, Mona; Skjelbred, Camilla F; Breistein, Rebecca; Lothe, Inger Marie B; Hagen, Per Chr; Bock, Gunter; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Kure, Elin H

    2006-01-01

    The association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and smoking has not been consistent. Incomplete smoking history and association to a specific subset of CRC tumors have been proposed as explanations. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene has been reported to have a 'gatekeeper' function in the colonic mucosa. To evaluate the hypothesis that cigarette smoking is associated with adenoma and carcinoma development and further to investigate whether this association is due to mutations in the APC gene, we used a study population consisting of 133 cases (45 adenomas and 88 carcinomas) and 334 controls. All tumors were sequenced in the mutation cluster region (MCR) of the APC gene. Cases and controls were drawn from a homogeneous cohort of Norwegian origin. The mutational spectra of the APC gene revealed no difference in frequencies of mutations in cases based on ever and never smoking status. An overall case-control association was detected for adenomas and 'ever smoking' OR = 1.73 (95% CI 0.83–3.58). For CRC cases several smoking parameters for dose and duration were used. We detected an association for all smoking parameters and 'duration of smoking > 30 years', yielded a statistically significant OR = 2.86 (1.06–7.7). When cases were divided based on APC truncation mutation status, an association was detected in adenomas without APC mutation in relation to 'ever smoking', with an OR = 3.97 (1.26–12.51). For CRC cases without APC mutation 'duration of smoking > 30 years', yielded a statistically significant OR = 4.06 (1.20–13.7). The smoking parameter 'starting smoking ≥ 40 years ago' was only associated with CRC cases with APC mutations, OR = 2.0 (0.34–11.95). A case-case comparison revealed similar findings for this parameter, OR = 2.24 (0.73–6.86). Our data suggest an association between smoking and adenoma and CRC development. This association was strongest for cases without APC truncation

  14. Linkage analysis in a large Swedish family supports the presence of a susceptibility locus for adenoma and colorectal cancer on chromosome 9q22.32-31.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund, J; Djureinovic, T; Zhou, X-L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The best known hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), constitute about 2% of all colorectal cancers, and there are at least as many non-FAP, non-HNPCC cases where the family history suggests...... a dominantly inherited colorectal cancer risk. Recently, a locus on chromosome 9q22.2-31.2 was identified by linkage analysis in sib pairs with colorectal cancer or adenoma. METHODS: Linkage analysis for the suggested locus on chromosome 9 was carried out in an extended Swedish family. This family had...... previously been investigated but following the identification of adenomas in several previously unaffected family members, these subjects were now considered to be gene carriers. RESULTS: In the present study, we found linkage of adenoma and colorectal cancer to chromosome 9q22.32-31.1 with a multipoint LOD...

  15. A randomized, placebo-controlled, preoperative trial of allopurinol in subjects with colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntoni, Matteo; Branchi, Daniela; Argusti, Alessandra; Zanardi, Silvia; Crosta, Cristiano; Meroni, Emanuele; Munizzi, Francesco; Michetti, Paolo; Coccia, Gianni; De Roberto, Giuseppe; Bandelloni, Roberto; Turbino, Laura; Minetti, Egle; Mori, Marco; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Benelli, Roberto; Sonzogni, Angelica; DeCensi, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and interference with these mechanisms represents a strategy in CRC chemoprevention. Allopurinol, a safe molecular scavenger largely used as antigout agent, has been shown to increase survival of patients with advanced CRC and to reduce CRC incidence in long-term gout users in epidemiologic studies. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled preoperative trial in subjects with colorectal adenomatous polyps to assess the activity of allopurinol on biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis. After complete colonoscopy and biopsy of the index polyp, 73 subjects with colorectal adenomas were assigned to either placebo or one of two doses of allopurinol (100 mg or 300 mg) and treated for four weeks before polyp removal. Change of Ki-67 labeling index in adenomatous tissue was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of NF-κB, β-catenin, topoisomerase-II-α, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in adenomatous polyps and normal adjacent colonic tissue. Compared with placebo, Ki-67 levels were not significantly modulated by allopurinol, whereas β-catenin and NF-κB expression levels decreased significantly in adenomatous tissue, with a mean change from baseline of -10.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI), -20.5 to -0.7, and -8.1%, 95% CI, -22.7 to 6.5, respectively. NF-κB also decreased significantly in normal adjacent tissue (-16.4%; 95% CI, -29.0 to -3.8). No dose-response relationship was noted, except for NF-κB expression in normal tissue. Allopurinol can inhibit biomarkers of oxidative activation in colon adenomatous polyps and normal adjacent tissue. Further studies should define its potential chemopreventive activity.

  16. MicroRNA-320 family is downregulated in colorectal adenoma and affects tumor proliferation by targeting CDK6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano, Toshihiro; Kakuta, Yoichi; Hamada, Shin; Shimodaira, Yosuke; Kuroha, Masatake; Kawakami, Yoko; Kimura, Tomoya; Shiga, Hisashi; Endo, Katsuya; Masamune, Atsushi; Takahashi, Seiichi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the microRNA (miRNA) expression during histological progression from colorectal normal mucosa through adenoma to carcinoma within a lesion. Using microarray, the sequential changes in miRNA expression profiles were compared in colonic lesions from matched samples; histologically, non-neoplastic mucosa, adenoma, and submucosal invasive carcinoma were microdissected from a tissue sample. Cell proliferation assay was performed to observe the effect of miRNA, and its target genes were predicted using bioinformatics approaches and the expression profile of SW480 transfected with the miRNA mimics. mRNA and protein levels of the target gene in colon cancer cell lines with a mimic control or miRNA mimics were measured using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The expression levels of miRNA and target gene in colorectal tissue samples were also measured. Microarray analysis identified that the miR-320 family, including miR-320a, miR-320b, miR-320c, miR-320d and miR-320e, were differentially expressed in adenoma and submucosal invasive carcinoma. The miR-320 family, which inhibits cell proliferation, is frequently downregulated in colorectal adenoma and submucosal invasive carcinoma tissues. Seven genes including CDK6 were identified to be common in the results of gene expression array and bioinformatics analyses performed to find the target gene of the miR-320 family. We confirmed that mRNA and protein levels of CDK6 were significantly suppressed in colon cancer cell lines with miR-320 family mimics. CDK6 expression was found to increase from non-neoplastic mucosa through adenoma to submucosal invasive carcinoma tissues and showed an inverse correlation with miR-320 family expression. MiR-320 family affects colorectal tumor proliferation by targeting CDK6, plays important role in its growth, and is considered to be a biomarker for its early detection.

  17. Myeloperoxidase-positive cell infiltration of normal colorectal mucosa is related to body fatness and is predictive of adenoma occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, F; Boarino, V; Bertani, A; Merighi, A; Pedroni, M; Rossi, G; Mancini, S; Sena, P; Benatti, P; Roncucci, L

    2017-06-01

    Body fatness is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, and promotes an inflammatory environment. Indeed, inflammation in normal colorectal mucosa may be a factor linking body fatness to colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study, we evaluated myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells infiltration of normal colorectal mucosa as a marker of cancer-promoting inflammation in overweight and obese subjects. One hundred and three subjects with normal colonoscopy entered the study. Waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured, and MPO-positive cells on histological sections of biopsies of normal colorectal mucosa were counted under a light microscope. The occurrence of adenomas was then evaluated on follow-up colonoscopies. Mean MPO-positive cell count (±s.e.m.) was higher in subject with a WC equal or above the obesity cutoff values according to gender (2.63±0.20 vs 2.06±0.18, P=0.03), and in subjects with BMI equal or above 25 kg m - 2 (2.54±0.18 vs 1.97±0.20, P=0.03). A Cox proportional hazard model showed that mean MPO-positive cell count in normal colorectal mucosa was the only factor independently related to occurrence of adenomas in follow-up colonoscopies. Though preliminary, these results show that MPO-positive cell infiltration in normal colorectal mucosa is related with body fatness, as evaluated by WC and BMI, and it may be considered a useful and simple marker to estimate adenoma occurrence risk.

  18. Non-compliance in surveillance for patients with previous resection of large (≥1 cm) colorectal adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang M Brueckl; Berit Fritsche; Brigitte Seifert; Frank Boxberger; Heinz Albrecht; Roland S Croner; Axel Wein; Eckhart G Hahn

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the extent and reasons of noncompliance in surveillance for patients undergoing polypectomy of large (≥ 1 cm) colorectal adenomas.METHODS: Between 1995 and 2002, colorectal adenomas ≥ 1 cm were diagnosed in 210 patients and subsequently documented at the Erlangen Registry of Colorectal Polyps. One hundred and fifty-eight patients (75.2%) could be contacted by telephone and agreed to be interviewed. Additionally, records were obtained from the treating physicians.RESULTS: Fifty-four out of 158 patients (34.2%)neglected any surveillance. Reasons for non-compliance included lack of knowledge concerning surveillance intervals (45.8%), no symptoms (29.2%), fear of examination (18.8%) or old age/severe illness (6.3%).In a multivariate analysis, the factors including female gender (P = 0.036) and age ≥ 62 years (P = 0.016)proved to be significantly associated with non-compliance in surveillance.CONCLUSION: Efforts to increase compliance in surveillance are of utmost importance, This applies particularly to women's compliance. Effective strategies for avoiding metachronous colorectal adenoma and cancer should focus on both the improvement in awareness and knowledge of patients and information about physicians for surveillance.

  19. MLH1-deficient Colorectal Carcinoma With Wild-type BRAF and MLH1 Promoter Hypermethylation Harbor KRAS Mutations and Arise From Conventional Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchoukh, Lama; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Dudley, Beth; Brand, Randall; Nikiforova, Marina; Pai, Reetesh K

    2016-10-01

    Between 10% and 15% of colorectal carcinomas demonstrate sporadic DNA mismatch-repair protein deficiency as a result of MLH1 promoter methylation and are thought to arise from sessile serrated adenomas, termed the serrated neoplasia pathway. Although the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation is indicative of a sporadic cancer, up to 30% to 50% of colorectal carcinomas with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation will lack a BRAF mutation. We report the clinicopathologic and molecular features of MLH1-deficient colorectal carcinoma with wild-type BRAF and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation (referred to as MLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinoma, n=36) in comparison with MLH1-deficient BRAF-mutated colorectal carcinoma (n=113) and Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (n=36). KRAS mutations were identified in 31% of MLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinomas compared with 0% of MLH1-deficient BRAF-mutated colorectal carcinomas and 37% of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinomas. When a precursor polyp was identified, MLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinomas arose from precursor polyps resembling conventional tubular/tubulovillous adenomas in contrast to MLH1-deficient BRAF-mutated colorectal carcinomas, which arose from precursor sessile serrated adenomas (PMLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinoma and MLH1-deficient BRAF-mutated colorectal carcinoma had a predilection for the right colon compared with Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (86% vs. 92% vs. 49%, P0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that MLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinomas can harbor KRAS mutations and arise from precursor polyps resembling conventional tubular/tubulovillous adenomas.

  20. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiken, Adake; Gu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA) recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (PCRA recurrence than in the control group (PCRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; PCRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; PCRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; PCRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; Pmeats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD, to reduce CRA recurrence and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:27382263

  1. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiken A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adake Saiken, Fang Gu Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods: During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results: Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (P<0.05 for all. Lifestyle-related comorbidities, including hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, were more common in participants with CRA recurrence than in the control group (P<0.05 for all. In the multivariate analysis, pack-years of smoking were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; P<0.05. Eating less vegetables (OR: 099; P<0.05 and fruits (OR: 0.98; P<0.05 was identified as a statistically independent factor influencing CRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; P<0.05. Hypertension was also found to be a factor independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; P<0.05. NAFLD had an independent association, with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; P<0.05. Conclusion: Smoking cigarettes, high consumption of red meats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD

  2. [Clinical and endoscopic features of a selected population with serrated colorectal adenomas in a private clinic in Lima - Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ofelia; Barreda, Carlos; Recavarren, Sixto; Barriga, José A; Salazar M, Fernando; Yriberry, Simón; Barriga, Eduardo; Salazar C, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    To describe the clinical and endoscopic caracteristics of a population that has only serrated polyps of colon (mainly sessile serrated adenomas) in a private clinic in Lima, Perú, from 2009-2011. Retrospective study conducted at the endoscopy center of Clinic Ricardo Palma, Lima, Peru. Olympus colonoscope was used with high definition, including NBI (narrow band imaging) and electronic magnification. Patients had pathologic diagnosis of “polyps and / or colorectal serrated adenomas” and excluded those with synchronous tubular or villous adenomas. Images were evaluated by two endoscopists and then by a third gastroenterologist. We found 201 serrated polyps in 108 patients. Women were 60.2% and overweight predominated. Eighty (74.1%) had only one serrated adenoma and 23 (21.3%) with at least one synchronous hyperplastic polyp. The average size of sessile serrated adenomas was 5.12 mm (± 3.87 DS) and the flat type was 91 (58.7%). There were significant differences in the diameter of sessile serrated adenomas between the distal and proximal colon (4.47 mm ± 2.23 vs. 6.90 mm ± 6.25; p<0.000). The common features of sessile serrated adenomas were: White (31/36, 86.1%), smooth (28/36, 77.8%) and regular margins (26/36, 72.2%). There was a relationship between vascular pattern according NBI and serrated polyp histology (p=0.024). The endoscopic features of sessile serrated adenomas can evade detection to white light. NBI is a useful tool to define some features of these lesions.

  3. Trimodal endoscopic imaging for the detection and differentiation of colorectal adenomas: a prospective single-centre clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Gianluca; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Sansone, Stefano; Prisco, Antonio; Meucci, Costantino; Garofano, Maria Lucia; Cipolletta, Livio

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate an endoscopic trimodal imaging (ETMI) system (high resolution, autofluorescence, and NBI) in the detection and differentiation of colorectal adenomas. A prospective randomised trial of tandem colonoscopies was carried out using the Olympus XCF-FH260AZI system. Each colonic segment was examined twice for lesions, once with HRE and once with AFI, in random order per patient. All detected lesions were assessed with NBI for pit pattern and with AFI for colour. All lesions were removed and sent for histology. Any lesion identified on the second examination was considered as missed by the first examination. Outcome measures are adenoma miss rates of AFI and HRE, and diagnostic accuracy of NBI and AFI for differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic lesions. Ninety-four patients underwent colonoscopy with ETMI (47 in each group). Among 47 patients examined with AFI first, 31 adenomas in 15 patients were detected initially [detection rate 0.66 (0.52-0.75)]. Subsequent HRE inspection identified six additional adenomas. Among 47 patients examined with HRE first, 29 adenomas in 14 patients were detected initially [detection rate 0.62 (0.53-0.79)]. Successive AFI yielded seven additional adenomas. Adenoma miss rates of AFI and HRE were 14% and 16.2%, respectively (p = 0.29). Accuracy of AFI alone for differentiation was lower than NBI (63% vs. 80%, p HRE. AFI alone had a disappointing accuracy for adenoma differentiation, which could be improved by combination of AFI and NBI.

  4. Effects of polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI on the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, Camilla F; Sæbø, Mona; Nexø, Bjørn A; Wallin, Håkan; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Vogel, Ulla; Kure, Elin H

    2006-01-01

    The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer is mainly associated with lifestyle factors and may be modulated by several genetic factors of low penetrance. Genetic variants represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding key players in the adenoma carcinoma sequence may contribute to variation in susceptibility to colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the recently identified haplotype encompassing genes of DNA repair and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. We used a case-control study design (156 carcinomas, 981 adenomas and 399 controls) to test the association between polymorphisms in the chromosomal region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI, and risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas in a Norwegian cohort. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression model adjusting for age and gender. The ASE-1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of adenomas, OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.06–1.81), which upon stratification was apparent among women only, OR of 1.66 (95% CI 1.15–2.39). The RAI polymorphism showed a trend towards risk reduction for both adenomas (OR of 0.70, 95% CI 0.49–1.01) and carcinomas (OR of 0.49, 95% CI 0.21–1.13) among women, although not significant. Women who were homozygous carriers of the high risk haplotype had an increased risk of colorectal cancer, OR of 2.19 (95% CI 0.95–5.04) compared to all non-carriers although the estimate was not statistically significant. We found no evidence that the studied polymorphisms were associated with risk of adenomas or colorectal cancer among men, but we found weak indications that the chromosomal region may influence risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma development in women

  5. Influence of long-term colonoscopic surveillance on incidence of colorectal cancer and death from the disease in patients with precursors (adenomas)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole Dan; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Case-control studies and short term prospective studies have suggested that selected groups of patients with precursors of colorectal cancer may benefit from colonoscopic surveillance after initial removal of adenomas. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate such a possible benefit from...... long term (1-24 years) colonoscopic surveillance in a population of patients with all types of adenomas regardless of size and way of removal. Two thousand and forty-one patients with a first time diagnosis of colorectal adenoma were included in prospective surveillance between year 1978 and 2002. All...

  6. Prognostic model for patients treated for colorectal adenomas with regard to development of recurrent adenomas and carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Krogsgaard, M R; Christiansen, J

    1996-01-01

    -80. INTERVENTIONS: All patients were followed up by rectoscopy and double contrast barium enema. The survival data were analysed by Cox's proportional hazards model. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Variables of significant prognostic importance for recurrence of adenomas and the development of cancer were identified...

  7. Clonal karyotypic abnormalities in colorectal adenomas: clues to the early genetic events in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, L; Bardi, G; Pandis, N

    1994-01-01

    and together with other numerical changes in another. A +7 was also present in one case with structural aberrations. Other recurrent numerical aberrations were -14 and -18, both found in 2 adenomas with structural karyotypic changes; in addition, one chromosome 14 was lost in one of the tumors with only...

  8. Evaluation of promoter methylation status of MLH1 gene in Iranian patients with colorectal tumors and adenoma polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarandi, Ashkan; Irani, Shiva; Savabkar, Sanaz; Chaleshi, Vahid; Ghavideldarestani, Maryam; Mirfakhraie, Reza; Khodadoostan, Mahsa; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the methylation status of the promoter region of MLH1 gene in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its precursor lesions as well as elucidate its association with various clinicopathological characteristics among Iranian population. Epigenetic silencing of mismatch repair genes, such as MLH1 , by methylation of CpG islands of their promoter region has been proved to be an important mechanism in colorectal carcinogenesis. Fifty colorectal cancer and polyp tissue samples including 13 Primary colorectal tumor and 37 Adenoma polyp samples were enrolled in this study. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) was performed to find the frequency of MLH1 Promoter Methylation. Promoter methylation of MLH1 gene was detected in 5 out of 13 tumor tissues and 4 out of 37 adenoma polyp. The frequency of MLH1 methylation in tumor samples was significantly higher compared to that in polyp tissues (P= 0.026). No significant association was observed between MLH1 promoter methylation and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients. The frequency of  MLH1  promoter methylation in CRC and colon polyp was 18%. Our findings indicated that methylation of MLH1 promoter region alone cannot be considered as a biomarker for early detection of CRC.

  9. Association Between Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Qiwen; Zhong, Jie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lifu; Sun, Yunwei; Yv, Lifen; Yuan, Yaozong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There have been contradictory results about the association of fruits and vegetables intake with colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk, the precursor lesion of colorectal cancer. Herein, we have conducted a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to have a clear understanding about this association. Eligible studies up to November 30, 2014, were identified and retrieved by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases along with the manual review of the reference list of the retrieved studies. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, and random-effects model was used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 22 studies involving 11,696 CRA subjects were part of this meta-analysis. The SRR for the highest versus the lowest intake of vegetables alone was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80–1.02, Pheterogeneity = 0.025), whereas for vegetables and fruits combined, it was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75–0.91, Pheterogeneity = 0.369), and for fruits alone, it was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71–0.88, Pheterogeneity = 0.111). In addition, linear dose–response analysis also showed similar results, for example, for per 100 g/d increment of fruits, the SRR was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92–0.97) and for vegetables it was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96–1.01). Nonlinear association was only observed for vegetables (Pnonlinearity = 0.024), but not for fruits (Pnonlinearity = 0.583). Thus, this meta-analysis suggested that fruits consumption have a significant protective effect on CRA risk, but not vegetables. Moreover, we recommend additional studies with prospective designs that use validated questionnaires and control for important confounders to further validate the overall results. PMID:26496264

  10. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwood, Emma L; Elliott, Faye; Forman, David; Barrett, Jennifer H; Wilkie, Murray J V; Carey, Francis A; Steele, Robert J C; Wolf, Roland; Bishop, Timothy; Smith, Gillian

    2010-05-01

    We have earlier shown that diet and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genotypes influence colorectal cancer risk, and now investigate whether similar associations are seen in patients with premalignant colorectal adenomas (CRA), recruited during the pilot phase of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. Nineteen polymorphisms in 13 genes [cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST), N-acetyl transferase, quinone reductase (NQ01) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes] were genotyped using multiplex PCR or Taqman-based allelic discrimination assays and analyzed in conjunction with diet, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, in a case-control study [317 CRA cases (308 cases genotyped), 296 controls]. Findings significant at a nominal 5% level are reported. CRA risk was inversely associated with fruit (P=0.02, test for trend) and vegetable (P=0.001, test for trend) consumption. P450 CYP2C9*3 heterozygotes had reduced CRA risk compared with homozygotes for the reference allele [odds ratio (OR): 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.99], whereas CYP2D6*4 homozygotes (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.18-6.27) and GSTM1 'null' individuals (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.04-1.98) were at increased risk. The protective effect of fruit consumption was confined to GSTP1 (Ala114Val) reference allele homozygotes (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P=0.03 for interaction). CRA risk was not associated with meat consumption, although a significant interaction between red meat consumption and EPHX1 (His139Arg) genotype was noted (P=0.02 for interaction). We report the novel associations between P450 genotype and CRA risk, and highlight the risk association with GSTM1 genotype, common to our CRA and cancer case-control series. In addition, we report a novel modifying influence of GSTP1 genotype on dietary chemoprevention. These novel findings require independent confirmation.

  11. Decreased dietary fiber intake and structural alteration of gut microbiota in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yan-Wei; Kong, Xuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhong, Liang; Fang, Dian-Chun; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly less prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P < 0.05). Butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria were more prevalent in a subgroup of HC subjects with a high fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P < 0.05). A high-fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.

  12. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer prevention strategies can include avoiding known risk factors, having a healthy lifestyle, taking aspirin, and removing polyps. Learn more about preventing colorectal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Change in the incidence and anatomic distribution of colorectal adenoma and cancer over a period of 20 years: A single center experience

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    Milovanović-Alempijević Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In recent years, many studies have demonstrated a proximal shift in the distribution of adenomas and colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in the incidence and anatomical distribution of adenomas and colorectal cancers spanning a 20 year time gap. Methods. We performed a retrospective observational study of colorectal adenomas and cancers diagnosed during total colonoscopy in a high volume tertiary care facility in two 1-year periods of time – 1990 and 2010. Results. During the analyzed period, 4,048 colonoscopies were performed, 1,148 were performed in 1990 and 2,900 were done in 2010. The study included 466 patients with adenomas and 121 patients with colorectal cancers. Frequency of proximal adenoma changed from 16.5% to 32.7% (p < 0.001. By analyzing colonoscopies in 2010, an increase in the incidence of adenomas compared to 1990 was noticed. The number of adenomas sized 0–5 mm rose from 32.8% to 56.9% (p < 0.001. Frequency of colon carcinoma changed from 5.3% to 2.0% (p < 0.001. Incidence of cancers in the proximal colon rose from 21.3% to 48.4% (p = 0.002. A higher incidence of cancers in the proximal colon and a lower incidence of distal cancers were observed, while no difference was observed in the incidence of rectal cancers. Conclusion. Presence of proximal colon adenoma and cancer is higher, while the overall incidence of colon cancer is lower. This finding should be taken into account when planning the screening for colorectal cancer.

  14. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower prevalence of colorectal adenomas in men of all races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Robb, Sara Wagner; Hébert, James R; Huang, Hanwen; Ebell, Mark H

    2017-12-01

    To examine potential racial differences in Mediterranean diet scores and whether these differences are associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma (CRA), a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial was performed. The authors hypothesize that people consuming a more Mediterranean-like diet have lower odds of CRA. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to determine the presence of colorectal adenoma. Mediterranean diet scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaire responses. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between Mediterranean diet scores and the odds of prevalent CRA, as well as the joint effects of race and diet. Asians, followed by blacks, had higher Mediterranean diet scores than whites. Generally, men with better Mediterranean diet scores (altMED) had lower odds of CRA, but black and Asian men had even lower odds of prevalent CRA with better altMED diet scores than did white men with higher altMED diet scores. In this study population, all men had lower odds of prevalent CRA, but black and Asian men, who had higher (more favorable) altMED diet scores than whites, had even lower odds of prevalent CRA compared with white men. An altMED diet prescription may be especially beneficial for certain subpopulations who may be at higher risk of CRA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 2 in the diagnosis of colorectal adenoma and cancer patients.

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    Barbara Mroczko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the importance of the measurement of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2 in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC in relation to clinicopathological features of tumor and patients' survival. Additionally, we determined serum MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in colorectal adenoma (CA patients and healthy controls and compared them with tumor markers, CEA and CA 19-9. The serum levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in 91 CRC patients, 28 CA subjects and 91 healthy controls were determined by ELISA method, but concentrations of CEA and CA 19-9 using MEIA method. Nonparametric statistical analyses were used. Serum levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were significantly lower in CRC patients than in healthy subjects and decreased with tumor stage. Additionally, MMP-2 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with CRC than in CA group. Diagnostic sensitivity of TIMP-2 (59% was the highest among biomarkers tested and increased in combined use with CEA (79%. Moreover, the area under ROC curve (AUC of TIMP-2 was larger than AUC of MMP-2 in differentiation between CRC and healthy subjects, but lower than AUC of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in differentiation between colorectal cancer and adenoma. Our findings suggest clinical usefulness of TIMP-2 as a biomarker in the diagnosis of CRC, especially in combination with CEA. However, further investigation is necessary.

  16. Diagnostic value of stool DNA testing for multiple markers of colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Xia, Bing-Qing; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Guozhen; Yang, Yi-Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Bing-Sheng; Xu, An-Gao; Huang, Yun-Bo; Wang, Xin-Ying

    2013-08-01

    The diagnostic value of stool DNA (sDNA) testing for colorectal neoplasms remains controversial. To compensate for the lack of large-scale unbiased population studies, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of sDNA testing for multiple markers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenoma. The PubMed, Science Direct, Biosis Review, Cochrane Library and Embase databases were systematically searched in January 2012 without time restriction. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model using sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic OR (DOR), summary ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC), and 95% CIs as effect measures. Heterogeneity was measured using the χ(2) test and Q statistic; subgroup analysis was also conducted. A total of 20 studies comprising 5876 individuals were eligible. There was no heterogeneity for CRC, but adenoma and advanced adenoma harboured considerable heterogeneity influenced by risk classification and various detection markers. Stratification analysis according to risk classification showed that multiple markers had a high DOR for the high-risk subgroups of both CRC (sensitivity 0.759 [95% CI 0.711 to 0.804]; specificity 0.883 [95% CI 0.846 to 0.913]; AUC 0.906) and advanced adenoma (sensitivity 0.683 [95% CI 0.584 to 0.771]; specificity 0.918 [95% CI 0.866 to 0.954]; AUC 0.946) but not for the average-risk subgroups of either. In the methylation subgroup, sDNA testing had significantly higher DOR for CRC (sensitivity 0.753 [95% CI 0.685 to 0.812]; specificity 0.913 [95% CI 0.860 to 0.950]; AUC 0.918) and advanced adenoma (sensitivity 0.623 [95% CI 0.527 to 0.712]; specificity 0.926 [95% CI 0.882 to 0.958]; AUC 0.910) compared with the mutation subgroup. There was no significant heterogeneity among studies for subgroup analysis. sDNA testing for multiple markers had strong diagnostic significance for CRC and advanced adenoma in high-risk subjects. Methylation makers had more diagnostic value than mutation

  17. Allelic imbalance and cytogenetic deletion of 1p in colorectal adenomas: a target region identified between DIS199 and DIS234

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomme, L; Heim, S; Bardi, G

    1998-01-01

    short-term cultured and karyotyped colorectal adenomas for allelic imbalance at eight microsatellite loci in 1p. Allelic imbalances were detected in seven of the 12 adenomas that had cytogenetically visible abnormalities of chromosome 1, as well as in four adenomas that either had a normal karyotype...... region. This genomic area contains the human homologue of the tumor modifier gene Mom1 (1p35-36.1), which, in mice, modifies the number of intestinal tumors in multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min)-mutated animals. To evaluate whether the imbalances corresponded to interstitial deletions of 1p material, we...

  18. Prevalence of any size adenomas and advanced adenomas in 40- to 49-year-old individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy because of a family history of colorectal carcinoma in a first-degree relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akshay K; Samadder, Jewel; Elliott, Eric; Sethi, Saurabh; Schoenfeld, Philip

    2011-07-01

    Per current guidelines, patients with a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) should get screened at least at age 40. Data about the prevalence of adenomas and advanced adenomas (AAs) in these patients are lacking. To examine the prevalence of adenomas and AAs in 40- to 49-year-old individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy for family history of CRC. Retrospective chart review. Asymptomatic patients 40 to 49 years of age undergoing their first screening colonoscopy at the University of Michigan during the period 1999 to 2009 because of an FDR with CRC. Prevalence of adenomas (any size), AAs, and risk factors associated with adenomas. Among 640 study patients, the prevalence of adenomas (any size) was 15.4% and 3.3% for AAs. Adenoma prevalence was lower if the FDR with CRC was younger than 60 years of age versus an FDR with CRC older than 60 years of age (12.4% vs 19%, P = .034). Male sex (odds ratio 2.6; 95% CI, 1.06-4.4) and advancing age (odds ratio 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31) were associated with adenomas. Limited data on risk factor exposure and insufficient sample size to assess risk factors for AAs. Among 40- to 49-year-old patients undergoing screening colonoscopy because of an FDR with CRC, the prevalence of adenomas and AAs is low. Further research should determine whether these individuals have a higher prevalence of adenomas compared with average-risk individuals. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of polymorphisms in ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI on the risk of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Håkan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of sporadic colorectal cancer is mainly associated with lifestyle factors and may be modulated by several genetic factors of low penetrance. Genetic variants represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding key players in the adenoma carcinoma sequence may contribute to variation in susceptibility to colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the recently identified haplotype encompassing genes of DNA repair and apoptosis, is associated with increased risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Methods We used a case-control study design (156 carcinomas, 981 adenomas and 399 controls to test the association between polymorphisms in the chromosomal region 19q13.2-3, encompassing the genes ERCC1, ASE-1 and RAI, and risk of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas in a Norwegian cohort. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were estimated by binary logistic regression model adjusting for age and gender. Results The ASE-1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of adenomas, OR of 1.39 (95% CI 1.06–1.81, which upon stratification was apparent among women only, OR of 1.66 (95% CI 1.15–2.39. The RAI polymorphism showed a trend towards risk reduction for both adenomas (OR of 0.70, 95% CI 0.49–1.01 and carcinomas (OR of 0.49, 95% CI 0.21–1.13 among women, although not significant. Women who were homozygous carriers of the high risk haplotype had an increased risk of colorectal cancer, OR of 2.19 (95% CI 0.95–5.04 compared to all non-carriers although the estimate was not statistically significant. Conclusion We found no evidence that the studied polymorphisms were associated with risk of adenomas or colorectal cancer among men, but we found weak indications that the chromosomal region may influence risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma development in women.

  20. Factors associated with adenoma detection rate and diagnosis of polyps and colorectal cancer during colonoscopy in France: results of a prospective, nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilien Barret

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Colonoscopy can prevent deaths due to colorectal cancer (CRC through early diagnosis or resection of colonic adenomas. We conducted a prospective, nationwide study on colonoscopy practice in France. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to 2,600 French gastroenterologists. Data from all consecutive colonoscopies performed during one week were collected. A statistical extrapolation of the results to a whole year was performed, and factors potentially associated with the adenoma detection rate (ADR or the diagnosis of polyps or cancer were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 342 gastroenterologists, representative of the overall population of French gastroenterologists, provided data on 3,266 colonoscopies, corresponding to 1,200,529 (95% CI: 1,125,936-1,275,122 procedures for the year 2011. The indication for colonoscopy was CRC screening and digestive symptoms in 49.6% and 38.9% of cases, respectively. Polypectomy was performed in 35.5% of cases. The ADR and prevalence of CRC were 17.7% and 2.9%, respectively. The main factors associated with a high ADR were male gender (p=0.0001, age over 50 (p=0.0001, personal or family history of CRC or colorectal polyps (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively, and positive fecal occult blood test (p=0.0005. The prevalence of CRC was three times higher in patients with their first colonoscopy (4.2% vs. 1.4%; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in France, we report nationwide prospective data on colonoscopy practice, including histological results. We found an average ADR of 17.7%, and observed reduced CRC incidence in patients with previous colonoscopy.

  1. Endoscopic treatment by snare electrocoagulation prior to Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation in 85 voluminous colorectal villous adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, A; Meduri, B; Fritsch, J; Aime, F; Baglin, A; Barbagelata, M

    1991-05-01

    The association of endoscopic resection with Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation was used to treat benign colorectal villous adenomas. Eight-five patients were included: 49 with surgical contraindications, 35 for whom surgical resection appeared to be too hazardous, and 1 who refused surgery. Forty-five tumors had an axial extension between 1 and 3 cm, and 40 tumors had an axial extension of at least 4 cm. Diathermic snare resection was performed to remove large tumoral fragments prior to laser photocoagulation of the residual flat lesions. Treatments were repeated every 15 days until total tumor destruction was achieved. A carcinoma was detected in biopsy specimens obtained during endoscopic treatment of five patients. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Treatment results could be analyzed in 78 patients. Successful treatment was achieved in 67 patients. Tumor destruction was complete in 77 percent of patients who had lesions of at least 4 cm diameter and in 93 percent of patients with smaller lesions. The axial extension of the tumor was the main factor affecting the results of treatment. No major complications occurred. During the average 103-week follow-up period, 21 percent of the patients with total tumor destruction had a recurrence. The risk of recurrence was correlated with the number of initial treatment sessions and previous surgery treatment. It would appear that the treatment with endoscopic resection prior to Nd:YAG laser photocoagulation is a safe and effective method in the destruction of colorectal villous adenomas.

  2. [Expression of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis and polyketide synthase gene-expressing Escherichia coli in colorectal adenoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L L; Wu, N; Zhu, Y M; Qiu, X Y; Chen, G D; Zhang, L M; Liu, Y L

    2016-03-29

    To investigate the distribution of various bacteria in adenoma tissue of colorectal adenoma (T/CRA), normal colonic mucosa tissue adjacent to the adenoma (N/CRA), and healthy colonic mucosa tissue (N/H) by comparing the number of total bacteria, Bacteroides fragilis (BF), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), polyketide synthase (pks) gene-expressing Escherichia coli(E.coli)(pks(+) E. coli)among the above 3 types of tissues. A total of 36 patients diagnosed with colorectal adenoma by colonoscopy and pathology in Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University People's Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were selected into this study. T/CRA and N/CRA tissues from the 36 patients and N/H tissues from 18 healthy controls were collected for DNA extraction. The number of total bacteria, BF, ETBF, pks(+) E. coli was detected by quantitative real time PCR, and their correlation with colorectal adenoma was analyzed. (1) The number of total bacteria decreased gradually from N/H, N/CRA, to T/CRA, with the median values being 3.18×10(8,) 1.57×10(8,) and 7.91×10(7) copies/g, respectively, and with significant difference among the three groups and between each two groups (all PCRA, to T/CRA, the median values being 6.03×10(5,) 4.28×10(4,) and 5.48×10(3) copies/g, respectively, and with significant difference among the three groups and between each two groups (all PCRA, to T/CRA, the relative expression being 1.73±0.30, 6.15±1.52, and 8.54±1.80, respectively. Significant difference was found between the T/CRA and N/H tissue (P=0.003), but not between any other two groups. (4) The expression of clbB in pks(+) E.coli was highest in T/CRA colonic tissue (2.96±0.28), followed by the N/CRA (2.79±0.19) and N/H tissue (1.06±0.08). Significant difference was found between T/CRA and N/H tissues, as well as between N/CRA and N/H tissues (both PCRA and N/CRA tissues. The number of total bacteria is markedly reduced in the colonic mucosa of CRA patients

  3. Adiponectin, Leptin, IGF-1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha As Potential Serum Biomarkers for Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Colorectal Adenoma in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Soleimani, Akbar; Nichols, Alexandra; Sodhi, Komal; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Nunlee-Bland, Gail; Nouraie, Seyed Mehdi; Brim, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    The potential role of adiponectin, leptin, IGF-1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as biomarkers in colorectal adenoma is not clear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the blood serum levels of these biomarkers in colorectal adenoma. The case-control study consisted of serum from 180 African American patients with colon adenoma (cases) and 198 healthy African Americans (controls) at Howard University Hospital. We used ELISA for adiponectin, leptin, IGF-1, and TNF-α detection and quantification. Statistical analysis was performed by t -test and multivariate logistic regression. The respective differences in median leptin, adiponectin, IGF-1, and TNF-α levels between control and case groups (13.9 vs. 16.4), (11.3 vs. 46.0), (4.5 vs. 12.9), and (71.4 vs. 130.8) were statistically significant ( P  IGF-1 were 2.0 (95% CI = 1.6-2.5; P  IGF-1 concentrations with age ( r  = 0.17, P  IGF-1, and leptin concentration with body mass index (BMI) ( r  = 0.44, P  IGF-1, and TNF-α high levels correlate with higher risk of colon adenoma and can thus be used for colorectal adenomas risk assessment.

  4. Aspectos epidemiológicos dos pólipos e lesões plano-elevadas colorretais Epidemiological aspects of colorectal polyps and flat adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os pólipos e as lesões plano-elevadas colorretais são importantes na prevenção do câncer colorretal pelo risco de malignização dos adenomas. OBJETIVO: traçar o perfil demográfico dos pacientes com diagnóstico endoscópico de pólipos e/ou lesões plano-elevadas colorretais no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe e Torres Centro Médico. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 6.919 prontuários de 2002 a 2007, enfatizando-se as variáveis: idade, gênero, procedência e indicação; número, tamanho, morfologia, histologia, grau de displasia, topografia, lesões sincrônicas e metacrônicas, e diagnósticos associados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas 1.031 (13,51% lesões em 935 exames, correspondendo a 826 pacientes, 46% masculino e 54% feminino. A idade variou de 3 a 96 anos, com média de 53,64. A distribuição topográfica mais frequente das lesões polipoides foi em reto e sigmoide (58,40%. As lesões eram sésseis em 52,80%, pediculadas em 27,90% e plano-elevadas em 19,30% dos casos. Ocorreram lesões sincrônicas em 23,48% e metacrônicas em 30,10% dos pacientes. Histologicamente, 43,36% eram adenomas, sendo 85,70% tubulares, 9,60% tubulo-vilosos e 4,70% vilosos; 30,64% eram pólipos hiperplásicos, 15,80% inflamatórios e 10,20% possuíam outros tipos histológicos. Os adenomas apresentavam displasia de baixo grau em 83,40% dos casos e alto grau em 16,60%. Sete eram adenocarcinomas, um carcinoide e um tumor gastrointestinal estromal. CONCLUSÕES: A colonoscopia e a polipectomia são importantes no diagnóstico e prevenção do câncer colorretal.INTRODUCTION: Colorectal polyps and flat injuries are important for the prevention of colorectal cancer due to the malignancy of adenomas. OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile of patients with endoscopic diagnosis of colorectal polyps and/or flat injuries at University Hospital of Universidade Federal de Sergipe and Torres Medical Center. METHODS: A total

  5. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  6. Correlation of Ki-67, p53, and Adnab-9 immunohistochemical staining and ploidy with clinical and histopathologic features of severely dysplastic colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Rafiq A; Min, Byung Hee; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Teplitz, Raymond; Tesluk, Henry; Ruebner, Boris Henry; Tobi, Martin; Hatfield, James; Fligiel, Suzanne; Lawson, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Variations of Ki-67, p53, and Adnab-9 monoclonal antibody reactions in colonic adenomas may be associated with colonic cancer risk. We studied the predictive value of these markers for adverse behavior in severely dysplastic colorectal adenomas, such as an associated carcinoma, multiplicity of adenomas, and subsequent development of adenomas. For this purpose we compared theclinical, gross, and histologic characteristics of highly dysplastic index polyps in 42 patients with Ki 67, p53, and Adnab-9 immunostaining and other molecular markers. Polyps were removed endoscopically, and severely dysplastic polyps were stained immunohistochemically with Ki-67, Adnab-9, and p53 protein by the avidin biotin conjugate (ABC) technique. Quantitative DNA (QDNA) was analyzed by computer-assisted image analysis. Ki-67 immunohistochemistry showed reversal of normal distribution of nuclear staining from the normal basal position to the upper third of the colonic crypts. This abnormality of immunostaining in dysplastic adenomas was the earliest detected by the panel we used. A statistically significant correlation was seen between invasiveness of carcinoma in the index polyp and polyp size (P = 0.003), sessile morphology (P = 0.037), and villous or tubulovillous histology (P = 0.019). In the index adenoma, p53 positivity was correlated with multiplicity at initial examination (P = 0.053), villous histology (P = 0.053), invasiveness of carcinoma (P < 0.003), and recurrence of colorectal adenomas (P = 0.025). Although p53 positivity and aneuploidy were correlated with invasiveness of carcinoma in the index polyp (P = 0.025), Adnab-9 positivity was not. However, Adnab-9 positivity in the index polyp was associated with multiplicity of adenomas (P = 0.04) as well as recurrence of adenomas (P < 0.024). In conclusion, in addition to the morphologic and histologic markers already known, Ki-67, Adnab-9 antibody, and p53 protein may be prognostic indicators useful in follow-up of patients

  7. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing adherence in trials promoting change in diet and physical activity in individuals with a diagnosis of colorectal adenoma; a systematic review of behavioural intervention approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahon, Deborah; Daley, Amanda J; Jones, Janet; Haslop, Richard; Shajpal, Arjun; Taylor, Aliki; Wilson, Sue; Dowswell, George

    2015-07-07

    Little is known about colorectal adenoma patients' ability to adhere to behavioural interventions promoting a change in diet and physical activity. This review aimed to examine health behaviour intervention programmes promoting change in diet and/or physical activity in adenoma patients and characterise interventions to which this patient group are most likely to adhere. Searches of eight databases were restricted to English language publications 2000-2014. Reference lists of relevant articles were also reviewed. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet and physical activity interventions in colorectal adenoma patients were included. Eligibility and quality were assessed and data were extracted by two reviewers. Data extraction comprised type, intensity, provider, mode and location of delivery of the intervention and data to enable calculation of four adherence outcomes. Data were subject to narrative analysis. Five RCTs with a total of 1932 participants met the inclusion criteria. Adherence to the goals of the intervention ranged from 18 to 86 % for diet and 13 to 47 % for physical activity. Diet interventions achieving ≥ 50 % adherence to the goals of the intervention were clinic based, grounded in cognitive theory, delivered one to one and encouraged social support. The findings of this review indicate that behavioural interventions can encourage colorectal adenoma patients to improve their diet. This review was not however able to clearly characterise effective interventions promoting increased physical activity in this patient group. Further research is required to establish effective interventions to promote adherence to physical activity in this population.

