WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent additional damage

  1. Preventing thefts and wilful damage

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    The best means of preventing crime is to make it difficult to commit. As the summer holidays begin, in everybody’s interest we advise the following precautions: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS Never leave money or objects of value unattended in offices or changing rooms, even locked. Keys and spares must always be taken away or kept in a safe place. Supposedly “safe” hiding places such as drawers, even locked, metal boxes and flower pots, are well known to burglars and should be avoided. Change lock codes regularly. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS Offices, workshops and meeting-rooms, etc. should be locked when vacated. Care should also be taken that windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from the outside. 3. VANDALISM If you witness an act of vandalism of public or private property, please report all the facts and your observations immediately to the CERN Fire Brigade (74444). 4. REPORTING INCIDENTS Every misdemeanour solved increases the chances of others be...

  2. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  3. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J., E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with {gamma}-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  4. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sram, Radim J.; Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 μmol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with γ-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 μmol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 μmol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  5. Sulfur Mustard Damage to Cornea: Preventive Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varma, Shambhu

    2004-01-01

    .... A preventive effect has been observed at the level of tissue morphology. Studies are in progress at the level of cellular metabolism, Here, CEES has been used as a representative compound simulating the action of sulfur mustard (HD...

  6. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-01-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  7. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  8. Preventing thefts and damage to property

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The best means of preventing crime is to make it difficult to commit. As the summer holidays begin, in everybody's interest we advise the following precautions.   1. Money, valuables and keys Never leave money or objects of value unattended in offices or changing rooms, even if they are locked. Keys and spares must always be taken away or kept in a safe place. Supposedly "safe" hiding places such as drawers, even locked ones, metal boxes and flower pots, are well known to burglars and should be avoided. Change lock codes regularly. 2. Doors and windows Offices, workshops and meeting rooms, etc. should be locked when vacated. Care should also be taken that windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from the outside. 3. Vandalism If you witness an act of vandalism of public or private property, please report all the facts and your observations immediately to the CERN Fire Brigade (74444). 4. Reporting incidents Every misdemeanour solved increase...

  9. Preventing thefts and damage to property

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Discouraging thieves is the best way of protecting your property. On the eve of CERN's annual end-of-year closure, in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, we would strongly advise you to take the following precautions: MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and spare keys must be taken away or kept in a safe place (please avoid supposedly 'safe hiding places' such as drawers, even if they are locked, metal boxes and flowers pots, all of which are well-known to burglars). Change lock codes regularly. Be careful if you have to leave your keys with a third party and make sure that they do not pass them on to anyone else. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop and meeting-room doors, etc. when you leave. Also make sure windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from outside. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each theft solved could prevent another from be...

  10. PREVENTING THEFTS AND DAMAGE TO PROPERTY

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Discouraging thieves is the best way of protecting your property. On the eve of CERN's annual end-of-year closure, in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, we would strongly advise you to take the following precautions: MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and spare keys must be taken away or kept in a safe place (please avoid supposedly 'safe hiding places' such as drawers, even if they are locked, metal boxes and flowers pots, all of which are well-known to burglars). Change lock codes regularly. Be careful if you have to leave your keys with a third party and make sure that they do not pass them on to anyone else. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop and meeting-room doors, etc. when you leave. Also make sure windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from outside. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each theft solved could prevent another from being perpetrated. Please report thef...

  11. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... rates translate to increased public and worker safety and decreased repair and outage costs for pipeline... April 2, 2012 Part III Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  12. Preventing organ damage by genetic testing for hereditary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemochromatosis can be prevented by regular blood donation or phlebotomy and therefore detection of a genetic predisposition at an early age, before irreversible damage to cardiac, hepatic and endocrine tissue occurs, represents an important clinical goal. South African Family Practice Vol. 47(2) 2005: 44-45 ...