  9. Biomarkers related to one-carbon metabolism as potential risk factors for distal colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S. de; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Midttun, O.; Bjorge, T.; Kampman, E.; Bretthauer, M.; Hoff, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Efficient one-carbon metabolism, which requires adequate supply of methyl group donors and B-vitamins, may protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. However, plasma folate and vitamins B2 and B12 have inconsistently been associated with colorectal cancer risk, and there have been no

  10. Biomarkers Related to One-Carbon Metabolism as Potential Risk Factors for Distal Colorectal Adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de S.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollset, S.E.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Midttun, O.; Bjorge, T.; Kampman, E.; Bretthauer, M.; Hoff, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Efficient one-carbon metabolism, which requires adequate supply of methyl group donors and B-vitamins, may protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. However, plasma folate and vitamins B2 and B12 have inconsistently been associated with colorectal cancer risk, and there have been no

  11. Time-efficient CT colonography interpretation using an advanced image-gallery-based, computer-aided ''first-reader'' workflow for the detection of colorectal adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Ringl, Helmut; Weber, Michael; Mueller-Mang, Christina; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Wolf, Matthias; Bogoni, Luca; Salganicoff, Marcos; Raykar, Vikas; Graser, Anno

    2012-01-01

    To assess the performance of an advanced ''first-reader'' workflow for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colorectal adenomas ≥ 6 mm at computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in a low-prevalence cohort. A total of 616 colonoscopy-validated CTC patient-datasets were retrospectively reviewed by a radiologist using a ''first-reader'' CAD workflow. CAD detections were presented as galleries of six automatically generated two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images together with interactive 3D target views and 2D multiplanar views of the complete dataset. Each patient-dataset was interpreted by initially using CAD image-galleries followed by a fast 2D review to address unprompted colonic areas. Per-patient, per-polyp, and per-adenoma sensitivities were calculated for lesions ≥ 6 mm. Statistical testing employed Fisher's exact and McNemar tests. In 91/616 patients, 131 polyps (92 adenomas, 39 non-adenomas) ≥ 6 mm and two cancers were identified by reference standard. Using the CAD gallery-based first-reader workflow, the radiologist detected all adenomas ≥ 10 mm (34/34) and cancers. Per-patient and polyp sensitivities for lesions ≥ 6 mm were 84.3 % (75/89), and 83.2 % (109/131), respectively, with 89.1 % (57/64) and 85.9 % (79/92) for adenomas. Overall specificity was 95.6 % (504/527). Mean interpretation time was 3.1 min per patient. A CAD algorithm, applied in an image-gallery-based first-reader workflow, can substantially decrease reading times while enabling accurate detection of colorectal adenomas in a low-prevalence population. (orig.)

  12. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention strategies include avoiding known risk factors, adopting a healthy lifestyle, polyp removal, and aspirin. Get detailed information about risk factors for CRC and potential interventions for prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  13. [677T mutation of the MTHFR gene in adenomas and colorectal cancer in a population sample from the Northeastern Mexico. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Enciso, I; Martínez-Garza, S G; Rojas-Martínez, A; Ortiz-López, R; Bosques-Padilla, F; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; Zárate-Gómez, M; Barrera-Saldaña, H A

    2001-01-01

    Adequate intake of folates has been associated to low prevalence of colon cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme (MTHFR) plays an important role in folate metabolism. The role of the 677 mutation at the MTHFR gene in the risk for colorectal cancer remains controversial. A recent report established that this mutation has a high prevalence in the healthy Mexican population. To analyze the prevalence of 677T MTHFR mutation in patients with colorectal cancer and controls without chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Seventy-four colorectal cancer, 32 adenomas and 110 normal samples were analyzed. Patients and controls were matched for sex and age. For each sample, DNA isolation, PCR, and mutation detection by restriction enzyme digestion were performed to determine the allele at the 677 position in the MTHFR gene. Genotype 677C/677C was found in 18.7, 20.3, and 30.9% in adenomas, cancer lesions and controls, respectively. Frequencies of the 677C/677T genotype were 59.4, 56.7, and 47.3%, in adenomas, cancer lesions, and controls, respectively. Genotype 677T/677T was found in 21.9, 23.0, and 21.8% in adenomas, cancer lesions, and controls, respectively. The odds ratio between genotypes carrying the mutation (T/T and C/T) and normal genotype (CC) was 1.81 (IC 95% 0.97-3.3), chi 2 = 3.5, p = 0.06. Our results showed that persons who carry the 677T mutation at MTHFR locus have a tendency for an increased risk for colorectal cancer. This study supports the basic concept that low levels of folic acid contribute with the colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Our lack of statistic significance may be due to reduced sample size.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 2 in the diagnosis of colorectal adenoma and cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Groblewska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the importance of the measurement of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2 in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC in relation to clinicopathologicalfeatures of tumor and patients' survival. Additionally, we determined serum MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in colorectaladenoma (CA patients and healthy controls and compared them with tumor markers, CEA and CA 19-9. The serum levelsof MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in 91 CRC patients, 28 CA subjects and 91 healthy controls were determined by ELISA method, butconcentrations of CEA and CA 19-9 using MEIA method. Nonparametric statistical analyses were used. Serum levels ofMMP-2 and TIMP-2 were significantly lower in CRC patients than in healthy subjects and decreased with tumor stage.Additionally, MMP-2 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with CRC than in CA group. Diagnostic sensitivityof TIMP-2 (59% was the highest among biomarkers tested and increased in combined use with CEA (79%. Moreover,the area under ROC curve (AUC of TIMP-2 was larger than AUC of MMP-2 in differentiation between CRC and healthysubjects, but lower than AUC of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in differentiation between colorectal cancer and adenoma. Ourfindings suggest clinical usefulness of TIMP-2 as a biomarker in the diagnosis of CRC, especially in combination with CEA.However, further investigation is necessary.

  15. Do factors related to endogenous and exogenous estrogens modify the relationship between obesity and risk of colorectal adenomas in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lesley A; Terry, Paul D; Potter, John D; Bostick, Roberd M

    2007-04-01

    Obesity has consistently been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk in men, but not in women. In the absence of postmenopausal hormone use (PMH), adipose-derived estrogen is the primary determinant of circulating estrogen levels in postmenopausal women, perhaps ameliorating the mitogenic effects of obesity in this group. Using data from a case-control study in the United States, we examined associations among obesity, potential modifying effects of factors related to endogenous and exogenous estrogen levels, and risk of colorectal adenoma. Cases (n = 219) were women of ages 30 to 74 years with colonoscopy proven, incident, sporadic, pathology-confirmed, adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum. Two control groups were recruited: colonoscopy-confirmed polyp-free women (n = 438) and age- and zip code frequency-matched women randomly selected from the community (n = 247). Multivariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for obese [body mass index (BMI) >or=30.0; compared with nonobese, BMI obesity among premenopausal women but decreased among postmenopausal women, especially if they also take PMH.

  16. Localization of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in Human Colorectal Adenoma and Adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads N.; Hansen, Ulla; Brünner, Nils

    2005-01-01

    -growth. We have previously demonstrated that TIMP-1 is elevated in blood from colorectal cancer patients and that high TIMP-1 levels predict poor prognosis. To clarify the role of TIMP-1 in colorectal tumorigenesis, the expression pattern of TIMP-1 in benign and malignant colorectal tumors was studied....... In all of 24 cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma TIMP-1 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization. In all cases TIMP-1 expression was found in fibroblast-like cells located at the invasive front but was seen only sporadically in normal mucosa. No TIMP-1 mRNA was seen in any of the cases in benign...... or malignant epithelial cells, in vascular cells or smooth muscle cells. Comparison of sections processed for TIMP-1 in situ hybridization with sections immunohistochemically stained with antibodies against TIMP-1 showed good correlation between TIMP-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity. Combining TIMP-1 in situ...

  17. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  18. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  19. DNA hypermethylation and decreased mRNA expression of MAL, PRIMA1, PTGDR and SFRP1 in colorectal adenoma and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Galamb, Orsolya; Spisák, Sándor; Wichmann, Barnabás; Bodor, András; Tóth, Kinga; Patai, Árpád V.; Valcz, Gábor; Nagy, Zsófia Brigitta; Kubák, Vivien; Tulassay, Zsolt; Kovalszky, Ilona; Molnár, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) development is accompanied by changes in expression for several genes; but the details of the underlying regulatory procesess remain unknown. Our aims were to assess the role of epigenetic processes in tumour formation and to identify characteristic DNA methylation and miRNA alterations in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Whole genome expression profiling was performed on colonic biopsy samples (49 healthy normal, 49 colorectal adenoma (AD), 49 CRC); on laser capture microdissected (LCM) epithelial and stromal cells from 6 CRC-normal adjacent tissue (NAT) samples pairs, and on demethylated human CRC cell lines using HGU133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). Methylation status of genes with gradually altering expression along the AD-CRC sequence was further analysed on 10–10 macrodissected and 5–5 LCM samples from healthy colon, from adenoma and from CRC biopsy samples using bisulfite-sequencing PCR (BS-PCR) followed by pyrosequencing. In silico miRNA prediction for the selected genes was performed with miRWALK algorithm, miRNA expression was analysed on 3 CRC-NAT sample pairs and 3 adenoma tissue samples using the Human Panel I + II (Exiqon). SFRP1 immunohistochemistry experiments were performed. A set of transcripts (18 genes including MAL, SFRP1, SULT1A1, PRIMA1, PTGDR) showed decreasing expression (p < 0.01) in the biopsy samples along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Three of those (COL1A2, SFRP2, SOCS3) showed hypermethylation and THBS2 showed hypomethylation both in AD and in CRC samples compared to NAT, while BCL2, PRIMA1 and PTGDR showed hypermethylation only in the CRC group. miR-21 was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) upregulated in adenoma and tumour samples compared to the healthy colonic tissue controls and could explain the altered expression of genes for which DNA methylation changes do not appear to play role (e.g. BCL2, MAL, PTGS2). Demethylation treatment could upregulate gene expression of genes that were

  20. Colorectal anastomotic leakage: Aspects of prevention, detection and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Daams (Freek); M. Luyer (Misha); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAll colorectal surgeons are faced from time to time with anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. This complication has been studied extensively without a significant reduction of incidence over the last 30 years. New techniques of prevention, by innovative anastomotic techniques

  1. Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Bertarelli, Gaia; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometimes inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between...

  2. A CpG island methylator phenotype of colorectal cancer that is contiguous with conventional adenomas, but not serrated polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokazono, Koji; Ueki, Takashi; Nagayoshi, Kinuko; Nishioka, Yasunobu; Hatae, Tatsunobu; Koga, Yutaka; Hirahashi, Minako; Oda, Yoshinao; Tanaka, Masao

    2014-11-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), with concurrent multiple promoter hypermethylation of tumor-related genes. A serrated pathway in which CIMP is developed from serrated polyps is proposed. The present study characterized CIMP and morphologically examined precursor lesions of CIMP. In total, 104 CRCs treated between January 1996 and December 2004 were examined. Aberrant promoter methylation of 15 cancer-related genes was analyzed. CIMP status was classified according to the number of methylated genes and was correlated with the clinicopathological features, including the concomitant polyps in and around the tumors. The frequency of aberrant methylation in each CRC showed a bimodal pattern, and the CRCs were classified as CIMP-high (CIMP-H), CIMP-low (CIMP-L) and CIMP-negative (CIMP-N). CIMP-H was associated with aberrant methylation of MLH1 (P=0.005) and with an improved recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate following curative resection compared with CIMP-L/N (five-year RFS rate, 93.8 vs. 67.1%; P=0.044), while CIMP-N tumors were associated with frequent distant metastases at diagnosis (P=0.023). No concomitant serrated lesions were present in the tumors, whereas conventional adenoma was contiguous with 11 (10.6%) of 104 CRCs, including four CIMP-H CRCs. CIMP-H was classified in CRCs by a novel CIMP marker panel and the presence of concomitant tumors revealed that certain CIMP-H CRCs may have arisen from conventional adenomas.

  3. Frequency and phenotypic spectrum of germline mutations in POLE and seven other polymerase genes in 266 patients with colorectal adenomas and carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spier, Isabel; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Altmüller, Janine; Zhao, Bixiao; Horpaopan, Sukanya; Vogt, Stefanie; Chen, Sophia; Morak, Monika; Raeder, Susanne; Kayser, Katrin; Stienen, Dietlinde; Adam, Ronja; Nürnberg, Peter; Plotz, Guido; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Lifton, Richard P; Thiele, Holger; Hoffmann, Per; Steinke, Verena; Aretz, Stefan

    2015-07-15

    In a number of families with colorectal adenomatous polyposis or suspected Lynch syndrome/HNPCC, no germline alteration in the APC, MUTYH, or mismatch repair (MMR) genes are found. Missense mutations in the polymerase genes POLE and POLD1 have recently been identified as rare cause of multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, a condition termed polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical relevance and phenotypic spectrum of polymerase germline mutations. Therefore, targeted sequencing of the polymerase genes POLD1, POLD2, POLD3, POLD4, POLE, POLE2, POLE3 and POLE4 was performed in 266 unrelated patients with polyposis or fulfilled Amsterdam criteria. The POLE mutation c.1270C>G;p.Leu424Val was detected in four unrelated patients. The mutation was present in 1.5% (4/266) of all patients, 4% (3/77) of all familial cases and 7% (2/30) of familial polyposis cases. The colorectal phenotype in 14 affected individuals ranged from typical adenomatous polyposis to a HNPCC phenotype, with high intrafamilial variability. Multiple colorectal carcinomas and duodenal adenomas were common, and one case of duodenal carcinoma was reported. Additionally, various extraintestinal lesions were evident. Nine further putative pathogenic variants were identified. The most promising was c.1306C>T;p.Pro436Ser in POLE. In conclusion, a PPAP was identified in a substantial number of polyposis and familial colorectal cancer patients. Screening for polymerase proofreading mutations should therefore be considered, particularly in unexplained familial cases. The present study broadens the phenotypic spectrum of PPAP to duodenal adenomas and carcinomas, and identified novel, potentially pathogenic variants in four polymerase genes. © 2014 UICC.

  4. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  5. Patients' Awareness Of The Prevention And Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Łukasz; Puła, Anna; Stawiski, Konrad; Mudza, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Dziki, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patients' awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, hospitalised at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery of the Medical University in Łódź during the period from January 2015 to April 2015, were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their families' medical case record, factors predisposing them to the development of colorectal cancer, the tests applied in diagnostics, and the treatment process. The questionnaire comprised 42 closed-ended questions with one correct answer. A statistical analysis of all answers was carried out. The study group consisted of 30 men and 20 women aged 27-94 years old. A strong, statistically significant negative correlation between a patient's age and his/her awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer was noted (pcancer (p=0.008), and the awareness of the prevention programme. The women's group was characterised by statistically significantly greater awareness of colonoscopy as a screening examination (p=0.004). Patients need more information on colorectal cancer, its risk factors, prevention, the treatment process, and postoperative care. Lack of awareness of the colorectal cancer issue can be one of the major factors contributing to the high incidence of this disease.

  6. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Yu, Enda; Gao, Xianhua; Song, Ning; Liu, Lianjie; Wei, Xubiao; Zhang, Wei; Fu, Chuangang

    2013-01-15

    Inconsistent results regarding the association between red and processed meat intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), the precursor of colorectal cancer (CRC), have been reported. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we summarized the evidence from observational studies. Relevant studies were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE until December 31, 2011. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled with a random-effects model. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran's Q and I(2) statistics. A total of 21 studies (16 case-control studies and five cohort/nested case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis. The SRRs of CRA were 1.36 (95% CI = 1.17-1.58) for every 100 g/day increase in red meat intake, and 1.24 (95% CI = 1.12-1.36) for the highest versus the lowest level of red meat intake. Nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis indicated that CRA risk increased approximately linearly with increasing intake of red meat up to ~ 90 g/day, where the curve reached its plateau. Subgrouped analyses revealed that the increased risk of CRA with intake of red meat was independent of geographic locations, design and confounders. The SRRs of CRA was 1.28 (95% CI = 1.03-1.60) for per 50 g/day increase in processed meat intake, and 1.17 (95% CI = 1.08-1.26) for the highest versus the lowest level of processed meat intake. Increased intake of red and processed meat is associated with significantly increased risk of CRA. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  7. The multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene polymorphism G-rs3789243-A is not associated with disease susceptibility in Norwegian patients with colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer; a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Agerstjerne, L.; Jensen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Smoking, dietary factors, and alcohol consumption are known life style factors contributing to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in carcinogen handling may affect cancer risk. The multidrug resistance 1(MDR1/ABCB1) gene encodes the transport protein P-glycoprotein (a...... in inflammation, and may thereby affect the risk of malignity. Hence, genetic variations that modify the function of P-glycoprotein may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We have previously found an association between the MDR1 intron 3 G-rs3789243-A polymorphism and the risk of CRC...... of colorectal carcinomas and adenomas in the Norwegian population was assessed in 167 carcinomas, 990 adenomas, and 400 controls. Genotypes were determined by allelic discrimination. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by binary logistic regression. Results: No association...

  8. Observer variability in the assessment of type and dysplasia of colorectal adenomas, analyzed using kappa statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Krogsgaard, M R; Christiansen, J

    1995-01-01

    . The kappa values for Observer A vs. B and Observer C vs. B were 0.3480 and 0.3770, respectively (both type and dysplasia). Values for type were better than for dysplasia, but agreement was only fair to moderate. CONCLUSION: The interobserver agreement was moderate to almost perfect, but the intraobserver...... agreement was only fair to moderate. A simpler classification system or a centralization of assessments would probably increase kappa values....... of adenomas were assessed twice by three experienced pathologists, with an interval of two months. Results were analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: For agreement between first and second assessment (both type and grade of dysplasia), kappa values for the three specialists were 0.5345, 0.9022, and 0...

  9. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle. 19 , 20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55-64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. Objective To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. Results 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin

  11. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  12. Loss of insulin-like growth factor-II imprinting and the presence of screen-detected colorectal adenomas in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Karen; Flood, Andrew; Green, Lisa; Tangrea, Joseph A; Hanson, Jeffrey; Cash, Brooks; Schatzkin, Arthur; Schoenfeld, Phillip

    2004-03-03

    Loss of imprinting (LOI) of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) may be an inherited epigenetic trait that is polymorphic in the population, and its presence may predispose an individual to the development of colorectal cancer. We evaluated the association between LOI of IGF-II in normal colonic mucosal samples and adenomas in women participating in a colonoscopy screening study. Among 40 participants, 11 (27.5%) had LOI of IGF-II in their normal colonic mucosal tissue. After adjusting for body mass index and family history of colorectal cancer, LOI status was associated with a fivefold increased risk of adenoma formation (odds ratio = 5.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.0 to 26.7). On average, IGF-II expression was more than threefold higher among women with LOI of IGF-II than among women with normal imprinting status. Our findings support the hypothesis that LOI of IGF-II is an epigenetic trait polymorphic in the population and suggest that LOI of IGF-II may play a role in colorectal cancer. These findings are intriguing and need to be confirmed in larger studies.

  13. Effects of chemopreventive agents on the incidence of recurrent colorectal adenomas: a systematic review with network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veettil SK

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sajesh K Veettil,1 Nattawat Teerawattanapong,2 Siew Mooi Ching,3,4 Kean Ghee Lim,5 Surasak Saokaew,6–9 Pochamana Phisalprapa,10 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk7,8,11,12 1School of Pharmacy/School of Postgraduate Studies, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Division of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand; 3Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 5Clinical School, Department of Surgery, International Medical University, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, 6Center of Health Outcomes Research and Therapeutic Safety (Cohorts, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, 7School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 8Centre of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 9Unit of Excellence on Herbal Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Thailand; 10Division of Ambulatory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 11School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA; 12Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia Platform in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Protective effects of several chemopreventive agents (CPAs against colorectal adenomas have been well documented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs; however, there is uncertainty regarding which agents are the most effective.Methods: We searched for RCTs published up until September 2016. Retrieved trials were evaluated using risk of bias. We performed both pairwise analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA of RCTs to compare the effects of CPAs on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas (primary outcome. Using NMA, we

  14. Analytical validation of a novel multiplex test for detection of advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer in symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Roslyn; Croner, Lisa J; Bucci, John; Kairs, Stefanie N; You, Jia; Beasley, Sharon; Blimline, Mark; Carino, Rochele B; Chan, Vicky C; Cuevas, Danissa; Diggs, Jeff; Jennings, Megan; Levy, Jacob; Mina, Ginger; Yee, Alvin; Wilcox, Bruce

    2018-05-30

    Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is key to reducing associated mortality. Despite the importance of early detection, approximately 40% of individuals in the United States between the ages of 50-75 have never been screened for CRC. The low compliance with colonoscopy and fecal-based screening may be addressed with a non-invasive alternative such as a blood-based test. We describe here the analytical validation of a multiplexed blood-based assay that measures the plasma concentrations of 15 proteins to assess advanced adenoma (AA) and CRC risk in symptomatic patients. The test was developed on an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay platform employing four multi-marker panels, to be implemented in the clinic as a laboratory developed test (LDT). Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and College of American Pathologists (CAP) regulations, a United States-based clinical laboratory utilizing an LDT must establish performance characteristics relating to analytical validity prior to releasing patient test results. This report describes a series of studies demonstrating the precision, accuracy, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity for each of the 15 assays, as required by CLIA/CAP. In addition, the report describes studies characterizing each of the assays' dynamic range, parallelism, tolerance to common interfering substances, spike recovery, and stability to sample freeze-thaw cycles. Upon completion of the analytical characterization, a clinical accuracy study was performed to evaluate concordance of AA and CRC classifier model calls using the analytical method intended for use in the clinic. Of 434 symptomatic patient samples tested, the percent agreement with original CRC and AA calls was 87% and 92% respectively. All studies followed CLSI guidelines and met the regulatory requirements for implementation of a new LDT. The results provide the analytical evidence to support the implementation of the novel multi-marker test as

  15. [Aspirin and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancher, Adrien; Michel, Pierre; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Sefrioui, David

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a worldwide public health problem. Aspirin has been identified as a protective factor against the apparition of colorectal cancer. There are several mechanisms about the actions by aspirin on colorectal tumorogenesis. These are not perfectly known nowadays. On one hand, there are direct mechanisms on colorectal mucosa, on the other hand there are indirect mechanisms through platelet functions. Aspirin also plays a role by its anti-inflammatory action and the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Several studies show that long-term treatment with low-doses of aspirin decreases the incidence of adenomas and colorectal cancers. In the United States, aspirin is currently recommended for primary prevention of the risk of colorectal cancer in all patients aged 50 to 59, with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular event greater than 10 %. However, primary prevention with aspirin should not be a substitute for screening in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, aspirin seems to be beneficial when used in post-diagnosis of colorectal cancer. It could actually decrease the risk of metastasis in case of a localized colorectal cancer, and increase the survival in particular, concerning PIK3CA mutated tumors. The association of aspirin with neoadjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer by radiochimiotherapy seems to have beneficial effects. French prospective randomized study is currently being conducted to investigate postoperative aspirin in colorectal cancers with a PIK3CA mutation. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The ratio of Matriptase/HAI-1 mRNA is higher in colorectal cancer adenomas and carcinomas than corresponding tissue from control individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Lotte K; Saebø, Mona; Skjelbred, Camilla F

    2006-01-01

    .001) and severe (p ratio than corresponding normal tissue from healthy control individuals (p ... that the ratio of matriptase to HAI-1 influences the malignant progression. The aim of this study has been to determine the ratio of matriptase to HAI-1 mRNA expression in affected and normal tissue from individuals with colorectal cancer adenomas and carcinomas as well as in healthy individuals, in order...... to determine at which stages a dysregulated ratio of matriptase/HAI-1 mRNA is present during carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for matriptase and HAI-1 in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 9), severe dysplasia (n = 15), mild/moderate dysplasia (n = 21...

  17. Molecular features of colorectal hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated adenoma/polyps from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Lee, Eui Jin; Ha, Sangyun; Kang, So Young; Jang, Kee-Taek; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Kim, Young Ho; Chang, Dong Kyung; Odze, Robert Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Abundant recent data suggest that sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is an early precursor lesion in the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis. It is believed that SSA/Ps develop cancer by an SSA/P-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Hyperplastic polyps (HPs) share some histologic and molecular characteristics with SSA/P, but it is unclear whether SSA/Ps are derived from HPs or whether they develop by a different pathogenetic pathway. Previous studies have shown that serrated polyps from Korean patients show different prevalence rates of certain molecular abnormalities compared with similar lesions from American patients, and this suggests that lifestyle and dietary factors may influence the serrated neoplasia pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular features of HPs and SSA/Ps, the latter both with and without dysplasia, from Korean patients and to compare the findings with similar lesions from American patients. One hundred and eleven serrated polyps, consisting of 45 HPs (30 microvesicular, 11 goblet cell, 4 mucin depleted) and 56 SSA/Ps (36 with dysplasia, 20 without dysplasia), were retrieved from the pathology files of a large medical center in Korea and 38 SSA/P from American patients were evaluated for BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), hMLH1, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), p16, methylated in tumor-1 (MINT-1), MINT2, and MINT31. Methylation of hMLH1 was performed using 2 different sets of primers. Twenty-three conventional adenomas from Korean patients were included as controls. The data were compared between polyp subtypes and between polyps in the right versus the left colon. With regard to HP, KRAS mutations were present in 31.1% of polyps and BRAF mutations in 46.7% of polyps. KRAS mutations were significantly more common in goblet cell HP and BRAF in microvesicular HP (MVHP). Methylation of MGMT, hMLH1, APC, p16, MINT1, MINT2, and MINT31 were

  18. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses of a colorectal cancer screening programme in a high adenoma prevalence scenario using MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrospide, Arantzazu; Idigoras, Isabel; Mar, Javier; de Koning, Harry; van der Meulen, Miriam; Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Martinez-Llorente, Jose Miguel; Portillo, Isabel; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Ibarrondo, Oliver; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2018-04-25

    The Basque Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme began in 2009 and the implementation has been complete since 2013. Faecal immunological testing was used for screening in individuals between 50 and 69 years old. Colorectal Cancer in Basque country is characterized by unusual epidemiological features given that Colorectal Cancer incidence is similar to other European countries while adenoma prevalence is higher. The object of our study was to economically evaluate the programme via cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses with microsimulation models. We applied the Microsimulation Screening Analysis (MISCAN)-Colon model to predict trends in Colorectal Cancer incidence and mortality and to quantify the short- and long-term effects and costs of the Basque Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme. The model was calibrated to the Basque demographics in 2008 and age-specific Colorectal Cancer incidence data in the Basque Cancer Registry from 2005 to 2008 before the screening begun. The model was also calibrated to the high adenoma prevalence observed for the Basque population in a previously published study. The multi-cohort approach used in the model included all the cohorts in the programme during 30 years of implementation, with lifetime follow-up. Unit costs were obtained from the Basque Health Service and both cost-effectiveness analysis and budget impact analysis were carried out. The goodness-of-fit of the model adaptation to observed programme data was evidence of validation. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the savings from treatment were larger than the added costs due to screening. Thus, the Basque programme was dominant compared to no screening, as life expectancy increased by 29.3 days per person. The savings in the budget analysis appeared 10 years after the complete implementation of the programme. The average annual budget was €73.4 million from year 2023 onwards. This economic evaluation showed a screening intervention with a major health gain

  19. Homozygous PMS2 deletion causes a severe colorectal cancer and multiple adenoma phenotype without extraintestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Olivia; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis G; Gorman, Patricia; Howarth, Kimberley M; Jones, Angela M; Polanco-Echeverry, Guadalupe M; Chinaleong, Jo-Anne; Günther, Thomas; Silver, Andrew; Clark, Susan K; Tomlinson, Ian

    2007-02-01

    We report a patient of Indian descent with parental consanguinity, who developed 10 carcinomas and 35 adenomatous polyps at age 23 and duodenal adenocarcinoma at age 25. He also had dysmorphic features, mental retardation, and café-au-lait spots but no brain tumor. We aimed to establish his molecular diagnosis. Germ-line screening for APC and MYH/MUTYH mutations was normal as was immunohistochemistry for MLH1 and MSH2 proteins. Investigation by array-comparative genomic hybridization revealed deletion of a small region on chromosome 7. Using polymerase chain reaction, this region was refined to a 400-kilobase deletion, which included exons 9-15 of the PMS2 gene, and all coding regions of oncomodulin, TRIAD3, and FSCN1. The deletion was confirmed as homozygous, and both parents were carriers. Immunohistochemistry showed absent PMS2 expression in all tumors and normal tissue. Most tumors showed microsatellite instability, more marked at dinucleotide than mononucleotide repeats. The tumors harbored no somatic mutations in APC, BRAF, AXIN2, or beta-catenin, but KRAS2 and TGFBR2 mutations were found. Our patient represents a novel phenotype for homozygous PMS2 mutation and perhaps the most severe colorectal cancer phenotype-in terms of numbers of malignancies at an early age-described to date. PMS2 mutations-and perhaps other homozygous mismatch repair mutations-should be considered in any patient presenting with multiple gastrointestinal tumors, since our patient could not be distinguished clinically from cases with attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis or MUTYH-associated polyposis.

  20. Potential role of probiotics on colorectal cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uccello Mario

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in developing ones. Evidence from a wide range of sources supports the assumption that the link between diet and colorectal cancer may be due to an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Discussion Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been investigated for their protective anti-tumor effects. In vivo and molecular studies have displayed encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention. Summary Several mechanisms could explain the preventive action of probiotics against colorectal cancer onset. They include: alteration of the intestinal microflora; inactivation of cancerogenic compounds; competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota; improvement of the host’s immune response; anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation; fermentation of undigested food; inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

  1. Colorectal cancer: From prevention to personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Teule, Àlex; Medina-Hayas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy

  2. Effects of phenotypes in heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) metabolism-related genes on the association of HCA intake with the risk of colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbir, Aline; Linseisen, Jakob; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Eichholzer, Monika; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2012-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA), formed by high-temperature cooking of meat, are well-known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Enzymes metabolizing HCAs may influence the risk of CRC depending on the enzyme activity level. We aimed to assess effect modification by polymorphisms in the HCA-metabolizing genes on the association of HCA intake with colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk, which are precursors of CRC. A case-control study nested in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort was conducted. Between 1994 and 2005, 413 adenoma cases were identified and 796 controls were matched to cases. Genotypes were determined and used to predict phenotypes (i.e., enzyme activities). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression analysis. CRA risk was positively associated with PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx (p trend = 0.006, 0.022, and 0.045, respectively) intake. SULT1A1 phenotypes modified the effect of MeIQx on CRA risk (p (Interaction) > 0.01) such that the association of MeIQx intake with CRA was stronger for slow than for normal phenotypes. Other modifying effects by phenotypes did not reach statistical significance. HCA intake is positively associated with CRA risk, regardless of phenotypes involved in the metabolizing process. Due to the number of comparisons made in the analysis, the modifying effect of SULT1A1 on the association of HCA intake with CRA risk may be due to chance.

  3. Colorectal anastomotic leakage: aspects of prevention, detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daams, Freek; Luyer, Misha; Lange, Johan F

    2013-04-21

    All colorectal surgeons are faced from time to time with anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. This complication has been studied extensively without a significant reduction of incidence over the last 30 years. New techniques of prevention, by innovative anastomotic techniques should improve results in the future, but standardization and "teachability" should be guaranteed. Risk scoring enables intra-operative decision-making whether to restore continuity or deviate. Early detection can lead to reduction in delay of diagnosis as long as a standard system is used. For treatment options, no firm evidence is available, but future studies could focus on repair and saving of the anastomosis on the one hand or anastomotical breakdown and definitive colostomy on the other hand.

  4. Factors associated with complete endoscopic resection of an invasive adenocarcinoma in a colorectal adenoma Factores asociados a la resección endoscópica completa del adenocarcinoma invasivo sobre adenoma de colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Quintas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: endoscopic polypectomy may allow curative resection of invasive adenocarcinoma on colorectal adenoma. Our goal is was to determine the factors associated with complete endoscopic resection of invasive adenocarcinoma. Methods: retrospective observational study. We included 151 patients with invasive adenocarcinoma on adenomas endoscopically resected between 1999 and 2009. We determined those variables independently related to incomplete resection by a logistic regression. Relation was expressed as Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI. Results: patients were predominantly male (66.2% and their mean age was 68.03 ± 10.65 years. Colonoscopy was incomplete in 84% of the patients and 60.3% had synchronous adenomas. Invasive adenocarcinoma was mainly located in distal colon (90.7% and morphology was pedunculated in 75.5%. The endoscopic average size was 22.61 ± 10.86 mm. Submucosal injection was required in 32.5%. Finally, the resection was in one piece in 73.5% and incomplete in 8.6% of the adenocarcinomas. Factors independently associated with incomplete endoscopic resection were size (mm (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14, p = 0.002, sessile or flat morphology (OR 8.78, 95% CI 2.24-34.38, p = 0.002 and incomplete colonoscopy (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.15-19.34, p = 0.03. Conclusions: endoscopic polypectomy allows complete resection of 91.4% of invasive adenocarcinomas on colorrectal adenoma in our series. Factors associated with incomplete resection were the size of the lesion, sessile or flat morphology and incomplete colonoscopy.Antecedentes y objetivo: la polipectomía endoscópica puede permitir la resección con intención curativa del adenocarcinoma invasivo sobre adenoma de colon. Nuestro objetivo es determinar los factores asociados a la resección endoscópica completa del adenocarcinoma invasivo. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo observacional. Se incluyeron 151 individuos con un adenocarcinoma invasivo sobre

  5. Short-chain fatty acid level and field cancerization show opposing associations with enteroendocrine cell number and neuropilin expression in patients with colorectal adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staton Carolyn A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested that the VEGF receptor neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 is expressed in a singly dispersed subpopulation of cells in the normal colonic epithelium, but that expression becomes dysregulated during colorectal carcinogenesis, with higher levels in tumour suggestive of a poor prognosis. We noted that the spatial distribution and morphology if NRP-1 expressing cells resembles that of enteroendocrine cells (EEC which are altered in response to disease state including cancer and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. We have shown that NRP-1 is down-regulated by butyrate in colon cancer cell lines in vitro and we hypothesized that butyrate produced in the lumen would have an analogous effect on the colon mucosa in vivo. Therefore we sought to investigate whether NRP-1 is expressed in EEC and how NRP-1 and EEC respond to butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA - principally acetate and propionate. Additionally we sought to assess whether there is a field effect around adenomas. Methodology Biopsies were collected at the mid-sigmoid, at the adenoma and at the contralateral wall (field of 28 subjects during endoscopy. Samples were fixed for IHC and stained for either NRP-1 or for chromogranin A (CgA, a marker of EEC. Stool sampling was undertaken to assess individuals' butyrate, acetate and propionate levels. Result NRP-1 expression was inversely related to SCFA concentration at the colon landmark (mid-sigmoid, but expression was lower and not related to SCFA concentration at the field. Likewise CgA+ cell number was also inversely related to SCFA at the landmark, but was lower and unresponsive at the field. Crypt cellularity was unaltered by field effect. A colocalisation analysis showed only a small subset of NRP-1 localised with CgA. Adenomas showed extensive, weaker staining for NRP-1 which contrastingly correlated positively with butyrate level. Field effects cause this relationship to be lost. Adenoma tissue

  6. No evidence of decreased risk of colorectal adenomas with white meat, poultry, and fish intake: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Sun, Jing; Sun, Yunwei; Huang, Liya; Tang, Yuming; Yuan, Yaozong

    2013-04-01

    Observational studies on the association between white meat (including fish and poultry) intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), the precursor of colorectal cancer, have reported mixed results. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we summarized the evidence from observational studies. Relevant studies published on or before April 30, 2012 were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE. Summary effect size estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q and I(2) statistics. A total of 23 publications from 21 independent studies (16 case-control and 5 cohort studies) were included in this meta-analysis. Based on high versus low analysis, the summary effect size estimate of CRA was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.84-1.09) for white meat intake, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.80-1.19) for fish intake, and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.80-1.18) for poultry intake. Subgroup analyses revealed that the null associations of CRA with intake of white meat (fish/poultry) were independent of geographic locations, study design, type of food frequency questionnaire, number of cases, and adjustments for confounders, such as body mass index, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dietary energy intake, smoking, and physical activity. Intake of white meat (fish/poultry) is not associated with the risk of CRA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NQO1 and NFE2L2 polymorphisms, fruit and vegetable intake and smoking and the risk of colorectal adenomas in an endoscopy-based population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, M.J.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Aarts, J.M.G.A.; Laan, W.; Boer, S.Y. de; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Both environment and genetics contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of colorectal neoplasia. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) is a detoxification enzyme that is polymorphic and inducible. We investigated interactions between lifestyle factors and polymorphisms in NQO1 and its key

  8. NQO1 and NFE2L2 polymorphisms, fruit and vegetable intake and smoking, and the risk of colorectal adenomas in an endoscopy-based population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, M.J.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Laan, van der A.; Boer, van S.Y.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Both environment and genetics contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of colorectal neoplasia. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) is a detoxification enzyme that is polymorphic and inducible. We investigated interactions between lifestyle factors and polymorphisms in NQO1 and its key

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer prevention: point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Nadir

    2008-08-01

    The limited success of current treatments for most advanced common malignancies highlights the importance of cancer prevention. Clinical trials on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor drugs showed the potential of chemoprevention as a strategy for reducing cancer incidence, although not without associated side effects. The attractiveness of these drugs partly stems from an ability to engage multiple mechanisms of action by their potential to influence multiple components of the carcinogenesis pathway, from initiation to progression. There are two isoforms of the COX enzymes. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in normal tissues and serves as a "housekeeper" of mucosal integrity, whereas COX-2 is an immediate early response gene that is highly inducible by neoplastic and inflammatory stimuli. COX-2 is significantly overexpressed in colorectal neoplasms, making it an attractive therapeutic target. The drug market has been revolutionized by the development of preparations targeted selectively against COX-2, and a proof of concept has been achieved. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer is already possible with celecoxib, but it is still not the ultimate drug of choice especially because of the cardiovascular risk associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Better patient selection and more effective and safer drugs are needed. Celecoxib is probably best used in a subset of individuals at moderate to high colorectal cancer risk and low risk of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosara Teixeira, Marcela; Braghiroli, Maria Ignez; Sabbaga, Jorge; Hoff, Paulo M

    2014-11-07

    Colorectal cancer incidence has been rising strongly in parallel with economic development. In the past few decades, much has been learned about the lifestyle, dietary and medication risk factors for this malignancy. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that prevention of weight gain and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity can positively influence in lowering the risk. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. Though quite often recommended, the role for many supplements, including omega-3, vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains unsettled. Only calcium and vitamin D supplementation appear to add a modest benefit, particularly in those with a low daily intake. With regard to chemoprevention, medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and postmenopausal hormonal replacement for women might be associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by their side effect profile. However, the role of agents such as statins, bisphosphonates and antioxidants have yet to be determined. Ultimately, primary prevention strategies focusing on modifying environmental, lifestyle risk factors, and chemopreventive drugs are options that have already been tested, and may impact on colon cancer incidence.

  11. Designing an intervention to help people with colorectal adenomas reduce their intake of red and processed meat and increase their levels of physical activity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowswell George

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC arise from adenomatous polyps and malignant potential is greatest in high risk adenomas. There is convincing observational evidence that red and processed meat increase the risk of CRC and that higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk. However, no definitive randomised trial has demonstrated the benefit of behaviour change on reducing polyp recurrence and no consistent advice is currently offered to minimise patient risk. This qualitative study aimed to assess patients’ preferences for dietary and physical activity interventions and ensure their appropriate and acceptable delivery to inform a feasibility trial. Methods Patients aged 60–74 included in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP were selected from a patient tracking database. After a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt, all had been diagnosed with an intermediate or high risk adenoma (I/HRA at colonoscopy between April 2008 and April 2010. Interested patients and their partners were invited to attend a focus group or interview in July 2010. A topic guide, informed by the objectives of the study, was used. A thematic analysis was conducted in which transcripts were examined to ensure that all occurrences of each theme had been accounted for and compared. Results Two main themes emerged from the focus groups: a experiences of having polyps and b changing behaviour. Participants had not associated polyp removal with colorectal cancer and most did not remember being given any information or advice relating to this at the time. Heterogeneity of existing diet and physical activity levels was noted. There was a lack of readiness to change behaviour in many people in the target population. Conclusions This study has confirmed and amplified recently published factors involved in developing interventions to change dietary and physical activity behaviour in this population. The need to tailor

  12. High ABCC2 and Low ABCG2 Gene Expression Are Early Events in the Colorectal Adenoma-Carcinoma Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Vogel, Lotte K.; Kopp, Tine Iskov

    2015-01-01

    Development of colorectal cancer (CRC) may result from a dysfunctional interplay between diet, gut microbes and the immune system. The ABC transport proteins ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, Multidrug resistance protein 1, MDR1), ABCC2 (MRP2) and ABCG2 (BCRP) are involved in transport of various compounds...

  13. Tissue levels of fish fatty acids and risk of colorectal adenomas: a case-control study (Netherlands).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busstra, M.C.; Siezen, C.L.; Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Kranen, H.J. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Veer, P. van 't

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that a high ratio of n-3 fish fatty acids to arachidonic acid (AA), might protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. Competition of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, especially AA, for the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 may be responsible for this effect. To examine

  14. Tissue levels of fish fatty acids and risk of colorectal adenomas: a case-control study (Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busstra, M.C.; Siezen, C.L.E.; Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Kranen, H.J.; Nagengast, F.M.; Veer, van 't P.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested that a high ratio of n-3 fish fatty acids to arachidonic acid (AA), might protect against colorectal carcinogenesis. Competition of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, especially AA, for the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 may be responsible for this effect. To examine

  15. Association Between Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Qiwen; Zhong, Jie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lifu; Sun, Yunwei; Yv, Lifen; Yuan, Yaozong

    2015-10-01

    There have been contradictory results about the association of fruits and vegetables intake with colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk, the precursor lesion of colorectal cancer. Herein, we have conducted a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to have a clear understanding about this association.Eligible studies up to November 30, 2014, were identified and retrieved by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases along with the manual review of the reference list of the retrieved studies. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, and random-effects model was used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).A total of 22 studies involving 11,696 CRA subjects were part of this meta-analysis. The SRR for the highest versus the lowest intake of vegetables alone was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80-1.02, Pheterogeneity = 0.025), whereas for vegetables and fruits combined, it was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.91, Pheterogeneity = 0.369), and for fruits alone, it was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71-0.88, Pheterogeneity = 0.111). In addition, linear dose-response analysis also showed similar results, for example, for per 100 g/d increment of fruits, the SRR was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92-0.97) and for vegetables it was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.01). Nonlinear association was only observed for vegetables (Pnonlinearity = 0.024), but not for fruits (Pnonlinearity = 0.583).Thus, this meta-analysis suggested that fruits consumption have a significant protective effect on CRA risk, but not vegetables. Moreover, we recommend additional studies with prospective designs that use validated questionnaires and control for important confounders to further validate the overall results.

  16. Association between investigator-measured body-mass index and colorectal adenoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 168,201 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin Chi-Sang; Chan, Chun-Hei; Cheung, Wilson; Fung, Din-Hei; Liang, Miaoyin; Huang, Jason Li-Wen; Wang, Yan-Hong; Jiang, Johnny Yu; Yu, Chun-Pong; Wang, Harry Haoxiang; Wu, Justin Che-Yuen; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Sung, Joseph Jao-Yiu

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the odds of colorectal adenoma (CRA) in colorectal cancer screening participants with different body mass index (BMI) levels, and examine if this association was different according to gender and ethnicity. The EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched to enroll high quality observational studies that examined the association between investigator-measured BMI and colonoscopy-diagnosed CRA. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the summary odds ratio (SOR) for the association between BMI and CRA. The Cochran's Q statistic and I 2 analyses were used to assess the heterogeneity. A total of 17 studies (168,201 subjects) were included. When compared with subjects having BMI CRA (SOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.30-1.61; I 2  = 43.0%). Subjects with BMI ≥ 30 had similarly higher risk of CRA (SOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.24-1.63; I 2  = 18.5%). The heterogeneity was mild to moderate among studies. The associations were significantly higher than estimates by previous meta-analyses. There was no publication bias detected (Egger's regression test, p = 0.584). Subgroup analysis showed that the magnitude of association was significantly higher in female than male subjects (SOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.30-1.58 vs. SOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.24; different among different ethnic groups (SOR 1.72, 1.44 and 0.88 in White, Asians and Africans, respectively) being insignificant in Africans; and no difference exists among different study designs. In summary, the risk conferred by BMI for CRA was significantly higher than that reported previously. These findings bear implications in CRA risk estimation.

  17. A CpG island methylator phenotype of colorectal cancer that is contiguous with conventional adenomas, but not serrated polyps

    OpenAIRE

    HOKAZONO, KOJI; UEKI, TAKASHI; NAGAYOSHI, KINUKO; NISHIOKA, YASUNOBU; HATAE, TATSUNOBU; KOGA, YUTAKA; HIRAHASHI, MINAKO; ODA, YOSHINAO; TANAKA, MASAO

    2014-01-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), with concurrent multiple promoter hypermethylation of tumor-related genes. A serrated pathway in which CIMP is developed from serrated polyps is proposed. The present study characterized CIMP and morphologically examined precursor lesions of CIMP. In total, 104 CRCs treated between January 1996 and December 2004 were examined. Aberrant promoter methylation of 15 cancer-related genes was analyzed. CIMP sta...

  18. Statistical methods for assays with limits of detection: Serum bile acid as a differentiator between patients with normal colons, adenomas, and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie LaFleur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In analytic chemistry a detection limit (DL is the lowest measurable amount of an analyte that can be distinguished from a blank; many biomedical measurement technologies exhibit this property. From a statistical perspective, these data present inferential challenges because instead of precise measures, one only has information that the value is somewhere between 0 and the DL (below detection limit, BDL. Substitution of BDL values, with 0 or the DL can lead to biased parameter estimates and a loss of statistical power. Statistical methods that make adjustments when dealing with these types of data, often called left-censored data, are available in many commercial statistical packages. Despite this availability, the use of these methods is still not widespread in biomedical literature. We have reviewed the statistical approaches of dealing with BDL values, and used simulations to examine the performance of the commonly used substitution methods and the most widely available statistical methods. We have illustrated these methods using a study undertaken at the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, to examine the serum bile acid levels in patients with colorectal cancer and adenoma. We have found that the modern methods for BDL values identify disease-related differences that are often missed, with statistically naive approaches.

  19. Colorectal Anastomoses : Surgical outcome and prevention of anastomotic leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Ilsalien

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal surgery is a frequently performed procedure with more than 10.000 annual resections in the Netherlands. The majority of resections are performed for colorectal cancer. The first part of this thesis focused on outcome of colorectal cancer surgery in the Netherlands based on the nationwide

  20. Comprehensive suppression of all apoptosis-induced proliferation pathways as a proposed approach to colorectal cancer prevention and therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bordonaro

    Full Text Available Mutations in the WNT/beta-catenin pathway are present in the majority of all sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs, and histone deacetylase inhibitors induce apoptosis in CRC cells with such mutations. This apoptosis is counteracted by (1 the signaling heterogeneity of CRC cell populations, and (2 the survival pathways induced by mitogens secreted from apoptotic cells. The phenomena of signaling heterogeneity and apoptosis-induced survival constitute the immediate mechanisms of resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors, and probably other chemotherapeutic agents. We explored the strategy of augmenting CRC cell death by inhibiting all survival pathways induced by the pro-apoptotic agent LBH589, a histone deacetylase inhibitor: AKT, JAK/STAT, and ERK signaling. The apoptosis-enhancing ability of a cocktail of synthetic inhibitors of proliferation was compared to the effects of the natural product propolis. We utilized colorectal adenoma, drug-sensitive and drug-resistant colorectal carcinoma cells to evaluate the apoptotic potential of the combination treatments. The results suggest that an effective approach to CRC combination therapy is to combine apoptosis-inducing drugs (e.g., histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as LBH589 with agents that suppress all compensatory survival pathways induced during apoptosis (such as the cocktail of inhibitors of apoptosis-associated proliferation. The same paradigm can be applied to a CRC prevention approach, as the apoptotic effect of butyrate, a diet-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, is augmented by other dietary agents that modulate survival pathways (e.g., propolis and coffee extract. Thus, dietary supplements composed by fermentable fiber, propolis, and coffee extract may effectively counteract neoplastic growth in the colon.

  1. Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Takuji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma. These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, many of which can easily be removed during endoscopy if they are small. Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy. The knowledge described herein will help to reduce and prevent this malignancy, which is one of the most frequent neoplasms in some Western and developed countries.

  2. Randomized clinical trial of biodegradeable intraluminal sheath to prevent anastomotic leak after stapled colorectal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I S; Morks, A N; Ten Cate Hoedemaker, H O; Burgerhof, J G M; Leuvenink, H G; van Praagh, J B; Ploeg, R J; Havenga, K

    Background: Anastomotic leakage is a potential major complication after colorectal surgery. The C-seal was developed to help reduce the clinical leakage rate. It is an intraluminal sheath that is stapled proximal to a colorectal anastomosis, covering it intraluminally and thus preventing intestinal

  3. Long-term effect of aspirin on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer: an analysis from the CAPP2 randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Macrae, Finlay

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies report reduced colorectal cancer in regular aspirin consumers. Randomised controlled trials have shown reduced risk of adenomas but none have employed prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint. The CAPP2 trial aimed to investigate the antineoplastic effects of as...

  4. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  6. Advantages of magnifying narrow-band imaging for diagnosing colorectal cancer coexisting with sessile serrated adenoma/polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Akiko; Osumi, Hiroki; Kishihara, Teruhito; Morishige, Kenjiro; Ishikawa, Hirotaka; Tamegai, Yoshiro; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the advantages of narrow-band imaging (NBI) for efficient diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P). The main objective of this study was to analyze the characteristic features of cancer coexisting with serrated lesion by carrying out NBI. We evaluated 264 non-malignant serrated lesions by using three modalities (conventional white light colonoscopy, magnifying chromoendoscopy, and magnifying NBI). Of the evaluated cancer cases with serrated lesions, 37 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In diagnosing non-malignant SSA/P, an expanded crypt opening (ECO) under magnifying NBI is a useful sign. One hundred and twenty-five lesions (87%) of observed ECO were, at the same time, detected to have type II open pit pattern, which is known to be a valuable indicator when using magnifying chromoendoscopy. ECO had high sensitivity of 80% for identifying SSA/P, with 62% specificity and 83% positive predictive value (PPV). In detecting the cancer with SSA/P, irregular vessels under magnifying NBI were frequently observed with 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity, 86% PPV and 100% negative predictive value. A focus on irregular vessels in serrated lesions might be useful for identification of cancer with SSA/P. This is an advantage of carrying out magnifying NBI in addition to being used simultaneously with other modalities by switching, and observations can be made by using wash-in water alone. We can carry out advanced examinations for selected lesions with irregular vessels. To confirm cancerous demarcation and invasion depth, a combination of all three aforementioned modalities should be done. © 2016 The Authors Digestive Endoscopy © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Coronin 2A (CRN5) expression is associated with colorectal adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and oncogenic signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastetter, Raphael H.; Blömacher, Margit; Drebber, Uta; Marko, Marija; Behrens, Juliane; Solga, Roxana; Hojeili, Sarah; Bhattacharya, Kurchi; Wunderlich, Claudia M.; Wunderlich, F. Thomas; Odenthal, Margarete; Ziemann, Anja; Eichinger, Ludwig; Clemen, Christoph S.

    2015-01-01

    Coronin proteins are known as regulators of actin-based cellular processes, and some of them are associated with the malignant progression of human cancer. Here, we show that expression of coronin 2A is up-regulated in human colon carcinoma. This study included 26 human colon tumour specimens and 9 normal controls. Expression and localisation of coronin 2A was studied by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence imaging, cell fractionation, and immunoblotting. Functional roles of coronin 2A were analysed by over-expression and knock-down of the protein. Protein interactions were studied by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments, mass spectrometry analyses, and in vitro kinase and methylation assays. Histopathological investigation revealed that the expression of coronin 2A in colon tumour cells is up-regulated during the adenoma-adenocarcinoma progression. At the subcellular level, coronin 2A localised to multiple compartments, i.e. F-actin stress fibres, the front of lamellipodia, focal adhesions, and the nuclei. Over-expression of coronin 2A led to a reduction of F-actin stress fibres and elevated cell migration velocity. We identified two novel direct coronin 2A interaction partners. The interaction of coronin 2A with MAPK14 (mitogen activated protein kinase 14 or MAP kinase p38α) led to phosphorylation of coronin 2A and also to activation of the MAPK14 pathway. Moreover, coronin 2A interacted with PRMT5 (protein arginine N-methyltransferase 5), which modulates the sensitivity of tumour cells to TRAIL-induced cell death. We show that increased expression of coronin 2A is associated with the malignant phenotype of human colon carcinoma. Moreover, we linked coronin 2A to MAPK14 and PRMT5 signalling pathways involved in tumour progression. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1645-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  8. Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Bertarelli, Gaia; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2017-05-18

    Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometimes inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and "meat derived mutagenic activity" (MDM)) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.13,1.28; p CRA risk in association with PhIP, MDM, and MeIQx. CRC risk (21,344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04,1.25; p = 0.004), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02,1.22; p = 0.014) and MDM (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06,1.19; p meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity.

  9. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  10. The role of oral antibiotics prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infection in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullouros, Michalis; Khan, Nadir; Aly, Emad H

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a challenge in colorectal surgery. Over the years, various modalities have been used in an attempt to reduce SSI risk in elective colorectal surgery, which include mechanical bowel preparation before surgery, oral antibiotics and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis at induction of surgery. Even though IV antibiotics have become standard practice, there has been a debate on the exact role of oral antibiotics. The primary aim was to identify the role of oral antibiotics in reduction of SSI in elective colorectal surgery. The secondary aim was to explore any potential benefit in the use of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) in relation to SSI in elective colorectal surgery. Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies after 1980, which investigated the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis and/or MBP in preventing SSIs in elective colorectal surgery were included. Twenty-three RCTs and eight cohorts were included. The results indicate a statistically significant advantage in preventing SSIs with the combined usage of oral and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Furthermore, our analysis of the cohort studies shows no benefits in the use of MBP in prevention of SSIs. The addition of oral antibiotics to systemic antibiotics could potentially reduce the risk of SSIs in elective colorectal surgery. Additionally, MBP does not seem to provide a clear benefit with regard to SSI prevention.

  11. Circulating levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and colorectal adenomas: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeong Sook; Keum, NaNa; Zhang, Xuehong; Cho, Eunyoung; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, and is thereby implicated in carcinogenesis. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) may antagonize IGF-1 action, leading to inhibition of the potential tumorigenicity of IGF-1. We conducted this meta-analysis to estimate the association between IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio and the risk of colorectal adenomas (CRAs). Further, we investigated whether this association was different between occurrent and recurrent CRA, by adjustment for obesity, and by advanced CRA. Pubmed and Embase were searched up to April, 2015 to identify relevant observational studies and summary odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was estimated using a random-effects model. A total of 12 studies (11 studies including 3038 cases for IGF-1, 12 studies including 3208 cases for IGFBP-3, and 7 studies including 1867 cases for IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio) were included in this meta-analysis. The summary ORs of occurrent CRA for the highest versus lowest category of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio were 1.13 (95% CI: 0.95-1.34), 0.99 (0.84-1.16), and 1.05 (0.86-1.29), respectively. Higher IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio were significantly associated with decreased risk of recurrent CRA (OR for IGF-1=0.60 [95% CI: 0.42-0.85]; IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio=0.65 [0.44-0.96]). A stratified analysis by advancement of occurrent CRA produced a significant summary OR of IGF-1 for advanced CRA (OR=2.21 [1.08-4.52]) but not for non-advanced CRA (OR=0.89 [0.55-1.45]). We did not find significant publication bias or heterogeneity. Circulating levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their molar ratio were not associated with the risk of occurrence of CRA, but IGF-1 was associated with the increased risk for occurrence of advanced CRA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A bioinformatical and functional approach to identify novel strategies for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, D. M.; Fehrmann, R. S. N.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Koornstra, J. J.; Oosterhuis, D.; van der Zee, A. G. J.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; de Jong, S.

    Comparing normal colorectal mucosa and adenomas focusing on deregulated pathways obtains insight into the biological processes of early colorectal carcinogenesis. Publicly available microarray expression data from 26 normal mucosa and 47 adenoma samples were analyzed. Biological pathways enriched in

  13. Lifestyle modification: A primary prevention approach to colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection of cancer through screening is an important step in decreasing both morbidity and mortality. Likewise, specific modifiable lifestyle behaviors are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. Lifestyle practices have also been shown to maximize health after the primary treatmen...

  14. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which

  15. Special Section: Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a week-long series to promote colon and rectal (colorectal) cancer awareness and screening. Following that, research showed that ... niddk.nih.gov The American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org The American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons: www.fascrs.org Spring 2009 Issue: Volume ...

  16. Lactobacillus salivarius Ren prevent the early colorectal carcinogenesis in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Zhu, C; Ge, S; Zhang, M; Jiang, L; Cui, J; Ren, F

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren (LS) on modulating colonic micro flora structure and influencing host colonic health in a rat model with colorectal precancerous lesions. Male F344 rats were injected with 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and treated with LS of two doses (5 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(10) CFU kg(-1) body weight) for 15 weeks. The colonic microflora profiles, luminal metabolites, epithelial proliferation and precancerous lesions [aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] were determined. A distinct segregation of colonic microflora structures was observed in LS-treated group. The abundance of one Prevotella-related strain was increased, and the abundance of one Bacillus-related strain was decreased by LS treatment. These changes were accompanied by increased short-chain fatty acid levels and decreased azoreductase activity. LS treatment also reduced the number of ACF by c. 40% and suppressed epithelial proliferation. Lactobacillus salivarius Ren improved the colonic microflora structures and the luminal metabolisms in addition preventing the early colorectal carcinogenesis in DMH-induced rat model. Colonic microflora is an important factor in colorectal carcinogenesis. Modulating the structural shifts of microflora may provide a novel option for preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. This study suggested a potential probiotic-based approach to modulate the intestinal microflora in the prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. PLEOMORPHIC ADENOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of a 68 year-old man from Tanga who was suffering from pleomophic adenoma for 6 years. The tumor started as slowly growing mass which increased to attain a shiny, lobulated appearance. The patient had been treated unsuccessfully by various tradition healers. Finally, he went to Teule. Hospital were he ...

  18. Protocol for MInimizing the Risk of Metachronous Adenomas of the CoLorectum with Green Tea Extract (MIRACLE: a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmöller Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing. Methods/Design We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups. Discussion The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good

  19. Imaging colon cancer development in mice: IL-6 deficiency prevents adenoma in azoxymethane-treated Smad3 knockouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpel, Kaitlin; Leung, Sarah; Faith Rice, Photini; Jones, Mykella; Barton, Jennifer K.; Bommireddy, Ramireddy

    2016-02-01

    The development of colorectal cancer in the azoxymethane-induced mouse model can be observed by using a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. This system is uniquely capable of tracking disease development over time, allowing for the monitoring of morphological changes in the distal colon due to tumor development and the presence of lymphoid aggregates. By using genetically engineered mouse models deficient in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Smad family member 3 (Smad3), the role of inflammation on tumor development and the immune system can be elucidated. Smad3 knockout mice develop inflammatory response, wasting, and colitis associated cancer while deficiency of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 confers resistance to tumorigenesis. We present pilot data showing that the Smad3 knockout group had the highest tumor burden, highest spleen weight, and lowest thymus weight. The IL-6 deficiency in Smad3 knockout mice prevented tumor development, splenomegaly, and thymic atrophy. This finding suggests that agents that inhibit IL-6 (e.g. anti-IL-6 antibody, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], etc.) could be used as novel therapeutic agents to prevent disease progression and increase the efficacy of anti-cancer agents. OCT can also be useful for initiating early therapy and assessing the benefit of combination therapy targeting inflammation.

  20. Sulindac targets nuclear beta-catenin accumulation and Wnt signalling in adenomas of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and in human colorectal cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E. M. J.; Keller, J. J.; Wormhoudt, T. A. M.; Giardiello, F. M.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; van der Neut, R.; Pals, S. T.

    2004-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have chemopreventive potential against colorectal carcinomas (CRCs). Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 underlies part of this effect, although COX-2-independent mechanisms may also exist. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appear to inhibit the

  1. The analysis of a large Danish family supports the presence of a susceptibility locus for adenoma and colorectal cancer on chromosome 11q24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Laura Aviaja; Eiberg, Hans; Mikkelsen, Hanne Birte

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary colorectal cancer accounts for approximately 30 % of all colorectal cancers, but currently only 5 % of these families can be explained by highly penetrant, inherited mutations. In the remaining 25 % it is not possible to perform a gene test to identify the family members who would...... benefit from prophylactic screening. Consequently, all family members are asked to follow a screening program. The purpose of this study was to localize a new gene which causes colorectal cancer. We performed a linkage analysis using data from a SNP6.0 chip in one large family with 12 affected family...... areas on chromosome 2 and chromosome 11 with the highest possible LOD scores of 2.6. Two other studies have identified 11q24 as a candidate area for colorectal cancer susceptibility and this area is supported by our results....

  2. Block-Centric Visualization Of Histological Whole Slide Images With Application To Revealing Growth-Patterns Of Early Colorectal Adenomas And Aberrant Crypt Foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Zerbe

    2016-06-01

    The presented methods provide an efficient means to retrieve correspondences and additional spatial information from serial sections of histological slides. They also show good applicability for specimen from different origin. Alignment methods can be applied to generate block-centric visualizations such as parallel and transparent viewing of multiple stains. Moreover, the generated stack videos and 3D models demonstrate the very good accuracy of section alignment even in large series. The visualizations enable pathologists and researchers to grasp the 3D structural relationships in the tissue at a glance, providing an excellent tool to communicate more complex histomorphological findings. Interestingly, we see two kinds of tubular adenomas, which could imply multiple ways to tubular adenoma formation in FAP-patients, possibly akin to the recent observations in mice [3].

  3. Does Subclinical Malabsorption of Carbohydrates Prevent Colorectal Cancer? A Hypothesis

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    Terry Dorcen Bolin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC is high in the western world and low in Asia and Africa. Fibre and starch are thought to be important protective factors, with a strong inverse relationship between starch consumption and CRC incidence. Whether this is true in Asia, particularly, and Africa is debatable. Because rice is the most easily absorbed of carbohydrates, a mechanism whereby there is an increased starch load in the colon in the Asian population needs to be identified. One possible cause is subclinical malabsorption. This is linked to increased mucosal permeability and low gross domestic product (GDP per capita, which reflects poor sanitation and water supplies with increased risk for small bowel bacterial overgrowth leading to mucosal cell damage. A potential cause of the dramatic rise in CRC incidence in Japan may relate to its equally dramatic increase in GDP per capita of 600% over 50 years. This correlation appears to be stronger than with other dietary factors including fruit, vegetables and meat. Worldwide, a close correlation exists among low GDP per capita, low CRC incidence and presumed subclinical malabsorption. All these factors combine to maintain a low incidence of CRC in poorly developed countries.

  4. Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis

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    Hisataka Moriwaki; Masaya Kubota; Masahito Shimizu; Takuji Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess a...

  5. Protective effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal adenomas is modified by a polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, C.L.E.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Kram, N.R.; Soest, van E.M.; Jong, de D.J.; Fodde, R.; Kranen, H.J.; Kampman, E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with a decreased risk of colorectal tumors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in target genes of NSAID action, and their haplotypes, might modulate this protective effect. METHODS: A case-control study including 724 cases

  6. Three molecular pathways model colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadova, Aysel; Gallon, Richard; Gebert, Johannes; Ballhausen, Alexej; Endris, Volker; Kirchner, Martina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Burn, John; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Bläker, Hendrik; Kloor, Matthias

    2018-07-01

    Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency has long been regarded as a secondary event in the pathogenesis of Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. Recently, this concept has been challenged by the discovery of MMR-deficient crypt foci in the normal mucosa. We aimed to reconstruct colorectal carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome by collecting molecular and histology evidence from Lynch syndrome adenomas and carcinomas. We determined the frequency of MMR deficiency in adenomas from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers by immunohistochemistry and by systematic literature analysis. To trace back the pathways of pathogenesis, histological growth patterns and mutational signatures were analyzed in Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers. Literature and immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated MMR deficiency in 491 (76.7%) out of 640 adenomas (95% CI: 73.3% to 79.8%) from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers. Histologically normal MMR-deficient crypts were found directly adjacent to dysplastic adenoma tissue, proving their role as tumor precursors in Lynch syndrome. Accordingly, mutation signature analysis in Lynch colorectal cancers revealed that KRAS and APC mutations commonly occur after the onset of MMR deficiency. Tumors lacking evidence of polypous growth frequently presented with CTNNB1 and TP53 mutations. Our findings demonstrate that Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers can develop through three pathways, with MMR deficiency commonly representing an early and possibly initiating event. This underlines that targeting MMR-deficient cells by chemoprevention or vaccines against MMR deficiency-induced frameshift peptide neoantigens holds promise for tumor prevention in Lynch syndrome. © 2018 UICC.

  7. Dietary supplement use and colorectal tumors : from prevention to diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Expert guidelines formulated by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) advised no use of dietary supplements for cancer prevention. However, it is unclear whether those recommendations also apply to populations at

  8. Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisataka Moriwaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals.

  9. Physical Activity and Nutrition in Primary and Tertiary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Michael H

    2016-06-01

    Lifestyle factors play a pivotal role in the primary and tertiary prevention of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this review article is to summarize data concerning the effect of the lifestyle factors physical activity (PA) and nutrition in primary and, more importantly, tertiary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Focusing on the influence of lifestyle factors on prognosis und quality of life (QOL), a comprehensive literature search of clinical studies published mainly in the years 2000 until 2015 was performed and the current knowledge based on these clinical studies reviewed. Besides avoiding risk factors (such as smoking and overindulgence in alcohol), healthy weight, regular and moderate PA as well as a diet which contains fruit, vegetables, poultry, and fish (so-called 'Mediterranean' diet) may reduce the risk of the disease significantly. Patients already diagnosed with CRC can also actively improve the prognosis of CRC and QOL by changing their lifestyle. Patients commencing moderate exercise and modifying their eating habits in terms of a 'Mediterranean' diet can reduce cancer-specific and overall mortality by up to 40% and significantly increase their quality of life already during chemotherapy. Therefore, moderate physical exercise, calorie restriction, and a Mediterranean dietary pattern for patients with CRC should be recommended by physicians treating these patients. In fact, the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR/WCRF) systematic literature review from 2007 shows that the lifestyle changes recommended after diagnosis are the same for primary prevention of this disease. Lifestyle changes such as moderate PA and a Mediterranean diet significantly improve the QOL as well as the prognosis of patients suffering from colorectal disease. However, the effect of lifestyle changes is mostly based on observational studies, while only few studies are prospective and none are randomized. Therefore, these observational

  10. Calcium or resistant starch does not affect colonic epithelial cell proliferation throughout the colon in adenoma patients : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Britta A P; Karrenbeld, Arend; van der Sluis, Tineke; Zwart, Nynke; van der Meer, Roelof; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Kleibeuker, Jan H

    2002-01-01

    Patients with a history of sporadic adenomas have increased epithelial cell proliferative activity, an intermediate risk marker for colorectal cancer. Reduction of proliferation by dietary intervention may reflect a decreased colorectal cancer risk. To evaluate whether calcium or resistant starch

  11. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Gastritis Increases Risk of Colorectal Polyps: a Hospital Based-Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal polyps are common in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. The present study aimed to determine any correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and colorectal polyps in the Thai population. A total of 303 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy with colonoscopy for investigation of chronic abdominal pain participated in this study from November 2014 to October 2015. A diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was made if the bacteria were seen on histopathological examination and a rapid urease test was positive. Colorectal polyps were confirmed by histological examination of colorectal biopsies. Patient demographic data were analyzed for correlations. The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 77 (25.4%), lesions being found more frequently in Helicobacter pylori infected patients than non-infected subjects [38.4% vs. 12.5%; Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.26 (1.32 - 3.86), p gastritis were at high risk of having adenomas featuring dysplasia [OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.16 - 7.99); P = 0.02]. There was no varaition in location of polyps, age group, sex and gastric lesions with respect to Helicobacter pylori status. This study showed that Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps, especially adenomas with dysplasia in the Thai population. Patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis may benefit from concurrent colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal polyps as a preventive and early treatment for colorectal cancer.

  12. The effect of education on the improvement of fruits and vegetables consumption aiming to preventing colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Elahe; Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzad, Seyed Homamodin; Gharli Pour, Zabiholah; Gilasi, Hamid Reza; Ghasemi, Sima; Hafez, Asghar Ashrafi

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of health education on the improvement of intake of fruits and vegetables aiming at preventing colorectal cancer among high school girls in the city of Shahr-e-kord. Colorectal cancer is one of the most important and most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Every year, nearly one million new cases of colorectal cancer are recognized around the world and nearly half of them lose their lives due to the disease. 130 students were randomly divided to two groups, which experimental (65) and controls (65) were chosen from the city of Shahr-e-kord for this experimental study. The instruments for data collecting were self-made questionnaire health belief model based and food frequency questionnaire. The HBM FFQ questionnaires were completed before, immediately and two months after education by participants. After pre-test, 5 educational session classes in experimental group were performed. Finally, data collected and analyzed by SPSS16 computer software (T- test, T-Paired, repeated measure ANOVA). Findings of the study showed that before the intervention there was no significant differences between the scores of different structures of HBM model in two groups (P > 0.05), after the intervention there was significant differences between experimental and control groups in the levels of knowledge, structures of HBM model and performance for preventing colorectal cancer (p colorectal cancer.

  13. Aspirin in the Chemoprevention of Colorectal Neoplasia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T.; Arber, Nadir; Burn, John; Chia, John Whay-Kuang; Elwood, Peter; Hull, Mark A.; Logan, Richard F.; Rothwell, Peter M.; Schrör, Karsten; Baron, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) in addition to its well-established benefits in the prevention of vascular disease. Epidemiologic studies have consistently observed an inverse association between aspirin use and risk of CRC. A recent pooled analysis of a long-term post-trial follow-up of nearly 14,000 patients from 4 randomized, cardiovascular disease prevention trials showed that daily aspirin treatment for about 5 years was associated with a 34% reduction in 20-year CRC mortality. A separate meta-analysis of nearly 3,000 patients with a history of colorectal adenoma or cancer in 4 randomized adenoma prevention trials demonstrated that aspirin reduced the occurrence of advanced adenomas by 28% and any adenoma by 17%. Aspirin has also been shown to be beneficial in a clinical trial of patients with Lynch syndrome, a hereditary CRC syndrome; in those treated with aspirin for at least 2 years, there was a ≥ 50% reduction in the risk of CRC commencing 5 years after randomization and after aspirin had been discontinued. A few observational studies have shown an increase in survival among patients with CRC who use aspirin. Taken together, these findings strengthen the case for consideration of long-term aspirin use in CRC prevention. Despite these compelling data, there is a lack of consensus about the balance of risks and benefits associated with long-term aspirin use, particularly in low-risk populations. The optimal dose to use for cancer prevention and the precise mechanism underlying aspirin’s anticancer effect require further investigation. PMID:22084361

  14. [The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain. A civil commitment to society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Juan Diego; Castells, Antoni; Oriol, Isabel; Pastor, Ana; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Echevarría, José Manuel; Caballero, Begoña; González-Navarro, Andrés; Bandrés, Fernando; Brullet, Enric; Iniesta, Antonio; Carballo, Fernando; Bouzas, Rosa; Ariza, Aurelio; Ibisate, Alfredo; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Escudero, Beatriz; Camacho, Silvia; Fernández-Marcos, Ana; González, Teresa; Quintero, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Marzo, Mercè; Mascort, Juanjo; Andréu, Monserrat; Cerezo, Laura; Vázquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Borrás, Josep María; Salas, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Portillo, Isabel; Herráiz, Mayte; Valle, María Luisa; Sotoca, Amalia; Nieto, Santiago; Hué, Carlos; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumor in Spain, when men and women are considered together, and the second leading cause of cancer death. Every week in Spain over 500 cases of CRC are diagnosed, and nearly 260 people die from the disease. Epidemiologic estimations for the coming years show a significant increase in the number of annual cases. CRC is a perfectly preventable tumor and can be cured in 90% of cases if detected in the early stages. Population-based screening programs have been shown to reduce the incidence of CRC and mortality from the disease. Unless early detection programs are established in Spain, it is estimated that in the coming years, 1 out of 20 men and 1 out of 30 women will develop CRC before the age of 75. The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain is an independent and non-profit organization created in 2008 that integrates patients' associations, altruistic non-governmental organizations and scientific societies. Its main objective is to raise awareness and disseminate information on the social and healthcare importance of CRC in Spain and to promote screening measures, early detection and prevention programs. Health professionals, scientific societies, healthcare institutions and civil society should be sensitized to this highly important health problem that requires the participation of all sectors of society. The early detection of CRC is an issue that affects the whole of society and therefore it is imperative for all sectors to work together. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and Biological Features of Interval Colorectal Cancer

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    Yu Mi Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the “mean sojourn time.” It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps share many genomic and colonic site characteristics with I-CRCs. The clinical and biological features of I-CRC should be elucidated to prevent the development of interval colon cancer.

  16. Status of colorectal cancer devices: present scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Shammy; Akhtar, Reyhan; Sarotra, Pooja; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the colonoscopic detection and removal of neoplasia from the colorectum to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Various online medical databases were searched such as PubMed, ACS, NCI, NIH, WHO, etc. for relevant publications and clinical trials for new developments in colonoscopic devices that are intended for diagnostic visualization and therapeutic interventions of the digestive tract. HD colon and I-Scan both has shown to increase the detection of sporadic adenomas with high quality. Third Eye Retroscope confers the backward view of colon, but aeroscope screens the entire colon in 30-60 min. Narrow-band imaging enhances mucosal and vascular details through the color differentiation of precancerous or cancerous polyp, compared to white light colonoscopy. The PillCam Colon Capsule is another new technique which is easily inserted and painless. In case of chemotherapy, Therasphere with Yttrium-90 has good results in the treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasis. Radiofrequency ablation is a good technique for tumors ablation and Staple Line Reinforcement prevents the leak during and post-surgery of colon. FOBT is much more sensitive and cheaper test for colorectal cancer screening. Registered clinical trials have shown promising results for neoplasia detection by I-Scan, TER, and NBI imaging techniques will change current colonoscopic practice in colorectal cancer screening. However, more studies and inventions are required for improving the patient safety and efficacy.

  17. Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention: A Review of Potential Mechanisms and Promising Targets for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-12-01

    Diet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer. We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity. Most of the epidemiologic evidence derives from cross-sectional or short-term, highly controlled feeding studies that are limited in size. Therefore, high-quality large-scale prospective studies with dietary data collected over the life course and comprehensive gut microbial composition and function assessed well prior to neoplastic occurrence are critically needed to identify microbiome-based interventions that may complement or optimize current diet-based strategies for colorectal cancer prevention and management.

  18. BAGE Hypomethylation Is an Early Event in Colon Transformation and Is Frequent in Histologically Advanced Adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lana, Erica [INSERM U827, Montpellier (France); Brun, Marie-Elisabeth [Institut de Génétique Humaine, CNRS UPR 1142, Montpellier (France); Rivals, Isabelle [Equipe de Statistique Appliquée, ESPCI ParisTech, Paris (France); Selves, Janick; Kirzin, Sylvain [CHU Purpan and INSERM U563, Toulouse (France); Lutsyk, Andriy P. [O.O. Bogomoletz National Medical University, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gordiyuk, Vasily V. [Department of Functional Genomics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Bibeau, Frédéric [CRLC, Montpellier (France); Rynditch, Alla [Department of Functional Genomics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); De Sario, Albertina, E-mail: albertina.de-sario@inserm.fr [INSERM U827, Montpellier (France)

    2009-11-18

    We showed earlier that BAGE (B melanoma antigen) loci are hypermethylated in normal tissues and hypomethylated in 98% of human cancers. More recently, we provided evidence that hypomethylation of BAGE loci represents an informative marker for colon cancer detection. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of BAGE loci was an early event that occurred in 43% of colorectal adenomas. Interestingly, hypomethylation of BAGE loci was frequent (50%) in tubulo-villous and villous adenomas, these adenomas having a high probability of being transformed into colorectal cancers.

  19. BAGE Hypomethylation Is an Early Event in Colon Transformation and Is Frequent in Histologically Advanced Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Rynditch

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We showed earlier that BAGE (B melanoma antigen loci are hypermethylated in normal tissues and hypomethylated in 98% of human cancers. More recently, we provided evidence that hypomethylation of BAGE loci represents an informative marker for colon cancer detection. In this study, we show that hypomethylation of BAGE loci was an early event that occurred in 43% of colorectal adenomas. Interestingly, hypomethylation of BAGE loci was frequent (50% in tubulo-villous and villous adenomas, these adenomas having a high probability of being transformed into colorectal cancers.

  20. Isolated colorectal cancer screening or integrated cancer prevention? A provocative suggestion!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbrugger, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is still not fully established in the European Union. Recently, the United European Gastroenterology Federation (UEGF) supported CRC screening with the publication of quality guidelines and a written declaration in the European Parliament in favor of European-wide monitored CRC screening and primary prevention of CRC, the latter particularly in young citizens. In this article, the need for population-based CRC screening is once again stressed. In addition, the value of opportunistic CRC screening is pointed out, either as a regional or nation-wide alternative (such as in the USA and Germany) or as a 'forerunner' activity in view of subsequent population-based CRC screening. With regard to other parallel organ-related screening activities in Europe (breast, uterus) and the increasing need for primary prevention of malignant and benign diseases, the question is raised as to whether preventive activities should not be recognized as an integrated and logical part of a 'healthcare chain' offered to all European citizens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Antioxidant supplement and long-term reduction of recurrent adenomas of the large bowel. A double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Luigina; Puntoni, Matteo; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Massa, Paolo; Missale, Guido; Munizzi, Francesco; Turbino, Laura; Villanacci, Vincenzo; De Censi, Andrea; Bruzzi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Patients who undergo polypectomy are at increased risk of adenoma recurrence. The preventive potential of vitamins (A, C and E) and selenium supplementation represent an interesting opportunity for colorectal cancer prevention. To assess the efficacy of a combination of these micronutrients in reducing the incidence of recurrent adenomas in subjects on post-polypectomy endoscopic follow-up, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was started in Italy in 1988. A total of 411 patients were randomized to receive either an active compound (200 μg selenium, 30 mg zinc, 2 mg vitamin A, 180 mg vitamin C, 30 mg vitamin E) or a placebo daily for 5 years. Of them, 330 had follow-up colonoscopy (164 in the intervention and 166 in the placebo group). After a median follow-up of 4 years (range 1-15 years), 100 patients had recurrence: 38 in the intervention and 62 in the placebo arm. The 15-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was 48.3% in the intervention and 64.5% in the placebo arm (HR = 0.59; log-rank P = 0.009). A 39% reduction of the risk of recurrence was observed in the intervention compared to the placebo group (adjusted HR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.41-0.92): the risk reduction was similar for small tubular (adjusted HR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.37-0.99) and advanced adenomas (adjusted HR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.24-1.01). Our study showed a statistically significant effect of antioxidant supplementation on adenoma recurrence. Further clinical trials are needed to address the role of antioxidants in subgroups of subjects at increased risk for colorectal cancer.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices about colorectal cancer among adults in an area of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Paolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ocepek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in developed countries and Slovenia, and the incidence is still rising. Groups of people with higher risk for colorectal cancer are well defined. Among them are patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk is highest in patients in whom whole large bowel is affected by inflammation, it rises after 8 to 10 years and increases with the duration of the disease. Precancerous lesion is a displastic, chronically inflammed mucosa and not an adenoma as in cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma.Conclusions: Many studies suggest that the influence of genetic factors differs between sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease related colorectal cancer. Symptomatic patients at the time of diagnosis have a much worse prognosis. The goal of prevention programes is therefore discovering early precancerous lesions. Established screening protocols are based on relatively frequent colonoscopies which are inconvinient for the patient as well as the endoscopist. Use of specific genetic markers, mutations of candidate genes, as a screening method and a prognostic predictor could greatly lighten therapeutic decisions.

  4. The Effectiveness of Sternocleidomastoid Flap Versus Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Flap for the Prevention of Frey Syndrome and Facial Depressed Deformity in Parotid Surgery for Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Marco; Moscillo, Luca; Simeon, Vittorio; De Luca, Elena; Mastella, Americo

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 types of reconstruction techniques: sternocleidomastoid (SCM) flap and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) flap after partial parotidectomy (PP) for preventing Frey syndrome (FS) and concave facial depressed deformity. A total of 99 patients underwent PP for pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. The patients were divided in 2 groups according to the dimension of the tumor: tumors less than 3 cm (group A, 47 patients) and tumors greater than or equal to 3 cm (group B, 52 patients). The patients in the 2 groups were assigned to 3 subgroups: PP without reconstruction (subgroup 1), PP and reconstruction with SMAS flap (subgroup 2), PP, and reconstruction with SCM flap (subgroup 3). In group A, the results of FS subjective symptoms, positivity of Minor starch test, and the median score of cosmetic results assessed with Visual Analogue Scale were as follows: in subgroup 1: 20%, 35%, 6; in subgroup 2: 13.3%, 13,3%, 8; in subgroup 3: 0%, 8.3%, 9. In patients of group B, the results were as follows: 60%, 73.3%, 3 in subgroup 1; 28.5%, 35.7%, 5 in subgroup 2; and 8.6%, 8.6%, 8 in subgroup 3. The study demonstrates a statistical difference (P SCM flap with the subgroup of PP without reconstruction for tumors greater than 3 cm. In tumors less than 3 cm, although there is an improvement of symptoms using SMAS or SCM, there is no statistical significance. The SCM is able to reduce the risk of the onset of both objective and subjective symptoms, whereas SMAS flap has a protective effect only in objective symptoms. The cosmetic results in this study were statistically significant both with SMAS and SCM but when comparing SCM versus SMAS the best results were for SCM.

  5. Dietary calcium and phosphate in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Mechanism and nutrition implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Maria Johanna Adriana Petronella

    1993-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (cancerof the large intestine) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors, and in particular dietary habits, play an important role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. A positive association

  6. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF COLORECTAL MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in men and in women worldwide. Incidence rates of colorectal cancer vary 10 - fold in both sexes worldwide, Within Asia, the incidence rates vary widely and are uniformly low in all south Asian countries and high i n all developed Asian countries. Fortunately, the age adjusted incidence rates of colorectal cancer in all the Indian cancer registries are very close to the lowest rates in the world. The present study is under taken to study the prevalence and types of c olorectal cancer among the patients in the rural population in and around Chidambaram. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of malignant colorectal neoplasms among the speci mens received in the Department of Pathology and the gross and histomorphological pa ttern of the lesions and finally to correlate the findings with clinical data. METHOD: The materials consisted of 68 specimens who were submitted to the Department of Pathology, during the period of Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Data collected and entered in MS - Excel and were analyzed using SPSS - 16. RESULTS : Out of 8454 colonoscopic specimens, 68(0.8% showed colorectal malignancy. A higher frequency of colorectal was seen in 6 th decade. Out of 68 specimens of malignant neoplasms majority were Carcinoma of the Rectum (79.41% followed in decreasing order of frequency by malignant lesions of descending colon(8.82%, ascending and Sigmoid colon (4.41% each, recto - sigmoid (2.94% and cecum (2.63%, and transverse colon (2.63%. Youngest patient was 19 years old and the o ldest patient was 80 years old with a mean age of 49.5 years and median age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer is a common and lethal disease. The adenoma carcinoma. S equence offers a window of opportunity in which the precursor lesion or early car cinoma can be removed endoscopically to prevent systematic disease. The result of a careful and systematic examination of surgical specimens from patients with

  7. Back-to-Back Comparison of Auto-Fluorescence Imaging (AFI Versus High Resolution White Light Colonoscopy for Adenoma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriichi Kentaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some patients under close colonoscopic surveillance still develop colorectal cancer, thus suggesting the overlook of colorectal adenoma by endoscopists. AFI detects colorectal adenoma as a clear magenta, therefore the efficacy of AFI is expected to improve the detection ability of colorectal adenoma. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of AFI in detecting colorectal adenoma. Methods This study enrolled 88 patients who underwent colonoscopy at Asahikawa Medical University and Kushiro Medical Association Hospital. A randomly selected colonoscopist first observed the sigmoid colon and rectum with conventional high resolution endosopy (HRE. Then the colonoscopist changed the mode to AFI and handed to the scope to another colonoscopist who knew no information about the HRE. Then the second colonoscopist observed the sigmoid colon and rectum. Each colonoscopist separately recorded the findings. The detection rate, miss rate and procedural time were assessed in prospective manner. Results The detection rate of flat and depressed adenoma, but not elevated adenoma, by AFI is significantly higher than that by HRE. In less-experienced endoscopists, AFI dramatically increased the detection rate (30.3% and reduced miss rate (0% of colorectal adenoma in comparison to those of HRE (7.7%, 50.0%, but not for experienced endoscopists. The procedural time of HRE was significantly shorter than that of AFI. Conclusions AFI increased the detection rate and reduced the miss rate of flat and depressed adenomas. These advantages of AFI were limited to less-experienced endoscopists because experienced endoscopists exhibited a substantially high detection rate for colorectal adenoma with HRE.

  8. Physical activity reduces risk for colon polyps in a multiethnic colorectal cancer screening population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Nelson F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying modifiable factors that influence the epidemiology of colorectal cancer incidence among multiethnic groups might be informative for the development of public health strategies targeting the disease. Minimal data exists describing the impact of physical activity on colorectal polyp risk in United States minority populations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of exercise on the prevalence of polyps in a multiethnic colorectal cancer screening population. Results We enrolled 982 patients: 558 Hispanic, 202 Asian,149 Black, and 69 White. Patients who reported exercising one or more hours weekly had a lower prevalence of any polyps (25.3% vs 33.2%, P = 0.008 as well as adenomas (13.8 vs. 18.9%, P = 0.03 compared to those who did not exercise. Black and Hispanic patients and those who were overweight or obese also had lower prevalence of polyps if they led an active lifestyle. Multivariate analysis revealed that age >55, male sex, and Black race/ethnicity were positively associated with the presence of adenomas, while a history of exercising one hour or more weekly was an independent negative predictor for the presence of adenomas anywhere in the colon (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.4 - 0.9, P = 0.03. Conclusions Exercising one hour per week was associated with a lower prevalence of polyps and adenomas when compared to those who exercised less or not at all. An active lifestyle provides benefits to groups who are at risk for colorectal cancer, such as Blacks. It also provides significant protection to overweight and obese individuals. Public health initiatives should promote physical activity as a cancer prevention tool in multiethnic populations. Trial registration none

  9. Aspirin Prevention of Colorectal Cancer: Focus on NF-κB Signalling and the Nucleolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Overwhelming evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have anti-tumour activity and the potential to prevent cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain hypothetical. Dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB transcription factor is a common event in many cancer types which contributes to tumour initiation and progression by driving expression of pro-proliferative/anti-apoptotic genes. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding NSAID effects on the NF-κB signalling pathway in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, and the evidence that these effects contribute to the anti-tumour activity of the agents. The nuclear organelle, the nucleolus, is emerging as a central regulator of transcription factor activity and cell growth and death. Nucleolar function is dysregulated in the majority of cancers which promotes cancer growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Hence, this organelle is emerging as a promising target for novel therapeutic agents. Here, we will also discuss evidence for crosstalk between the NF-κB pathway and nucleoli, the role that this cross-talk has in the anti-tumour effects of NSAIDs and ways forward to exploit this crosstalk for therapeutic purpose.

  10. [Obesity and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soo-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Obesity worldwide is constantly increasing. Obesity acts as an independent significant risk factor for malignant tumors of various organs including colorectal cancer. Visceral adipose tissue is physiologically more important than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The relative risk of colorectal cancer of obese patients is about 1.5 times higher than the normal-weight individuals, and obesity is also associated with premalignant colorectal adenoma. The colorectal cancer incidence of obese patients has gender-specific and site-specific characteristics that it is higher in men than women and in the colon than rectum. Obesity acts as a risk factor of colorectal carcinogenesis by several mechanisms. Isulin, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, adiponectin, microbiome, and cytokines of chronic inflammation etc. have been understood as its potential mechanisms. In addition, obesity in patients with colorectal cancer negatively affects the disease progression and response of chemotherapy. Although the evidence is not clear yet, there are some reports that weight loss as well as life-modification such as dietary change and physical activity can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is very important knowledge in the point that obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor that can alter the incidence and outcome of the colorectal cancer.

  11. CpG island methylator phenotype and its association with malignancy in sporadic duodenal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifeng; Guzzetta, Angela A; Fu, Tao; Chen, Jinming; Jeschke, Jana; Kwak, Ruby; Vatapalli, Rajita; Baylin, Stephen B; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Ahuja, Nita

    2014-05-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) has been found in multiple precancerous and cancerous lesions, including colorectal adenomas, colorectal cancers, and duodenal adenocarcinomas. There are no reports in the literature of a relationship between CIMP status and clinicopathologic features of sporadic duodenal adenomas. This study sought to elucidate the role of methylation in duodenal adenomas and correlate it with KRAS and BRAF mutations. CIMP+ (with more than 2 markers methylated) was seen in 33.3% of duodenal adenomas; 61% of these CIMP+ adenomas were CIMP-high (with more than 3 markers methylated). Furthermore, CIMP+ status significantly correlated with older age of patients, larger size and villous type of tumor, coexistent dysplasia and periampullary location. MLH1 methylation was seen in 11.1% of duodenal adenomas and was significantly associated with CIMP+ tumors, while p16 methylation was an infrequent event. KRAS mutations were frequent and seen in 26.3% of adenomas; however, no BRAF mutations were detected. Furthermore, CIMP-high status was associated with larger size and villous type of tumor and race (non-white). These results suggest that CIMP+ duodenal adenomas may have a higher risk for developing malignancy and may require more aggressive management and surveillance.