  13. Metformin Treatment Prevents Sedentariness Related Damages in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Senesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin (METF, historical antihyperglycemic drug, is a likely candidate for lifespan extension, treatment and prevention of sedentariness damages, insulin resistance, and obesity. Skeletal muscle is a highly adaptable tissue, capable of hypertrophy response to resistance training and of regeneration after damage. Aims of this work were to investigate METF ability to prevent sedentariness damage and to enhance skeletal muscle function. Sedentary 12-week-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with METF (250 mg/kg per day, in drinking water for 60 days. METF role on skeletal muscle differentiation was studied in vitro using murine C2C12 myoblasts. Muscular performance evaluation revealed that METF enhanced mice physical performance (Estimated VO2max. Biochemical analyses of hepatic and muscular tissues indicated that in liver METF increased AMPK and CAMKII signaling. In contrast, METF inactivated ERKs, the principal kinases involved in hepatic stress. In skeletal muscle, METF activated AKT, key kinase in skeletal muscle mass maintenance. In in vitro studies, METF did not modify the C2C12 proliferation capacity, while it positively influenced the differentiation process and myotube maturation. In conclusion, our novel results suggest that METF has a positive action not only on the promotion of healthy aging but also on the prevention of sedentariness damages.

  14. Communication and preventing damage in the internet use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Machado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bank communications have done intensive use of new technologies and contents, case of net banking, which creates new possibilities and relationships with the bank customer. He is a consumer who is encouraged to know the services offered by the new channels, to use these attributes, but if he detects restrictions of information or miscommunication, manifests itself in some way. Many consumers are dealing with fraud or damage caused by the virtual access system provided by banks. This context presents innovations in the communication system played by banks and consumers mediated by the internet.Objectives: To describe the bank communication oriented to prevent damage when their websites are used by consumers.Methodology: It was searched websites of banks Bradesco, Itaú and Banco do Brasil, besides an opinion poll with 130 users of these net banking.Results: The banks offer specific and non-standardized spaces on their websites to prevent damage to the consumer in using the net banking, as too customers use such services only partially.Conclusion: The results cannot be generalized, thus this study serves as a step for that the further works might develop the study object presented in order to measure with greater scope and representativeness the management of prevention of damage to the consumer in the net banking context.

  15. Techniques for preventing damage to high power laser components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Jones, W.A.; Wentworth, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    Techniques for preventing damage to components of the LASL Shiva high power laser system were briefly presented. Optical element damage in the disk amplifier from the combined fluence of the primary laser beam and the Xenon flash lamps that pump the cavity was discussed. Assembly and cleaning techniques were described which have improved optical element life by minimizing particulate and optically absorbing film contamination on assembled amplifier structures. A Class-100 vertical flaw clean room used for assembly and inspection of laser components was also described. The life of a disk amplifier was extended from less than 50 shots to 500 shots through application of these assembly and cleaning techniques

  16. Additional phase information from UV damage of selenomethionine labelled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanctis, Daniele de [ESRF, Structural Biology Group, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Tucker, Paul A.; Panjikar, Santosh, E-mail: panjikar@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-05-01

    Successful examples of ultraviolet radiation-damage-induced phasing with anomalous scattering from selenomethionine protein crystals have been demonstrated. Currently, selenium is the most widely used phasing vehicle for experimental phasing, either by single anomalous scattering or multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) procedures. The use of the single isomorphous replacement anomalous scattering (SIRAS) phasing procedure with selenomethionine containing proteins is not so commonly used, as it requires isomorphous native data. Here it is demonstrated that isomorphous differences can be measured from intensity changes measured from a selenium labelled protein crystal before and after UV exposure. These can be coupled with the anomalous signal from the dataset collected at the selenium absorption edge to obtain SIRAS phases in a UV-RIPAS phasing experiment. The phasing procedure for two selenomethionine proteins, the feruloyl esterase module of xylanase 10B from Clostridium thermocellum and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate synthase, have been investigated using datasets collected near the absorption edge of selenium before and after UV radiation. The utility of UV radiation in measuring radiation damage data for isomorphous differences is highlighted and it is shown that, after such measurements, the UV-RIPAS procedure yields comparable phase sets with those obtained from the conventional MAD procedure. The results presented are encouraging for the development of alternative phasing approaches for selenomethionine proteins in difficult cases.