  12. CT scan of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, K.; Mukada, K.; Yonezawa, M.; Matsumura, S.; Yoshimoto, H.; Mori, S.; Uozumi, T.

    1981-01-01

    CT scan is an extremely useful, almost harmless means of diagnosing pituitary adenomas. Growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas tend to have higher absorption coefficent in plain CT than the nonfunctioning and prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas. The absorption coefficent on contrast-enhanced CT does not identify the specific type of adenoma. Ring-like enhancement was observed in five nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas with suprasellar extension, while cystic components were observed in four nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas. In three of ten cases of PRL-secreting microadenomas, the site corresponding to the adenoma was not enhanced, whereas the normal pituitary was. A correlation exists between the size of PRL-secreting adenoma and the serum PRL level, but not between the size of GH-secreting adenomas and the serum GH level. (orig.)

  13. Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BL23 Prevents Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Jacouton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota plays a major role in intestinal health, and an imbalance in its composition can lead to chronic gut inflammation and a predisposition to developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Currently, the use of probiotic bacteria represents an emerging alternative to treat and prevent cancer. Moreover, consumption of these beneficial bacteria may also favorably modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, which has been described in several studies to play an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of oral treatment with Lactobacillus casei BL23, a probiotic strain well known for its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. First, CRC was induced in C57BL6 mice by a single intraperitoneal injection with azoxymethane (8 mg/kg, followed by four courses of dextran sodium sulfate (2.5% in drinking water that were separated by an adjustable recovery period. At the time of sacrifice (day 46, tumor incidence, histological scores, and epithelial proliferation were determined in colon samples. Our results show that L. casei BL23 significantly protected mice against CRC development; specifically, L. casei BL23 treatment reduced histological scores and proliferative index values. In addition, our analysis revealed that L. casei BL23 had an immunomodulatory effect, mediated through the downregulation of the IL-22 cytokine, and an antiproliferative effect, mediated through the upregulation of caspase-7, caspase-9, and Bik. Finally, L. casei BL23 treatment tended to counterbalance CRC-induced dysbiosis in mice, as demonstrated by an analysis of fecal microbiota. Altogether our results demonstrate the high potential of L. casei BL23 for the development of new, probiotic-based strategies to fight CRC.

  14. CanPrevent: a telephone-delivered intervention to reduce multiple behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-11-01

    participation in CanPrevent. The intervention retention rate was 100%, participants reported that it was highly acceptable and they would recommend it to others at risk of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Positive behaviour change achieved through this intervention approach has the potential to impact on the progression of CRC and other cancers or chronic diseases. A large scale randomised controlled trial is required to confirm the positive results of this acceptability and short-term effectiveness study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000516886

  15. The Ras effector RASSF2 is a novel tumor-suppressor gene in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akino, Kimishige; Toyota, Minoru; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ohe-Toyota, Mutsumi; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Hinoda, Yuji; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    Activation of Ras signaling is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the roles of negative regulators of Ras are not fully understood. Our aim was to address that question by surveying genetic and epigenetic alterations of Ras-Ras effector genes in CRC cells. The expression and methylation status of 6 RASSF family genes were examined using RT-PCR and bisulfite PCR in CRC cell lines and in primary CRCs and colorectal adenomas. Colony formation assays and flow cytometry were used to assess the tumor suppressor activities of RASSF1 and RASSF2. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to determine the effect of altered RASSF2 expression on cell morphology. Mutations of K- ras , BRAF, and p53 were identified using single-strand conformation analysis and direct sequencing. Aberrant methylation and histone deacetylation of RASSF2 was associated with the gene's silencing in CRC. The activities of RASSF2, which were distinct from those of RASSF1, included induction of morphologic changes and apoptosis; moreover, its ability to prevent cell transformation suggests that RASSF2 acts as a tumor suppressor in CRC. Primary CRCs that showed K- ras /BRAF mutations also frequently showed RASSF2 methylation, and inactivation of RASSF2 enhanced K- ras -induced oncogenic transformation. RASSF2 methylation was also frequently identified in colorectal adenomas. RASSF2 is a novel tumor suppressor gene that regulates Ras signaling and plays a pivotal role in the early stages of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  16. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.

  17. Parathyroid adenoma with concurrent toxic thyroid adenoma: A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recognized phenomenon. Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid adenoma in association with thyroid adenoma is extremely rare. These cases can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the treating physician as the patient may ...

  18. Bile Duct Adenoma with Oncocytic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Johannesen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct adenomas are benign bile duct proliferations usually encountered as an incidental finding. Oncocytic bile duct neoplasms are rare and the majority are malignant. A 61-year-old male with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma was undergoing surgery when a small white nodule was discovered on the surface of the right lobe of his liver. This lesion was composed of cytologically bland cells arranged in tightly packed glands. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 7, negative for Hep Par 1, contained mucin, and had a Ki67 proliferation index of 8%. The morphology, immunophenotype, presence of mucin, and normal appearing bile ducts, as well as the increased Ki67 proliferation rate, were consistent with a bile duct adenoma with oxyphilic (oncocytic change. Oncocytic tumors in the liver are rare; the first described in 1992. Only two bile duct adenomas with oncocytic change have been reported and neither of them had reported mucin production or the presence of normal appearing bile ducts within the lesion.

  19. Adenoma detection in patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Gottumukkala S; Vadyala, Vikram; Slack, Rebecca; Krishna, Somashekar G; Ross, William A; Lynch, Patrick M; Bresalier, Robert S; Hawk, Ernest; Stroehlein, John R

    2013-01-01

    Measures shown to improve the adenoma detection during colonoscopy (excellent bowel preparation, cecal intubation, cap fitted colonoscope to examine behind folds, patient position change to optimize colon distention, trained endoscopy team focusing on detection of subtle flat lesions, and incorporation of optimum endoscopic examination with adequate withdrawal time) are applicable to clinical practice and, if incorporated are projected to facilitate comprehensive colonoscopy screening program for colon cancer prevention. To determine adenoma and serrated polyp detection rate under conditions designed to optimize quality parameters for comprehensive screening colonoscopy. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from a comprehensive colon cancer screening program designed to optimize quality parameters. Academic medical center. Three hundred and forty-three patients between the ages of 50 years and 75 years who underwent first screening colonoscopy between 2009 and 2011 among 535 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. Comprehensive colonoscopy screening program was utilized to screen all patients. Cecal intubation was successful in 98.8% of patients. The Boston Bowel Preparation Scale for quality of colonoscopy was 8.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 8.94, 9.00). The rate of adenoma detection was 60% and serrated lesion (defined as serrated adenomas or hyperplastic polyps proximal to the splenic flexure) detection was 23%. The rate of precancerous lesion detection (adenomas and serrated lesions) was 66%. The mean number of adenomas per screening procedure was 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) and the mean number of precancerous lesions (adenomas or serrated lesions) per screening procedure was 1.6 (1.4, 1.8). Retrospective study and single endoscopist experience. A comprehensive colonoscopy screening program results in high-quality screening with high detection of adenomas, advanced adenomas, serrated adenomas, and multiple adenomas

  20. Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Douglas Guedes de; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Canteras, Miguel Montes; Cecilio, Soraya A. Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas represent nearly 15% of all intracranial tumors. Multimodal treatment includes microsurgery, medical management and radiotherapy. Microsurgery is the primary recommendation for nonfunctioning and most of functioning adenomas, except for prolactinomas that are usually managed with dopamine agonist drugs. However, about 30% of patients require additional treatment after microsurgery for recurrent or residual tumors. In these cases, fractionated radiation therapy has been the traditional treatment. More recently, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option. Radiosurgery allows the delivery of prescribed dose with high precision strictly to the target and spares the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the risks of hypopituitarism, visual damage and vasculopathy are significantly lower. Furthermore, the latency of the radiation response after radiosurgery is substantially shorter than that of fractionated radiotherapy. The goal of this review is to define the efficacy, safety and role of radiosurgery for treatment of pituitary adenomas and to present the preliminary results of our institution. (author)

  1. Hyoscine butylbromide for colorectal polyp detection: prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The removal of pre-malignant colorectal lesions prevents cancer. Hyoscine has been proposed as a means of improving diagnosis by reducing colonic movements. The aim of this study was to analyze whether this anti-spasmodic enhances the detection of pre-malignant colorectal lesions. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blinded fashion patients received hyoscine or a saline solution in all consecutive colonoscopies in which the cecum was reached. Lesions were analysed with respect to number, size, location, histology and capillary pattern. RESULTS: A total of 440 colonoscopies were randomized. The overall polyp detection rate (PDR and the adenoma detection rate (ADR were 65.2% and 49.3%, respectively. In the hyoscine group, non-polypoid lesions were detected significantly more often (p=0.01. In the placebo group 281 lesions were diagnosed (202 adenomas and in the hyoscine group 282 lesions were detected (189 adenomas (p=0.23. The PDR and ADR were similar between the placebo and hyoscine groups (64% vs 66% and 50% vs 47%, respectively. No differences were observed between the two groups in the advanced-ADR or advanced neoplasia detection rate, as well the mean numbers of polyps, adenomas, advanced adenomas and advanced neoplasias detected per patient. The administration of hyoscine also did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of digital chromoendoscopy. The presence of adenomatous polyps in the right colon was detected significantly more frequently in the hyoscine group (OR 5.41 95% CI 2.7 - 11; p<0.01 vs OR 2.3 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p=0.02. CONCLUSION: The use of hyoscine before beginning the withdrawal of the colonoscope does not seem to enhance the PDR and the ADR.

  2. Advanced age is a risk factor for proximal adenoma recurrence following colonoscopy and polypectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    a randomized clinical trial that showed no effect of aspirin-calcitriol-calcium treatment on colorectal adenoma recurrence. Patients at high risk of colorectal cancer who had one or more sporadic colorectal adenomas removed during colonoscopy were followed up for 3 years. Independent risk factors associated...... with recurrence and characteristics of recurrent adenomas were investigated in a generalized linear model. Results After 3 years, the recurrence rate was 25·8 per cent in 427 patients. For younger subjects (aged 50 years or less), the recurrence rate was 19 per cent; 18 of 20 recurrent adenomas were located...... in the distal part of the colon. For older subjects (aged over 70 years), the recurrence rate was 35 per cent, and 16 of 25 recurrent adenomas were in the proximal colon. Age (odds ratio (OR) 1·04, 95 per cent c.i. 1·01 to 1·07) and number of adenomas (OR 1·27, 1·11 to 1·46) at the time of inclusion...

  3. The inflammatory microenvironment in colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mairi H; Murray, Graeme I; Stewart, Keith N; Norrie, Gillian; Mayer, Claus; Hold, Georgina L; Thomson, John; Fyfe, Nicky; Hope, Mairi; Mowat, N Ashley G; Drew, Janice E; El-Omar, Emad M

    2011-01-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.

  4. The Inflammatory Microenvironment in Colorectal Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mairi H.; Murray, Graeme I.; Stewart, Keith N.; Norrie, Gillian; Mayer, Claus; Hold, Georgina L.; Thomson, John; Fyfe, Nicky; Hope, Mairi; Mowat, N. Ashley G.; Drew, Janice E.; El-Omar, Emad M.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified. PMID:21249124

  5. The inflammatory microenvironment in colorectal neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairi H McLean

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5 are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.

  6. Colorectal cancer diagnosis in 2012: A new focus for CRC prevention--more serration, less inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    East, James E.; Dekker, Evelien

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of colorectal cancer (CRC) risks has been rebalanced in 2012. The 'serrated pathway' to CRC, exemplified by serrated polyposis syndrome, emphasizes the importance of serrated lesions. The dogma that patients with IBD are at high risk of CRC, however, might be overstated; optimizing CRC

  7. Does folic acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebeck, E Georg; Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Liu, Amy Y; Boynton, Alanna; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2008-06-01

    Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, and methyl group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may progress under folic acid supplementation, consistent with the role of folate role in nucleotide synthesis and cell proliferation. To better understand the possible trade-offs between the protective effects due to decreased mutation rates and possibly concomitant detrimental effects due to increased cell proliferation of folic acid, we used a biologically based mathematical model of colorectal carcinogenesis. We predict changes in cancer risk based on timing of treatment start and the potential effect of folic acid on cell proliferation and mutation rates. Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental. Experimental studies are needed to provide direct evidence for this dual role of folate in colorectal cancer and to validate and improve the model predictions.

  8. Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Personalized Surveillance After Colorectal Adenomatous Polypectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Ethna; O'Mahony, James F; Fallis, Richard; McVicar, Duncan; Zauber, Ann G; Kee, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer is 5%, and 5-year survival at early stage is 92%. Individuals with precancerous lesions removed at primary screening are typically recommended surveillance colonoscopy. Because greater benefits are anticipated for those with higher risk of colorectal cancer, scope for risk-specific surveillance recommendations exists. This review assesses published cost-effectiveness estimates of postpolypectomy surveillance to consider the potential for personalized recommendations by risk group. Meta-analyses of incidence of advanced neoplasia postpolypectomy for low-risk cases were comparable to those without adenoma, with both rates under the lifetime risk of 5%. This group may not benefit from intensive surveillance, which risks unnecessary harm and inefficient use of often scarce colonoscopy capacity. Therefore, greater personalization through deintensified strategies for low-risk individuals could be beneficial. The potential for noninvasive testing, such as fecal immunochemical tests, combined with primary prevention or chemoprevention may reserve colonoscopy for targeted use in personalized risk-stratified surveillance. This review appraised evidence supporting a program of personalized surveillance in patients with colorectal adenoma according to risk group and compared the effectiveness of surveillance colonoscopy with alternative prevention strategies. It assessed trade-offs among costs, benefits, and adverse effects that must be considered in a decision to adopt or reject personalized surveillance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  10. Prevalence, distribution and risk of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps at a center with a high adenoma detection rate and experienced pathologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJspeert, Joep E. G.; de Wit, Koos; van der Vlugt, Manon; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are the precursors of 15 % - 30 % of colorectal cancers (CRC). We aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of SSA/Ps and to evaluate the association between SSA/Ps and the risk of synchronous advanced neoplasia at a high quality colonoscopy center.

  11. Does folic-acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Luebeck, EG; Moolgavkar, SH; Liu, AY; Boynton, A; Ulrich, CM

    2008-01-01

    Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA-replication and methyl-group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid (FA) to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may...

  12. Low Penetrance Alleles in Colorectal Cancer: the arachidonic acid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L.E. Siezen

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, we can conclude that we have successfully identified low penetrance alleles in the PPAR., PLA2G2A and ALOX15 genes, conferring differential colorectal adenoma risk, and two such alleles in the PTGS2 gene, one of which is also involved in colorectal cancer risk. These

  13. Risk stratification and detection of new colorectal neoplasms after colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Andreas; Milter, Maya Christel; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on adenoma surveillance as recommended in the European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis after faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening. OBJECTIVE: To assess the European guidelines for adenoma surveillance after CRC...... of CRC was higher in risk group C than A (RR 5.20, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-42.58), but not statistically significant. In risk group C, half of new advanced adenomas were detected within the first year and four of nine CRC were detected within 3 years. CONCLUSION: Risk stratification of adenoma...

  14. Discovery and validation of plasma-protein biomarker panels for the detection of colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma in a Danish collection of samples from patients referred for diagnostic colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, John E.; Wilhelmsen, Michael; Benz, Ryan W.

    2016-01-01

    and utilization of such a resource is an important step in the development of blood-based biomarker tests for colorectal cancer.Methods: We have created a subject data and biological sample resource, Endoscopy II, which is based on 4698 individuals referred for diagnostic colonoscopy in Denmark between May 2010...

  15. [Screening for colorectal cancer: a cost benefit analysis on a health prevention programme at the Boehringer Ingelheim Company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Häck, H-J

    2011-05-01

    In Germany, approximately 70.000 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer every year. With early diagnosis the recovery rates are over 90 % and early intervention can significantly reduce the costs of medical treatment as well as the economic losses from worker productivity. We here present the organisational procedure for bowel cancer screening and have weighed the costs against benefits to employees, the company and the healthcare system. The screening costs are compared with economic benefits. The target group for the study consisted of all 11.536 employees at the company's site in Germany. Volunteers were given a standardized questionnaire about the risk factors for colorectal cancers and an immunological fecal occult blood test (IFOBT). If risk factors for development of colorectal cancer were present or if the test result was positive, a colonoscopy was recommended in accordance with DGVS guidelines (German Society of Digestive and Metabolic diseases). A total of 4.287 employees (37.2 %) indicated an interest in undergoing screening; at the end of the period 3.958 complete datasets (2.296 men and 1.662 women, mean age 51.2 years) were available for evaluation. A colonoscopy was performed on 114 persons. Six cases of overt cancer were detected with three in the 36 - 50 age group and three in the 51 - 65 age group. Five of the six cases were stage T1 or T2. Adenomatous polyps were found and removed in 29 persons. The calculated cost benefit ratio was 1:2 for the company and 1:35 for the public health system. Using the example of colorectal screening, this study represents a cost benefit analysis of this preventative health measure in a company environment. The results show that even while taking into account the financial and personal commitment required, the cost benefit ratio is positive both for the company and for the healthcare system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with 131 I at a total dose of at least 1.0 μCi. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the 131 I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with 131 I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures

  17. Leadership training to improve adenoma detection rate in screening colonoscopy: A randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Kaminski (Michal); J. Anderson (John); R.M. Valori (Roland ); E. Kraszewska (Ewa); M. Rupinski (Maciej); J. Pachlewski (Jacek); E. Wronska (Ewa); M. Bretthauer (Michael); S. Thomas-Gibson (Siwan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J. Regula (J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Suboptimal adenoma detection rate (ADR) at colonoscopy is associated with increased risk of interval colorectal cancer. It is uncertain how ADR might be improved. We compared the effect of leadership training versus feedback only on colonoscopy quality in a countrywide

  18. Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma and Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta

    2014-01-01

    To study genetic alterations in lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) with focus on copy number changes and expression patterns of the translocation target genes PLAG1, HMGA2, and CRTC1-MAML2 in relation to clinical data....

  19. Deficiency of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein family DNA binding prevents malignant conversion of adenoma to carcinoma in NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Shioko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs play important roles in carcinogenesis of many tumors including the lung. Since multiple C/EBPs are expressed in lung, the combinatorial expression of these C/EBPs on lung carcinogenesis is not known. Methods A transgenic mouse line expressing a dominant negative A-C/EBP under the promoter of lung epithelial Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP gene in doxycycline dependent fashion was subjected to 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis bioassay in the presence and absence of doxycycline, and the effect of abolition of DNA binding activities of C/EBPs on lung carcinogenesis was examined. Results A-C/EBP expression was found not to interfere with tumor development; however, it suppressed the malignant conversion of adenoma to carcinoma during NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis. The results suggested that Ki67 may be used as a marker for lung carcinomas in mouse. Conclusions The DNA binding of C/EBP family members can be used as a potential molecular target for lung cancer therapy.

  20. Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Molinuevo, Amaia; de Batlle, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Moreno, Victor; Vidal, Carmen; Castelló, Adela; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesús; Urtiaga, Carmen; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Huerta, José María; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Altzibar, Jone; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Núria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Amiano, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    Prostate, breast and colorectal cancer are the most common tumours in Spain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. A total of 1,718 colorectal, 1,343 breast and 864 prostate cancer cases and 3,431 population-based controls recruited between 2007 and 2012, were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on six recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods and alcoholic drinks; score range 0-6) was constructed. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. One-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score was associated with 25% (95% CI 19-30%) lower risk of colorectal, and 15% (95% CI 7-22%) lower risk of breast cancer; no association with prostate cancer was detected, except for cases with a Gleason score ≥7 (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated tumours) (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). These results add to the wealth of evidence indicating that a great proportion of common cancer cases could be avoided by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of postoperative complications in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hai Xie,1 Yan-na Chang2 1Department of Emergency, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate systematically the clinical efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in the prevention of postoperative complications in colorectal cancer (CRC patients.Materials and methods: Published articles were identified by using search terms in online databases – PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library – up to March 2016. Only randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in CRC were selected and analyzed through a meta-analysis. Subgroup, sensitivity, and inverted funnel-plot analyses were also conducted. Results: Eleven articles with 694 CRC patients were finally included. Compared with control, omega-3 PUFA-enriched enteral or parenteral nutrition during the perioperative period reduced infectious complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.86; P=0.004, tumor necrosis factor alpha (standard mean difference [SMD] -0.37, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.07; P=0.01, interleukin-6 (SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.07; P=0.02, and hospital stay (MD -2.09, 95% CI -3.71 to -0.48; P=0.01. No significant difference was found in total complications, surgical site infection, or CD4+:CD8+ cell ratio. Conclusion: Short-term omega-3 PUFA administration was associated with reduced postoperative infectious complications, inflammatory cytokines, and hospital stay after CRC surgery. Due to heterogeneity and relatively small sample size, the optimal timing and route of administration deserve further study. Keywords: omega-3, fatty acids, fish oil, colorectal surgery, meta-analysis 

  2. Is adherence to diet, physical activity, and body weight cancer prevention recommendations associated with colorectal cancer incidence in African American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah J O; Dash, Chiranjeev; Rosenberg, Lynn; Yu, Jeffrey; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations was associated with colorectal cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). In this ongoing prospective cohort of African American women (analytic cohort n = 49,103), 354 incident colorectal cancers were diagnosed between baseline (1995) and 2011. Adherence scores for seven WCRF/AICR recommendations (adherent = 1 point, non-adherent level 1 = 0.5 points, non-adherent level 2 = 0 points) were created using questionnaire data and summed to an overall adherence score (maximum = 7). Recommendation adherence and colorectal cancer incidence were evaluated using baseline and time-varying data in Cox regression models. At baseline, 8.5 % of women adhered >4 recommendations. In time-varying analyses, the HR was 0.98 (95 % CI 0.84-1.15) per 0.5 point higher score and 0.51 (95 % CI 0.23-1.10) for adherence to >4 compared to <3 recommendations. Adherence to individual recommendations was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Results were similar in models that considered baseline exposures only. Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations was low and not associated with colorectal cancer risk among women in the BWHS. Research in diverse populations is essential to evaluate the validity of existing recommendations, and assess whether there are alternative recommendations that are more beneficial for cancer prevention in specific populations.

  3. Traditional serrated adenoma (TSA): morphological questions, queries and quandaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Runjan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) is an uncommon type of serrated adenoma that can be a precursor to biologically aggressive colorectal cancer that invokes the serrated (accelerated) pathway. The purpose of this review is to address some of the more contentious issues around nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, histological variants, coexistence with other polyp types, the occurrence of dysplasia and the differential diagnosis. While the vast majority of TSAs are exophytic villiform polyps composed of deeply eosinophilic cells, flat top luminal serrations and numerous ectopic crypt foci, histological variants include flat TSA, filiform TSA and one composed of large numbers of mucin-containing cells. It is unlikely that there is any biological difference between the histological variants. There is a contention that TSAs are not dysplastic ab initio and that the majority do not show cytological atypia. Two types of dysplasia are associated with TSA. Serrated dysplasia is less well recognised and less commonly encountered than adenomatous dysplasia. TSA with dysplasia must be separated from TSA with coexisting conventional adenoma. TSA is a characteristic polyp that may be extremely exophytic, flat or composed of mucin-rich cells and is typified by numerous ectopic crypt foci. They may coexist with other serrated polyps and conventional adenomas. Approximately 20-25% will be accompanied by adenomatous dysplasia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal tumors: a cohort of French women of the National Education System (E3N)

    OpenAIRE

    Kesse, Emmanuelle; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns associated with colorectal tumors along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Scores for dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis in women from the French cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1993-2000). Their association with colorectal tumors was investigated in 516 adenoma cases (175 high-risk adenomas) and 4,804 polyp-free women and in 172 colorectal cancer cases and 67,312 cancer-free women. The authors ...

  5. G protein abnormalities in pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, A; Lania, A; Ballarè, E

    1998-07-25

    these proteins, particularly Gi1-3alpha, may contribute to uncontrolled pituitary cells growth by preventing the transduction of inhibitory signals. While by in vitro mutagenesis it has been demonstrated that activated mutant of Gq alpha, G12alpha, G13alpha and Gz alpha are fully oncogenic, it remains to be proved whether or not these abnormalities might naturally occur in human tumors and, in particular, in pituitary adenomas.

  6. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Hochhauser, Daniel; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H

    2018-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. Design RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Results Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1: Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2: Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3: Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4: Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5: Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6: Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7: Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8: Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9: Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10: Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11: Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12: Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13: Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14: Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15: Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Conclusion Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC

  7. Critical research gaps and recommendations to inform research prioritisation for more effective prevention and improved outcomes in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Mark; Alsina, Deborah; Adams, Richard A; Anderson, Annie S; Brown, Gina; Fearnhead, Nicola S; Fenwick, Stephen W; Halloran, Stephen P; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hull, Mark A; Koelzer, Viktor H; McNair, Angus G K; Monahan, Kevin J; Näthke, Inke; Norton, Christine; Novelli, Marco R; Steele, Robert J C; Thomas, Anne L; Wilde, Lisa M; Wilson, Richard H; Tomlinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) leads to significant morbidity/mortality worldwide. Defining critical research gaps (RG), their prioritisation and resolution, could improve patient outcomes. RG analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary panel of patients, clinicians and researchers (n=71). Eight working groups (WG) were constituted: discovery science; risk; prevention; early diagnosis and screening; pathology; curative treatment; stage IV disease; and living with and beyond CRC. A series of discussions led to development of draft papers by each WG, which were evaluated by a 20-strong patient panel. A final list of RGs and research recommendations (RR) was endorsed by all participants. Fifteen critical RGs are summarised below: RG1 : Lack of realistic models that recapitulate tumour/tumour micro/macroenvironment; RG2 : Insufficient evidence on precise contributions of genetic/environmental/lifestyle factors to CRC risk; RG3 : Pressing need for prevention trials; RG4 : Lack of integration of different prevention approaches; RG5 : Lack of optimal strategies for CRC screening; RG6 : Lack of effective triage systems for invasive investigations; RG7 : Imprecise pathological assessment of CRC; RG8 : Lack of qualified personnel in genomics, data sciences and digital pathology; RG9 : Inadequate assessment/communication of risk, benefit and uncertainty of treatment choices; RG10 : Need for novel technologies/interventions to improve curative outcomes; RG11 : Lack of approaches that recognise molecular interplay between metastasising tumours and their microenvironment; RG12 : Lack of reliable biomarkers to guide stage IV treatment; RG13 : Need to increase understanding of health related quality of life (HRQOL) and promote residual symptom resolution; RG14 : Lack of coordination of CRC research/funding; RG15 : Lack of effective communication between relevant stakeholders. Prioritising research activity and funding could have a significant impact on reducing CRC disease burden over

  8. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  9. A healthy lifestyle index is associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps among non-users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabung, Fred K; Steck, Susan E; Burch, James B; Chen, Chin-Fu; Zhang, Hongmei; Hurley, Thomas G; Cavicchia, Philip; Alexander, Melannie; Shivappa, Nitin; Creek, Kim E; Lloyd, Stephen C; Hebert, James R

    2015-02-01

    In a Columbia, South Carolina-based case-control study, we developed a healthy lifestyle index from five modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, diet, and body mass index), and examined the association between this lifestyle index and the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps (adenoma). Participants were recruited from a local endoscopy center and completed questionnaires related to lifestyle behaviors prior to colonoscopy. We scored responses on each of five lifestyle factors as unhealthy (0 point) or healthy (1 point) based on current evidence and recommendations. We added the five scores to produce a combined lifestyle index for each participant ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 5 (healthiest), which was dichotomized into unhealthy (0-2) and healthy (3-5) lifestyle scores. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for adenoma with adjustment for multiple covariates. We identified 47 adenoma cases and 91 controls. In the main analyses, there was a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between the dichotomous (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.22, 1.29) and continuous (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.51, 1.10) lifestyle index and adenoma. Odds of adenoma were significantly modified by the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p(interaction) = 0.04). For participants who reported no use of NSAIDs, those in the healthy lifestyle category had a 72% lower odds of adenoma as compared to those in the unhealthy category (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.08, 0.98), whereas a one-unit increase in the index significantly reduced odds of adenoma by 53% (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.26, 0.88). Although these findings should be interpreted cautiously given our small sample size, our results suggest that higher scores from this index are associated with reduced odds of adenomas, especially in non-users of NSAIDs. Lifestyle interventions are required to test this approach as a strategy to prevent colorectal adenomatous

  10. Imaging of giant pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, C.; Coll, S.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.C. [Bellvitge Univ., Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Diagnostice per la Imatge; Acebes, J.J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de Bellvitge, L`Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-10-01

    We present five proven giant pituitary adenomas studied by CT and MRI, and review the clinical and imaging findings. Our aim was to examine the radiologic appearances and to search for criteria useful in distinguishing these tumors from other sellar and suprasellar tumours, mainly craniopharyngioma. The main differences from small adenomas were high prevalence of macrocysts, a more invasive behaviour and a clinical picture dominated by mass effect rather than endocrine disturbance. Factors supporting the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in a giant intra- and suprasellar mass include: infrasellar extension, absence of calcification and presence of low-signal cysts on T1-weighted images. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  11. Prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy using water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Hu, Chi-Tan; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR), defined as the proportion of patients with at least one adenoma of any size, is a quality indicator. We tested the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) improves ADR but water immersion (WI) has no adverse effect on ADR compared with air insufflation (AI). A prospective study was conducted at the Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital in southern Taiwan and the Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital in eastern Taiwan on patients randomly assigned to WE, WI, or AI with stratification by the 3 study colonoscopists. The primary outcome was ADR. From July 2013 to December 2015, 651 patients were recruited and randomized into 3 groups with a 1:1:1 ratio (217 patients per group). Overall, ADR met quality standards: WE 49.8% (95% CI, 43.2%-56.4%), AI 37.8% (95% CI, 31.6%-44.4%), and WI 40.6% (95% CI, 34.2%-47.2%). Compared with AI, WE significantly increased ADR (P = .016). There was no difference between WI and WE. ADRs of WI and AI were comparable. Compared with AI, WE confirmed a longer insertion time, higher cleanliness score, but similar adenoma per positive colonoscopy (APPC) and withdrawal time with polypectomy. Subgroup analysis found WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. Multivariate generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed that age ≥50 years, WE (vs AI), colonoscopy indication, no previous history of colonoscopy, and withdrawal time >8 minutes were significant predictors of increased ADR. Confirmation of prior reports showing WE, but not WI, increased ADR further strengthened the validity of our observations. WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. The outcome differences justify assessment of the role of WE in colorectal cancer prevention. Similar APPC and withdrawal times suggest that adequate inspection was performed on colonoscope withdrawal in each of the study arms. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01894191.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomics of differential extraction fractions enriched for chromatin-binding proteins from colon adenoma and carcinoma tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knol, Jaco C; de Wit, Meike; Albrethsen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered nuclear and genomic structure and function are hallmarks of cancer cells. Research into nuclear proteins in human tissues could uncover novel molecular processes in cancer. Here, we examine biochemical tissue fractions containing chromatin-binding (CB) proteins in the context...... of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. METHODS: CB protein-containing fractions were biochemically extracted from human colorectal tissues, including carcinomas with chromosomal instability (CIN), carcinomas with microsatellite instability (MIN), and adenomas. The CB proteins were subjected to label-free LC...

  13. CT of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, M.; Fatterpekar, G.M.; Mukherji, S.K.; Buenting, J. [Department of Radiology, 3324 Infirmary CB F 7510, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7510 (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Intranasal pleomorphic adenoma is rare. We report the CT features this tumor in a 41-year-old woman who presented to us with right nasal obstruction and a 2-day history of epistaxis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  14. Subnuclear proteomics in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R

    2010-01-01

    for early cancer detection. Here we evaluate a proteomics work flow for profiling protein constituents in subnuclear domains in colorectal cancer tissues and apply this work flow to a comparative analysis of the nuclear matrix fraction in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma tissue samples. First, we......Abnormalities in nuclear phenotype and chromosome structure are key features of cancer cells. Investigation of the protein determinants of nuclear subfractions in cancer may yield molecular insights into aberrant chromosome function and chromatin organization and in addition may yield biomarkers...... with statistics, we identified proteins that are significantly enriched in the nuclear matrix fraction relative to two earlier fractions (the chromatin-binding and intermediate filament fractions) isolated from six colorectal tissue samples. The total data set contained 2,059 non-redundant proteins. Gene ontology...

  15. Colorectal Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer studies often consider colon and rectal cancer together. Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer. Find evidence-based information on colon and rectal cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  16. Colorectal Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp inside the colon or rectum. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer. Start here to find information on colon and rectal cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  17. Long-Term Impact of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program on Cancer Incidence and Mortality-Model-Based Exploration of the Serrated Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, Marjolein J. E.; Demirel, Erhan; Lew, Jie-Bin; Berkhof, Johannes; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Canfell, Karen; Dekker, Evelien; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Coupé, Veerle M. H.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to predict the long-term colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and colonoscopy demand of the recently implemented Dutch colorectal cancer screening program. The Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal Cancer model was set up to simulate the Dutch screening program consisting of

  18. Lack of association between the 677 C to T polymorphism and colorectal hyperplastic polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, C.M.; Kampman, E.; Bigler, J.; Schwartz, S.M.; Chen, C.; Bostick, R.; Fosdick, L.

    2000-01-01

    Colorectal hyperplastic polyps are benign lesions that share many risk factors with colorectal adenomas and cancers. Low folate intakes are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. The enzyme 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may be linked to DNA methylation and nucleotide

  19. Genetic biomarkers for neoplastic colorectal cancer in peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Mirela; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Ionescu, Cristina; Becheanu, Gabriel; Gologan, Serban; Teiusanu, Adriana; Arbanas, Tudor; Mircea, Diculescu

    2011-04-01

    Loss of genomic stability appears as a key step in colorectal carcinogenesis. Micronucleus (MN) designates a chromosome fragment or an entire chromosme which lags behind mitosis. MN may be noticed as an additional nucleus within the cytoplasm cell during the intermediate mitosis phases. We tested the hypothesis that MN and its related anomalies may be associated with the presence of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured and microscopically examined. The frequency of micronuclei (FMN) and the presence of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) in binucleated cells were compared in patients with of without colorectal neoplastic lesions. We included 45 patients undergoing colonoscopy, 23 males and 22 females, with a median age of 59. 17 patients had polyps, 11 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 17 had a normal colonoscopy. The FMN was significantly higher in women than in men (8.14 vs 4.17, p=0.008); NPB were significantly less frequent in patients with advanced adenomas (>10mm or vilous) or CRC (p=0.044) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy, hiperplastic polyps or non-advanced adenomas. Micronuclei are more frequent in women, but its frequency was not significantly different in patients with advanced adenomas or CRC. Null or low frequency values for nucleoplasmic bridges presence in peripheral lymphocyte may be predictive for advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer.

  20. Radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshihisa

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy and role of gamma knife (GK) in the treatment of various pituitary adenomas are described on author's experience and discussed with literature. GK subjects are 328 patients (M 126/F 202, av. age of 47.8 y) in author's hospital, and satisfactory follow-up (32-44 mo) for evaluation has been possible in 253 cases, who had tumors non-functional (129 cases), producing ACTH (23), HGH (70) and PRL (31). Stereotactic GK radiosurgery is done with navigation by Gamma Plan based on enhanced MRI images at various doses, and evaluation in the follow-up period is performed by hormonal levels and MRI which give efficacy of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), MR and standard deviation (SD)/ progressive disease (PD) on the tumor size. The overall tumor control rate is found to be 95-100%. Effectiveness (CR and PR) is found as high as 77.4% in PRL-producing tumor (marginal dose 14-32 Gy), 65% in non-functioning (15-25 Gy), 61% in ACTH (19-30 Gy) and 60% in GH (19-31 Gy), of which tendency is similar to that in literature. Even in ACTH-producing tumor, low ACTH and cortisol levels persisted with tendency of improved obese and hypertensive symptoms. GK radiosurgery has limitations in the tissue size and distance between the tumor and optic nerve/chiasm, but for the enough small tumor, it gives satisfactorily long term efficacy. (R.T.)

  1. Radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas; Radiocirurgia nos adenomas hipofisarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Douglas Guedes de; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Canteras, Miguel Montes; Cecilio, Soraya A. Jorge [Instituto de Radiocirurgia Neurologica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dougguedes@uol.com.br

    2006-12-15

    Pituitary adenomas represent nearly 15% of all intracranial tumors. Multimodal treatment includes microsurgery, medical management and radiotherapy. Microsurgery is the primary recommendation for nonfunctioning and most of functioning adenomas, except for prolactinomas that are usually managed with dopamine agonist drugs. However, about 30% of patients require additional treatment after microsurgery for recurrent or residual tumors. In these cases, fractionated radiation therapy has been the traditional treatment. More recently, radiosurgery has been established as a treatment option. Radiosurgery allows the delivery of prescribed dose with high precision strictly to the target and spares the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the risks of hypopituitarism, visual damage and vasculopathy are significantly lower. Furthermore, the latency of the radiation response after radiosurgery is substantially shorter than that of fractionated radiotherapy. The goal of this review is to define the efficacy, safety and role of radiosurgery for treatment of pituitary adenomas and to present the preliminary results of our institution. (author)

  2. K-ras2 Activation and Genome Instability Increase Proliferation and Size of FAP Adenomas

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    Anna Rapallo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of K‐ras2 mutations and aneuploidy toward increase of proliferation and adenoma size in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP adenomas is not known. The present study addresses these issues by investigating 147 colorectal adenomas obtained from four FAP patients. The majority of adenomas had size lower than or equal to 10 mm (86%, low grade dysplasia (63%, and were preferentially located in the right colon (60%. Normal mucosa samples were obtained from 19 healthy donors. Three synchronous adenocarcinomas were also investigated. K‐ras2 mutation spectrum was analysed by PCR and Sequence Specific Oligonucleotide (SSO hybridization, while flow cytometry (FCM was used for evaluating degree of DNA ploidy and S‐phase fraction. Overall, incidences of K‐ras2 mutations, DNA aneuploidy and high S‐phase values (>7.2% were 6.6%, 5.4% and 10.5%, respectively. In particular, among the adenomas with size lower than 5 mm, K‐ras2 mutation and DNA aneuploidy frequencies were only slightly above 1%. Statistically significant correlations were found between K‐ras2 and size, DNA ploidy and size and K‐ras2 and S‐phase (p. In particular, among the wild type K‐ras2 adenomas, high S‐phase values were detected in 8% of the cases versus 57% among the K‐ras2 mutated adenomas (p=0.0005. The present series of FAP adenomas indicates that K‐ras2 activation and gross genomic changes play a role toward a proliferative gain and tumour growth in size.

  3. Serrated adenoma of stomach: A premalignancy?

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    Divya Achutha Ail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serrated adenoma is a newly described entity in the group of gastric adenomas. Until date only 20 cases of gastric serrated adenoma have been reported. It is an important entity to be diagnosed accurately as it has a very high-risk of malignant transformation, especially those located in the cardia of stomach. Serrated adenoma associated with adenocarcinoma is more frequent in the elderly, but pure serrated adenoma is common in the young, in whom follow-up is mandatory. Gastric serrated adenoma has distinct location, definite histomorphology and characteristic Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining. Ki-67 staining helps to differentiated pure serrated adenoma from those associated with adenocarcinoma. We present a young adult male, incidentally detected to have gastric serrated adenoma.

  4. Technological advances for improving adenoma detection rates: The changing face of colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Sauid; Siau, Keith; Harrison, Elizabeth; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Hoffman, Arthur; Gross, Seth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Neumann, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer. Over 90% follow an adenoma-to-cancer sequence over many years. Colonoscopy is the gold standard method for cancer screening and early adenoma detection. However, considerable variation exists between endoscopists' detection rates. This review considers the effects of different endoscopic techniques on adenoma detection. Two areas of technological interest were considered: (1) optical technologies and (2) mechanical technologies. Optical solutions, including FICE, NBI, i-SCAN and high definition colonoscopy showed mixed results. In contrast, mechanical advances, such as cap-assisted colonoscopy, FUSE, EndoCuff and G-EYE™, showed promise, with reported detections rates of up to 69%. However, before definitive recommendations can be made for their incorporation into daily practice, further studies and comparison trials are required. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

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    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  6. Meat intake and risk of colorectal polyps: results from a large population-based screening study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Prudence R; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Background: Red and processed meats have been shown to be associated with colorectal adenomas in many, but not all, studies, and the association according to the type of colorectal adenoma or the location in the colorectum is unclear. Objectives: We investigated the association of meat intake in relation to colorectal polyps and further investigated the association according to histologic subtypes and subsites in a large population-based screening study in Germany. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 15,950 participants aged ≥55 y underwent a screening colonoscopy. We calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for associations between meat intake and the most-advanced findings from a colonoscopy with the use of log binomial regression. Results: Overall, 3340 participants (20.4%) had nonadvanced adenomas, 1643 participants (10.0%) had advanced adenomas, and 189 participants (1.2%) had colorectal cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between red or processed meat consumption and the prevalence of any adenomas or advanced adenomas [highest compared with lowest: red meat, PR: 1.07 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.37); processed meat, PR: 1.11 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.36)]. In site-specific analyses, although no dose-response relation was observed, processed meat was positively associated with the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the rectum only (multiple times per day compared with meat intake and the prevalence of any adenomas or advanced adenomas. However, processed meat may be positively associated with the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the rectum, but prospective cohort studies are needed to further clarify this association. There is no association between poultry consumption and the prevalence of colorectal polyps in this study. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…

  8. PPARγ Ligand as a Promising Candidate for Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention: A Pilot Study

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    Hirokazu Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Activating synthetic ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, such as pioglitazone, are commonly used to treat persons with diabetes mellitus with improvement of insulin resistance. Several reports have clearly demonstrated that PPARγ ligands could inhibit colorectal cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis. Meanwhile, aberrant crypt foci (ACF have come to be established as a biomarker of the risk of CRC in azoxymethane-treated mice and rats. In humans, ACF can be detected using magnifying colonoscopy. Previously, CRC and adenoma were used as a target for chemopreventive agents, but it needs a long time to evaluate, however, ACF can be a surrogate marker of CRC even for a brief period. In this clinical study, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of pioglitazone on the development of human ACF as a surrogate marker of CRC. Twenty-nine patients were divided into two groups, 20 were in the endoscopically normal control group and 9 were in the pioglitazone (15 mg/day group, and ACF and adenoma were examined before and after 1-month treatment. The number of ACF was significantly decreased (5.8±1.1 to 3.3±2.3 after 1 month of pioglitazone treatment, however, there was no significant change in the number of crypts/ACF or in the number and size of adenomas. Pioglitazone may have a clinical application as a cancer-preventive drug. This investigation is just a pilot study, therefore, further clinical studies are needed to show that the PPARγ ligand may be a promising candidate as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal carcinogenesis.

  9. Microsurgical therapy of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortini, Pietro; Barzaghi, Lina Raffaella; Albano, Luigi; Panni, Pietro; Losa, Marco

    2018-01-01

    We report the efficacy and safety of transsphenoidal microsurgery in a large and homogeneous cohort of patients with pituitary adenomas (PAs) treated at a single Institute by a single neurosurgeon. A total of 2145 consecutive patients undergoing first surgery for a PA were included: 795 (37.1%) had a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), 595 (27.7%) acromegaly, 496 (23.1%) Cushing's disease, 208 (9.7%) a PRL-secreting adenoma, and 51 patients (2.4%) a TSH-secreting adenoma. Remission was achieved when strict hormonal and radiological criteria were met. Early surgical remission was achieved in 66% of acromegalic patients, 79.6% of patients with Cushing's disease, 64.4% of prolactinomas, 74.5% of patients with a TSH-secreting adenoma, and 66.9% of NFPAs. The mean (±SE) follow-up was 60.1 ± 1.3 months. The recurrence-free survival at 10 years was 78.2% in acromegalic patients, 68.1% in prolactinomas, 74.3% in Cushing's disease, 70.3% in TSH-secreting adenomas, and 75.3% in NFPAs. Preoperative hypoadrenalism recovered in 35.3%, hypogonadism in 43.3% and hypothyroidism in 37.4% of patients with impaired function before surgery. The mortality rate was 0.2% and major morbidity 2.1%. New onset hypoadrenalism occurred after surgery in 2.5% of patients at risk, hypogonadism in 4.1%, and hypothyroidism in 1.8%. Permanent diabetes insipidus (DI) occurred in 0.9% of patients. In experienced hands, transsphenoidal microsurgery for PAs achieves remission in most patients with a low complication rate. Pituitary function is preserved in most cases and can recover in more than one-third of patients with preoperative hypopituitarism.