  17. Are all phytochemicals useful in the preventing of DNA damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanlı, Merve; Aydın, Sevtap; Başaran, A Ahmet; Başaran, Nurşen

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemicals derived from natural plants have been used commonly for the prevention and/or treatment of different diseases due to the belief of their safety. Many plant species synthesize toxic chemicals. New natural chemicals are being discovered but their toxic effects are unknown. Phytochemicals have been regarded as possible antioxidants. But on the other hand it is suggested that various phenolic antioxidants can display pro-oxidant properties at high doses. In this review, the role of some phytochemicals (epigallocathecin gallate, carvacrol, galangin, limonene, lycopene, naringin, puerarin, terpinene, thymol and ursolic acid) on the prevention of DNA damage will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative Interventions to Prevent Oxidative Damage following Ischemia/Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R lesions are a phenomenon that occurs in multiple pathological states and results in a series of events that end in irreparable damage that severely affects the recovery and health of patients. The principal therapeutic approaches include preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote ischemic preconditioning, which when used separately do not have a great impact on patient mortality or prognosis. Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the damage caused by I/R; however, there are no pharmacological approaches to limit or prevent this. Here, we explain the relationship between I/R and the oxidative stress process and describe some pharmacological options that may target oxidative stress-states.

  19. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Ferreira

    Full Text Available In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™ and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50. We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ, honey (H, bee pollen (BP and propolis (P, reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione-S-transferase (GST are increased.

  20. Bee Products Prevent Agrichemical-Induced Oxidative Damage in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; Santos da Rosa, João Gabriel; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L−1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased. PMID:24098336

  1. Damage-free polishing of monocrystalline silicon wafers without chemical additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddut, A.Q.; Zhang, L.C.; Ali, Y.M.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility and identifies the mechanism of damage-free polishing of monocrystalline silicon without chemical additives. Using high resolution electron microscopy and contact mechanics, the study concludes that a damage-free polishing process without chemicals is feasible. All forms of damages, such as amorphous Si, dislocations and plane shifting, can be eliminated by avoiding the initiation of the β-tin phase of silicon during polishing. When using 50 nm abrasives, the nominal pressure to achieve damage-free polishing is 20 kPa

  2. Skin penetration and UV-damage prevention by nanoberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Paula; Prieto, María Jimena; Milla, Laura; Calienni, María Natalia; Martinez, Luis; Rivarola, Viviana; Alonso, Silvia; Montanari, Jorge

    2017-10-03

    Ethanolic extract from blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is rich in anthocyanins and thus exhibits antioxidant activity. On the other hand, ultradeformable liposomes are capable of penetrating to the impermeable barrier of skin. Nanoberries are ultradeformable liposomes carrying blueberry extract. In this study, their capacity to penetrate the stratum corneum and photodamage prevention were tested, with the aim of developing a topical formulation for skin protection from environmental damage. Nanoberries were prepared by lipid film resuspension with ethanolic extract from blueberry, followed by sonication and incorporation to a gel. Size, zeta potential, deformability, rheology, and viscoelasticity were determined. Toxicity was assessed in vivo in zebrafish model, while in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed on HaCaT and HEK-293T cell lines. Skin penetration was evaluated with the Saarbrücken penetration model followed by tape stripping, cryosection, or optical sectioning. UV-damage protection and photoprotection were determined by ad hoc methods with UVA, UVB, and UVC radiation on HaCaT cells. Wound assay was performed on HaCaT cells. Nanoberries of about 100 nm, with differential elastic properties, did penetrate the stratum corneum, with low toxicity. When HaCaT cells were exposed to UV radiation in the presence of nanoberries, their viability was maintained. Nanoberries could be effective to protect the skin from sun photodamage. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Silica scale prevention technology using organic additive, Geogard SX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltazar, Almario; Garcia, Serafin; Solis, Ramonito; Fragata, Jimmy; Ellseworth, Lucero; Llenarizas, Leonardo; Tabuena, Joseph Erwin (PNOC Energy Development Corporation, Makati City (Philippines))

    1998-09-15

    A field trial on the application of an organic additive, phosphino carboxylic acid copolymer, was conducted in a geothermal system to evaluate its effectiveness in preventing silica deposition from brine containing ultra high silica concentration (1000-1300 ppm). Low polymer concentration was applied for about five months, and treatment efficiency based on silica concentrations in various sampling points ranged from 64 to 98%. Treatment efficiency improved as a function of time. Massive silica scaling in the fluid collection and disposal system was minimized.

  4. Sulodexide prevents peripheral nerve damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Heung Yong; Lee, Kyung Ae; Song, Sun Kyung; Liu, Wei Jing; Choi, Ji Hae; Song, Chang Ho; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2012-01-15

    We investigated whether sulodexide has additional protective effects against peripheral nerve damage caused by microvascular dysfunction in a rat model of diabetes. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into the following 4 groups (n=7-9/group): Normal, Normal+Sulodexide (sulodexide 10mg/kg), diabetic group, and diabetic+Sulodexide (sulodexide 10mg/kg). We assessed current perception threshold, skin blood flow, superoxide dismutase, and proteinuria in experimental rats after oral administration of sulodexide for 20 weeks. We also performed morphometric analysis of sciatic nerves and intraepidermal nerve fibers of the foot. Superoxide dismutase activity in the blood and sciatic nerve were increased significantly after sulodexide treatment in the diabetic group. Current perception threshold was reduced at 2000 Hz (633.3 ± 24.15 vs 741.2 ± 23.5 μA, Pdiabetic+Sulodexide group compared with the diabetic group. The mean myelinated axon area was significantly larger (56.6 ± 2.2 vs 49.8 ± 2.7 μm(2), Pnerve fiber density was significantly less reduced (6.27 ± 0.24 vs 5.40 ± 0.25/mm, Pdiabetic+Sulodexide group compared to the diabetic group. Our results demonstrate that sulodexide exhibits protective effects against peripheral nerve damage in a rat experimental model of diabetes. Therefore, these findings suggest that sulodexide is a potential new therapeutic agent for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis: Mechanisms and Approaches to Prevention of Neuronal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Diane E

    2016-07-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are important causes of death and long-term neurologic disability due to encephalomyelitis. Studies of mice infected with the alphavirus Sindbis virus have shown that outcome is dependent on the age and genetic background of the mouse and virulence of the infecting virus. Age-dependent susceptibility reflects the acquisition by neurons of resistance to virus replication and virus-induced cell death with maturation. In mature mice, the populations of neurons most susceptible to infection are in the hippocampus and anterior horn of the spinal cord. Hippocampal infection leads to long-term memory deficits in mice that survive, while motor neuron infection can lead to paralysis and death. Neuronal death is immune-mediated, rather than a direct consequence of virus infection, and associated with entry and differentiation of pathogenic T helper 17 cells in the nervous system. To modulate glutamate excitotoxicity, mice were treated with an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists or a glutamine antagonist. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 protected hippocampal neurons but not motor neurons, and mice still became paralyzed and died. α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists GYKI-52466 and talampanel protected both hippocampal and motor neurons and prevented paralysis and death. Glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-l-norleucine protected hippocampal neurons and improved memory generation in mice surviving infection with an avirulent virus. Surprisingly, in all cases protection was associated with inhibition of the antiviral immune response, reduced entry of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system, and delayed virus clearance, emphasizing the importance of treatment approaches that include prevention of immunopathologic damage.

  6. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  7. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  8. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  9. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  10. [Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor damages: ethilogy and prevention strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amóstegui Azcúe, J M; Ferri Morales, A; Lillo De La Quintana, C; Serra Llosa, M L

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, as well as additional pelvic floor damage, such as third and fourth degree muscular lacerations, as well as fecal incontinence, genital prolapse or dyspareunia, result from obstetric trauma, and are generally linked to the first delivery. The purpose of this study is to analyze, from a physiotherapeutic point of view, and therefore from the perspective of muscular physiology and biomechanics, why this damage occurs, while studying the birth process and the way it is currently performed in most hospitals in our country. Analysis of the birth process and, in short, of the different types of positions used for the first and second stage of labor, as well as of the care provided for women in the puerperium, leads us to propose a global prevention strategy to be carried out in three stages: --Ante-natal prevention: specific preparation of the pelvic floor and abdominal musculature during pregnancy, using massage techniques and manual stretching of the perineum. In addition, the pregnant woman learns these positions and methods of pushing, which makes the first and second stage of labour easier. An osteopathic treatment of the pelvis joints is performed in order to facilitate their mobility or to liberate blockades, if they exist. --Prevention during labour: During this stage, physiology is respected and manual, position-based and breathing techniques are implemented in order to enhance the protection of the baby and of the pelvic floor. --Postpartum prevention: The action is focused on the pelvic floor, through diaphragmatic and abdominal exercises or postures and, if necessary, osteopathic treatment in the early puerperium, in order to facilitate the correct involution of all soft tissues and the pelvic joints involved in labor. Early specific physiotherapeutic treatment will be proposed for women with functional pathology six weeks after delivery.