  10. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  11. External radiotherapy of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierhut, Dietmar; Flentje, Michael; Adolph, Juergen; Erdmann, Johannes; Raue, Friedhelm; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate therapeutic outcome and side effects of radiotherapy in pituitary adenomas as sole or combined treatment. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 138 patients (74 male, 64 female) irradiated for pituitary adenoma from 1972 to 1991 was performed. Mean age was 49.7 years (15-80 years). Regular follow-up (in the mean 6.53 ± 3.99 years) included radiodiagnostical [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), x-ray], endocrinological, and ophthalmological examinations. Seventy patients suffered from nonfunctional pituitary adenoma, 50 patients suffered from growth-hormone producing adenomas, 11 had prolactinomas, and 7 patients had adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) producing pituitary adenomas. In 99 patients surgery was followed by radiotherapy in case of suspected remaining tumor (invasive growth of the adenoma, assessment of the surgeon, pathologic CT after surgery, persisting hormonal overproduction). Twenty-three patients were treated for recurrence of disease after surgery and 16 patients received radiation as primary treatment. Total doses from 40-60 Gy (mean: 45.5 Gy) were given with single doses of 2 Gy 4 to five times a week. Results: Tumor control was achieved in 131 patients (94.9%). In seven patients, recurrence of disease was diagnosed in the mean 2.9 years (9-98 months) after radiotherapy and salvaged by surgery. A statistically significant dose-response relationship was found in favor of doses ≥ 45 Gy. Ninety percent of the patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas had a benefit from radiotherapy in means of complete termination (38%) or at least reduction (52%) of hormonal overproduction. Partial or complete hypopituitarism after radiotherapy developed, depending on hormonal axis, in 12 (prolactin) to 27% (follicle-stimulating hormone FSH) of patients who had not already had hypopituitarism prior to radiation. Two out of 138 patients suffered reduction of visual acuity, which was, in part

  12. Mitotic and apoptotic activity in colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutova, Darina; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Bures, Jan

    2018-05-18

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The aim of the prospective study was to evaluate mitosis and apoptosis of epithelial cells at each stage of colorectal neoplasia. A total of 61 persons were enrolled into the study: 18 patients with non-advanced colorectal adenoma (non-a-A), 13 patients with advanced colorectal adenoma (a-A), 13 patients with CRC and 17 controls: individuals with normal findings on colonoscopy. Biopsy samples were taken from pathology (patients) and healthy mucosa (patients and healthy controls). Samples were formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Mitotic and apoptotic activity were evaluated in lower and upper part of the crypts and in the superficial compartment. Apoptotic activity was also assessed using detection of activated caspase-3. In controls, mitotic activity was present in lower part of crypts, accompanied with low apoptotic activity. Mitotic and apoptotic activity decreased (to almost zero) in upper part of crypts. In superficial compartment, increase in apoptotic activity was observed. Transformation of healthy mucosa into non-a-A was associated with significant increase of mitotic activity in lower and upper part of the crypts and with significant increase of apoptotic activity in all three compartments; p colorectal neoplasia were observed. Detection of activated caspase-3 confirmed the above findings in apoptotic activity. Significant dysregulation of mitosis and apoptosis during the progression of colorectal neoplasia, corresponding with histology, was confirmed. In patients with sporadic colorectal neoplasia, healthy mucosa does not display different mitotic and apoptotic activity compared to mucosa in healthy controls and therefore adequate endoscopic/surgical removal of colorectal neoplasia is sufficient.

  13. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  14. Klinefelter's syndrome and liver adenoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; RICHTER, W. O.; RITTER, M. M.; WIEBECKE, B.; SCHWANDT, P.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the occurrence of a liver adenoma in a young patient with Klinefelter's syndrome, diagnosed by classic 47,XXY karyotype in all investigated cells and a sex hormone imbalance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such an association, which might suggest a simple coincidence.

  15. Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, S; Matei, E; Petrisor, P; Luca, L; Boros, Mirela; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    The majority of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are cholesterolosis pseudopolyps. True neoplastic GB polyps are represented mainly by adenomas. The case of a 52-year old male patient with an adenomatous polyp of the GB with focal adenocarcinoma is presented.

  16. Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma

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    Mei-Ying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05. According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05. Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05. Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05, but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA concentration (p > 0.05. Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05. Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05. It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.

  17. Loss of expression and promoter methylation of SLIT2 are associated with sessile serrated adenoma formation.

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    Andrew D Beggs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Serrated adenomas form a distinct subtype of colorectal pre-malignant lesions that may progress to malignancy along a different molecular pathway than the conventional adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Previous studies have hypothesised that BRAF mutation and promoter hypermethylation plays a role, but the evidence for this is not robust. We aimed to carry out a whole-genome loss of heterozygosity analysis, followed by targeted promoter methylation and expression analysis to identify potential pathways in serrated adenomas. An initial panel of 9 sessile serrated adenomas (SSA and one TSA were analysed using Illumina Goldengate HumanLinkage panel arrays to ascertain regions of loss of heterozygosity. This was verified via molecular inversion probe analysis and microsatellite analysis of a further 32 samples. Methylation analysis of genes of interest was carried out using methylation specific PCR (verified by pyrosequencing and immunohistochemistry used to correlate loss of expression of genes of interest. All experiments used adenoma samples and normal tissue samples as control. SSA samples were found on whole-genome analysis to have consistent loss of heterozygosity at 4p15.1-4p15.31, which was not found in the sole TSA, adenomas, or normal tissues. Genes of interest in this region were PDCH7 and SLIT2, and combined MSP/IHC analysis of these genes revealed significant loss of SLIT2 expression associated with promoter methylation of SLIT2. Loss of expression of SLIT2 by promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity events is significantly associated with serrated adenoma development, and SLIT2 may represent a epimutated tumour suppressor gene according to the Knudson "two hit" hypothesis.

  18. Computed tomography of adrenal Cushing's adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takayuki

    1990-01-01

    CT findings of 22 patients with surgically confirmed adrenal Cushing's adenomas were compared with pathologic findings. The cut surfaces of the adenomas showed mixture of yellow and brown areas in various proportions and were classified into three patterns; speckled brown areas in yellow background, geometrically brown areas in yellow background, totally brown or black surface. The maximum diameters of the cut surfaces were measured. The CT appearances of Cushing's adenomas after intravenous contrast administration have various patterns of enhancement and classified into three patterns; speckled, geometrical, and homoenous. The maximum diameters of the adenomas in CT images were also measured. Correlation between the CT and gross appearances of the specimens showed that while brown areas in adenomas were strongly enhanced, yellow areas were poorly enhanced. Histologically, brown areas in adenomas consist of compact-like cells with rich intercellular space and yellow areas consist of clear-like cells with poor intercellular space. The patterns of contrast enhancement some to depend on the cell types of adenomas. Difference in the intercellular space between compact and clear-like cells may have altered the patterns of contrast enhancement. The study also revealed that predominantly brownish adenomas were smaller in size than predominantly yellowish ones. As compact-like cells which make up the brown areas in Cushing's adenoma are thought to be more active in producing and secreting steroid hormones than clear-like cells, this result suggests that clinical symptoms may appear earlier in predominantly brownish adenomas than in predominantly yellowish ones. (author)

  19. RET is a potential tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanxin; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Park, Dong Il; Fausel, Rebecca; Kanngurn, Samornmas; Welcsh, Piri; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Wang, Jianping; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer arises as the consequence of mutations and epigenetic alterations that activate oncogenes and inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Through a genome-wide screen for methylated genes in colon neoplasms, we identified aberrantly methylated RET in colorectal cancer. RET, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase and a receptor for the GDNF-family ligands, was one of the first oncogenes to be identified and has been shown to be an oncogene in thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma. However, unexpectedly, we found RET is methylated in 27% of colon adenomas and in 63% of colorectal cancers, and now provide evidence that RET has tumor suppressor activity in colon cancer. The aberrant methylation of RET correlates with decreased RET expression, whereas the restoration of RET in colorectal cancer cell lines results in apoptosis. Furthermore, in support of a tumor suppressor function of RET, mutant RET has also been found in primary colorectal cancer. We now show that these mutations inactivate RET, which is consistent with RET being a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. These findings suggest that the aberrant methylation of RET and the mutational inactivation of RET promote colorectal cancer formation and that RET can serve as a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. Moreover, the increased frequency of methylated RET in colon cancers compared to adenomas suggests RET inactivation is involved in the progression of colon adenomas to cancer. PMID:22751117

  20. Microsatellite Status of Primary Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Incidence of Postoperative Colorectal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Aki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Hata, Keisuke; Ishihara, Soichiro; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms stratified by the nature of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we revealed it on the basis of the microsatellite (MS) status of primary CRC. We retrospectively reviewed 338 patients with CRC and calculated the risk of neoplasms during postoperative surveillance colonoscopy in association with the MS status of primary CRC. A propensity score method was applied. We identified a higher incidence of metachronous rectal neoplasms after the resection of MS stable CRC than MS instable CRC (adjusted HR 5.74, p=0.04). We also observed a higher incidence of colorectal tubular adenoma in patients with MSS CRC (adjusted hazard ratio 7.09, pcolorectal cancer influenced the risk of postoperative colorectal neoplasms. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Colorectal Anastomotic Leakage: New perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Daams (Freek)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis provides new perspectives on colorectal anastomotic leakages. In both experimental and clinical studies, aspects of prevention, early identification, treatment and consequences of anastomotic leakage are discussed.

  2. [Relationships between the enrichment of ETBF, Fn, Hp in intestinal and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Lu, X L; Zhao, G; Shi, H T; Geng, Y; Zhong, W T; Dong, L

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To explore relationships between the enrichment of ETBF, Fn, Hp in feces, tissues and colorectal cancer. Methods: Feces, lesion tissue and adjacent tissue from 24 patients with colorectal cancer and 31 patients with adenomas were collected, and we collected Feces and tissue of 20 healthy control persons. Then the copy numbers of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical method was used to examine the expression intensity of EGFR and p53, and the relationships between different expression intensity of EGFR, p53 and the numbers of three bacterias. Results: In the feces, copy numbers of ETBF and Fn were as follous: colorectal cancer group>adenomas group>healthy control group ( P healthy control group ( P healthy control group ( P adenomas group>healthy control group ( P healthy control group ( P healthy control group ( P bacteria in the lesion tissue and the adjacent tissue had no significant difference. This happened both in colorectal cancer group and adenomas group. The different expression intensity of EGFR, p53 and the number of three bacteria showed no obviously statistical correlation( P >0.05). Conclusion: Adenomatous polyp and colorectal cancer patients show high enrichment of ETBF, Fn and Hp in both feces and tissues. ETBF, Fn and Hp probably contribute to the development of adenomatous polyp and colorectal cancer. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-BOC-17012509.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  5. Microcystic adenoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adenoma of the pancreas is a rare benign tumour of the pancreas without malignant potential which usually appears in older women. Pain weight loss, palpable mass and jaundice (if the tumor is localized in the head of the pancreas are the main symptoms. Thanks to the modern imaging techniques (US, CT, FNB the tumor is discovered and with rising frequency exactly preoperatively diagnosed. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. In risk patients without symptoms surgery is not necessary but patients have to be regularly followed-up. The authors present a 70-year old woman in whom, because of constant epigastric pain, a multicystic mass of the pancreatic body, 58 x 40 mm in diameter, was discovered and removed by distal pancreatectomy. The spleen could not be saved. Histologic examination showed a microcystic adenoma. Three years after surgery the patient is symptom-free with normal ultra-sonographic findings.

  6. Adenoma metanéfrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sayuri Ota

    Full Text Available Metanephric adenoma is a recently described, rare and benign renal tumor that generally occurs in adults and has an excellent prognosis. Pain, hematuria and palpable mass are the most commonly presented signs. We report the case of a 49-year old female with a 14-cm solitary right renal tumor. Radiological features of the tumor were non-specific and histopathological examination was essential to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  7. Nephrogenic adenoma of the ureter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Burak Hoscan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic adenoma (NA is an uncommon benign lesion of the urothelial tract. The diagnostic features that are useful in the recognition of this benign entity are: the characteristic mixture of various architectural patterns, associated stromal edema and inflammation, hyaline sheath around tubules, and lack of mitotic activity. Although NA appears with hematuria or obstruction, frequently found incidentally in endoscopy or imaging modalities.

  8. Giant hepatocellular adenoma; case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitella, F.A.; Coutinho, A.M.N.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Costa, P.L.A.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Sapienza, M.T.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hepatocellular adenoma is a benign hepatic tumor identified mainly in women during fertility age, with estimated incidence of 4/1000 inhabitants. It is usually unique, well circumscribed, with or without a capsule, size varying from 1 to 30 cm, with possible central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Case Report: A 37-year-old female patient presenting with no comorbities, use of hormonal birth control pills for 18 years, a condition of reduction in the consistency of feces, increase in number of daily defecations, abdominal cramps, and a stuffed sensation after meals for two years. A palpable abdominal mass extending from the right hypochondriac to the right iliac fossa was noticed four months ago. A computerized tomography (CT) showed an extensive hepatic mass on the right which was considered, within the diagnostic hypotheses, hepatic adenomatosis, without ruling out secondary lesions. A hepatic scintillography with {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA showed an extensive exophytic area from segment V to the right iliac fossa with arterialized blood flow and hepatocytic activity, as well as a hepatic nodule in segment VII with hepatocytic activity consistent with the hepatic adenomas hypothesis. The biopsy confirmed the hepatic adenoma diagnosis and the patient was submitted to a partial hepatectomy and cholecystectomy with good clinical evolution. Conclusion: Nuclear Medicine may supplement the assessment of hepatic nodules, including giant masses, thus suggesting new hypotheses and direction to therapeutic conduct. (author)

  9. MRI of pituitary adenomas in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marro, B.; Zouaoui, A.; Sahel, M.; Crozat, N.; Gerber, S.; Sourour, N.; Sag, K.; Marsault, C.

    1997-01-01

    Adenomas causing acromegaly represent at least a quarter of pituitary adenomas. We studied 12 patients presenting with active acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma with a 1.5 T superconductive MRI unit. All had T1-weighted sagittal and coronal sections before and after Gd-DTPA; six had coronal T2-weighted images. Surgical correlation was obtained in seven patients. Histologically, there were eight growth hormone (GH)-secreting and three mixed [GH and prolactin (PRL) secreting[ adenomas, and one secreting GH, PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone. Macroadenomas (10) were more frequent than microadenomas (2). No correlation was found between serum GH and tumour size. There were nine adenomas in the lateral part of the pituitary gland; seven showed lateral or infrasellar invasion. Homogeneous, isointense signal on T1-and T2-weighted images was observed in six cases. Heterogeneous adenomas had cystic or necrotic components. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. MRI of pituitary adenomas in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marro, B. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Zouaoui, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sahel, M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Crozat, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Gerber, S. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sourour, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sag, K. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Marsault, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France)

    1997-06-01

    Adenomas causing acromegaly represent at least a quarter of pituitary adenomas. We studied 12 patients presenting with active acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma with a 1.5 T superconductive MRI unit. All had T1-weighted sagittal and coronal sections before and after Gd-DTPA; six had coronal T2-weighted images. Surgical correlation was obtained in seven patients. Histologically, there were eight growth hormone (GH)-secreting and three mixed [GH and prolactin (PRL) secreting] adenomas, and one secreting GH, PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone. Macroadenomas (10) were more frequent than microadenomas (2). No correlation was found between serum GH and tumour size. There were nine adenomas in the lateral part of the pituitary gland; seven showed lateral or infrasellar invasion. Homogeneous, isointense signal on T1- and T2-weighted images was observed in six cases. Heterogeneous adenomas had cystic or necrotic components. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Aberrant DNA methylation of WNT pathway genes in the development and progression of CIMP-negative colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamb, Orsolya; Kalmár, Alexandra; Péterfia, Bálint; Csabai, István; Bodor, András; Ribli, Dezső; Krenács, Tibor; Patai, Árpád V; Wichmann, Barnabás; Barták, Barbara Kinga; Tóth, Kinga; Valcz, Gábor; Spisák, Sándor; Tulassay, Zsolt; Molnár, Béla

    2016-08-02

    The WNT signaling pathway has an essential role in colorectal carcinogenesis and progression, which involves a cascade of genetic and epigenetic changes. We aimed to analyze DNA methylation affecting the WNT pathway genes in colorectal carcinogenesis in promoter and gene body regions using whole methylome analysis in 9 colorectal cancer, 15 adenoma, and 6 normal tumor adjacent tissue (NAT) samples by methyl capture sequencing. Functional methylation was confirmed on 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colorectal cancer cell line datasets. In parallel with the DNA methylation analysis, mutations of WNT pathway genes (APC, β-catenin/CTNNB1) were analyzed by 454 sequencing on GS Junior platform. Most differentially methylated CpG sites were localized in gene body regions (95% of WNT pathway genes). In the promoter regions, 33 of the 160 analyzed WNT pathway genes were differentially methylated in colorectal cancer vs. normal, including hypermethylated AXIN2, CHP1, PRICKLE1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, and hypomethylated CACYBP, CTNNB1, MYC; 44 genes in adenoma vs. NAT; and 41 genes in colorectal cancer vs. adenoma comparisons. Hypermethylation of AXIN2, DKK1, VANGL1, and WNT5A gene promoters was higher, while those of SOX17, PRICKLE1, DAAM2, and MYC was lower in colon carcinoma compared to adenoma. Inverse correlation between expression and methylation was confirmed in 23 genes, including APC, CHP1, PRICKLE1, PSEN1, and SFRP1. Differential methylation affected both canonical and noncanonical WNT pathway genes in colorectal normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Aberrant DNA methylation appears already in adenomas as an early event of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  12. [Hereditary colorectal cancer : An update on genetics and entities in terms of differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, T T; Dawson, H; Hartmann, A; Rüschoff, J

    2017-05-01

    The pathologist can contribute to recognizing hereditary causes of colorectal cancer via morphology. By identifying so-called index patients, it is possible to take preventive measures in affected families. The precise definition of the clinical presentation and the histopathological phenotype help to narrow the spectrum of expected genetic alterations. Novelties within Lynch syndrome include the recognition of EPCAM as a fifth gene locus, as well as the newly defined Lynch-like syndrome with evidence of somatic mismatch repair (MMR) mutations. With regard to polyposis-associated syndromes, the spectrum of polyps, whether serrated, hamartomatous or classic adenoma, is of crucial importance. The resulting differential diagnosis includes (attenuated) familial adenomatous polyposis ([a]FAP), MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PPAP), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and juvenile polyposis, each with a specific genetic background.

  13. Rak debelega črevesa in danke - preprečevanje in presejanje: Colorectal cancer - prevention and screening:

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Miran; Skok, Pavel; Žerdin, Mojca

    2006-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in Slovenija and its incidence in the last decades is rising. According to the epidemiological data from 2001, the incidence in male is 64/100,000 in female 48/100,000. Even though the relative five-year survival of the patients with this disease is rising, the majority of them are discovered in the advanced stage of the disease with poor prognosis. Conclusions. If diagnosed and surgically removed in its early stage...

  14. Adenoma corticosuprarrenal no funcionante Non-functional corticosuprarenal adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio Salvador Reyes Balseiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alrededor del 50 % de las tumoraciones corticosuprerrenales son benignas y funcionales, muchas son sólidas con signos y síntomas de exceso de glucocorticoides (Cushing o mineralocorticoides (Conn. El otro 50 % de neoplasias sólidas corresponde a carcinomas adrenocorticales primarios, la mitad funcionales. Dentro de las tumoraciones sólidas benignas la más frecuente es el adenoma. Se presenta un paciente de 36 años de edad, de piel blanca, sexo masculino, con buena salud anterior, que ingresó por astenia desde hace 6 meses y dolor abdominal en el flanco derecho, de ligera intensidad, irradiado a la espalda, además de la pérdida de peso. Al examen físico se constata tumoración en flanco derecho. Se diagnostica tumoración suprarrenal voluminosa por ultrasonografía, tomografía axial computarizada y elevación del cortisol en sangre. Se extirpa el tumor por una incisión combinada anterior y lateral en posición semidecúbito, que brindó un buen campo, y se obtuvieron excelentes resultados. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico fue adenoma corticosuprarrenal, que se analizan y comparan con otros reportes.About the 50 % of the cortical-suprarenal tumor are benign and functional, much of them are solid with signs and symptoms of glucocorticoids (Cushing or mineralocorticoid (Conn. The remainder 50 % of solid neoplasm corresponds to primary adrenocortical carcinomas whose half is functional. Within the benign solid tumors the more frequent is the adenoma. This is the case of a white male patient aged 36 with a prior good health admitted due to asthenia from 6 months ago and slightly intensive abdominal pain the right flank irradiating to back as well as weight loss. In physical examination it was verified a right flank tumor. A bulky suprarenal tumor was diagnosed by ultrasonography, computerized axial tomography and a rise of blood cortisol. Tumor is removed b y anterior and lateral combined incision in semi-decubitus position allowed a

  15. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 2 Dear Colleague, The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the calcium/magnesium intake ratio in colorectal adenoma, the role of PPARγ in metabolism and reproduction, and the effects of time-restricted feeding on metabolic parameters. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. Maria Cruz-Correa, and her research on gut bacterial genes, diet, and colorectal

  16. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthela Maria Murad-Regadas

    2015-07-01

    no grupo II. A distribuição dos pacientes com pólipos foi similar em relação ao sexo, sendo evidenciado pólipos no Grupo I em 33 (20% pacientes do sexo feminino vs. 10 (6% masculino (p = 1,00 e no Grupo II, presença de pólipos em pacientes do sexo feminino em 9 (17% vs. 2 (4% masculino (p = 1,00. Foram encontradas lesões polipóides em 54 pacientes (25%, sendo 43 (26% no grupo I e 11 (21% no grupo II. A prevalência de adenomas foi similar em ambos os grupos (Grupo I = 18/37% vs. Grupo II = 10/50% (p = 0,83. Conclusão: Neste estudo inicial, não foi encontrada correlação entre a prevalência de pólipos e o histórico familiar de câncer colorretal. Keywords: Colonoscopy, Polyps, Prevention, Colorectal cancer, Palavras-chave: Videocolonoscopia, Pólipos, Prevenção, Câncer colorretal

  17. Physician visits and preventive care among Asian American and Pacific Islander long-term survivors of colorectal cancer, USA, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C Brooke; Townsend, Julie S; Tai, Eric; Thomas, Cheryll C

    2014-03-01

    Published literature on receipt of preventive healthcare services among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) cancer survivors is scarce. We describe patterns in receipt of preventive services among API long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry-Medicare data were used to identify 9,737 API and white patients who were diagnosed with CRC during 1996-2000 and who survived 5 or more years beyond their diagnoses. We examined receipt of vaccines, mammography (females), bone densitometry (females), and cholesterol screening among the survivors and how the physician specialties they visited for follow-up care correlated to services received. APIs were less likely than whites to receive mammography (52.0 vs. 69.3 %, respectively; P Women who visited both PCPs and oncologists compared with PCPs only were more likely to receive mammography (odds ratio = 1.40; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05-1.86). Visits to both PCPs and oncologists were associated with increased use of mammography. Although API survivors visited these specialties more frequently than white survivors, API women may need culturally appropriate outreach to increase their use of this test. Long-term cancer survivors need to be aware of recommended preventive healthcare services, as well as who will manage their primary care and cancer surveillance follow-up.

  18. Proton therapy of hypophyseal adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakova, E.I.; Kirpatovskaya, L.E.; Lyass, F.M.; Snigireva, R.Ya.; Krymskij, V.A.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehksperimental'noj Ehndokrinologii i Khimii Gormonov)

    1983-01-01

    The authors present the results of proton therapy in 59 patients with different hypophyseal adenomas. The period of observation lasted from 6 mos. to 5 yrs. Irradiation was done using a multifield-convergent method and a proton beam of the ITEF synchrotron. The beam energy was 200 MeV, the beam diameter 7-15 mm. Radiation response and immediate results were evaluated for all the patients. The least favorable results were noted in the patients with prolactinomas, for which, in addition to irradiation, parlodel therapy is needed. No marked radiation reactions, neurological complications and manifestations of hypopituitarism were observed with the chosen doses and schemes of irradiation

  19. Villous adenoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Villous adenoma is a known entity in the gastrointestinal tract, but very rare in the urinary tract. It is a benign tumor with excellent prognosis, but its progression to adenocarcinoma is not established. Here, we report an additional case of villous adenoma of the urinary bladder.

  20. Colorectal Cancer Awareness for Women via Facebook: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Pennings Kamp, Kendra J; Salaysay, Zachary

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death among U.S. women. Women report being screened for colorectal cancer less often than men, and if colorectal cancer screening guidelines were routinely followed, approximately 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented. Many colorectal cancer screening interventions have not used Facebook, which is the most popular social media site among women. Little is known about engaging women in colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction information using Facebook. The "Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women" Facebook page was created to promote colorectal cancer screening and risk reduction awareness among women. Facebook posts targeted women aged 45-64 years and highlighted colorectal cancer screening methods, guidelines, and colorectal cancer risk reduction strategies. Demographics and data about the women's interactions with the page were collected using Facebook analytics and analyzed. The majority of the 391 users of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Awareness for Women Facebook page were women aged 45-54 years (56.5%). The most "liked" posts were related to colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors. In an effort to increase routine colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction behaviors, gastroenterology nurses and practices should consider Facebook as a good method to regularly engage women in colorectal cancer screening and colorectal cancer risk reduction information.

  1. Prevention or cure in times of crisis: the case of screening for colorectal cancer Prevenir o curar en época de crisis: a propósito del cribado de cáncer de colon y recto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carballo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a serious health problem in which screening is capable of reducing both the mortality and the incidence of the disorder. Colonoscopy, the mainstay of this type of screening, allows to establish an early diagnosis and also to eliminate malignant precursor lesions. The screening test which is performed in Spanish programs is the determination of fecal occult blood using the immunochemical method which gives around 70% of positive values for colonoscopy for any type of neoplasia. As a result, in 2009 the National Health System set as an objective that these programs cover 50% of the population by 2015. It is well known that colon screening is highly cost effective with a ratio of around 2500€ per QALY, much lower than ratios of other programs. Only the direct costs of colon and rectal cancer in Spain can be estimated at more than one thousand million euros per year. Early diagnosis and the cancers avoided thanks to screening can reduce these costs by 40%. The impact that the introduction of this screening has on health services can be lessened if the indications for colonoscopy are followed adequately. In conclusion, there is no justification for not acting to prevent CRC and this is especially so in times of crisis as there is no better social cost invested than that which saves suffering, deaths and even money.El cáncer colorrectal es un grave problema de salud en el que el cribado es capaz de reducir su mortalidad e incidencia. La colonoscopia, acto central de este tipo de cribado, permite tanto el diagnóstico precoz como la eliminación de los precursores malignos que son los adenomas. La prueba de cribado que se realiza en los programas españoles es la determinación de sangre oculta en heces por método inmunoquímico con lo que se consiguen valores predictivos positivos para la colonoscopia para cualquier tipo de neoplasia cercanos al 70%. Por todo ello, en 2009, el Sistema Nacional de Salud estableció el objetivo

  2. Ovarian hyperstimulation, hyperprolactinaemia and LH gonadotroph adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; del Pino, Marta; Valladares, Esther

    2009-08-01

    This report considers a highly exceptional case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome due to a gonadotroph adenoma secreting LH in a 31-year-old patient who presented with amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea syndrome and a complex bilateral ovarian mass. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pituitary adenoma, and laboratory tests corroborated the hyperprolactinaemia without other hormonal pituitary abnormalities. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome due to a gonadotroph adenoma with normal gonadotrophins is extremely rare. Most of the described cases are caused by FSH adenomas. Due to the originality of the case, it was considered useful for understanding the management of this entity, and it is proposed that LH adenomas should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Bonneville, Fabrice; Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Besancon (France)

    2005-03-01

    Today, MR is the only method needed for the morphological investigation of endocrine-active pituitary adenomas. In acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome, the therapeutic attitude is directly dictated by MR data. We present the MR aspect of pituitary adenomas according to size, sex, age, endocrine activity and a few particular conditions such as hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, pituitary adenomas during pregnancy, cavernous sinus invasion and postsurgical changes. When an intrasellar mass extending out of the sella turcica is detected, the goal of the MR examination is to indicate precisely the origin of the tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis. Demonstration of very small pituitary adenomas remains a challenge. When SE T1- and Turbo SE T2-weighted sequences are non-diagnostic, enhanced imaging becomes mandatory; half-dose gadolinium injection, delayed sequence, dynamic imaging can be of some help. (orig.)

  4. Predictive value of diminutive colonic adenoma trial: the PREDICT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Philip; Shad, Javaid; Ormseth, Eric; Coyle, Walter; Cash, Brooks; Butler, James; Schindler, William; Kikendall, Walter J; Furlong, Christopher; Sobin, Leslie H; Hobbs, Christine M; Cruess, David; Rex, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Diminutive adenomas (1-9 mm in diameter) are frequently found during colon cancer screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS). This trial assessed the predictive value of these diminutive adenomas for advanced adenomas in the proximal colon. In a multicenter, prospective cohort trial, we matched 200 patients with normal FS and 200 patients with diminutive adenomas on FS for age and gender. All patients underwent colonoscopy. The presence of advanced adenomas (adenoma >or= 10 mm in diameter, villous adenoma, adenoma with high grade dysplasia, and colon cancer) and adenomas (any size) was recorded. Before colonoscopy, patients completed questionnaires about risk factors for adenomas. The prevalence of advanced adenomas in the proximal colon was similar in patients with diminutive adenomas and patients with normal FS (6% vs. 5.5%, respectively) (relative risk, 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-2.6). Diminutive adenomas on FS did not accurately predict advanced adenomas in the proximal colon: sensitivity, 52% (95% CI, 32%-72%); specificity, 50% (95% CI, 49%-51%); positive predictive value, 6% (95% CI, 4%-8%); and negative predictive value, 95% (95% CI, 92%-97%). Male gender (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.01-2.61) was associated with an increased risk of proximal colon adenomas. Diminutive adenomas on sigmoidoscopy may not accurately predict advanced adenomas in the proximal colon.

  5. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:77-79

  6. Novel Stool-Based Protein Biomarkers for Improved Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Linda J W; de Wit, Meike; Pham, Thang V; Coupé, Veerle M H; Hiemstra, Annemieke C; Piersma, Sander R; Oudgenoeg, Gideon; Scheffer, George L; Mongera, Sandra; Sive Droste, Jochim Terhaar; Oort, Frank A; van Turenhout, Sietze T; Larbi, Ilhame Ben; Louwagie, Joost; van Criekinge, Wim; van der Hulst, Rene W M; Mulder, Chris J J; Carvalho, Beatriz; Fijneman, Remond J A; Jimenez, Connie R; Meijer, Gerrit A

    2017-12-19

    The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for detecting hemoglobin is used widely for noninvasive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but its sensitivity leaves room for improvement. To identify novel protein biomarkers in stool that outperform or complement hemoglobin in detecting CRC and advanced adenomas. Case-control study. Colonoscopy-controlled referral population from several centers. 315 stool samples from one series of 12 patients with CRC and 10 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples) and a second series of 81 patients with CRC, 40 with advanced adenomas, and 43 with nonadvanced adenomas, as well as 129 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples); 72 FIT samples from a third independent series of 14 patients with CRC, 16 with advanced adenomas, and 18 with nonadvanced adenomas, as well as 24 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples). Stool samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify protein combinations that differentiated CRC or advanced adenoma from control samples. Antibody-based assays for 4 selected proteins were done on FIT samples. In total, 834 human proteins were identified, 29 of which were statistically significantly enriched in CRC versus control stool samples in both series. Combinations of 4 proteins reached sensitivities of 80% and 45% for detecting CRC and advanced adenomas, respectively, at 95% specificity, which was higher than that of hemoglobin alone (P control samples (P control samples. Proof of concept that such proteins can be detected with antibody-based assays in small sample volumes indicates the potential of these biomarkers to be applied in population screening. Center for Translational Molecular Medicine, International Translational Cancer Research Dream Team, Stand Up to Cancer (American Association for Cancer Research and the Dutch Cancer Society), Dutch Digestive Foundation, and VU

  7. Attitude of the Italian general population towards prevention and screening of the most common tumors, with special emphasis on colorectal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domati, Federica; Travlos, Estratios; Cirilli, Claudia; Rossi, Giuseppina; Benatti, Piero; Marino, Massimiliano; Ponti, Giovanni; Vandelli, Maria; Valmori, Simone; Oursana, Amal; Pezzi, Annalisa; Ponz de Leon, Maurizio

    2009-06-01

    Screening and early diagnosis of cancer represent relatively recent tools in the long-lasting battle against tumors. If the American public opinion manifests its enthusiasm towards screening, the attitude of European is less well known. The purpose of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of cancer screening (with particular emphasis on colorectal neoplasms) among middle-aged individuals. The study group consisted of 945 healthy individuals (489 men, 456 women, average age 57 +/- 12.4 years) who were asked to answer a series of questions about cancer screening and surveillance through a questionnaire presented by trained residents. Each interview lasted 20-30 min. Middle-aged Italians of both sexes seem to be aware of the fact that cancer is a frequent disease; moreover, many of the interviewed subjects believe almost all neoplasms are incurable. Diet, style of life, other environmental factors and familial factors are fully appreciated as relevant risk factors. The exact meaning of prevention was clear to less than half of the subjects. When various cancer sites were analyzed, the existence of preventive measures was well known for breast, cervical and prostate tumors, but their role was less clear for colorectal cancer. Only a fraction of the interviewed individuals were willing to undergo screening; the main reasons for refusal were lack of usefulness and fear of results. Among various tests, ultrasound and endoscopy were usually carried out in the presence of symptoms. Finally, multivariate analysis showed that the two factors significantly associated with the decision to undergo screening procedures were increasing age and level of education. The results of the study suggest that middle-aged Italian individuals, predominantly from Northern regions, have a correct perception of some aspects (frequency, risk factors) of cancer biology, whereas the knowledge of other aspects (outcome, prevention) remains poor or approximate. It

  8. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  9. Validation of Models Used to Inform Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines: Accuracy and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Carolyn M; Knudsen, Amy B; Marsh, Tracey L; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Johnson, Eric; Pabiniak, Chester; Kuntz, Karen M; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-07-01

    Microsimulation models synthesize evidence about disease processes and interventions, providing a method for predicting long-term benefits and harms of prevention, screening, and treatment strategies. Because models often require assumptions about unobservable processes, assessing a model's predictive accuracy is important. We validated 3 colorectal cancer (CRC) microsimulation models against outcomes from the United Kingdom Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening (UKFSS) Trial, a randomized controlled trial that examined the effectiveness of one-time flexible sigmoidoscopy screening to reduce CRC mortality. The models incorporate different assumptions about the time from adenoma initiation to development of preclinical and symptomatic CRC. Analyses compare model predictions to study estimates across a range of outcomes to provide insight into the accuracy of model assumptions. All 3 models accurately predicted the relative reduction in CRC mortality 10 years after screening (predicted hazard ratios, with 95% percentile intervals: 0.56 [0.44, 0.71], 0.63 [0.51, 0.75], 0.68 [0.53, 0.83]; estimated with 95% confidence interval: 0.56 [0.45, 0.69]). Two models with longer average preclinical duration accurately predicted the relative reduction in 10-year CRC incidence. Two models with longer mean sojourn time accurately predicted the number of screen-detected cancers. All 3 models predicted too many proximal adenomas among patients referred to colonoscopy. Model accuracy can only be established through external validation. Analyses such as these are therefore essential for any decision model. Results supported the assumptions that the average time from adenoma initiation to development of preclinical cancer is long (up to 25 years), and mean sojourn time is close to 4 years, suggesting the window for early detection and intervention by screening is relatively long. Variation in dwell time remains uncertain and could have important clinical and policy implications. © The

  10. Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) vs. traditional serrated adenoma (TSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, Emina Emilia; Gomez, Jose D; Driman, David K; Parfitt, Jeremy R; Wang, Chang; Benerjee, Tama; Snover, Dale C

    2008-01-01

    The morphologic distinction between various serrated polyps of the colorectum may be challenging. The distinction between sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) may be difficult using currently available criteria mostly based on cytologic characteristics. We have evaluated 66 serrated polyps including 29 SSA, 18 TSA, and 19 hyperplastic polyps for overall shape of the polyps, architectural features of individual crypts, the presence of eosinophilic cytoplasm, size and distribution of the proliferation and maturation zones, as well as Ki-67 and CK20 expression. The extent of the expression of CK20 and Ki-67 could not distinguish between the 3 types of serrated polyps, but the distribution of their expression was very helpful and differences were statistically significant. The distribution of Ki-67+ cells was the single most helpful distinguishing feature of the serrated polyp type (PTSA had low Ki-67 expression, which was limited to "ectopic crypts" and admixed tubular adenomalike areas. In serrated polyps, ectopic crypt formation (ECF) defined by the presence of ectopic crypts with their bases not seated adjacent to the muscularis mucosae was nearly exclusive to TSA and was found in all cases, while the presence of cytologic atypia and eosinophilia of the cytoplasm were characteristic, but not limited to TSA. No evidence of ECF, but nevertheless abnormal distribution of proliferation zone was characteristic of SSA, whereas HP had neither. The presence of the ECF defines TSA in a more rigorous fashion than previous diagnostic criteria and also explains the biologic basis of exuberant protuberant growth associated with TSA and the lack of such growth in SSA. Recognition of this phenomenon may also help in exploring the genetic and molecular basis for differences between SSA and TSA, because these architectural abnormalities may well be a reflection of abnormalities in genetically programmed mucosal development.

  11. [Chances and risks of prevention in elderly people for the three major cancers: breast-, prostate- and colorectal cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, G F

    2006-06-01

    The big three, breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC) and colorectal carcinoma are the most frequent malignancies world wide and also typical tumors of advanced age. Therefore the question to screen and how to screen for these tumors in the elderly is the main question for reduction of the total cancer burden and mortality in all western countries. BREAST CANCER (BC): The age related risk of BC increases from 1 : 2,500 at age 30+ to > 1 : 10 at age 80. Nevertheless, most of the national BC-Screening-Programs stop at age 60 or earlier. Therefore the majority of all advanced i. e. T (4) stages of BC are found in women age > 60. Frequently it is suggested that age related comorbidity should eliminate the benefit of treatment. Recently two longitudinal studies have clearly shown that correct standard treatment is as effective in elderly as in younger individuals. Mammography (MG) has been shown to reduce mortality of BC significantly with best results for specificity and sensitivity at age 70+. PROSTATE CANCER (PC): The screening situation of PC is quite different to BC, because risk profiles are poorly defined and the benefit of radical prostatectomy is not clearly demonstrated in the early non symptomatic stages of PC. At the other side watchful waiting leads to an elevated frequency of incontinence and enuresis as well. Two studies are now under progress and may possibly change the situation; but the final results are expected 2005-2008 at the earliest. Therefore an assisted individual decision making is the only recommendation at this time. COLORECTAL CANCER (CC): Risk groups are clearly defined. Risk of the elderly (> 60) is the average risk. The incidence increases from informed about complication rates of colonoscopy during the screening programs. There is a lack of data according accuracy of barium enema, virtual colonoscopy and genetic stool test in comparison to colonoscopy in combination with fecal occult blood test (FOBT). And adherence to screening is

  12. Budget Impact Analysis of Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods (ACCION): A Successful Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program for a Medically Underserved Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumyang; Lairson, David R; Chung, Tong Han; Kim, Junghyun; Shokar, Navkiran K

    2017-06-01

    Given the uncertain cost of delivering community-based cancer screening programs, we developed a Markov simulation model to project the budget impact of implementing a comprehensive colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention program compared with the status quo. The study modeled the impacts on the costs of clinical services, materials, and staff expenditures for recruitment, education, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), colonoscopy, follow-up, navigation, and initial treatment. We used data from the Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods comprehensive CRC prevention program implemented in El Paso, Texas, since 2012. We projected the 3-year financial consequences of the presence and absence of the CRC prevention program for a hypothetical population cohort of 10,000 Hispanic medically underserved individuals. The intervention cohort experienced a 23.4% higher test completion rate for CRC prevention, 8 additional CRC diagnoses, and 84 adenomas. The incremental 3-year cost was $1.74 million compared with the status quo. The program cost per person was $261 compared with $86 for the status quo. The costs were sensitive to the proportion of high-risk participants and the frequency of colonoscopy screening and diagnostic procedures. The budget impact mainly derived from colonoscopy-related costs incurred for the high-risk group. The effectiveness of FIT to detect CRC was critically dependent on follow-up after positive FIT. Community cancer prevention programs need reliable estimates of the cost of CRC screening promotion and the added budget impact of screening with colonoscopy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sporadic colorectal polyps and mismatch repair proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Molaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancers often arise from benign polyps. Adenomatous polyps and serrated polyps progress step by step to adenocarcinoma and change into malignant cancers. Genetic and epigenetic changes have correlation with specific stages of polyp-adenocarcinoma progression and colorectal cancer histopathological changes. Aims: In this study we used immunohistochemistry (IHC staining in sporadic colorectal polyps to assay functional status of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 proteins, to track genetic/epigenetic roles of this issue in our patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study we assessed all patients who were admitted with sporadic colorectal polyps and underwent polypectomy in endoscopy department during 2004-2008. Result: IHC results were abnormal in 6.8% cases for MLH1, in 4.5% cases for MSH2, in 3% for MSH6, and in 4.8% for PMS2. In all cases with abnormal PMS2, MLH1 was also reported as abnormal. Same results were reported for abnormal MSH2, which is accompanied with abnormal MSH6 in all cases (P values < 0.001. There is no significant difference between IHC staining results, gender, dysplasia grade, adenomatous type, and invasion. On the other hand, there was significant difference between IHC staining results, polyp location, and mean age of patients. The same significant difference was between adenomatous polyps and serrated adenoma polyps by MLH1 and PMS2 (P values < 0.05. Conclusion: According to our findings, maybe MMR dysfunction is the cause of sporadic colorectal polyps in younger age and its increasing risk of dysplasia progression and malignancy progression is only in serrated adenoma. Sporadic polyps in left colon had a higher risk to progress to malignancies, and abnormal IHC staining for MLH1 and PMS2 in serrated polyps is much more than in other adenomatous polyps.

  14. Differential gene expression profile reveals deregulation of pregnancy specific β1 glycoprotein 9 early during colorectal carcinogenesis

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    Gallinger Steven

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic colorectal cancer. Patients carrying germline APC mutations develop multiple colonic adenomas at younger age and higher frequency than non-carrier cases which indicates that silencing of one APC allele may be sufficient to initiate the transformation process. Methods To elucidate the biological dysregulation underlying adenoma formation we examined global gene expression profiles of adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa from an FAP patient. Differential expression of the most significant gene identified in this study was further validated by mRNA in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR and Northern blotting in different sets of adenomas, tumours and cancer cell lines. Results Eighty four genes were differentially expressed between all adenomas and corresponding normal mucosa, while only seven genes showed differential expression within the adenomas. The first group included pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein 9 (PSG9 (p PSG9 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA/PSG family and is produced at high levels during pregnancy, mainly by syncytiotrophoblasts. Further analysis of sporadic and familial colorectal cancer confirmed that PSG9 is ectopically upregulated in vivo by cancer cells. In total, deregulation of PSG9 mRNA was detected in 78% (14/18 of FAP adenomas and 75% (45/60 of sporadic colorectal cancer cases tested. Conclusion Detection of PSG9 expression in adenomas, and at higher levels in FAP cases, indicates that germline APC mutations and defects in Wnt signalling modulate PSG9 expression. Since PSG9 is not found in the non-pregnant adult except in association with cancer, and it appears to be an early molecular event associated with colorectal cancer monitoring of its expression may be useful as a biomarker for the early detection of this disease.