  11. Vicair Academy Mattress in the prevention of pressure damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Fiona

    There are many costs associated with the development of pressure ulcers, both in terms of the patient experience and those associated with healing. If patients who are deemed to be at risk are identified and suitable preventive equipment is provided, incidence of pressure ulcer development can be reduced significantly. Pressure-reducing mattresses are primarily used to prevent pressure ulcers from occurring, in conjunction with other preventive measures, such as repositioning. The Vicair Academy Mattress, manufactured by Vicair BV and distributed by Gerald Simonds, uses Vicair's 'dry air' flotation system to offer maximum pressure and shear protection to patients who are at high risk of developing pressure ulcers.

  12. The additive damage model: a mathematical model for cellular responses to drug combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie Braziel; Secomb, Timothy W; Dewhirst, Mark W; El-Kareh, Ardith W

    2014-09-21

    Mathematical models to describe dose-dependent cellular responses to drug combinations are an essential component of computational simulations for predicting therapeutic responses. Here, a new model, the additive damage model, is introduced and tested in cases where varying concentrations of two drugs are applied with a fixed exposure schedule. In the model, cell survival is determined by whether cellular damage, which depends on the concentrations of the drugs, exceeds a lethal threshold, which varies randomly in the cell population with a prescribed statistical distribution. Cellular damage is assumed to be additive, and is expressed as a sum of separate terms for each drug. Each term has a saturable dependence on drug concentration. The model has appropriate behavior over the entire range of drug concentrations, and is predictive, given single-agent dose-response data for each drug. The proposed model is compared with several other models, by testing their ability to fit 24 data sets for platinum-taxane combinations and 21 data sets for various other combinations. The Akaike Information Criterion is used to assess goodness of fit, taking into account the number of unknown parameters in each model. Overall, the additive damage model provides a better fit to the data sets than any previous model. The proposed model provides a basis for computational simulations of therapeutic responses. It predicts responses to drug combinations based on data for each drug acting as a single agent, and can be used as an improved null reference model for assessing synergy in the action of drug combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... program uses classroom, school, and community components to develop sustained sun-safe behaviors in children. When choosing sunglasses for children, SunWise, in partnership with Prevent Blindness America, recommends that you: ® Read the labels: Always ...

  14. Neuroprotective DAMPs member prothymosin alpha has additional beneficial actions against cerebral ischemia-induced vascular damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Maeda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prothymosin alpha (ProTα suppresses stress-induced necrosis of cultured cortical neurons. As neuroprotection alone could not explain the long-lasting protective actions against cerebral ischemia by ProTα, we further examined whether ProTα, in addition to neuroprotective effects, has other anti-ischemic activities. When recombinant mouse ProTα (rmProTα at 0.3 mg/kg was intravenously (i.v. given 2 h after the start of tMCAO, all mice survived for more than 14 days. In evaluation of CD31- and tomato lectin-labeling as well as IgG and Evans blue leakage, rmProTα treatment (0.1 mg/kg largely blocked ischemia-induced vascular damages. Therefore, rmProTα has novel beneficial effects against ischemia-induced brain damage through vascular mechanisms.

  15. DNA damage in human lymphocytes exposed to four food additives in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Unal, Fatma; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Celik, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    In vitro genotoxic effects of antioxidant additives, such as citric acid (CA) and phosphoric acid (PA) and their combination, as well as antimicrobial additives, such as benzoic acid (BA) and calcium propionate (CP), on human lymphocytes were determined using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. There was a significant increase in the DNA damage in human lymphocytes after 1 h of in vitro exposure to CA, PA, BA and CP (200, 25-200, 50-500, 50-1000 μg/mL, respectively). The combination of CA and PA significantly increased the mean tail intensity at all the concentrations used (25-200 μg/mL) and significantly increased the mean tail length mainly after higher concentrations (100 and 200 μg/mL). Data in this study showed that the concentrations of food additives used induce DNA damage and PA was the most genotoxic and CA was less genotoxic additives among them. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Pathophysiology of repetitive head injury in sports. Prevention against catastrophic brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tatsuro; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)

  17. Minimizing the Moisture Damage and Drain down of Iraqi SMA Mixtures Using Waste Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Hadidy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the viability of using polyester fiber (PF, crumb rubber tire (CRT and cellulose fiber (CF as stabilizing waste additives in producing Iraqi SMA mixtures that sustain drain down phenomenon and moisture damage sensitivity. Different ratios of these additives (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% by weight of aggregate and filler were mixed with 40/50 paving asphalt by means of dry process. Unmodified and modified SMA mixtures were subjected to drain down, Marshall, static indirect tensile strength, tensile stiffness modulus, static compressive strength, tensile strength ratio and index of retained strength tests. A set of regression equations between these tests were established. In addition, an optimization table based on these tests, which can be used to select the type or amount of additive for any field applications has been determined and reported. The results indicated that the inclusion of these additives in SMA mixtures can satisfy the performance requirement of high temperature and much rain zone.

  18. Fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; León Peláez, María A; Diosma, Gabriela; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2014-12-01

    Fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety. Whey fermented for 24 h at 20 °C with kefir grains (100 g L(-1) ) reduced conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Rhizopus sp. Poultry feed supplemented with fermented whey (1 L kg(-1) ) was two to four times more resistant to fungal contamination than control feed depending on the fungal species. Additionally, it contained kefir microorganisms at levels of 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) kg(-1) of lactic acid bacteria and 6 × 10(7) CFU kg(-1) of yeasts even after 30 days of storage. Fermented whey added to poultry feed acted as a biopreservative, improving its resistance to fungal contamination and increasing its shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. DNA damage in human germ cell exposed to the some food additives in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandir, Dilek

    2016-08-01

    The use of food additives has increased enormously in modern food technology but they have adverse effects in human healthy. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage of some food additives such as citric acid (CA), benzoic acid (BA), brilliant blue (BB) and sunset yellow (SY) which were investigated in human male germ cells using comet assay. The sperm cells were incubated with different concentrations of these food additives (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/mL) for 1 h at 32 °C. The results showed for CA, BA, BB and SY a dose dependent increase in tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment in human sperm when compared to control group. When control values were compared in the studied parameters in the treatment concentrations, SY was found to exhibit the highest level of DNA damage followed by BB > BA > CA. However, none of the food additives affected the tail DNA%, tail length and tail moment at 50 and 100 μg/mL. At 200 μg/mL of SY, the tail DNA% and tail length of sperm were 95.80 ± 0.28 and 42.56 ± 4.66, for BB the values were 95.06 ± 2.30 and 39.56 ± 3.78, whereas for BA the values were 89.05 ± 2.78 and 31.50 ± 0.71, for CA the values were 88.59 ± 6.45 and 13.59 ± 2.74, respectively. However, only the highest concentration of the used food additives significantly affected the studied parameters of sperm DNA. The present results indicate that SY and BB are more harmful than BA and CA to human sperm in vitro.

  20. Tempol prevents genotoxicity induced by vorinostat: role of oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Jaber, Aya G; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Mhaidat, Nizar M; Masadeh, Majed M

    2014-05-01

    Vorinostat is a member of histone deacetylase inhibitors, which represents a new class of anticancer agents for the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies. Studies have shown that these drugs induce DNA damage in blood lymphocytes, which is proposed to be due to the generation of oxidative lesions. The increase in DNA damage is sometimes associated with risk of developing secondary cancer. Thus, finding a treatment that limits DNA damage caused by anticancer drugs would be beneficial. Tempol is a potent antioxidant that was shown to prevent DNA damage induced by radiation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the harmful effects of vorinostat on DNA damage, and the possible protective effects of tempol against this damage. For that, the spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) levels were measured in cultured human lymphocytes treated with vorinostat and/or tempol. The results showed that vorinostat significantly increases the frequency of SCEs, CAs and 8-OHdG levels in human lymphocytes as compared to control. These increases were normalized by the treatment of cells with tempol. In conclusion, vorinostat is genotoxic to lymphocytes, and this toxicity is reduced by tempol. Such results could set the stage for future studies investigating the possible usefulness of antioxidants co-treatment in preventing the genotoxicity of vorinostat when used as anticancer in human.