  15. CP-31398 prevents the growth of p53-mutated colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingxing; Kong, Xinjuan; Yan, Junwei; Yan, Jingjun; Zhang, Yunan; Wu, Qian; Chang, Ying; Shang, Haitao; Dou, Qian; Song, Yuhu; Liu, Fang

    2015-03-01

    Rescuing the function of mutant p53 protein is an attractive cancer therapeutic strategy. Small molecule CP-31398 was shown to restore mutant p53 tumor suppressor functions in cancer cells. Here, we determined the effects of CP-31398 on the growth of p53-mutated colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro and in vivo. CRC cells which carry p53 mutation in codon 273 were treated with CP-31398 and the control, and the effects of CP-31398 on cell cycle, cell apoptosis, and proliferation were determined. The expression of p53-responsive downstream genes was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot. CP-31398 was administrated into xenograft tumors created by the inoculation of HT-29 cells, and then the effect of CP-31398 on the growth of xenograft tumors was examined. CP-31398 induced p53 downstream target molecules in cultured HT-29 cells, which resulted in the inhibition of CRC cell growth assessed by the determination of cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. In xenograft tumors, CP-31398 modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3, cyclin D, and Mdm2 and then blocked the growth of xenograft tumors. CP-31398 would be developed as a therapeutic candidate for p53-mutated CRC due to the restoration of mutant p53 tumor suppressor functions.

  16. Giant Parotid Pleomorphic Adenoma Involving Parapharyngeal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pleomorfik adenoma parotis merupakan tumor jinak kelenjar liur yang paling sering ditemukan, namun pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang sangat besar sehingga melibatkan ruang parafaring (RPF sangat jarang. Diagnosis ini sulit ditegakkan karena gejala klinisnya tidak khas. Penatalaksanaanya harus hati-hati mengingat banyak struktur vital yang beresiko mengalami trauma. Tujuan: Bagaimana menegakkan diagnosis dan penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF. Kasus: Seorang pasien perempuan 27 tahun ditegakkan diagnosis pleomorfik adenoma parotis kanan dengan melibatkan RPF. Terdapat pembengkakan pada leher yang bersifat asimtomatis dan gejala pendorongan faring dan laring yang menyebabkan disfonia, disfagia, dan defisit saraf kranial IX,X,XII. Penatalaksanaan: Pasien telah dilakukan operasi parotidektomi pendekatan transervikal–transparotid dengan preservasi arteri karotis eksterna dan saraf fasialis. Kesimpulan: Biopsi Aspirasi Jarum Halus (BAJAH dan radiologi merupakan pemeriksaan yang penting untuk menegakkan diagnosis. Penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF adalah bedah ekstirpasi komplit dengan beberapa pendekatan. .Kata kunci: tumor jinak kelenjar liur, pleomorfik adenoma, ruang parafaringAbstractBackground: Parotid pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, while giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving the parapharyngeal space (PPS is rare. It was difficult to diagnose because the clinical presentation of this tumor can be subtle. The management must be performed carefully due to anatomy relation to complex vital structure lead to traumatic injury highrisk. Purposes: How to make diagnosis and management parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. Case: A female 27 years old with diagnosis was giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. There was asymptomatic swelling of the neck and presence of pushing the pharynx and larynx medially causes

  17. Canalicular adenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Phore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Canalicular adenomas (CAs are uncommon benign salivary gland neoplasms of the oral cavity. They are typically located on the upper lip, buccal mucosa, and infrequently found on the palate and derived from minor salivary glands. Due to benign character of the tumor, CAs rarely present with bone erosion. Histologically, trabecular type of basal cell adenoma, pleomorphic adenoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma should be discriminated from CAs. A-36-year-old female patient with CA was presented. The lesion was managed surgically under local anesthesia, and 2 months follow-up was uneventful.

  18. MR of pituitary micro-adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Marec, E.; Ait Ameur, A.; David, H.; Pharaboz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the time, rationales to look for pituitary micro-adenomas are based on endocrinal disorder. MRI is often helpful to confirm diagnosis. It gives information about micro-adenomas size and localisation. If conventional sequence are inadequate, a dynamic sequence has then to be performed after Gadolinium injection. Any disorder observed from the pituitary gland must be correlated with the clinical observation and results from biochemistry analysis. False positive happens quite open because of gland morphological variation, incidentalomas and partial volumes. MRI offers the possibility to follow-up treated micro-adenomas evolution especially to detect recurrence. (author)

  19. Comparison between the concentration of mast cells and risk criteria of malignancy in intestinal adenomas

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    Bruna Luz Custódio Camargo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal adenomas are benign neoplasms that present a risk of malignancy associated with three independent characteristics: the polyp size, the histological architecture and the severity of epithelial dysplasia (or atypia. Current evidence suggests that mast cells (CM contribute to the tumorigenesis of colorectal carcinomas. Objective: Compare the concentration of CM in intestinal adenomas and risk criteria for malignancy in these tumors (size, histological type and degree of cellular atypia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study with 102 anatomopathological reports of intestinal adenoma excision. We selected paraffin blocks with the central area of the tumor. The CM were stained with toluidine blue. RESULTS: In most cases (89.2%, n=91, the mast cells concentration (MC was less than 6 CM/10 high power field (HPF (p=0.0001. Most adenomas, regardless of their histological type, showed 0 CM/10 HPF (p=0.083. In most adenomas, regardless of their size, MC was 0 CM/10 HPF (p=0.665. Presence or absence of atypia was associated, in most cases, with MC of 0 CM/10 HPF (p=0.524. Conclusion: This study did not show association between the MC and histological type, size or presence of atypical cells in intestinal adenomas.Adenomas intestinais são neoplasias benignas que apresentam risco de malignização relacionado a três características independentes: o tamanho do pólipo, a arquitetura histológica e a gravidade da displasia (ou atipia epitelial. Evidências atuais sugerem que os mastócitos contribuem para a tumorigênese do carcinoma colorretal. OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente a concentração de mastócitos em adenomas intestinais e os critérios de risco para malignização nesses tumores (tamanho, tipo histológico e grau de atipia celular. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo, com seleção de 102 laudos anatomopatológicos de exérese de adenoma intestinal. Foram selecionados os blocos de parafina com a área central da

  20. Molecular markers of carcinogenesis for risk stratification of individuals with colorectal polyps: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Sun, Han; Yi, Sang; Storm, Joy; Xiao, Guanghua; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Zhang, Song; Ashfaq, Raheela; Rockey, Don C

    2014-10-01

    Risk stratification using number, size, and histology of colorectal adenomas is currently suboptimal for identifying patients at increased risk for future colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that molecular markers of carcinogenesis in adenomas, measured via immunohistochemistry, may help identify high-risk patients. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a retrospective, 1:1 matched case-control study (n = 216; 46% female) in which cases were patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous adenoma and controls were patients with adenoma but no colorectal cancer at baseline or within 5 years of follow-up. In phase I of analyses, we compared expression of molecular markers of carcinogenesis in case and control adenomas, blind to case status. In phase II of analyses, patients were randomly divided into independent training and validation groups to develop a model for predicting case status. We found that seven markers [p53, p21, Cox-2, β-catenin (BCAT), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNApkcs), survivin, and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)] were significantly associated with case status on unadjusted analyses, as well as analyses adjusted for age and advanced adenoma status (P marker component). When applied to the validation set, a predictive model using these seven markers showed substantial accuracy for identifying cases [area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC), 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.92]. A parsimonious model using three markers performed similarly to the seven-marker model (AUC, 0.84). In summary, we found that molecular markers of carcinogenesis distinguished adenomas from patients with and without colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we speculate that prospective studies using molecular markers to identify individuals with polyps at risk for future neoplasia are warranted. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection is an independent risk factor of early and advanced colorectal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Kim, Eun Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young-Ho; Baek, Sun-Young; Kim, Kyunga; Hong, Sung Noh

    2017-06-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the development of colorectal neoplasm remains controversial. We examined the association between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasm in a large sample of healthy participants who underwent screening colonoscopy. A cross-sectional study of 8916 men, who participated in a regular health-screening examination that included an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G antibody test and colonoscopy, was conducted to evaluate the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasm. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise, regular aspirin use, and family history of colorectal cancer showed that the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for any adenoma and advanced neoplasm was 1.32 (1.07-1.61) and 1.90 (1.05-3.56) in participants with H. pylori infection and without H. pylori infection, respectively. The association persisted after further adjustment for inflammatory markers or metabolic variables including fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Regarding the location, a positive association was confined to cases with proximal adenomas and was observed similarly in all the evaluated subgroups. In a large-scale study, carefully controlled for confounding factors, involving asymptomatic participants without a history of colonoscopy, H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of any colorectal adenoma and advanced colorectal neoplasm. Prospective studies are necessary to determine whether H. pylori eradication can reduce this risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Colorectal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.K.; Singh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of colorectal tuberculosis in our series and to study its radiological spectrum. A total of 684 cases of proven gastrointestinal tuberculosis with positive barium contrast findings seen over a period of more than one decade were evaluated. The study did not include cases where colon was involved in direct contiguity with ileo-caecal tuberculosis. Seventy-four patients (10.8%) had colorectal tuberculosis. Commonest site involved was transverse colon, closely followed by rectum and ascending colon. Radiological findings observed were in the form of strictures (54%), colitis (39%) and polypoid lesions (7%). Complications noted were in the form of perforations and fistulae in 18.9% of cases. Colorectal tuberculosis is a very common site for gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Typical findings of colorectal tuberculosis are strictures, signs of colitis and polypoid lesions. Common complications are perforation and fistulae. (orig.)

  3. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Research will help us better understand whether chemotherapy can benefit elderly colorectal cancer patients. Such patients often do not receive chemotherapy due to concerns about side effects. We will ...

  4. Gene mutations in hepatocellular adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raft, Marie B; Jørgensen, Ernö N; Vainer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    is associated with bi-allelic mutations in the TCF1 gene and morphologically has marked steatosis. β-catenin activating HCA has increased activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and is associated with possible malignant transformation. Inflammatory HCA is characterized by an oncogene-induced inflammation due...... to alterations in the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. In the diagnostic setting, sub classification of HCA is based primarily on immunohistochemical analyzes, and has had an increasing impact on choice of treatment and individual prognostic assessment....... This review offers an overview of the reported gene mutations associated with hepatocellular adenomas together with a discussion of the diagnostic and prognostic value....

  5. Male pattern baldness and risk of colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, N; Cao, Y; Lee, D H; Park, S M; Rosner, B; Fuchs, C S; Wu, K; Giovannucci, E L

    2016-01-12

    Male pattern baldness is positively associated with androgens as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, all of which are implicated in pathogenesis of colorectal neoplasia. From 1992 through 2010, we prospectively followed participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Hair pattern at age 45 years was assessed at baseline with five image categories (no baldness, frontal-only baldness, frontal-plus-mild-vertex baldness, frontal-plus-moderate-vertex baldness, and frontal-plus-severe-vertex baldness). Cancer analysis included 32 782 men and used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Restricted to men who underwent at least one endoscopy over the study period, adenoma analysis included 29 770 men and used logistic regressions for clustered data to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Over the mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 710 cases of colorectal cancer (478 for colon, 152 for rectum, and 80 unknown site) developed. Significantly increased risks associated with frontal-only baldness and frontal-plus-mild-vertex baldness relative to no baldness were observed for colon cancer with respective HR being 1.29 (95% CI, 1.03-1.62) and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01-1.70). Over the 19-year study period, 3526 cases of colorectal adenoma were detected. Evidence for an increased risk of colorectal adenoma relative to no baldness was significant with frontal-only baldness (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26) and borderline insignificant with frontal-plus-severe-vertex baldness (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.98-1.33). Subtypes of male pattern baldness at age 45 years were positively associated with colorectal neoplasia. Future studies are warranted to confirm our results and to determine the predictive value of male pattern baldness to identify those at high risk for colorectal neoplasia.

  6. Sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia: morphological patterns and correlations with MLH1 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Walker, Neal I; Leggett, Barbara A; Whitehall, Vicki Lj; Bettington, Mark L; Rosty, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas are the precursor polyp of approximately 20% of colorectal carcinomas. Sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia are rarely encountered and represent an intermediate step to malignant progression, frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is important to facilitate appropriate surveillance, particularly because progression from dysplasia to carcinoma can be rapid. The current World Health Organization classification describes two main patterns of dysplasia occurring in sessile serrated adenomas, namely, serrated and conventional. However, this may not adequately reflect the spectrum of changes seen by pathologists in routine practice. Furthermore, subtle patterns of dysplasia that are nevertheless associated with loss of MLH1 expression are not encompassed in this classification. We performed a morphological analysis of 266 sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia with concurrent MLH1 immunohistochemistry with the aims of better defining the spectrum of dysplasia occurring in these lesions and correlating dysplasia patterns with MLH1 expression. We found that dysplasia can be divided morphologically into four major patterns, comprising minimal deviation (19%), serrated (12%), adenomatous (8%) and not otherwise specified (79%) groups. Minimal deviation dysplasia is defined by minor architectural and cytological changes that typically requires loss of MLH1 immunohistochemical expression to support the diagnosis. Serrated dysplasia and adenomatous dysplasia have distinctive histological features and are less frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression (13 and 5%, respectively). Finally, dysplasia not otherwise specified encompasses most cases and shows a diverse range of morphological changes that do not fall into the other subgroups and are frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression (83%). This morphological classification of sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia may represent an

  7. Human FK506 binding protein 65 is associated with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Sanne Harder; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2005-01-01

    We initiated the present study to identify new genes associated with colorectal cancer. In a previously published microarray study an EST (W80763), later identified as the gene hFKBP10 (NM_021939), was found to be strongly expressed in tumors while absent in the normal mucosa. Here we describe...... this gene hFKBP10 together with its encoded protein hFKBP65 as a novel marker associated with colorectal cancer. Analysis of 31 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 14 normal colorectal mucosa by RealTime PCR for hFKBP10 showed a significant up-regulation in tumors, when compared with normal mucosa....... Immunohistochemical analysis of 26 adenocarcinomas and matching normal mucosa, as well as benign hyperplastic polyps and adenomas, using a monoclonal anti-hFKBP65 antibody, showed that the protein was not present in normal colorectal epithelial cells, but strongly expressed in the tumor cells of colorectal cancer...

  8. Underwater colorectal EMR: remodeling endoscopic mucosal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Gabriele; Granata, Antonino; Ligresti, Dario; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Liotta, Rosa; Traina, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Underwater EMR (UEMR) has been reported as a new technique for the removal of large sessile colorectal polyps without need for submucosal injection. To evaluate (1) outcomes of UEMR, (2) whether UEMR can be easily performed by an endoscopist skilled in traditional EMR without specific dedicated training in UEMR, and (3) whether EUS is required before UEMR. Prospective, observational study. Single, tertiary-care referral center. Underwater EMR. Complete resection and adverse events. A total of 72 consecutive patients underwent UEMR of 81 sessile colorectal polyps. EUS was performed before UEMR in 9 cases (11.1%) with a suspicious mucosal/vascular pattern. The mean polyp size was 18.7 mm (range 10-50 mm); the mean UEMR time was 11.8 minutes. Fifty-five polyps (68%) were removed en bloc, and 26 (32%) were removed with a piecemeal technique. Histopathology consisted of tubular adenomas (25.9%), tubulovillous adenomas (5%), adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (42%), serrated polyps (4.9%), carcinoma in situ (13.6%), and hyperplastic polyps (8.6%). Surveillance colonoscopy was scheduled at 3 months. Complete resection was successful in all patients. No adverse events or recurrence was recorded in any of the patients. Limited follow-up; single-center, uncontrolled study. Interventional endoscopists skilled in conventional EMR performed UEMR without specific dedicated training. EUS may not be required for lesions with no invasive features on high-definition narrow-band imaging. UEMR appears to be an effective and safe alternative to traditional EMR and could eventually improve the way in which we can effectively and safely treat colorectal lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosing lynch syndrome in absence of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T; Knezetic, Joseph; Lanspa, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    There are many ways in which a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can be made, most prominent of which is family history, presence of cancer, high microsatellite instability, immunohistochemistry, and a mismatch repair germline mutation. There are at least four molecular pathways for colorectal cancer carcinogenesis: 1) adenoma-carcinoma sequence; 2) hereditary microsatellite instability; 3) serrated pathway; 4) epidermal growth factor receptor. The answer to diagnosing Lynch syndrome in the absence of colorectal cancer may be partially based upon the phenotypic characteristics of the colonic polyps should they be identified at colonoscopy, specifically their phenotypic characteristics of location, size, histology, number, and age of polyp onset.

  10. Association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with the risk of colorectal polyps by histologic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Wu, Huiyun; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Methods Included in the study were 2,543 polyp patients [(1,881 with adenomas, and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results High intake of red meat and processed meat (P-trend meat cooked using high-temperature cooking methods (P-trend ≤ 0.01), was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal polyps. A significant positive association between exposures to meat-derived heterocyclic amines and risk of polyps was found for both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Furthermore, the positive association with red-meat intake and heterocyclic amine exposure was stronger for multiple adenomas than single adenoma and serrated than non-serrated adenomas. Conclusion This study supports a role for red meat and meat-derived mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor. PMID:21803984

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Enrique; Saito, Yutaka; Hassan, Cessare; Senore, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should wo...

  12. DEK over expression as an independent biomarker for poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lijuan; Piao, Junjie; Gao, Wenbin; Piao, Yingshi; Jin, Guang; Ma, Yue; Li, Jinzi; Lin, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    The DEK protein is related to chromatin reconstruction and gene transcription, and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. High expression levels of the human DEK gene have been correlated with numerous human malignancies. This study explores the roles of DEK in tumor progression and as a prognostic determinant of colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer specimens from 109 patients with strict follow-up, and colorectal adenomas from 52 patients were selected for analysis of DEK protein by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between DEK over expression and the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers were evaluated by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact tests. The survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the relationship between prognostic factors and patient survival was also analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard models. DEK protein showed a nuclear immunohistochemical staining pattern in colorectal cancers. The strongly positive rate of DEK protein was 48.62% (53/109) in colorectal cancers, which was significantly higher than that in either adjacent normal colon mucosa (9.17%, 10/109) or colorectal adenomas (13.46%, 7/52). DEK over expression in colorectal cancers was positively correlated with tumor size, grade, lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion, late stage, and disease-free survival- and 5-year survival rates. Further analysis showed that patients with late stage colorectal cancer and high DEK expression had worse survival rates than those with low DEK expression. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed high DEK expression, serosal invasion, and late stage are significant independent risk factors for mortality in colorectal cancer. DEK plays an important role in the progression of colorectal cancers and it is an independent poor prognostic factor of colorectal cancers

  13. Population-based colorectal cancer screening by fecal immunochemical testing over multiple rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlugt, M.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of death in the Netherlands, accounting for over 5100 deaths in 2015. Population screening aims to detect CRC or its precursors, advanced adenoma, in an early phase, thereby reducing CRC morbidity and mortality. A recent observational study

  14. Mononucleotide precedes dinucleotide repeat instability during colorectal tumour development in Lynch syndrome patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Westers, Helga; Sousa, Sonia; Wu, Ying; Niessen, Renee C.; Olderode-Berends, Maran; van der Sluis, Tineke; Reuvekamp, Peter T. W.; Seruca, Raquel; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Hollema, Harry; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    A progressive accumulation of genetic alterations underlies the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer. This accumulation of mutations is driven by genetic instability, of which there are different types. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the predominant type present in the tumours of

  15. Cytogenetic comparisons of synchronous carcinomas and polyps in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L

    1997-01-01

    Thirty tumorous lesions from seven patients with colorectal cancer were short-term cultured and cytogenetically analysed: 16 non-adenomatous polyps, six adenomas, seven carcinomas, including one in polyp, and one lymph node metastasis. Clonal chromosome aberrations were found in 20 samples in 100...

  16. Low adherence to the western and high adherence to the mediterranean dietary patterns could prevent colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Amiano, Pilar; Fernández de Larrea, Nerea; Martín, Vicente; Alonso, Maria Henar; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Guevara, Marcela; Fernandez-Tardon, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristobal; Huerta, Jose María; Capelo, Rocío; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Urtiaga, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús; Jiménez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Moreno, Víctor; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Kogevinas, Manolis; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina

    2018-03-26

    To assess if the associations found between three previously identified dietary patterns with breast, prostate and gastric cancer are also observed for colorectal cancer (CRC). MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that collected information of 1629 incident cases of CRC and 3509 population-based controls from 11 Spanish provinces. Western, Prudent and Mediterranean data-driven dietary patterns-derived in another Spanish case-control study-were reconstructed in MCC-Spain. Their association with CRC was assessed using mixed multivariable logistic regression models considering a possible interaction with sex. Risk by tumor site (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) was evaluated using multinomial regression models. While no effect of the Prudent pattern on CRC risk was observed, a high adherence to the Western dietary pattern was associated with increased CRC risk for both males [OR fourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 1.45 (1.11;1.91)] and females [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.50 (1.07;2.09)] but seem to be confined to distal colon [OR fourth(Q4) vs. first(Q1)quartile (95% CI): 2.02 (1.44;2.84)] and rectal [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.46 (1.05;2.01)] tumors. The protective effect of the Mediterranean dietary pattern against CRC was observed for both sexes [males: OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.71 (0.55;0.92); females: OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.56 (0.40;0.77)] and for all cancer sites: proximal colon [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.70 (0.51;0.97)], distal colon [OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.65 (0.48;0.89)], and rectum (OR Q4 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.60 (0.45;0.81)]. Our results are consistent with most of the associations previously found between these patterns and breast, prostate and gastric cancer risk and indicate that consuming whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, and fish and avoiding red and processed meat, refined grains, sweets, caloric drinks, juices, convenience food, and sauces might reduce CRC risk.

  17. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term outcome and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Jung AE; Kim, Chul Yong [Korea University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    's disease). Amenorrhea was abated in 7 of 10 patients, galactorrhea in 8 of 8 patients, acromegaly in 7 of 11 patients, Cushing's disease in 4 of 4 patients. Long-term complication was observed in 4 patients; 3 patients with cerebrovascular accident, 1 patient developed dementia. Of these patients, 3 of 4 received more than 60 Gy of irradiation. EBRT is highly effective in preventing recurrence and reducing mass effect of non-secreting adenoma. Effort to improve tumor control of secreting adenoma is required. Careful long-term follow-up is required when relatively high dose is applied. Modern radiosurgery or proton RT may be options to decrease late complications.

  18. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term outcome and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Jung AE; Kim, Chul Yong

    2011-01-01

    ). Amenorrhea was abated in 7 of 10 patients, galactorrhea in 8 of 8 patients, acromegaly in 7 of 11 patients, Cushing's disease in 4 of 4 patients. Long-term complication was observed in 4 patients; 3 patients with cerebrovascular accident, 1 patient developed dementia. Of these patients, 3 of 4 received more than 60 Gy of irradiation. EBRT is highly effective in preventing recurrence and reducing mass effect of non-secreting adenoma. Effort to improve tumor control of secreting adenoma is required. Careful long-term follow-up is required when relatively high dose is applied. Modern radiosurgery or proton RT may be options to decrease late complications.

  19. Follow-up care, surveillance protocol, and secondary prevention measures for survivors of colorectal cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Mangu, Pamela B; Flynn, Patrick J; Korde, Larissa; Loprinzi, Charles L; Minsky, Bruce D; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Ryan, Kim; Schrag, Deborah H; Wong, Sandra L; Benson, Al B

    2013-12-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing recent clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. The Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) Guideline on Follow-up Care, Surveillance Protocol, and Secondary Prevention Measures for Survivors of Colorectal Cancer was reviewed by ASCO for methodologic rigor and considered for endorsement. The ASCO Panel concurred with the CCO recommendations and recommended endorsement, with the addition of several qualifying statements. Surveillance should be guided by presumed risk of recurrence and functional status of the patient (important within the first 2 to 4 years). Medical history, physical examination, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing should be performed every 3 to 6 months for 5 years. Patients at higher risk of recurrence should be considered for testing in the more frequent end of the range. A computed tomography scan (abdominal and chest) is recommended annually for 3 years, in most cases. Positron emission tomography scans should not be used for surveillance outside of a clinical trial. A surveillance colonoscopy should be performed 1 year after the initial surgery and then every 5 years, dictated by the findings of the previous one. If a colonoscopy was not preformed before diagnosis, it should be done after completion of adjuvant therapy (before 1 year). Secondary prevention (maintaining a healthy body weight and active lifestyle) is recommended. If a patient is not a candidate for surgery or systemic therapy because of severe comorbid conditions, surveillance tests should not be performed. A treatment plan from the specialist should have clear directions on appropriate follow-up by a nonspecialist.

  20. Colorectal cancer chemoprevention: the potential of a selective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Amotz, Oded; Arber, Nadir; Kraus, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death, and therefore demands special attention. Novel recent approaches for the chemoprevention of CRC focus on selective targeting of key pathways. We review the study by Zhang and colleagues, evaluating a selective approach targeting APC-deficient premalignant cells using retinoid-based therapy and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). This study demonstrates that induction of TRAIL-mediated death signaling contributes to the chemopreventive value of all-trans-retinyl acetate (RAc) by sensitizing premalignant adenoma cells for apoptosis without affecting normal cells. We discuss these important findings, raise few points that deserve consideration, and may further contribute to the development of RAc-based combination therapies with improved efficacy. The authors clearly demonstrate a synergistic interaction between TRAIL, RAc and APC, which leads to the specific cell death of premalignant target cells. The study adds to the growing body of literature related to CRC chemoprevention, and provides solid data supporting a potentially selective approach for preventing CRC using RAc and TRAIL.

  1. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal tumors: a cohort of French women of the National Education System (E3N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse, E; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M C

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns associated with colorectal tumors along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Scores for dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis in women from the French cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1993-2000). Their association with colorectal tumors was investigated in 516 adenoma cases (175 high-risk adenomas) and 4,804 polyp-free women and in 172 colorectal cancer cases and 67,312 cancer-free women. The authors identified four dietary patterns: "healthy" (vegetables, fruit, yogurt, sea products, and olive oil); "Western" (potatoes, pizzas and pies, sandwiches, sweets, cakes, cheese, cereal products, processed meat, eggs, and butter); "drinker" (sandwiches, snacks, processed meat, and alcoholic beverages); and "meat eaters" (meat, poultry, and margarine). For quartile 4 versus quartile 1, an increased risk of adenoma was observed with high scores of the Western pattern (multivariate relative risk (RR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.94; p(trend) = 0.03) and the drinker pattern (RR = 1.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.83; p(trend) = 0.01). The meat-eaters pattern was positively associated with colorectal cancer risk (for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: RR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 2.53; p(trend) = 0.02). Dietary patterns that reflect a Western way of life are associated with a higher risk of colorectal tumors.

  2. Secondary hypertension due to concomitant aldosterone-producing adenoma and parathyroid adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Katrina; Holmes, Daniel; Melck, Adrienne; Chan-Yan, Clifford

    2015-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting a bidirectional relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and aldosterone (Aldo). We report a case of secondary hypertension due to concomitant Aldo-producing adenoma (APA) and parathyroid adenoma (PA) requiring both unilateral adrenalectomy and parathyroidectomy. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Immunohistochemical Expression of p53 in Pleomorphic Adenoma and Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarakji, B.; Kujan, O.; Nassani, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Immunohistochemical stains for p53 are used as a diagnostic marker associated with malignancy in several histologic types of salivary gland tumors. This marker may be useful in differentiating pleomorphic adenoma (PA) from carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CPA), as these tumors are often difficult to distinguish on the basis of morphology alone. Objective. to evaluate whatever inactivation of tumor suppressor gene (p53) increases with the tumor progression from normal salivary tissue to PA and eventually CPA. Design. Paraffin blocks of 29 cases of PA, which were surrounded by normal parotid gland, and 27 cases of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma were retrieved and validated. In all cases of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, a PA “ghost” was identified, and the malignant element was either undifferentiated carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. Results. The results showed negative nuclear expression of P53 in normal parotid gland. Nuclear P53 was expressed strongly in 6/29 (20.7%) pleomorphic salivary adenoma and 10/27 (37%) carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Conclusion. Our data suggest that inactivation of p53 may play an important role in the evolution of pleomorphic salivary adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  4. Giant serous microcystic pancreas adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kerem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Serous cystadenomas are rare tumors comprising 1-2% of exocrine pancreas tumors. They are mostly known as benign conditions but malign transformation as serous cystadenocarcinoma is also reported. It is usually seen in females. Non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or symptoms due to mass affect, are usually seen. A 64-year old female patient was investigated for abdominal pain. Physical and laboratory findings were normal. Abdomen ultrasonography confirmed an 11x9.5 cm solid cystic lesion and abdomen computed tomography scan confirmed a 12x11 cm lobulated cystic solid lesion which had central cystic necrotic areas extending from liver hilus inferiorly. Fine needle biopsy confirmed benign cytology and trucut biopsy of the pan creatic mass reported chronic inflamation. Nevertheless, this mass could have malignant contents and transformation potential. A laparatomy was decided due to patient’s symptoms and mass effect. Due to vascular invasion of the tumor, Whipple procedure was performed. The pathology report confirmed serous microcystic adenoma. These rare tumors are usually benign but pre-operative malignity criterias are not identified. There are few differential diagnostic tools for excluding malignity. We suggest surgical resection as best treatment approach for selected cases.

  5. Prevention of severe infectious complications after colorectal surgery using preoperative orally administered antibiotic prophylaxis (PreCaution) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Tessa; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F Q; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; van 't Veer, Nils E; Roos, Daphne; Nikolakopoulos, Stavros; Bonten, Marc J M; Kluytmans, Jan A J W

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal surgery is frequently complicated by surgical site infections (SSIs). The most important consequences of SSIs are prolonged hospitalization, an increased risk of surgical reintervention and an increase in mortality. Perioperative intravenously administered antibiotic

  6. Tobacco, alcohol, and p53 overexpression in early colorectal neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Waye, Jerome; Harpaz, Noam; Hibshoosh, Hanina

    2003-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. While the effect of p53 mutations on colorectal cancer prognosis has been heavily studied, less is known about how epidemiologic risk factors relate to p53 status, particularly in early colorectal neoplasia prior to clinically invasive colorectal cancer (including adenomas, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and intramucosal carcinoma). We examined p53 status, as measured by protein overexpression, in 157 cases with early colorectal neoplasia selected from three New York City colonoscopy clinics. After collecting paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-p53 monoclonal mouse IgG 2 a [BP53-12-1] antibody. We analyzed whether p53 status was different for risk factors for colorectal neoplasia relative to a polyp-free control group (n = 508). p53 overexpression was found in 10.3%, 21.7%, and 34.9%, of adenomatous polyps, CIS, and intramucosal cases, respectively. Over 90% of the tumors with p53 overexpression were located in the distal colon and rectum. Heavy cigarette smoking (30+ years) was associated with cases not overexpressing p53 (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–2.9) but not with those cases overexpressing p53 (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.4–2.6). Heavy beer consumption (8+ bottles per week) was associated with cases overexpressing p53 (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.3–12.0) but not with cases without p53 overexpression (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.7–3.7). Our findings that p53 overexpression in early colorectal neoplasia may be positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with cigarette smoking are consistent with those of several studies of p53 expression and invasive cancer, and suggest that there may be relationships of smoking and alcohol with p53 early in the adenoma to carcinoma sequence

  7. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  9. Shenlingbaishusan, a chines herbal medicine, in the prevention and treatment of colo-rectal radiation reactions during pelvic tumor radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yueran; Liu Yajie; Wu Chaoquan; Chen Chuping; Wang Yaobang; Li Xianming; Zhong Heli; Wu Dong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine-Shenlingbaishusan in preventing and treating colon and rectum radiation reactions. Methods: Ninty-six patients with female pelvic tumor (cervical and endometrial cancer) were randomly divided into two groups: radiotherapy (RT) alone group (47 patients) and RT+ Shenlingbaishusan group(49 patients). RT in both groups, being similar, 1.8-2.0 Gy/per fraction, five fractions/per week, to a total dose of 48-50 Gy/5-6 weeks to the whole pelvis by external irradiation plus brachytherapy: to a total dose of 42-49 Gy/6-7 weeks for cervix carcinoma, and 10-15 Gy/1-2 weeks for endometrial cancer. Results: All patients have been were followed for more than one year after radiotherapy. The incidence of acute and late colon and rectum radiation reactions. was:15 patients in the RT + Shenlingbaishusan group: grade I10 patients, Grade II3 patients, grade III2 patients incontrast to the 47 patients in the RT group: grade I 24 patients, grade II 14 patients and grade III 9 patients (P<0.01). Conclusions: The traditional Chinese medicine-Shenlingbaishusan is effective in preventing and treating colon and rectum radiation reactions during pelvic tumor radiotherapy.(authors)

  10. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Will An Additional Observer Enhance Adenoma Detection During Colonoscopy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Mullen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to varied level of experience, the detection rate of adenoma on colonoscopy is different. In presence of both fellows and attending the incidence rates of adenoma are shown to increase in a small study reported by Rogart et al [4]. Based on similar hypothesis, a study was undertaken with much larger sample size to improve the power of the study. Aims and objective: To know if presence of additional observer will enhance adenoma detection during colonoscopy. Material and Methods: 2236 consecutive colonoscopies performed at Metro Health Medical Centre, Cleveland, Ohio were included in the study from July 2005 to August 2006. Cases with history of colorectal, surgical resection of colon, inflammatory bowel diseases and hereditary polyposis syndrome were excluded. Inpatient colonoscopies were also excluded. With all usual precautions for colonoscopy and after giving polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEGEL colonoscopies were performed by one of the nine experienced staff attending using an Olympus colonoscope and Evis Exera processors. All colonoscopies performed by fellows were supervised by an attending throughout the procedure. Advanced adenomas were defined as adenomas greater than 1 cm size. Statistical analysis was done using Tall hassee, FL software; Fisher’s exact test, unpaired t test and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. p-value of <0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Of the total 2236 colonoscopies included in the study, 1527 were performed by fellows under supervision of attending and 709 by the attending. There was no significant difference in patient demographics, caecal intubation or poor preparation colonoscopies. The mean age of the group was 55 years in both of the groups. There was no statistically significant different in the polyp detection rate (35% Vs 36.8% as well as overall adenoma detection rate (28.4% Vs 27.7% between these two groups of performers. However

  12. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: an endocrinologist`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Halloran, D.J.; Shalet, S.M. [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    A brief review is given of the clinical management of patients with pituitary adenomas such as prolactinomas, adenomasin acromegoly and Leushin`s disease, and non-functioning pituitary adenomas. In particular the complications of radiotherapy are explored. (UK).

  13. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular...

  14. The reflectance confocal microscopy features of sebaceous adenoma in a case of Muir Torre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma İnan Yüksel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by the occurrence of sebaceous gland neoplasms and/or keratoacanthomas associated with visceral malignancies. It is considered as a subtype of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Characteristic sebaceous gland neoplasms include sebaceous adenoma, sebaceous carcinoma, sebaceoma, and keratoacanthoma with sebaceous differentiation. The most common visceral malignancies are colorectal and genitourinary tumors. CASE: A 47year-old male patient admitted to our clinic complaining of two lesions on the nose. Dermatological examination revealed a plaque in 1 cm diameter consisting of bright yellowish-white coloured papules with slightly umblicated appearance and telangiectasias on the left site of the nose and had a dome shaped papule in 3 mm diameter with hyperkeratotic plug on the tip of the nose. He had personal history of partial colon resection because of colon cancer and familial Lynch 2 syndrome. On dermoscopic examination of sebaceous adenoma, a few yellow comedo-like globules and branching arborizing vessels were detected. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM revealed a good histopathologic correlation. Sebaceous lobules were composed by clusters of ovoid cells with hyporefractile dark nuclei and bright, hyperrefractile glistening cytoplasm. Numerous roundish to ovoid dark spaces corresponding to sebaceous ducts were detected. The diagnosis of MTS was established based on the personal and family history, dermoscopic, RCM and histopathologic findings. CONCLUSIONS: MTS evaluation is required in patients with biopsy-proven sebaceous adenoma. Early diagnosis may be lifesaving in patients with MTS. A better characterization of RCM features of sebaceous tumors will allow early diagnosis of the patients with MTS.

  15. High Definition Colonoscopy Combined with i-SCAN Imaging Technology Is Superior in the Detection of Adenomas and Advanced Lesions Compared to High Definition Colonoscopy Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Erik A; Pfau, Patrick R; Mitra, Arnab; Reichelderfer, Mark; Gopal, Deepak V; Hall, Benjamin S; Benson, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Background. Improved detection of adenomatous polyps using i-SCAN has mixed results in small studies. Utility of i-SCAN as a primary surveillance modality for colorectal cancer screening during colonoscopy is uncertain. Aim. Comparing high definition white light endoscopy (HDWLE) to i-SCAN in their ability to detect adenomas during colonoscopy. Methods. Prospective cohort study of 1936 average risk patients who had a screening colonoscopy at an ambulatory procedure center. Patients underwent colonoscopy with high definition white light endoscopy withdrawal versus i-SCAN withdrawal during endoscopic screening exam. Primary outcome measurement was adenoma detection rate for i-SCAN versus high definition white light endoscopy. Secondary measurements included polyp size, pathology, and morphology. Results. 1007 patients underwent colonoscopy with i-SCAN and 929 with HDWLE. 618 adenomas were detected in the i-SCAN group compared to 402 in the HDWLE group (p definition white light endoscopy.

  16. Synthesis and expression of CDw75 antigen in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Nogueira, Clotilde; Villar-Portela, Susana; Cuevas, Elisa; Gil-Martín, Emilio; Fernández-Briera, Almudena

    2009-01-01

    Increased ST6Gal I activity has been associated with the α(2,6)sialylation enhancement of membrane glycoconjugates observed in metastatic colorectal carcinomas (CRC). Siaα(2,6)Galβ(1,4)GlcNAc sequence, known as CDw75, is a sialylated carbohydrate determinant generated by the ST6Gal I. This epitope has been reported to be associated with the progression of gastric and colorectal tumours, hence there are only a few conclusive studies to date. By radioisotopic techniques we evaluated the ST6Gal I activity in healthy, transitional and tumour tissues from 43 patients with CRC. By immunohistochemistry we assessed the CDw75 expression in 25 colorectal adenomas, 43 tumours, 13 transitional and 28 healthy tissues of CRC patients. ST6Gal I activity was likewise found to be statistically higher in tumour tissue respect to healthy tissue from CRC patients. CDw75 expression was positive in 20% of colorectal adenomas. Furthermore, 70% of tumour specimens and 8.3% of transitional specimens were positive for CDw75 expression, whereas none of the healthy ones showed the presence of the epitope. The major contribution of this study is the inclusion of data from transitional tissue and the analysis of CDw75 antigen expression in CRC and in colorectal adenomas, little known so far. ST6Gal I activity and CDw75 antigen expression were increased in CRC. Although their comparison did not reach the statistical significance, a great extent of patients showed both, an enhanced tumour ST6Gal I activity and an increased CDw75 expression in the tumour tissue. So, these two variables may play a role in malignant transformation. The expression of CDw75 in colorectal adenomas suggests that this antigen may be a tumour marker in CRC

  17. Altered Polyamine Profiles in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Markus K; Roine, Antti N; Häkkinen, Merja R; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J; Kumpulainen, Pekka S; Kiviniemi, Mikko S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku K; Rantanen, Tuomo K

    2018-06-01

    The declining mortality rate of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) can be explained, at least partially, with early diagnosis. Simple diagnostic methods are needed to achieve a maximal patient participation rate in screening. Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine urinary polyamine (PA) profiles. In a prospective setting, 116 patients were included in the study: 57 with CRC, 13 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 12 with adenoma, and 34 controls. N1,N12-diacetylspermine (DiAcSPM) level was significantly higher in patients with CRC than controls (sensitivity=78.0%, specificity=70.6%; p=0.00049). The level of diacetylated cadaverine (p=0.0068) was lower and that of diacetylated putrescine (p=0.0078) was higher in patients with CRC than in those with IBD. Cadaverine (p=0.00010) and spermine (p=0.042) levels were lower and that of DiAcSPM (p=0.018) higher in patients with CRC than in those with adenoma. The simultaneous determination of urinary PAs by means of LC-MS/MS can be used to discriminate CRC from controls and patients with benign colorectal diseases. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  19. Outcome of visual acuity after surgical removal of pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Desanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension may produce anterior visual pathway compression, resulting in characteristic visual deficit. Surgical decompression of these structures prevents further visual deterioration and its postop­ erative recovery. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate pre­ and postoperative visual acuity (VA in patients with pituitary ad­ enomas, and to detect the influence of prognostic factors, such as symptoms duration, degree of visual acuity reduction and tumor size in the assessment of the prognosis of postoperative visual function. Methods. We analyzed 40 consecutive patients who fulfilled three criteria: evidence of preoperative visual dysfunction, transsphenoidal or transfrontal tumor resection and hystologically verified pituitary adenoma. A visual examination was performed under standard conditions, pre and postoperatively (10 days, one month and six months after surgery. A paired t­test was used to assess the differences of pre­ and postoperative characteristics values, and the Chisquare test of independence in the assessment of the influence of prognostic factors. Results. Postoperative improvement of VA was seen in 84.61% patients (68% eyes. Eyes with preoperative mild and moderate degree of VA reduction showed improvement in 89.65% eyes in contrast to 22.60% eyes with preoperative severe reduction of VA, which was all statistically significant. Eyes in patients with tumor smaller than 20 mm had improvement of VA in 91.66% eyes, while eyes with tumor larger than 40 mm had improvement of VA in 61.11% eyes, which was statistically significant. When symptoms duration was below two years the improvement of VA was detected in 65.38% eyes as related to 50% eyes with symptoms duration exceeding two years, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pituitary adenomas commonly cause visual impairment. Postoperatively the majority of patients show a distinct improvement of

  20. Dynamic MR imaging of pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Yukio; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Keyaki, Atsushi; Nabeshima, Sachio; Kawamura, Junichiro; Matsuo, Michimasa

    1990-01-01

    The authors performed serial dynamic MR imaging in patients with 10 normal pituitary and 21 pituitary adenoma utilizing spin-echo sequence with a very short repetition time (SE 100/15) every minute immediately after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. Usual T 1 -weighted images (SE 600/15) were also obtained before and after the dynamic study. Pituitary adenomas included 10 adenomas confirmed by surgery, 4 adenomas confirmed by biologic data, and 7 postoperative adenomas. Out of 10 patients who underwent surgery after dynamic MRI, 9 patients underwent postoperative dynamic MRI. In normal patients, the pituitary gland was markedly enhanced on the early-phase images of the dynamic study, followed by gradual decrease of intensity throughout the dynamic study. In cases of microadenomas, the contrast between the normal pituitary gland and adenoma is better than that on the usual T 1 -weighted images by marked enhancement of the normal pituitary gland. Dynamic images clearly showed the residual normal pituitary glands in all cases of macroadenoma larger than 15 mm in diameter, whereas usual contrast-enhanced images showed the normal pituitary gland only in one case. In all patients who underwent both preoperative and postoperative dynamic MRI, postoperative dynamic MRI showed the normal pituitary glands which are markedly enhanced on the early-phase images in the sites which correspond to the preoperative dynamic study. The normal residual anterior gland was also visualized in four out of 7 patients who received only postoperative dynamic MRI. Dynamic MRI is a strong diagnostic modality for visualizing microadenoma and for visualizing the normal pituitary gland in cases of preoperative and postoperative macroadenoma. (author)

  1. Hypopituitarism after stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Lee Vance, Mary; Schlesinger, David; Sheehan, Jason P

    2013-04-01

    Studies of new-onset Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)-induced hypopituitarism in large cohort of pituitary adenoma patients with long-term follow-up are lacking. We investigated the outcomes of SRS for pituitary adenoma patients with regard to newly developed hypopituitarism. This was a retrospective review of patients treated with SRS at the University of Virginia between 1994 and 2006. A total of 262 patients with a pituitary adenoma treated with SRS were reviewed. Thorough endocrine assessment was performed immediately before SRS and in regular follow-ups. Assessment consisted of 24-hour urine free cortisol (patients with Cushing disease), serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone, testosterone (men), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free T(4). Endocrine remission occurred in 144 of 199 patients with a functioning adenoma. Tumor control rate was 89%. Eighty patients experienced at least 1 axis of new-onset SRS-induced hypopituitarism. The new hypopituitarism rate was 30% based on endocrine follow-up ranging from 6 to 150 months; the actuarial rate of new pituitary hormone deficiency was 31.5% at 5 years after SRS. On univariate and multivariate analyses, variables regarding the increased risk of hypopituitarism included suprasellar extension and higher radiation dose to the tumor margin; there were no correlations among tumor volume, prior transsphenoidal adenomectomy, prior radiation therapy, and age at SRS. SRS provides an effective and safe treatment option for patients with a pituitary adenoma. Higher margin radiation dose to the adenoma and suprasellar extension were 2 independent predictors of SRS-induced hypopituitarism.

  2. Modification of hormonal secretion in clinically silent pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Tania; Verhelst, Johan; Michotte, Alex; Abrams, Pascale; De Ridder, Dirk; Abs, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas are a subtype of adenomas characterized by positive immunoreactivity for one or more hormones classically secreted by normal pituitary cells but without clinical expression, although in some occasions enhanced or changed secretory activity can develop over time. Silent corticotroph adenomas are the classical example of this phenomenon. A series of about 500 pituitary adenomas seen over a period of 20 years were screened for modification in hormonal secretion. Biochemical and immunohistochemical data were reviewed. Two cases were retrieved, one silent somatotroph adenoma and one thyrotroph adenoma, both without specific clinical features or biochemical abnormalities, which presented 20 years after initial surgery with evidence of acromegaly and hyperthyroidism, respectively. While the acromegaly was controlled by a combination of somatostatin analogs and growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist therapy, neurosurgery was necessary to manage the thyrotroph adenoma. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated an increase in the number of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-immunoreactive cells compared to the first tissue. Apparently, the mechanisms responsible for the secretory modifications are different, being a change in secretory capacity in the silent somatotroph adenoma and a quantitative change in the silent thyrotroph adenoma. These two cases, one somatotroph and one thyrotroph adenoma, are an illustration that clinically silent pituitary adenomas may in rare circumstances evolve over time and become active, as previously demonstrated in silent corticotroph adenomas.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  4. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  5. Long-term fecal diverting device for the prevention of sepsis in case of colorectal anastomotic leakage: an animal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwang; Jung, Sang Hun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Park, Se-Ll; Kim, Dae-Hwan

    2013-04-01

    A new fecal diverting device (FDD) was fabricated for fecal diversion from the proximal colon above the anastomosis to outside the anus for protecting the rectal anastomosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the FDD. After a pilot study, a prospective observational trial was performed in 34 mongrel dogs. The experiment comprised of segmental resection and anastomosis of the colon, fixation of the FDD, and observation for 3 weeks (n = 15) and more than 3 weeks (n = 19) without initiation of parenteral nutrition. Four cases of perioperative death unrelated to the FDD were excluded. Twenty-six (87 %) of the 30 dogs survived. Sixteen (53 %) dogs were able to retain the FDD for more than 3 weeks until 82 days. The autopsy findings revealed that four (15 %) dogs showed colonic wall erosions and mucosal scarring respectively at the band fixation area without evidence of serious septic complications. The surviving dogs retained the FDD for more than 6 days. Mortality occurred in four of the five dogs that expelled the FDD within three postoperative days. A closed abscess cavity as the evidence of anastomotic leakage was noted in seven (23 %) of the surviving dogs. The newly designed fecal diverting device can be retained for more than 3 weeks until 82 days without any serious complications. The FDD may prevent sepsis in case of anastomotic leakage if it is retained for more than 6 days.

  6. Prophylactic clipping for the prevention of bleeding following wide-field endoscopic mucosal resection of laterally spreading colorectal lesions: an economic modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahin, Farzan F; Rasouli, Khalid N; Williams, Stephen J; Lee, Eric Y T; Bourke, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Clinically significant bleeding (CSPEB) is the most common adverse event following endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large sessile and laterally spreading colorectal lesions (LSLs), and is associated with morbidity and resource utilization. CSPEB occurs more frequently with proximal LSLs. Prophylactic clipping of the post-EMR defect may be beneficial in CSPEB prevention. The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a prophylactic clipping strategy. We hypothesized that prophylactic clipping in the proximal colon was cost-effective. An economic model was applied to outcomes from the Australian Colonic Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (ACE) Study. Clip distances of 3, 5, 8, and 10 mm were analyzed. The cost of treating CSPEB was determined from an independent costing agency. The funds needed to spend (FNS) was the cost incurred in order to prevent one episode of CSPEB. A break-even analysis was performed to determine cost equivalence of the costs of clipping and CSPEB. Outcomes of 1717 LSLs (mean size 35.8 mm; 52.6 % proximal colon) that underwent EMR were analyzed. The overall rate of CSPEB was 6.4 % (proximal 8.9 %; distal 3.7 %). Endoscopic management was required in 45 % of CSPEB episodes. With a clip distance of 3 mm, the expected cost of prophylactic clipping was € 1106 per lesion compared with € 157 per lesion for the expected cost of CSPEB without clipping. At 100 % clipping efficacy, the FNS was € 14 826 (proximal and distal lesions € 9309 and € 29 540, respectively). A clip price of € 10.35 was required for the cost of clipping to offset the cost of CSPEB. A prophylactic clipping strategy is not cost-effective and at present cannot be justified for all lesions or selectively for lesions in the proximal colon. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01368289). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Tubulovillous Adenoma in a Urethral Neobladder Anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A. Morganstern

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a tubulovillous adenoma arising in a neobladder that was managed by cystoscopic resection. A 64 year-old male underwent a cystectomy with creation of an ileocolic neobladder urinary diversion for T2 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Nine years following his surgery, the patient noted several episodes of gross hematuria. Cystoscopic evaluation revealed the rare occurrence of a 3 cm tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia at the neck of the neobladder.

  8. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  9. Primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder are histogenetically analogous to colorectal carcinomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of 109 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad S. Eissa

    2010-04-01

    In conclusion, primary non-urachal enteric-type adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is morphologically and immunophenotypically similar – if not identical – to colonic adenocarcinoma. The frequent association of enteric carcinomas of the urinary bladder with intestinal metaplasia and/or colonic-type adenomas with dysplasia suggests possible carcinogenetic pathways similar to that observed in colorectal carcinomas.

  10. Comparing the outcomes of two strategies for colorectal tumor detection: Policy-promoted screening program versus health promotion service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Hsiu Wu

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: In comparison with the outcomes of the HPS database, the screening efficacy of the PPS database is even for detecting colorectal carcinoma but is limited in detecting advanced adenoma. HPS may provide comprehensive validity indicators and will be helpful in adjusting current policies for improving screening performance.

  11. MRI of pituitary adenomas following treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouliamos, A. [Dept. of Radiology, CT and MRI Section, Areteion Hospital, Univ. of Athens (Greece); Athanassopoulou, A. [Dept. of Radiology, CT and MRI Section, Areteion Hospital, Univ. of Athens (Greece); Rologis, D. [Neurosurgical Clinic, Athens General Hospital (Greece); Kalovidouris, A. [Dept. of Radiology, CT and MRI Section, Areteion Hospital, Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kotoulas, G. [Dept. of Radiology, CT and MRI Section, Areteion Hospital, Univ. of Athens (Greece); Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, CT and MRI Section, Areteion Hospital, Univ. of Athens (Greece); Papavassiliou, C. [Dept. of Radiology, CT and MRI Section, Areteion Hospital, Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess pituitary adenomas following surgical and/or medical treatment in 28 patients. All patients were evaluated with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results were correlated with the clinical findings. Apart from the visualization of the adenoma itself (either residual or recurrent) other findings and in particular, morphological changes of the optic chiasm, the pituitary stalk and the sellar floor were evaluated with both imaging modalities. By comparing the two imaging modalities it was found that MRI was superior to CT in demonstrating residual/recurrent adenoma as well as evaluating the morphological changes of the optic chiasm and optic nerves. CT was superior or equal to MR in demonstrating the sellar floor changes. The intra-operatively implanted fat was equally seen by CT and MR. In conclusion, the anatomical variations of the optic chiasm and pituitary stalk are better visualized by MRI and allow a more precise evaluation of changes attributed to surgical or medical treatment of pituitary adenomas. (orig.)

  12. MRI of pituitary adenomas following treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliamos, A.; Athanassopoulou, A.; Rologis, D.; Kalovidouris, A.; Kotoulas, G.; Vlahos, L.; Papavassiliou, C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess pituitary adenomas following surgical and/or medical treatment in 28 patients. All patients were evaluated with both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results were correlated with the clinical findings. Apart from the visualization of the adenoma itself (either residual or recurrent) other findings and in particular, morphological changes of the optic chiasm, the pituitary stalk and the sellar floor were evaluated with both imaging modalities. By comparing the two imaging modalities it was found that MRI was superior to CT in demonstrating residual/recurrent adenoma as well as evaluating the morphological changes of the optic chiasm and optic nerves. CT was superior or equal to MR in demonstrating the sellar floor changes. The intra-operatively implanted fat was equally seen by CT and MR. In conclusion, the anatomical variations of the optic chiasm and pituitary stalk are better visualized by MRI and allow a more precise evaluation of changes attributed to surgical or medical treatment of pituitary adenomas. (orig.)

  13. Nephrogenic adenoma. Reports of two cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Starklint, H

    1989-01-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a rare lesion of the urinary tract. Two cases in the urinary bladder are described. Histologically the tumor consists of cystic and tubular structures resembling the distal part of the nephron. The etiology and pathogenesis are discussed and a new etiologic theory is presen...

  14. Fractionated proton beam irradiation of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronson, Brian B.; Schulte, Reinhard W.; Han, Khanh P.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Slater, James M.; Slater, Jerry D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Various radiation techniques and modalities have been used to treat pituitary adenomas. This report details our experience with proton treatment of these tumors. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with pituitary adenomas treated with protons, who had at least 6 months of follow-up, were included in this analysis. Forty-two patients underwent a prior surgical resection; 5 were treated with primary radiation. Approximately half the tumors were functional. The median dose was 54 cobalt-gray equivalent. Results: Tumor stabilization occurred in all 41 patients available for follow-up imaging; 10 patients had no residual tumor, and 3 had greater than 50% reduction in tumor size. Seventeen patients with functional adenomas had normalized or decreased hormone levels; progression occurred in 3 patients. Six patients have died; 2 deaths were attributed to functional progression. Complications included temporal lobe necrosis in 1 patient, new significant visual deficits in 3 patients, and incident hypopituitarism in 11 patients. Conclusion: Fractionated conformal proton-beam irradiation achieved effective radiologic, endocrinological, and symptomatic control of pituitary adenomas. Significant morbidity was uncommon, with the exception of postradiation hypopituitarism, which we attribute in part to concomitant risk factors for hypopituitarism present in our patient population

  15. Synchronous parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous existence of parathyroid adenoma and thyroid nonmedullary carcinoma is rarely observed. A 52‑year‑old female was diagnosed approximately 4 years ago with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) on the basis of hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Clinically, PHPT ...

  16. [The expression and significance of CD(276) and CD(133) in colorectal cancer and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G F; Huang, L N; Ren, J L; Hu, G M; Zheng, Z H; Wu, J X; Zhu, Y P; Tang, F A

    2018-06-01

    In order to study the significance of CD(276) and CD(133) in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), the expression of CD(276) and CD(133) was detected by immunohistochemistry in CRC and precancerous lesions. The results showed that the intensity of CD(276) and CD(133) in CRC samples was higher than that in adenoma group and non-adenoma group. CD(276) and CD(133) single and double positive expression were significantly correlated with CRC lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and survival. CD(276) and CD(133) are significantly correlated to the development and progression of CRC and associated with poor prognosis.

  17. A parathyroid adenoma case study: Protocol review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, B.J.; Chu, J.M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) Sestamibi as opposed to Thallous-201 Chloride and 99m Tc Sodium Pertechnetate subtraction, has become the radiopharmaceutical of choice for detection of parathyroid adenomas. A 17-year-old female patient presented to the department for a parathyroid 99m Tc Sestamibi scan to evaluate possible parathyroid adenoma/s. She was initially admitted with increasing serum Calcium levels, polyuria, abdominal pain and general malaise. The patient was injected with 900MBq of 99m Tc Sestamibi, and a pinhole dynamic at a distance of 10 cm from the neck was acquired followed by a 5-minute static image at 7 cm. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) was then performed on a dual-head gamma camera followed by an anterior and posterior 10-minute static image. At 3 and 5 hours post injection the 10-minute static image was repeated. This study was reported as normal with uniform uptake and washout of the tracer over the 5-hour period. An ultrasound study was performed, and it showed a lesion believed to be a parathyroid adenoma measuring 2.2 x 0.8 x 0.4 cm in size in the right upper lobe of the thyroid. A subsequent thyroid scan was performed to confirm that it was non-functioning thyroid tissue. The patient was injected with 250MBq of 99m Tc Sodium Pertechnetate and scanned with a pinhole collimator at a distance of 7 cm. When the 99m Tc Sestamibi and 99m Tc Sodium Pertechnetate scan were viewed together, it was clear that there was excess 99m Tc Sestamibi distribution on the right upper lobe of the thyroid, which washed out over time. This corresponded to the ultrasound findings and was confirmed at surgery to be a parathyroid adenoma. A 99m Tc Sodium Pertechnetate scan and an ultrasound are now also routinely performed on patients presenting for 99m Tc Sestamibi parathyroid scans

  18. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Jackson, Angela; Munzer, Martine; N'Guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Bridier, André; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  20. No higher risk for colorectal cancer in atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Sbrozzi-Vanni, Andrea; Vannella, Lucy; Corleto, Vito Domenico; Di Giulio, Emilio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Atrophic gastritis of the corporal mucosa is a frequent cause of hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia is implicated in colorectal cancer development. To assess whether hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is associated with a higher risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Among 441 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients, 160 who were aged >40 and underwent colonoscopy for anaemia, diarrhoea or colorectal cancer-screening were retrospectively selected. Each patient was age- and gender-matched with a normogastrinemic control with healthy stomach. Controls had colonoscopy, gastroscopy with biopsies and gastrin assessment. 160 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients and 160 controls were included. 28 atrophic gastritis patients and 36 controls had neoplastic colorectal lesions (p=0.33). Patients and controls did not differ for frequency of colorectal adenomas (10.6% vs. 13.1%, p=0.60) or cancer (6.9% vs. 9.4%, p=0.54). Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis was not associated with a higher probability of developing colorectal cancer (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.34-3.16). Age >50 years (OR 3.86) but not hypergastrinemia (OR 0.61) was associated with colorectal cancer. Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is not associated with higher risk for colorectal cancer. Atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia is not associated with an increased risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Closer surveillance of colonic neoplasia in atrophic gastritis patients seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic outcome after radioiodine and surgery treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, Zlatko P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate late follow-up results in surgery and radioiodine treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma and compare incidence of hypothyroidism and recurrence hyperthyroidism in treated patients. Material and Methods: We observed 93 treated patients (77 female, 26 male, age range 18-76 years) with adenoma toxicum. 29 (32.2 %) patients underwent surgery (adenectomia), while 64 (67.8 %) patients received 131 I therapy (555-1100 MBq).The long term results of the treatment were followed 1-15 years after therapy (median 9,2 years). Results: Recurrent hyperthyroidism occurred in 4/29 (13.8%) patients after surgery adenectomia in comparison to 5/64 (7.8 %) patients after radioiodine therapy. The patients after enucleation of autonomous nodule of the thyroid show increase incidence of late recurrent hyperthyroidism. These results are likely to be due to persistent functional autonomy in the parenchyma surrounding the autonomous adenoma. Apparently this persistent autonomy could be successfully removed by radioiodine. Appear of hypothyroidism was observed in 6/64 (9.3 %) patients treated with 131 I, while after surgery had in 3/29 (10.3 %) patients. Incidence of hypothyroidism between operated patients and radioiodine treated patients was approximately the same. Conclusion: Radioiodine therapy is useful, economical and effective treatment of toxic thyroid adenoma that provides a safe protection in preventing late recurrent hyperthyroidism and is more successful therapy that surgery treatment. (author)

  2. MET Signaling Mediates Intestinal Crypt-Villus Development, Regeneration, and Adenoma Formation and Is Promoted by Stem Cell CD44 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Sander P J; Zeilstra, Jurrit; van Andel, Harmen; Mijnals, R Clinton; Zaunbrecher, Joost; Duivenvoorden, Annet A M; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T

    2017-10-01

    Resistance of metastatic human colorectal cancer cells to drugs that block epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling could be caused by aberrant activity of other receptor tyrosine kinases, activating overlapping signaling pathways. One of these receptor tyrosine kinases could be MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We investigated how MET signaling, and its interaction with CD44 (a putative MET coreceptor regulated by Wnt signaling and highly expressed by intestinal stem cells [ISCs] and adenomas) affects intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and adenoma formation in mini-gut organoids and mice. We established organoid cultures from ISCs stimulated with HGF or EGF and assessed intestinal differentiation by immunohistochemistry. Mice with total epithelial disruption of MET (Ah Cre /Met fl/fl /LacZ) or ISC-specific disruption of MET (Lgr5 Creert2 /Met fl/fl /LacZ) and control mice (Ah Cre /Met +/+ /LacZ, Lgr5 Creert2 /Met +/+ /LacZ) were exposed to 10 Gy total body irradiation; intestinal tissues were collected, and homeostasis and regeneration were assessed by immunohistochemistry. We investigated adenoma organoid expansion stimulated by HGF or EGF using adenomas derived from Lgr5 Creert2 /Met fl/fl /Apc fl/fl and Lgr5 Creert2 /Met +/+ /Apc fl/fl mice. The same mice were evaluated for adenoma prevalence and size. We also quantified adenomas in Ah Cre /Met fl/fl /Apc fl/+ mice compared with Ah Cre /Met +/+ /Apc fl/+ control mice. We studied expansion of organoids generated from crypts and adenomas, stimulated by HGF or EGF, that were derived from mice expressing different CD44 splice variants (Cd44 +/+ , Cd44 -/- , Cd44 s/s , or Cd44 v4-10/v4-10 mice). Crypts incubated with EGF or HGF expanded into self-organizing mini-guts with similar levels of efficacy and contained all differentiated cell lineages. MET-deficient mice did not have defects in intestinal homeostasis. Total body irradiation reduced numbers of proliferating crypts in Ah Cre

  3. Colonic diverticulosis is not a risk factor for colonic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Dong, Lemei; Zippi, Maddalena; Stock, Simon; Geng, Wujun; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2018-01-01

    Colonic diverticulosis may represent a risk factor for colonic adenomas by virtue of the fact that evolving data suggest that these 2 conditions may share common risk factors such as Western dietary pattern and physical inactivity. This study aims to investigate the association between colonic diverticulosis and colonic adenomas in mainland China. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients who underwent colonoscopic examination between October 2013 and December 2014 in a university hospital in mainland China. Age, gender, colonic adenomas, advanced adenomas, and distribution of diverticulosis were recorded during the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations between the prevalence of diverticulosis and age, sex, and presence of colonic adenomas and advanced adenomas. A total of 17,456 subjects were enrolled. The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis and adenoma was 2.4% and 13.2%, respectively. With regard to distribution of diverticula, most (365/424, 86.1%) were right-sided. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that age and male gender were independent risk factors for adenoma and advanced adenoma. There was no relationship between diverticulosis or location of diverticulosis and presence of adenoma and advanced adenoma adjusting by age and gender. In a stratified analysis according to age and gender, similar results were also noted. There was no statistical relationship between diverticulosis and the risk of adenoma and advanced adenoma. Our results may not be generalized to the Western population due to the fact that left-sided diverticular cases were very small in our study.

  4. The Stool DNA Test is More Accurate than the Plasma Septin 9 Test in Detecting Colorectal Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlquist, David A.; Taylor, William R.; Mahoney, Douglas W.; Zou, Hongzhi; Domanico, Michael; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Berger, Barry M.; Lidgard, Graham P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Several noninvasive tests have been developed for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We compared the sensitivities of a multi-marker test for stool DNA (sDNA) and a plasma test for methylated Septin 9 (SEPT9) in identifying patients with large adenomas or CRC. Methods We analyzed paired stool and plasma samples from 30 patients with CRC and 22 with large adenomas from Mayo Clinic archives. Stool (n=46) and plasma (n=49) samples from age- and sex-matched patients with normal colonoscopy results were used as controls. The sDNA test is an assay for methylated BMP3, NDRG4, vimentin, and TFPI2; mutant KRAS; the β-actin gene, and quantity of hemoglobin (by the porphyrin method). It was performed blindly at Exact Sciences (Madison WI); the test for SEPT9 was performed at ARUP Laboratories (Salt Lake City UT). Results were considered positive based on the manufacturer's specificity cutoff values of 90% and 89%, respectively. Results The sDNA test detected adenomas (median 2 cm, range 1–5 cm) with 82% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 60%–95%); SEPT9 had 14% sensitivity (95% CI, 3%–35%; P=.0001). The sDNA test identified patients with CRC with 87% sensitivity (95% CI, 69%–96%); SEPT9 had 60% sensitivity (95% CI, 41%–77%; P=.046). The sDNA test identified patients with stage I–III CRC with 91% sensitivity (95% CI, 71%–99%); SEPT9 had 50% sensitivity (95% CI, 28%–72%; P=.013); for stage IV CRC, sensitivity values were 75% (95% CI, 35%–97%) and 88% (95% CI, 47%–100%), respectively (P=.56). False-positive rates were 7% for the sDNA test and 27% for SEPT9. Conclusions Based on analyses of paired samples, the sDNA test detects non-metastatic CRC and large adenomas with significantly greater levels of sensitivity than the SEPT9 test. These findings might be used to modify approaches for CRC prevention and early detection. PMID:22019796

  5. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  6. Long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Evaluation of tumor control and hypopituitarism after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Emiko; Sakai, Kunio; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sugita, Tadashi; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    1999-01-01

    years were 48.6%, 22.8%, and 75.1%, respectively. Conventional radiotherapy was effective in preventing tumor growth of pituitary adenomas. But the effect of reducing hormone levels in functioning adenomas appeared to require several years after radiotherapy in most cases. Because hypopituitarism occurs in the late period after radiotherapy, long-term follow-up is necessary and mandatory. (author)

  7. Pleomorphic Adenomas of the Parapharyngeal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İstemihan Akın

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parapharyngeal space is one of potential facial planes for neoplasms and infections and represents less than 1% of all head and neck tumours. Occurrence of the pleomorphic adenoma in the parapharyngeal space is a rarity. Case Presentation. Here, three giant pleomorphic adenomas of different sizes occupying the parapharyngeal space in three patients are reported. Extensive preoperative diagnostic workup was done in order to verify the nature and size of the tumour and the proximity to the large vessels. Review of the literature, clinical features, pathology, radiological findings, and treatment of these tumours are discussed. Conclusion. The excision of the tumor through submandibular transcervical approach, without cutting the mandible, turned out to be a safe and radical approach in all three cases.

  8. Adenoma viloso da ampola de Vater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Wiederkehr

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a case of a 37-year-old female patient with a benign tumor of the Ampulla of Vater and a brief review of the literature. The patient presented with progressive obstructive jaundice and weigth loss due to the presence of two adenomas of the second portion of duodenum. Laboratory tests confirmed the presence of obstruction of the biliary tree. Ultrasound and CT scan of the abdomen revealed bile duct dilatation. ERCP showed a tumor at the site of the Ampulla of Vater. The biopsies revealed tubular adenoma. She was submitted to local resection of the tumors and sphincteroplasty, since the frozen biopsy at the time of surgery showed no malignancy. During the post-operative follow-up she presented recurrence of symptoms. An upper GI endoscopy revealed a tumor at the Ampulla of Vater. She was then submitted to Whipple procedure with an uneventful recovery.

  9. Comprehensive radiodiagnosis of toxic thyroid adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Ginzburg, L.I.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive radionuclide, ultrasound and thermographic study of 18 patients, with toxic, thyroid adenoma are presented. It has been shown that during thermographic examination temperature difference over the node and the symmetrical region is insignificant and does not exceed 1 deg C in most of the patients. It equally pertains to the comparison of temperatures over the node and the hottest and coldest points in the cervical region. Ultrasound examination makes it possible to determine the shape, size, exact location of the node and its internal structure but gives no opportunity to udge its functional activity. It has been shown that a node in toxic adenoma may have homogeneous as well as heterogeneous echo-structure, elevated or lowered echo-density; changes of degenerative-dystrophic nature are not infrequent

  10. Preoperative evaluation of synchronous colorectal cancer using MR colonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael P; Holst Andersen, Lars P; Klein, Mads

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: It is well known that synchronous cancers (incidence, 2%-11%) and polyps (incidence, 12%-58%) occur in patients with colorectal cancer. Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) seems like the obvious choice as a diagnostic tool in preoperative evaluation, because...... a full conventional colonoscopy or in whom full conventional colonoscopy was not possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 13-month period, 47 patients diagnosed with rectal or sigmoid colon cancer scheduled for operation were included in the study. MRC was performed with bowel purgation either the night...... before surgery or as ambulatory MRC the week before surgery. RESULTS: Full MRC was performed in 98% of the patients. In four patients, 12 synchronous lesions (one cancer, two plaques of carcinosis, and nine adenomas) were found. One flat adenoma and five small polyps were missed by MRC and perioperative...

  11. The result of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Yang, K. M.; Suh, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors for disease-free survival and long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The study involved a retrospective review of outcome in a series of 27 patients with pituitary adenoma, between 1984 and 1995 at Paik hospital. The study included 20 patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and 7 with radiotherapy alone. The patients were followed for 12-146 months (median: 97 months). Seventeen were men and 10 were women. The numbers of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenoma were 22 and 5 respectively and those of microadenoma and macroadenoma were 4 and 23 respectively. The radiation doses of 5040-5580cGy(median: 5040cGy) were delivered over 5-7 weeks, using 4MV LINAC. The prognostic factors were analyzed by log-rank test. For radiation therapy alone, the 5 YSR was 100% and progression free survival rate was 85.8%. The tumor was controlled in 6/7 (85.8%). For surgery and postoperative radiotherapy , the 5YSR, progression free survival rate and local control rate were 95%, 84.8%, and 89.5% respectively. The parameters of tumor size, hormone secretion, radiation dose, radiotherapy field size were evaluated in a uni- and multivariate analysis and all the factors were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Eleven of 12 (92%) with visual field defect experienced normalization or improvement, and 5 for 7 evaluable patients with hyperprolactinoma achieved normalization in 4 and decrement in 5 patients. Only 2 patients developed mild degree of panhypopituitarism. The radiotherapy appears to be effective in controlling clinical symptoms and signs resulting from pituitary adenoma. Local control rate with radiotherapy alone or with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was comparable. There was a trend toward high recurrence rate in patients with nonfunctioning or prolactin secreting tumor and larger radiation field sizes. (author)

  12. The result of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. J.; Yang, K. M.; Suh, S. H. [Inje Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Cho, H. L.; Shon, S. C. [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors for disease-free survival and long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The study involved a retrospective review of outcome in a series of 27 patients with pituitary adenoma, between 1984 and 1995 at Paik hospital. The study included 20 patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and 7 with radiotherapy alone. The patients were followed for 12-146 months (median: 97 months). Seventeen were men and 10 were women. The numbers of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenoma were 22 and 5 respectively and those of microadenoma and macroadenoma were 4 and 23 respectively. The radiation doses of 5040-5580cGy(median: 5040cGy) were delivered over 5-7 weeks, using 4MV LINAC. The prognostic factors were analyzed by log-rank test. For radiation therapy alone, the 5 YSR was 100% and progression free survival rate was 85.8%. The tumor was controlled in 6/7 (85.8%). For surgery and postoperative radiotherapy , the 5YSR, progression free survival rate and local control rate were 95%, 84.8%, and 89.5% respectively. The parameters of tumor size, hormone secretion, radiation dose, radiotherapy field size were evaluated in a uni- and multivariate analysis and all the factors were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Eleven of 12 (92%) with visual field defect experienced normalization or improvement, and 5 for 7 evaluable patients with hyperprolactinoma achieved normalization in 4 and decrement in 5 patients. Only 2 patients developed mild degree of panhypopituitarism. The radiotherapy appears to be effective in controlling clinical symptoms and signs resulting from pituitary adenoma. Local control rate with radiotherapy alone or with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was comparable. There was a trend toward high recurrence rate in patients with nonfunctioning or prolactin secreting tumor and larger radiation field sizes. (author).

  13. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: fabio_torri@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  14. Paratiroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Carpio, Roberto; Jimenez Torres, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 62 year old woman with diagnose of parathyroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma admitted at the ION SOLCA in Quito by the surgery service. At her admission she was classified as a paraneoplasic syndrome associated witha a pulmonary mass + hypercalcemia. This case was presented because of the importance of the primary hyperparathyroidism as one of the principal endocrine pathologies, that in oncology are associated with the multiple neoplasia syndromes. (The author)

  15. ROLE OF RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION IN ADENOMA SEBACEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Madh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenoma sebaceum, pathognomonic of tuberous sclerosis, are tiny angiofibromas which commonly occur over central part of face. Recurrence after treatment is common and hence a need for inexpensive, safe and efficient treatment is required. Radiofrequency ablation is a safe and an economical procedure and has been known to cause less scarring with good aesthetic results compared to other ablative methods such as electrocautery.

  16. A nurse-led model at public academic hospitals maintains high adherence to colorectal cancer surveillance guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Erin L; Simpson, Kalindra; Coats, Michelle; Chaplin, Angela; Saxty, Karen; Sandford, Jayne; Young Am, Graeme P; Cock, Charles; Fraser, Robert; Bampton, Peter A

    2018-06-18

    To examine the compliance of colorectal cancer surveillance decisions for individuals at greater risk with current evidence-based guidelines and to determine whether compliance differs between surveillance models. Prospective auditing of compliance of surveillance decisions with evidence-based guidelines (NHMRC) in two decision-making models: nurse coordinator-led decision making in public academic hospitals and physician-led decision making in private non-academic hospitals. Selected South Australian hospitals participating in the Southern Co-operative Program for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer (SCOOP). Proportions of recall recommendations that matched NHMRC guideline recommendations (March-May 2015); numbers of surveillance colonoscopies undertaken more than 6 months ahead of schedule (January-December 2015); proportions of significant neoplasia findings during the 15 years of SCOOP operation (2000-2015). For the nurse-led/public academic hospital model, the recall interval recommendation following 398 of 410 colonoscopies (97%) with findings covered by NHMRC guidelines corresponded to the guideline recommendations; for the physician-led/private non-academic hospital model, this applied to 257 of 310 colonoscopies (83%) (P < 0.001). During 2015, 27% of colonoscopies in public academic hospitals (mean, 27 months; SD, 13 months) and 20% of those in private non-academic hospitals (mean, 23 months; SD, 12 months) were performed more than 6 months earlier than scheduled, in most cases because of patient-related factors (symptoms, faecal occult blood test results). The ratio of the numbers of high risk adenomas to cancers increased from 6.6:1 during 2001-2005 to 16:1 during 2011-2015. The nurse-led/public academic hospital model for decisions about colorectal cancer surveillance intervals achieves a high degree of compliance with guideline recommendations, which should relieve burdening of colonoscopy resources.

  17. Predictive cytogenetic biomarkers for colorectal neoplasia in medium risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, E M; Nicolaie, T; Ionescu, M A; Becheanu, G; Andrei, F; Diculescu, M; Ciocirlan, M

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage and chromosomal alterations in peripheral lymphocytes parallels DNA mutations in tumor tissues. The aim of our study was to predict the presence of neoplastic colorectal lesions by specific biomarkers in "medium risk" individuals (age 50 to 75, with no personal or family of any colorectal neoplasia). We designed a prospective cohort observational study including patients undergoing diagnostic or opportunistic screening colonoscopy. Specific biomarkers were analyzed for each patient in peripheral lymphocytes - presence of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) and the Nuclear Division Index (NDI) by the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN). Of 98 patients included, 57 were "medium risk" individuals. MN frequency and NPB presence were not significantly different in patients with neoplastic lesions compared to controls. In "medium risk" individuals, mean NDI was significantly lower for patients with any neoplastic lesions (adenomas and adenocarcinomas, AUROC 0.668, p 00.5), for patients with advanced neoplasia (advanced adenoma and adenocarcinoma, AUROC 0.636 p 0.029) as well as for patients with adenocarcinoma (AUROC 0.650, p 0.048), for each comparison with the rest of the population. For a cut-off of 1.8, in "medium risk" individuals, an NDI inferior to that value may predict any neoplastic lesion with a sensitivity of 97.7%, an advanced neoplastic lesion with a sensitivity of 97% and adenocarcinoma with a sensitivity of 94.4%. NDI score may have a role as a colorectal cancer-screening test in "medium risk" individuals. DNA = deoxyribonucleic acid; CRC = colorectal cancer; EU = European Union; WHO = World Health Organization; FOBT = fecal occult blood test; CBMN = cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay; MN = micronuclei; NPB = nucleoplasmic bridges; NDI = Nuclear Division Index; FAP = familial adenomatous polyposis; HNPCC = hereditary non-polypoid colorectal cancer; IBD = inflammatory bowel diseases; ROC = receiver operating

  18. Altered JS-2 expression in colorectal cancers and its clinical pathological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Alfred King-Yin; Gopalan, Vinod; Nassiri, Mohammad Reza; Kasim, Kais; Dissanayake, Jayampathy; Tang, Johnny Chuek-On; Smith, Robert Anthony

    2011-10-01

    JS-2 is a novel gene located at 5p15.2 and originally detected in primary oesophageal cancer. There is no study on the role of JS-2 in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study is to determine the gene copy number and expression of JS-2 in a large cohort of patients with colorectal tumours and correlate these to the clinicopathological features of the cancer patients. We evaluated the DNA copy number and mRNA expression of JS-2 in 176 colorectal tissues (116 adenocarcinomas, 30 adenomas and 30 non-neoplastic tissues) using real-time polymerase chain reaction. JS-2 expression was also evaluated in two colorectal cancer cell lines and a benign colorectal cell line. JS-2 amplification was noted in 35% of the colorectal adenocarcinomas. Significant differences in relative expression levels for JS-2 mRNA between different colorectal tissues were noted (p = 0.05). Distal colorectal adenocarcinoma had significantly higher copy number than proximal adenocarcinoma (p = 0.005). The relative expression level of JS-2 was different between colonic and rectal adenocarcinoma (p = 0.007). Mucinous adenocarcinoma showed higher JS-2 expression than non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (p = 0.02). Early T-stage cancers appear to have higher JS-2 copy number and lower expression of JS-2 mRNA than later stage cancers (p = 0.001 and 0.03 respectively). Colorectal cancer cell lines showed lower expression of JS-2 than the benign colorectal cell line. JS-2 copy number change and expression were shown for the first time to be altered in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. In addition, genetic alteration of JS-2 was found to be related to location, pathological subtypes and staging of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Telomerase activity and telomere length in the colorectal polyp-carcinoma sequence Actividad de la telomerasa y longitud del telómero en la secuencia pólipo-carcinoma colorrectal

    OpenAIRE

    C. Valls Bautista; C. Piñol Felis; J. M. Reñe Espinet; J. Buenestado García; J. Viñas Salas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: the role of telomerase activity and telomere length in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colon carcinogenesis has not been well established. The objective of this study was to determine telomerase activity and telomere length patterns in patients with adenomatous polyps either associated or not with colorectal cancer, as well as the role of telomeric instability in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Patients and methods: we included in the study 14 patients who underwent surgery for c...

  20. Lymphocitic infundibuloneurohypophysitis mimicking a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of infundibulo-neurohypophysitis mimicking a pituitary adenoma is presented. A 69-years-old female patient developed polyuria and polydipsia. Laboratory analysis revealed central diabetes insipidus. No hormonal abnormalities. Cranial-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a left sided mass in the adenohypophysis presuming a pituitary adenoma. The mass had contact to both internal carotids. Admission to our department for neurosurgical treatment followed. Ophthalmo - logic examination and neurological examination yielded normal findings. A second MRI focussing on the sellar-region showed a leftsided (T2-MRI.hyperintense, distended adenohypophysis, without contrast enhancement in T1. The stalk appeared thickened. T1- weighted sequences of the neurohypophysis showed loss of signal intensity. We diagnosed an infundibulo-neurohypophysitis and abstai - ned from surgical removal. The patient was discharged under treatment with corticosteroids and desmopressin. Hypophysitis is rare and shows special clinical characteristics. Despite defined radiological features to differentiate between hypophysitis and adenoma the possibility of misdiagnosis, and unnecessary surgical procedures, should always kept in mind.

  1. Pituitary adenoma with adipose tissue: A new metaplastic variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporalini, Chiara; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pansini, Luigi; Moscardi, Selene; Novelli, Luca; Baroni, Gianna; Bordi, Lorenzo; Ammannati, Franco; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2017-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors representing approximately 15-20% of intracranial neoplasms. There have been few reports of metaplastic osseous transformation and about 60 cases of neuronal metaplasia in pituitary adenoma but adipose metaplasia has not been previously described in the English literature. Here we report a case of pituitary adenoma with metaplastic adipose tissue in a 58-year-old male patient. Histologically this case fulfilled the criteria of a non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and moreover a central area of adipose tissue, made by mature adipocytes, and many tumor cells, containing fat droplet were evident. Lipomatous transformation of tumor cells in the CNS has been previously observed but, to the best of our knowledge, our case is the first pituitary adenoma with such change. The histogenesis of the adipose element in pituitary adenoma is not well understood, and could be a result of a metaplastic change or divergent differentiation from a common progenitor cell. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  2. Hereditary Colorectal Tumors: A Literature Review on MUTYH-Associated Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaella Kantor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MAP (MUTYH-associated polyposis is a syndrome, described in 2002, which is associated with colorectal adenomas, with enhanced colorectal carcinogenesis. This review synthesizes the available literature on MAP and outlines its pathogenesis, association with colorectal tumorigenesis, screening, treatment, and the subtle differences between it and its close cousins—FAP and AFAP. The preponderance of data is collected using MAP guidelines. However, although AFAP and MAP appear similar, potentially important distinctions exist, warranting targeted diagnostic criteria and treatment approaches. We suggest that it may be prudent to screen for MAP earlier than in current clinical practice, as it has been shown that sequence variants are associated with more severe disease, presenting with an earlier onset of colorectal cancer. Finally, we issue a call-to-action for much-needed further data to establish clear clinical and diagnostic criteria.

  3. Nipple adenoma in a 2-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Kou; Kato, Motoi; Kono, Tatsuki; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Watanabe, Azusa; Watanabe, Shoji

    2018-05-01

    Nipple adenoma is an uncommon proliferative process of the breast and predominantly occurs in women aged 40-50. Its incidence is extremely low in men, and it has not been reported in a boy. Although nipple adenoma is rare and benign, being familiar with it is important because it clinically resembles Paget disease and histologically adenocarcinoma. We report a case of nipple adenoma in a boy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Some problems of the diagnosis of hypophysis adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'man, Kh.M.; Danilov, V.I.; Solomatina, A.Kh.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that positive changes in the diagnostics of hypophysis adenomas took place due to the introduction into the diagnostics practice of radioimmunoassay technique of hormon spectrum determination, as well as MR-and computer tomography and angiography. The analysis of 60 patients operated for hypophysis adenoma shows that the earliest manifestations of this disease include endocrine disorders, ocular disorders and neurological deficits. The application of new diagnostic methods enables early detection of hypophysis adenomas. 3 refs

  5. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  6. A parathyroid adenoma case study: Protocol review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, B.J.; Chu, J.M.G. [Liverpool Hospital, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Ultrasound

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) Sestamibi as opposed to Thallous-201 Chloride and {sup 99m}Tc Sodium Pertechnetate subtraction, has become the radiopharmaceutical of choice for detection of parathyroid adenomas. A 17-year-old female patient presented to the department for a parathyroid {sup 99m}Tc Sestamibi scan to evaluate possible parathyroid adenoma/s. She was initially admitted with increasing serum Calcium levels, polyuria, abdominal pain and general malaise. The patient was injected with 900MBq of {sup 99m}Tc Sestamibi, and a pinhole dynamic at a distance of 10 cm from the neck was acquired followed by a 5-minute static image at 7 cm. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) was then performed on a dual-head gamma camera followed by an anterior and posterior 10-minute static image. At 3 and 5 hours post injection the 10-minute static image was repeated. This study was reported as normal with uniform uptake and washout of the tracer over the 5-hour period. An ultrasound study was performed, and it showed a lesion believed to be a parathyroid adenoma measuring 2.2 x 0.8 x 0.4 cm in size in the right upper lobe of the thyroid. A subsequent thyroid scan was performed to confirm that it was non-functioning thyroid tissue. The patient was injected with 250MBq of {sup 99m}Tc Sodium Pertechnetate and scanned with a pinhole collimator at a distance of 7 cm. When the {sup 99m}Tc Sestamibi and {sup 99m}Tc Sodium Pertechnetate scan were viewed together, it was clear that there was excess {sup 99m}Tc Sestamibi distribution on the right upper lobe of the thyroid, which washed out over time. This corresponded to the ultrasound findings and was confirmed at surgery to be a parathyroid adenoma. A {sup 99m}Tc Sodium Pertechnetate scan and an ultrasound are now also routinely performed on patients presenting for {sup 99m}Tc Sestamibi parathyroid scans

  7. Combined parathyroid adenoma and an occult papillary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahid N.; Al-Saihati, Basima A.; Butt, Mohammad S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the pathological association of thyroid and parathyroid disease is common, the association of both parathyroid adenoma and thyroid cancer is rare. We report here a case of a 45-year-old saudi women who diagnosed to have primary hyperparathyrodism due to single parathyroid adenoma as confirmed biochemically and radiologically. At operation, the adenoma was found to be an intrathyroid and therefore a thyroid lobectomy was performed. Histology of the excised lobe revealed in addition to the intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma a concurrent occult thyroid papillary carcinoma. The interesting association is discussed based on a literature review. (author)

  8. Simple numerical chromosome aberrations in two pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, C U; Pandis, N; Bjerre, P

    1993-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures of one non-secreting and one prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma revealed simple clonal numerical abnormalities in both tumors. The karyotype of the non-secreting adenoma was 48,XX, +4, +9[42]/49,XX, +4, +9, +20[2]/46,XX[6]. In the prolactin-secreting......Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures of one non-secreting and one prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma revealed simple clonal numerical abnormalities in both tumors. The karyotype of the non-secreting adenoma was 48,XX, +4, +9[42]/49,XX, +4, +9, +20[2]/46,XX[6]. In the prolactin...

  9. Sequels after radiotherapy of adenoma of adenohypophysis. Folgen einer Hypophysenadenombestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuepffer, J.; Helpap, B. (Staedtisches Krankenhaus, Singen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie); Saeger, W. (Marienkrankenhaus, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Pathologie)

    1991-10-01

    14 years before his death, iridium seeds were implanted in the adenohypophysis of a 69-year-old patient with a STH producing adenoma of the adenohypophysis and acromegaly. 5 years after recurrence, transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was done. The patient died of central dysregulation due to cerebral insults. At autopsy, a recurrence of the undifferentiated acidophilic adenoma was found within the sphenoidal bone corpus. Immunohistochemistry was positive for STH, prolactin, TSH, LH, and FSH. Besides the adenoma, a mucoepidermoid carcinoma was found within the sphenoid cavity. This carcinoma may be a consequence of the radiotherapy of the adenoma of the adenohypophysis. (orig.).

  10. Differential diagnosis between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas with gadolinium MR in delayed scans: another diagnostic possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Eduardo J.; Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Stoisa, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of measuring delayed post gadolinium signal intensity by displaying a curve, to make the differential diagnosis between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas, and compare it to chemical shift MR imaging and unenhanced/delayed contrast enhanced CT. Material and methods: Nine adrenal masses have been evaluated by unenhanced/delayed contrast enhanced CT, chemical shift MR imaging and Dynamic Scan at 5, 15, 30 minutes or more, with measurement curves. The 'in phase' imaging have been compared to the 'out phase' ones. Results: Adenomas have shown drop of the curve at 30 minutes of the contrast injection. Non-adenomas have conserved an ascending curve with the same delay. Conclusion: Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging at delayed scans can characterize adrenal masses as adenomas or non-adenomas. This technique could be considered as a new complementary diagnostic method. (author)

  11. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect...... on the colon. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a two-by-two design to investigate the effects of aspirin, at a dose of 600 mg per day, and resistant starch (Novelose), at a dose of 30 g per day, in reducing the risk of adenoma and carcinoma among persons with the Lynch syndrome...... on the incidence of colorectal adenoma or carcinoma among carriers of the Lynch syndrome. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN59521990.)...

  12. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in the prevention of postoperative infectious complications and sub-optimal recovery from operation in patients with colorectal cancer and increased preoperative risk (ASA 3 and 4). Protocol of a controlled clinical trial developed by consensus of an international study group. Part three: individual patient, complication algorithm and quality manage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinner, B.; Bauhofer, A.; Lorenz, W.; Rothmund, M.; Plaul, U.; Torossian, A.; Celik, I.; Sitter, H.; Koller, M.; Black, A.; Duda, D.; Encke, A.; Greger, B.; Goor, H. van; Hanisch, E.; Hesterberg, R.; Klose, K.J.; Lacaine, F.; Lorijn, R.H.; Margolis, C.; Neugebauer, E.; Nystrom, P.O.; Reemst, P.H.M.; Schein, M.; Solovera, J.

    2001-01-01

    GENERAL DESIGN: Presentation of a new type of a study protocol for evaluation of the effectiveness of an immune modifier (rhG-CSF, filgrastim): prevention of postoperative infectious complications and of sub-optimal recovery from operation in patients with colorectal cancer and increased

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, P; Salenave, S

    2004-12-01

    Pituitary tumors cause symptoms by secreting hormones (prolactin, PRL, responsible for amenorrhea-galactorrhea in women and decreased libido in men; growth hormone, GH, responsible for acromegaly; adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH, responsible for Cushing's syndrome; thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH, responsible for hyperthyroidism), depressing the secretion of hormones (hypopituitarism), or by mass-related effects (headaches, visual field abnormalities...). All patients with pituitary tumors should be evaluated for gonadal, thyroid and adrenal function as well as PRL and GH secretion. Specific stimulation and suppression tests for pituitary hormones are performed in selected situations for detecting the type of hypersecretion or the response to treatment. Imaging procedures (mainly magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, nowadays) determine the presence, size and extent of the lesion. The classification of pituitary tumors is based on the staining properties of the cell cytoplasm viewed by light microscopy and immunocytochemistry revealing the secretory pattern of the adenoma. Treatment of pituitary adenomas consists of surgery (performed in more than 99% of cases via a transphenoidal route) and radiotherapy, generally fractionated or, in selected cases, using stereotactic techniques such as gamma-knife. The availability of medical treatment (dopamine, DA, agonists, somatostatin analogs, GH-receptor antagonists...) has profoundly modified the indications of radiotherapy, drugs being now generally used as a second-line treatment, after surgery (or even as first-line treatment). Based on the results of the different treatment modalities for each type of pituitary adenoma, recommendations will be proposed. They may be summarized as follows. For treatment of GH-secreting adenomas, trans-sphenoidal surgery is the first-line therapy except when the macroadenoma is giant or if surgery is contra-indicated; postoperative radiation therapy (fractionated, or by gamma-knife) is

  14. Inflammation, Adenoma and Cancer: Objective Classification of Colon Biopsy Specimens with Gene Expression Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Galamb

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis of colon biopsies using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays can contribute to the understanding of local pathophysiological alterations and to functional classification of adenoma (15 samples, colorectal carcinomas (CRC (15 and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD (14. Total RNA was extracted, amplified and biotinylated from frozen colonic biopsies. Genome-wide gene expression profile was evaluated by HGU133plus2 microarrays and verified by RT-PCR. We applied two independent methods for data normalization and used PAM for feature selection. Leave one-out stepwise discriminant analysis was performed. Top validated genes included collagenIVα1, lipocalin-2, calumenin, aquaporin-8 genes in CRC; CD44, met proto-oncogene, chemokine ligand-12, ADAM-like decysin-1 and ATP-binding casette-A8 genes in adenoma; and lipocalin-2, ubiquitin D and IFITM2 genes in IBD. Best differentiating markers between Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were cyclin-G2; tripartite motif-containing-31; TNFR shedding aminopeptidase regulator-1 and AMICA. The discriminant analysis was able to classify the samples in overall 96.2% using 7 discriminatory genes (indoleamine-pyrrole-2,3-dioxygenase, ectodermal-neural cortex, TIMP3, fucosyltransferase-8, collectin sub-family member 12, carboxypeptidase D, and transglutaminase-2. Using routine biopsy samples we successfully performed whole genomic microarray analysis to identify discriminative signatures. Our results provide further insight into the pathophysiological background of colonic diseases. The results set up data warehouse which can be mined further.

  15. Prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun EM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eun Mi Chun, Seo Woo Kim, So Yeon Lim Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and determine whether COPD is associated with colorectal malignant potential.Methods: Subjects who had undergone post-bronchodilator spirometry and colonoscopy and were 40 years or older were selected from the hospital database. COPD was defined as a spirometry in which the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC is <0.7 in post-bronchodilator spirometry. The non-COPD group was matched for both age and sex, and were defined as having an FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ≥0.7 in spirometry. Finally, 333 patients were retrospectively reviewed; of this group, 82 patients had COPD.Results: Among the subjects, 201 patients (60% were nonsmokers, while 78 (23% were current smokers. The prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39% (98/251 in the non-COPD group and 66% (54/82 in the COPD group. Among 54 patients with adenomatous polyps in the COPD group, 47 had tubular adenoma and seven had villous adenoma. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that only COPD patients whom matched to the criteria of COPD by pulmonary function test (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.8; P=0.019 were independently associated with colorectal malignant potential.Conclusion: The risk of colorectal malignant potential in the COPD group was higher than in the non-COPD group. We may suggest that COPD patients should consider regular colonoscopic evaluation to screen for premalignant colon polyps regardless of smoking. Keywords: COPD, colorectal adenomatous polyp, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  16. COL11A1 in FAP polyps and in sporadic colorectal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Heléne; Salahshor, Sima; Stenling, Roger; Björk, Jan; Lindmark, Gudrun; Iselius, Lennart; Rubio, Carlos; Lindblom, Annika

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that the α-1 chain of type 11 collagen (COL11A1), not normally expressed in the colon, was up-regulated in stromal fibroblasts in most sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Patients with germline mutations in the APC gene show, besides colonic polyposis, symptoms of stromal fibroblast involvement, which could be related to COL11A1 expression. Most colorectal carcinomas are suggested to be a result of an activated Wnt- pathway, most often involving an inactivation of the APC gene or activation of β-catenin. We used normal and polyp tissue samples from one FAP patient and a set of 37 sporadic colorectal carcinomas to find out if the up-regulation of COL11A1 was associated with an active APC/β-catenin pathway. In this study we found a statistically significant difference in COL11A1 expression between normal tissue and adenomas from one FAP patient, and all adenomas gave evidence for an active APC/β-catenin pathway. An active Wnt pathway has been suggested to involve stromal expression of WISP-1. We found a strong correlation between WISP-1 and COL11A1 expression in sporadic carcinomas. Our results suggest that expression of COL11A1 in colorectal tumors could be associated with the APC/β-catenin pathway in FAP and sporadic colorectal cancer

  17. Conventional colon adenomas harbor various disturbances in microsatellite stability and contain micro-serrated foci with microsatellite instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Lewitowicz

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer belongs to the most frequent occurring malignancies. A prediction of the clinical outcome and appropriate choice of neoadjuvant chemotherapy needs personalized insight to the main driving pathways. Because most CRCs have polyps as progenitor lesions, studying the pathways driving to adenomagenesis is no less important.Our purpose was the evaluation of microsatellite stability status within conventional colon adenomas and also β-catenin, BRAFV600E and p53 contribution.The cohort included 101 cases of typical colon adenomas with high grade epithelial dysplasia according to WHO. An immunohistochemistry method was used for the depiction of the expression of targeted proteins, as also their heterogeneity.Generally, we noted a 10% frequency of MSI events where MSI-H reached a 5% share occurred within the left colon and rectal polyps. β-catenin nuclear overexpression was noted with a 70% frequency and p53 with close to a 24% frequency. In addition, we found a presence of micro-serration foci more often within tubular adenomas, where focal MSI took place more often. Our results indicate that MSI events occur more often than had been theorized earlier. It results in tumour heterogeneity, more complex underlying pathways and finally ontogenetic molecular-diversity of tumours besides similar occurring histopathological features.

  18. CMOST: an open-source framework for the microsimulation of colorectal cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Meher K; Lang, Brian; Heinrich, Henriette; Valli, Piero V; Bauerfeind, Peter; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Misselwitz, Benjamin

    2017-06-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced by several screening strategies, including colonoscopy, but randomized CRC prevention trials face significant obstacles such as the need for large study populations with long follow-up. Therefore, CRC screening strategies will likely be designed and optimized based on computer simulations. Several computational microsimulation tools have been reported for estimating efficiency and cost-effectiveness of CRC prevention. However, none of these tools is publicly available. There is a need for an open source framework to answer practical questions including testing of new screening interventions and adapting findings to local conditions. We developed and implemented a new microsimulation model, Colon Modeling Open Source Tool (CMOST), for modeling the natural history of CRC, simulating the effects of CRC screening interventions, and calculating the resulting costs. CMOST facilitates automated parameter calibration against epidemiological adenoma prevalence and CRC incidence data. Predictions of CMOST were highly similar compared to a large endoscopic CRC prevention study as well as predictions of existing microsimulation models. We applied CMOST to calculate the optimal timing of a screening colonoscopy. CRC incidence and mortality are reduced most efficiently by a colonoscopy between the ages of 56 and 59; while discounted life years gained (LYG) is maximal at 49-50 years. With a dwell time of 13 years, the most cost-effective screening is at 59 years, at $17,211 discounted USD per LYG. While cost-efficiency varied according to dwell time it did not influence the optimal time point of screening interventions within the tested range. Predictions of CMOST are highly similar compared to a randomized CRC prevention trial as well as those of other microsimulation tools. This open source tool will enable health-economics analyses in for various countries

  19. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the incidence of advanced neoplasia after polypectomy in patients with and without low-risk adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, C; Gimeno-García, A; Kalager, M; Spada, C; Zullo, A; Costamagna, G; Senore, C; Rex, D K; Quintero, E

    2014-05-01

    Patients with one to two tubular adenomas advanced neoplasia as those with no neoplasia at baseline colonoscopy. To compare incidence of metachronous advanced neoplasia between patients in the low-risk adenoma group and those without neoplasia at index colonoscopy. Relevant publications were identified by MEDLINE/EMBASE and other databases for the period 1992-2013. Studies comparing the incidence of post-polypectomy advanced neoplasia (adenomas ≥10 mm/high-grade dysplasia/villous or cancer) between the low-risk group and patients without colorectal neoplasia at the first colonoscopy were included. Detection rates for advanced neoplasia at endoscopic surveillance were extracted. Study quality was ascertained according to Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Forest plot was produced based on random-effect models. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Seven studies provided data on 11 387 patients. Mean surveillance periods ranged between 2 and 5 years. Altogether, 267 patients with post-polypectomy advanced neoplasia were detected in the two groups. The incidence of advanced neoplasia was 1.6% (119/7308) in those without neoplasia and 3.6% (148/4079) in those with low-risk adenoma, respectively, corresponding to a relative risk of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6). Inter-study heterogeneity was only moderate (I(2) : 37%). No publication bias was present. Patients with low-risk adenomas at baseline had a higher risk of metachronous advanced neoplasia than the group with no adenomas at baseline, though the absolute risk was low in both groups. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A transcriptome anatomy of human colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Bingjian; Xu, Jing; Lai, Maode; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating databases in human genome research have enabled integrated genome-wide study on complicated diseases such as cancers. A practical approach is to mine a global transcriptome profile of disease from public database. New concepts of these diseases might emerge by landscaping this profile. In this study, we clustered human colorectal normal mucosa (N), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), adenoma (A) and cancer (T) related expression sequence tags (EST) into UniGenes via an in-house GetUni software package and analyzed the transcriptome overview of these libraries by GOTree Machine (GOTM). Additionally, we downloaded UniGene based cDNA libraries of colon and analyzed them by Xprofiler to cross validate the efficiency of GetUni. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the expression of β-catenin and. 7 novel genes in colorectal cancers. The efficiency of GetUni was successfully validated by Xprofiler and RT-PCR. Genes in library N, IBD and A were all found in library T. A total of 14,879 genes were identified with 2,355 of them having at least 2 transcripts. Differences in gene enrichment among these libraries were statistically significant in 50 signal transduction pathways and Pfam protein domains by GOTM analysis P < 0.01 Hypergeometric Test). Genes in two metabolic pathways, ribosome and glycolysis, were more enriched in the expression profiles of A and IBD than in N and T. Seven transmembrane receptor superfamily genes were typically abundant in cancers. Colorectal cancers are genetically heterogeneous. Transcription variants are common in them. Aberrations of ribosome and glycolysis pathway might be early indicators of precursor lesions in colon cancers. The electronic gene expression profile could be used to highlight the integral molecular events in colorectal cancers

  1. Meta-analysis of the association between APC promoter methylation and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhenyu; Jiang, Tong; Piao, Ying; Han, Tao; Han, Yaling; Xie, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the association between adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene promoter methylation and colorectal cancer (CRC) have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the potential application of the detection of APC promoter methylation to the prevention and treatment of CRC. PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE (results updated to October 2014) were searched for relevant studies. The effect size was defined as the weighted odds ratio (OR), which was calculated using either the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate potential heterogeneity among the included studies. Nineteen studies comprising 2,426 participants were selected for our meta-analysis. The pooled results of nine studies comprising a total of 740 subjects indicated that APC promoter methylation was significantly associated with CRC risk (pooled OR 5.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.50-8.76; PAPC promoter methylation and the presence of CRC metastasis, and the pooled OR was 0.80 (95% CI 0.44-1.46; P=0.47). A meta-analysis conducted with four studies with a total of 467 patients found no significant correlation between APC promoter methylation and the presence of colorectal adenoma (pooled OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.67-5.10; P=0.23). No significant correlation between APC promoter methylation and patients' Dukes' stage, TNM stage, differentiation grade, age, or sex was identified. In conclusion, APC promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of developing CRC. The findings indicate that APC promoter methylation may be a potential biomarker for the carcinogenesis of CRC.

  2. Optical coherence tomography imaging of colonic crypts in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge, Weston A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are abnormal epithelial lesions that precede development of colonic polyps. As the earliest morphological change in the development of colorectal cancer, ACF is a highly studied phenomenon. The most common method of imaging ACF is chromoendoscopy using methylene blue as a contrast agent. Narrow- band imaging is a contrast-agent-free modality for imaging the colonic crypts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative to chromoendoscopy and narrow-band imaging because it can resolve the crypt structure at sufficiently high sampling while simultaneously providing depth-resolved data. We imaged in vivo the distal 15 mm of colon in the azoxymethane (AOM) mouse model of colorectal cancer using a commercial swept-source OCT system and a miniature endoscope designed and built in-house. We present en face images of the colonic crypts and demonstrate that different patterns in healthy and adenoma tissue can be seen. These patterns correspond to those reported in the literature. We have previously demonstrated early detection of colon adenoma using OCT by detecting minute thickening of the mucosa. By combining mucosal thickness measurement with imaging of the crypt structure, OCT can be used to correlate ACF and adenoma development in space and time. These results suggest that OCT may be a superior imaging modality for studying the connection between ACF and colorectal cancer.

  3. Endotracheal ectopic parathyroid adenoma mimicking asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akif Özgül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary benign tumors of the trachea are uncommon. These tumors may cause tracheal occlusion and lead to a misdiagnosis of asthma. Ectopic parathyroid adenoma (EPA can be seen anywhere between the mandibular angle and the mediastinum. The distal part of the trachea is a rare location for EPA, and EPA obstructing the endotracheal lumen has not been reported in the literature. We herein describe a 52-year-old female with a several-year history of asthma treatment who presented with progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography revealed a mass that was obstructing the tracheal lumen. Total mass excision was performed via endobronchial treatment, and pathologic examination revealed EPA.

  4. Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle J; Erickson, Dana; Castro, M Regina; Atkinson, John L D

    2008-07-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, representing secreting or clinically silent TSH-immunostaining pituitary tumors among all pituitary adenomas followed at their institution between 1987 and 2003. Patient records, including clinical, imaging, and pathological and surgical characteristics were reviewed. Twenty-one patients (6 women and 15 men; mean age 46 years, range 26-73 years) were identified. Of these, 10 patients had a history of clinical hyperthyroidism, of whom 7 had undergone ablative thyroid procedures (thyroid surgery/(131)I ablation) prior to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. Ten patients had elevated TSH preoperatively. Seven patients presented with headache, and 8 presented with visual field defects. All patients underwent imaging, of which 19 were available for imaging review. Sixteen patients had macroadenomas. Of the 21 patients, 18 underwent transsphenoidal surgery at the authors' institution, 2 patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery at another facility, and 1 was treated medically. Patients with TSH-secreting tumors were defined as in remission after surgery if they had no residual adenoma on imaging and had biochemical evidence of hypo-or euthyroidism. Patients with TSH-immunostaining tumors were considered in remission if they had no residual tumor. Of these 18 patients, 9 (50%) were in remission following surgery. Seven patients had residual tumor; 2 of these patients underwent further transsphenoidal resection, 1 underwent a craniotomy, and 4 underwent postoperative radiation therapy (2 conventional radiation therapy, 1 Gamma Knife surgery, and 1 had both types of radiation treatment). Two patients had persistently elevated TSH levels despite the lack of evidence of residual tumor. On pathological analysis and immunostaining of the surgical specimen, 17 patients had samples that stained positively for TSH, 8 for alpha-subunit, 10 for growth hormone, 7 for prolactin, 2 for adrenocorticotrophic hormone

  5. Transnasal stereotactic surgery of pituitary adenomas concomitant with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metyolkina, L; Peresedov, V

    1995-01-01

    Since 1960 we have performed stereotactic transsphenoidal cryohypophysectomy in 70 patients with pituitary adenomas, 42 women and 28 men, aged 11-59 years. The dominant clinical syndrome was acromegaly in 50 patients, galactorrhea in 9, amenorrhea in 5, adiposogenital dystrophy in 4 and gigantism with mild endocrine symptomatology in 2 patients. In 67 patients the histological structure of the tumor was established by biopsy (50 patients with eosinophil adenoma, 10 with mixed-type adenoma, 4 with chromophobe adenoma and 3 with basophil adenoma). Somatotropic hormone, human growth hormone, prolactin, ACTH and 17-ketosteroid levels indicated active/inactive adenomas. In 42 cases the adenoma was only intrasellar, which was confirmed by contrast X-ray investigations, CT scanning, angiography and ophthalmological investigation. Transnasal stereotactic cryohypophysectomy was performed in all 70 cases using a stereotactic apparatus especially designed for operations on the pituitary. All patients (except 2) tolerated the operation well. No complications occurred. Vision deteriorated after operation in 1 patient. Thrombosis of the left middle cerebral artery developed in another patient. All the other patients noted improvement directly after operation - rapid diminution of signs of acromegaly and rapid restoration of normal values in hormonal tests. Six patients with continuing growth of the tumor underwent a second operation 1.5-6 years after the first operation. We conclude from our own clinical experience and information from the literature that transnasal stereotactic cryodestruction is highly effective and relatively safe in the management of pituitary adenoma.

  6. Pleomorphic adenoma of the palate in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Brian F; Sohn, Andy; Winston, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Presented is a pleomorphic adenoma of the palate in a 12-year-old boy. Pleomorphic adenoma is usually found in adults and is rarely found in patients under 20 years of age. We present initial exam, diagnosis, treatment and a review of literature.

  7. Demonstration of specific dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Masafumi; Nakao, Haruyoshi; Arao, Masayo; Sato, Bunzo; Noma, Keizo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Kishimoto, Susumu; Mori, Shintaro; Uozumi, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenoma membranes were characterized using [ 3 H]spiperone as the radioligand. The specific [ 3 H]spiperone binding sites on prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma membranes were recognized as a dopamine receptor, based upon the data showing high affinity binding, saturability, specificity, temperature dependence, and reversibility. All of 14 PRL-secreting adenomas had high affinity dopamine receptors, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.85±0.11 nmol/l (mean±SEM) and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 428±48.6 fmol/mg protein. Among 14 growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas examined, 8 (57%) had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.90±0.47 nmol/l and a Bmax of 131±36.9 fmol/mg protein. Furthermore, 15 of 24 (58%) nonsecreting pituitary adenomas also had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.86±0.37 nmol/l and a Bmax of 162±26.0 fmol/mg protein. These results indicate that some GH-secreting adenomas as well as some nonsecreting pituitary adenomas contain dopamine receptors. But their affinity and number of binding sites are significantly lower (P<0.05) and fewer (P<0.001) respectively, than those in PRL-secreting adenomas. (author)

  8. Demonstration of specific dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Masafumi; Nakao, Haruyoshi; Arao, Masayo; Sato, Bunzo; Noma, Keizo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Kishimoto, Susumu; Mori, Shintaro; Uozumi, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenoma membranes were characterized using (/sup 3/H)spiperone as the radioligand. The specific (/sup 3/H)spiperone binding sites on prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma membranes were recognized as a dopamine receptor, based upon the data showing high affinity binding, saturability, specificity, temperature dependence, and reversibility. All of 14 PRL-secreting adenomas had high affinity dopamine receptors, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.85 +- 0.11 nmol/l (mean+-SEM) and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 428 +- 48.6 fmol/mg protein. Among 14 growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas examined, 8 (57%) had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.90 +- 0.47 nmol/l and a Bmax of 131 +- 36.9 fmol/mg protein. Furthermore, 15 of 24 (58%) nonsecreting pituitary adenomas also had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.86 +- 0.37 nmol/l and a Bmax of 162 +- 26.0 fmol/mg protein. These results indicate that some GH-secreting adenomas as well as some nonsecreting pituitary adenomas contain dopamine receptors. But their affinity and number of binding sites are significantly lower (P<0.05) and fewer (P<0.001) respectively, than those in PRL-secreting adenomas.

  9. Collagen mRNA levels changes during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Hanne; Anthonsen, Dorit; Lothe, Inger M B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Invasive growth of epithelial cancers is a complex multi-step process which involves dissolution of the basement membrane. Type IV collagen is a major component in most basement membranes. Type VII collagen is related to anchoring fibrils and is found primarily in the basement membrane...... zone of stratified epithelia. Immunohistochemical studies have previously reported changes in steady-state levels of different alpha(IV) chains in several epithelial cancer types. In the present study we aimed to quantitatively determine the mRNA levels of type IV collagen (alpha1/alpha 4/alpha 6......) and type VII collagen (alpha1) during colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we have determined the mRNA levels for alpha1(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 6(IV), and alpha1(VII) in colorectal cancer tissue (n = 33), adenomas (n = 29) and in normal tissue from the same individuals...

  10. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  11. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltussen, Elisabeth J. M.; Snaebjornsson, Petur; de Koning, Susan G. Brouwer; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Aalbers, Arend G. J.; Kok, Niels; Beets, Geerard L.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Kuhlmann, Koert F. D.; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Colorectal surgery is the standard treatment for patients with colorectal cancer. To overcome two of the main challenges, the circumferential resection margin and postoperative complications, real-time tissue assessment could be of great benefit during surgery. In this ex vivo study, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to differentiate tumor tissue from healthy surrounding tissues in patients with colorectal neoplasia. DRS spectra were obtained from tumor tissue, healthy colon, or rectal wall and fat tissue, for every patient. Data were randomly divided into training (80%) and test (20%) sets. After spectral band selection, the spectra were classified using a quadratic classifier and a linear support vector machine. Of the 38 included patients, 36 had colorectal cancer and 2 had an adenoma. When the classifiers were applied to the test set, colorectal cancer could be discriminated from healthy tissue with an overall accuracy of 0.95 (±0.03). This study demonstrates the possibility to separate colorectal cancer from healthy surrounding tissue by applying DRS. High classification accuracies were obtained both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous tissues. This is a fundamental step toward the development of a tool for real-time in vivo tissue assessment during colorectal surgery.

  13. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youn Su; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Joo Sung; Koh, Seong-Joon

    2017-04-01

    Although sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk for mortality after the curative resection of colorectal cancer, its influence on the development of advanced colonic neoplasia remains unclear. This study included 1270 subjects aged 40 years or older evaluated with first-time screening colonoscopy at Seoul National University Boramae Health Care Center from January 2010 to February 2015. Skeletal muscle mass was measured with a body composition analyzer (direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia. Of 1270 subjects, 139 (10.9%) were categorized into the sarcopenia group and 1131 (89.1%) into the non-sarcopenia group. In the non-sarcopenia group, 55 subjects (4.9%) had advanced colorectal neoplasia. However, in the sarcopenia group, 19 subjects (13.7%) had advanced colorectal neoplasia, including 1 subject with invasive colorectal cancer (0.7%). In addition, subjects with sarcopenia had a higher prevalence of advanced adenoma (P sarcopenia. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for variable confounders, age (odds ratio 1.062, 95% confidence interval 1.032-1.093; P sarcopenia (odds ratio 2.347, 95% confidence interval 1.311-4.202; P = 0.004) were associated with an advanced colorectal neoplasia. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia.

  14. In Silico and in Vitro Screening for P-Glycoprotein Interaction with Tenofovir, Darunavir, and Dapivirine: An Antiretroviral Drug Combination for Topical Prevention of Colorectal HIV Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedrowska, Magda; Jamshidi, Shirin; Kumar, Abhinav; Kelly, Charles; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz; Forbes, Ben

    2017-08-07

    The aim of the study was to use in silico and in vitro techniques to evaluate whether a triple formulation of antiretroviral drugs (tenofovir, darunavir, and dapivirine) interacted with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or exhibited any other permeability-altering drug-drug interactions in the colorectal mucosa. Potential drug interactions with P-gp were screened initially using molecular docking, followed by molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the identified drug-transporter interaction more mechanistically. The transport of tenofovir, darunavir, and dapivirine was investigated in the Caco-2 cell models and colorectal tissue, and their apparent permeability coefficient (P app ), efflux ratio (ER), and the effect of transporter inhibitors were evaluated. In silico, dapivirine and darunavir showed strong affinity for P-gp with similar free energy of binding; dapivirine exhibiting a ΔG PB value -38.24 kcal/mol, darunavir a ΔG PB value -36.84 kcal/mol. The rank order of permeability of the compounds in vitro was tenofovir dapivirine. The P app for tenofovir in Caco-2 cell monolayers was 0.10 ± 0.02 × 10 -6 cm/s, ER = 1. For dapivirine, P app was 32.2 ± 3.7 × 10 -6 cm/s, but the ER = 1.3 was lower than anticipated based on the in silico findings. Neither tenofovir nor dapivirine transport was influenced by P-gp inhibitors. The absorptive permeability of darunavir (P app = 6.4 ± 0.9 × 10 -6 cm/s) was concentration dependent with ER = 6.3, which was reduced by verapamil to 1.2. Administration of the drugs in combination did not alter their permeability compared to administration as single agents. In conclusion, in silico modeling, cell culture, and tissue-based assays showed that tenofovir does not interact with P-gp and is poorly permeable, consistent with a paracellular transport mechanism. In silico modeling predicted that darunavir and dapivirine were P-gp substrates, but only darunavir showed P-gp-dependent permeability in the biological models, illustrating that

  15. Black Raspberries Enhance Natural Killer Cell Infiltration into the Colon and Suppress the Progression of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Kang, Siwen; Wang, Youwei; Liu, Ka; Oshima, Kiyoko; Huang, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Jianying; Yearsley, Martha; Yu, Jianhua; Wang, Li-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an essential component of innate immunity against cancer development. Many studies have been conducted to evaluate immune-modulating effects using dietary compounds. Our laboratory has been investigating the chemopreventive potential of black raspberries (BRBs) and previously demonstrated their beneficial modulation of genetic and epigenetic biomarkers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study investigated their potential on modulating NK cells. To avoid the excessive inflammation caused by the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment that leads to colitis, we treated the mice with overnight DSS so that it would slightly irritate the colon but still promote colon carcinogenesis with 100% incidence in both the ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)-treated mice. A significant decrease of tissue-infiltrating NK cells along the progression of microadenoma-to-adenoma and adenoma-to-adenocarcinoma was observed in the ApcMin/+/DSS and AOM/DSS mice, respectively. Depletion of NK cells significantly promoted the development of CRC, suggesting a critical role of NK cells in combating CRC progression. BRBs significantly suppressed the CRC progression and increased the number of tissue-infiltrating NK cells in both mouse models. Moreover, we further determined BRBs’ effects on NK cells in the human biopsy specimens collected from our previously completed clinical trial, in which CRC patients consumed BRBs for an average of 4 weeks during a presurgical window. We observed an increased number and an enhanced cytotoxicity of NK cells by BRB intervention. The current study provides evidence that BRBs have the potential to enhance the tumor immunesurveillance of NK cells that can be beneficial in the setting of CRC prevention and treatment. PMID:28861089

  16. Surgical Measures to Reduce Infection in Open Colorectal Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    efforts are needed to minimize the risk of infection. ... and Ireland, and the Scottish intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2001), surgeons should audit the .... Early detection of a leaking colorectal anastomosis is essential to prevent mortality and ...

  17. Surgical Measures to Reduce Infection in Open Colorectal Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    of the anastomosis.28 Foster concluded that the poor blood supply to the posterior ... Early detection of a leaking colorectal anastomosis is essential to prevent mortality ... Prior to closure of any diverting stoma, a water soluble contrast should.

  18. Mucins and associated glycan signatures in colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishn, Shiv Ram; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Smith, Lynette M

    2016-01-01

    Development of biomarkers that detect early stage resectable premalignant lesions of colon can provide critical aid in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Recent lines of evidence suggest the utility of mucin expression to predict malignant transformation of colon pre-neoplastic lesions. In this...

  19. Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table ... Carmen Marc Valvo is an outspoken voice for colorectal cancer screening. Photo Courtesy of: Phil Fisch Photography Designer ...

  20. Clinical and genetic aspects of familial isolated pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vasilev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas represent a group of functionally diverse neoplasms with relatively high prevalence in the general population. Most occur sporadically, but inherited genetic predisposing factors are increasingly recognized. Familial isolated pituitary adenoma is a recently defined clinical entity, and is characterized by hereditary presentation of pituitary adenomas in the absence of clinical and genetic features of syndromic disease such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. Familial isolated pituitary adenoma is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and accounted for approximately 2-3% of pituitary tumors in some series. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene are identified in around 25% of familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds. Pituitary adenomas with mutations of the aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene are predominantly somatotropinomas and prolactinomas, but non-functioning adenomas, Cushing disease, and thyrotropinoma may also occur. These tumors may present as macroadenomas in young patients and are often relatively difficult to control. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene mutations occur in >10% of patients with sporadic macroadenomas that occur before 30 years of age, and in >20% of children with macroadenomas. Genetic screening for aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene mutations is warranted in selected high-risk patients who may benefit from early recognition and follow-up.

  1. The posterior nasoseptal flap: A novel technique for closure after endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, James; Siow, Matthew; Kader, Michael; Phillips, Katherine; Fatterpekar, Girish; Kleinberg, David; Zagzag, David; Sen, Chandranath; Golfinos, John G.; Lebowitz, Richard; Placantonakis, Dimitris G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: While effective for the repair of large skull base defects, the Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap increases operative time and can result in a several-week period of postoperative crusting during re-mucosalization of the denuded nasal septum. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma resection is generally not associated with large dural defects and high-flow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks requiring extensive reconstruction. Here, we present the posterior nasoseptal flap as a novel technique for closure of skull defects following endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. This flap is raised in all surgeries during the transnasal exposure using septal mucoperiosteum that would otherwise be discarded during the posterior septectomy performed in binostril approaches. Methods: We present a retrospective, consecutive case series of 43 patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma followed by posterior nasoseptal flap placement and closure. Main outcome measures were extent of resection and postoperative CSF leak. Results: The mean extent of resection was 97.16 ± 1.03%. Radiographic measurement showed flap length to be adequate. While a defect in the diaphragma sellae and CSF leak were identified in 21 patients during surgery, postoperative CSF leak occurred in only one patient. Conclusions: The posterior nasoseptal flap provides adequate coverage of the surgical defect and is nearly always successful in preventing postoperative CSF leak following endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas. The flap is raised from mucoperiosteum lining the posterior nasal septum, which is otherwise resected during posterior septectomy. Because the anterior septal cartilage is not denuded, raising such flaps avoids the postoperative morbidity associated with the larger Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. PMID:29527390

  2. Fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging for the postoperative evaluation of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akada, Kiyohiro

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of the early post operative evaluation of pituitary adenomas with fat-suppressed MR imaging was studied. Thirty patients with pituitary adenoma, who underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery were analyzed. These include 22 with macroadenoma (3 recurrent cases) and 8 with microadenoma (2 recurrent cases). In all cases after adenoma resection, fat tissue was placed into the sella turcica to prevent postoperative cerebro-spinal fluid leakage and infections. T1-weighted and Gd DTPA-enhanced MR images were obtained using a 1.5-T superconductive MRI system (Shimadzu Co., Ltd.) by a standard technique and also by a fat suppression technique (chemical shift selective presaturation: CHESS) after surgery. It was difficult to discriminate between hematoma, fat tissue and pituitary posterior lobe on T1-weighted images within 1 month after surgery because of high-signal intensity. However, these regions could be distinguished one another by the CHESS technique. Normal pituitary anterior lobe could be identified in 86% of macroadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study, whereas it was identified only in 23% by standard technique. Normal anterior lobe was identified in 100% of microadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study. The residual tumors were found to invade into the supra sella or cavernous sinus, and these lesions could be distinguished from the surrounding tissue by the CHESS dynamic study in 83%, whereas only 33% could be distinguished by the standard technique. Although the fat tissue showed a time-sequence decrease in volume, high-signal intensity sometimes lasted long in association with degenerative granulation. In conclusion, CHESS dynamic MR Imaging study is useful for detection of the normal pituitary lobe and residual adenomas after trans-sphenoidal surgery. (author)

  3. Five year colorectal cancer outcomes in a large negative CT colonography screening cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, David H.; Pooler, B.D.; Pickhardt, Perry J. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Weiss, Jennifer M. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To assess the 5-year incidence of clinically presenting colorectal cancers following a negative CT colonography (CTC) screening examination, as few patient outcome data regarding a negative CTC screening result exist. Negative CTC screening patients (n = 1,050) in the University of Wisconsin Health system over a 14-month period were included. An electronic medical record (EMR) review was undertaken, encompassing provider, colonoscopy, imaging and histopathology reports. Incident colorectal cancers and other important GI tumours were recorded. Of the 1,050 cohort (mean [{+-}SD] age 56.9 {+-} 7.4 years), 39 (3.7%) patients were excluded owing to lack of follow-up within our system beyond the initial screening CTC. The remaining 1,011 patients were followed for an average of 4.73 {+-} 1.15 years. One incident colorectal adenocarcinoma represented a crude cancer incidence of 0.2 cancers per 1,000 patient years. EMR revealed 14 additional patients with clinically important GI tumours including: advanced adenomas (n = 11), appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (n = 1), appendiceal mucinous adenoma (n = 1) and metastatic ileocolonic carcinoid (n = 1). All positive patients including the incident carcinoma are alive at the time of review. Clinically presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma is rare in the 5 years following negative screening CTC, suggesting that current strategies, including non-reporting of diminutive lesions, are appropriate. (orig.)

  4. Five year colorectal cancer outcomes in a large negative CT colonography screening cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, David H.; Pooler, B.D.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Weiss, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the 5-year incidence of clinically presenting colorectal cancers following a negative CT colonography (CTC) screening examination, as few patient outcome data regarding a negative CTC screening result exist. Negative CTC screening patients (n = 1,050) in the University of Wisconsin Health system over a 14-month period were included. An electronic medical record (EMR) review was undertaken, encompassing provider, colonoscopy, imaging and histopathology reports. Incident colorectal cancers and other important GI tumours were recorded. Of the 1,050 cohort (mean [±SD] age 56.9 ± 7.4 years), 39 (3.7%) patients were excluded owing to lack of follow-up within our system beyond the initial screening CTC. The remaining 1,011 patients were followed for an average of 4.73 ± 1.15 years. One incident colorectal adenocarcinoma represented a crude cancer incidence of 0.2 cancers per 1,000 patient years. EMR revealed 14 additional patients with clinically important GI tumours including: advanced adenomas (n = 11), appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (n = 1), appendiceal mucinous adenoma (n = 1) and metastatic ileocolonic carcinoid (n = 1). All positive patients including the incident carcinoma are alive at the time of review. Clinically presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma is rare in the 5 years following negative screening CTC, suggesting that current strategies, including non-reporting of diminutive lesions, are appropriate. (orig.)

  5. Adenomas of the common bile duct in familial adenomatous polyposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mao-Lin; Pan, Jun-Yong; Bai, Yan-Nan; Lai, Zhi-De; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or Gardner’s syndrome is often accompanied by adenomas of the stomach and duodenum. We experienced a case of adenomas of the common bile duct in a 40-year-old woman with FAP presenting with acute cholangitis. Only 8 cases of adenomas or adenocarcinoma of the common bile duct have been reported in the literature in patients with FAP or Gardner’s syndrome. Those patients presented with acute cholangitis or pancreatitis. Local excision or Whipple procedure may be the reasonable surgical option. PMID:25780319

  6. Adenoma-carcinoma Sequence in the Bladder After Augmentation Cystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Naito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 64-year-old woman showing multistep progression from adenoma to adenocarcinoma in the bladder 46 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty. She underwent augmentation ileocystoplasty for tuberculous contracted bladder at 18 years. After 44 years, tubulovillous adenomas were found and resected at the ileovesical anastomosis site. After 2 more years, bladder tumors recurred and revealed adenocarcinomas. Finally, radical cystectomy was required because of frequent recurrence and tumor extensiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating adenoma-carcinoma sequence histopathologically in the bladder after augmentation cystoplasty, indicating multistep carcinogenesis similar to intestinal carcinogenesis.

  7. Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas is cost-effective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.A.; Mack, E.; Rowe, B.; Perlman, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    The preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas is cost-effective because it reduces anesthesia and surgery times. The technique is sensitive in single and double adenomas (90%), and some surgeons have modified their operative technique because of its introduction. The practical experience of one surgeon is presented, with similar patient subsets (n = 22) compared before and after use of a localization scan was instituted. The average operative time fell by 94%, from 2 hours 35 minutes to 1 hour 19 minutes. The reduction in operative time was possible because the surgeon did not seek to identify the remaining normal parathyroids when the scanned lesion was excised and proved to be the adenoma

  8. Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Cortisol-secreting Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Domino

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol. She underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; total right and partial left adrenalectomies. At 2-year follow-up, she is maintained on low-dose fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone, and without recurrence of hypercorticolism. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a feasible option for this rare condition; however, long-term follow-up is needed to determine her total independence from steroid usage.

  9. Why I Got Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-29

    CDC’s Dr. Lisa Richardson explains why she got tested for colorectal cancer when she turned 50 years old. .  Created: 2/29/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/29/2016.

  10. Metachronous colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Svendsen, L B; Mellemgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    During the period 1943-67, 903 Danish patients aged less than 40 years had colorectal carcinoma. The patients were followed up for up to 41 years and during this period 44 of 501 (9 per cent) operated on for cure developed a metachronous colorectal carcinoma. The cumulative risk of a metachronous...... colorectal carcinoma was 30 per cent after up to 41 years of observation. The occurrence of a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was evenly distributed in the observation period. The cumulative survival rate after operation for a metachronous colorectal carcinoma was 41 per cent after 20 years of observation....... We propose a lifelong follow-up programme after resection of colorectal carcinoma for cure in this age group, including annual Hemoccult test and colonoscopy at 3-year intervals....

  11. Sessile serrated polyps of the colorectum are rare in patients with Lynch syndrome and in familial colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S H; Lykke, E; Folker, M B

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the generally accepted carcinogenesis pathway of the microsatellite instabile high (MSI-H) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) involves the traditional adenoma in patients with Lynch syndrome, a serrate pathway involving serrate adenomas (SA) and sessile serrate polyps (SSP) characterize...... the sporadic MSI-H counterpart. Recent studies have, however, challenged such simple one-pathway models, inviting the consideration of alternative, unexpected pathways. Here, the issue as to the possible role of SSP, primarily in the context of Lynch syndrome, but also in subjects from familial CRC families...... (FCF) is addressed. Polyps coded as hyperplastic polyps (HP) from subjects with Lynch syndrome and FCF enrolled in the HNPCC-register at the Hvidovre University Hospital as well as adenomas from this population were retrieved and reviewed for features of SSP. Ninety-eight polyps coded as HP and 41...

  12. The comparative cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening using faecal immunochemical test vs. colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-09-04

    Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) and colonoscopy are two common screening tools for colorectal cancer(CRC). Most cost-effectiveness studies focused on survival as the outcome, and were based on modeling techniques instead of real world observational data. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of these two tests to detect colorectal neoplastic lesions based on data from a 5-year community screening service. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was assessed based on the detection rates of neoplastic lesions, and costs including screening compliance, polypectomy, colonoscopy complications, and staging of CRC detected. A total of 5,863 patients received yearly FIT and 4,869 received colonoscopy. Compared with FIT, colonoscopy detected notably more adenomas (23.6% vs. 1.6%) and advanced lesions or cancer (4.2% vs. 1.2%). Using FIT as control, the ICER of screening colonoscopy in detecting adenoma, advanced adenoma, CRC and a composite endpoint of either advanced adenoma or stage I CRC was US$3,489, US$27,962, US$922,762 and US$23,981 respectively. The respective ICER was US$3,597, US$439,513, -US$2,765,876 and US$32,297 among lower-risk subjects; whilst the corresponding figure was US$3,153, US$14,852, US$184,162 and US$13,919 among higher-risk subjects. When compared to FIT, colonoscopy is considered cost-effective for screening adenoma, advanced neoplasia, and a composite endpoint of advanced neoplasia or stage I CRC.

  13. Nuclear Division Index may Predict Neoplastic Colorectal Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Mirela E; Ciocirlan, Mihai; Becheanu, Gabriel; Nicolaie, Tudor; Ditescu, Cristina; Teiusanu, Adriana G; Gologan, Serban I; Arbanas, Tudor; Diculescu, Mircea M

    2011-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops by accumulation of multiple genetic damages leading to genetic instability that can be evaluated by cytogenetic methods. In the current study we used Cytokinesis-Blocked Micronucleus Assay (CBMN) technique to assess the behavior of Nuclear Division Index(NDI) in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with CRC and polyps versus patients with normal colonoscopy. Blood samples were collected from patients after informed consent. By CBMN technique we assessed the proportion of mono-nucleated, bi-nucleated, tri-nucleated and tetra-nucleated cells/500 cells, to calculate NDI. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 11.0 package. 45 patients were available for analysis, 23 men and 22 women, with a mean age of 58.7±13.5. 17 had normal colonoscopy, 17 colonic polyps and 11 CRC. The mean NDI values were significantly smaller for patients with CRC or polyps than in patients with normal colonoscopy (1.57 vs 1.73, p=0.013). The difference persisted for patients with neoplastic lesions (adenomas and carcinomas) when compared with patients with normal colonoscopy or non neoplastic (hyperplastic) polyps (1.56 vs.1.71, p=0.018). The NDI cut-off value to predict the presence of adenomas or carcinomas was equal to 1.55 with a 54.2% sensitivity and 81% specificity of lower values (p=0.019). The NDI cut off value to predict the presence of advanced adenomas or cancer was 1.525 for a sensitivity of 56.3% and a specificity of 82.8% (p=0.048). NDI may be useful in screening strategies for colorectal cancer as simple, noninvasive, inexpensive cytogenetic biomarker.

  14. Radiolabelled spiroperidol: Possible pituitary adenoma imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, C.A.; Marshall, J.C.; Lloyd, R.V.; Sherman, P.S.; Wieland, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas are the most common type of pituitary tumors. Detection currently depends on physical symptoms, elevated serum prolactin levels and CT scans. An imaging agent which specifically localized in prolactinomas based on some functional characteristic of the tumor would be of considerable clinical value not only for early detection but also for monitoring of therapy. Tritiated spiroperidol ( 3 H-Sp) was selected for evaluation based on 1) the presence of D-2 receptors in normal anterior pituitary and adenoma tissue and 2) the high affinity of spiroperidol for D-2 receptors. Recent data have established that implantation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) in Fischer F344 rats induced prolactin-secreting tumors in the pituitary. 3 HSp was evaluated in pituitary tissue of both control and DES-treated rats. 3 HSp concentration in normal female anterior pituitary tissue was found to be about 0.27% kg dose/g from 5 min to 4hrs. This value was about 10 times levels in cortex, cerebellum and striatum. In DES-treated rats the % kg dose/g values remained approximately the same. A 5-fold increase in serum prolactin was associated with a 6-fold increase in both pituitary weight and % dose/organ. The data suggests that although total pituitary weight has increased due to tumor growth (reflected in increased values for % dose/organ), the relative number of receptors per g of tissue has remained constant. This result is in agreement with observations of others on D-2 receptor concentration in prolactinomas

  15. Evaluación de la reproducibilidad del diagnóstico microscópico del adenoma serrado de sésil de colon Assessing the reproducibility of the microscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bustamante-Balén

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el adenoma serrado sésil (ASS es