  1. Nutriomes and personalised nutrition for DNA damage prevention, telomere integrity maintenance and cancer growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage at the base sequence and chromosome level is a fundamental cause of developmental and degenerative diseases. Multiple micronutrients and their interactions with the inherited and/or acquired genome determine DNA damage and genomic instability rates. The challenge is to identify for each individual the combination of micronutrients and their doses (i.e. the nutriome) that optimises genome stability, including telomere integrity and functionality and DNA repair. Using nutrient array systems with high-content analysis diagnostics of DNA damage, cell death and cell growth, it is possible to define, on an individual basis, the optimal nutriome for DNA damage prevention and cancer growth control. This knowledge can also be used to improve culture systems for cells used in therapeutics such as stem cells to ensure that they are not genetically aberrant when returned to the body. Furthermore, this information could be used to design dietary patterns that deliver the micronutrient combinations and concentrations required for preventing DNA damage by micronutrient deficiency or excess. Using this approach, new knowledge could be obtained to identify the dietary restrictions and/or supplementations required to control specific cancers, which is particularly important given that reliable validated advice is not yet available for those diagnosed with cancer.

  2. Micronutrient special issue: Coenzyme Q{sub 10} requirements for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, Constance, E-mail: schmelzer@fbn-dummerstorf.de [Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Nutritional Physiology, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf (Germany); Doering, Frank [University of Kiel, Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Molecular Prevention, Heinrich-Hecht-Platz 10, 24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) is an essential component for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and serves as cofactor in several biological processes. The reduced form of CoQ{sub 10} (ubiquinol, Q{sub 10}H{sub 2}) is an effective antioxidant in biological membranes. During the last years, particular interest has been grown on molecular effects of CoQ{sub 10} supplementation on mechanisms related to DNA damage prevention. This review describes recent advances in our understanding about the impact of CoQ{sub 10} on genomic stability in cells, animals and humans. With regard to several in vitro and in vivo studies, CoQ{sub 10} provides protective effects on several markers of oxidative DNA damage and genomic stability. In comparison to the number of studies reporting preventive effects of CoQ{sub 10} on oxidative stress biomarkers, CoQ{sub 10} intervention studies in humans with a direct focus on markers of DNA damage are limited. Thus, more well-designed studies in healthy and disease populations with long-term follow up results are needed to substantiate the reported beneficial effects of CoQ{sub 10} on prevention of DNA damage.

  3. Micronutrient special issue: Coenzyme Q10 requirements for DNA damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, Constance; Döring, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is an essential component for electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and serves as cofactor in several biological processes. The reduced form of CoQ 10 (ubiquinol, Q 10 H 2 ) is an effective antioxidant in biological membranes. During the last years, particular interest has been grown on molecular effects of CoQ 10 supplementation on mechanisms related to DNA damage prevention. This review describes recent advances in our understanding about the impact of CoQ 10 on genomic stability in cells, animals and humans. With regard to several in vitro and in vivo studies, CoQ 10 provides protective effects on several markers of oxidative DNA damage and genomic stability. In comparison to the number of studies reporting preventive effects of CoQ 10 on oxidative stress biomarkers, CoQ 10 intervention studies in humans with a direct focus on markers of DNA damage are limited. Thus, more well-designed studies in healthy and disease populations with long-term follow up results are needed to substantiate the reported beneficial effects of CoQ 10 on prevention of DNA damage.

  4. Methylene blue prevents retinal damage in an experimental model of ischemic proliferative retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Funes, Manuel; Larrayoz, Ignacio M; Fernández, Juan C; Contartese, Daniela S; Rolón, Federico; Inserra, Pablo I F; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; López-Costa, Juan J; Dorfman, Verónica B; Martínez, Alfredo; Loidl, César F

    2016-06-01

    Perinatal asphyxia induces retinal lesions, generating ischemic proliferative retinopathy, which may result in blindness. Previously, we showed that the nitrergic system was involved in the physiopathology of perinatal asphyxia. Here we analyze the application of methylene blue, a well-known soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, as a therapeutic strategy to prevent retinopathy. Male rats (n = 28 per group) were treated in different ways: 1) control group comprised born-to-term animals; 2) methylene blue group comprised animals born from pregnant rats treated with methylene blue (2 mg/kg) 30 and 5 min before delivery; 3) perinatal asphyxia (PA) group comprised rats exposed to perinatal asphyxia (20 min at 37°C); and 4) methylene blue-PA group comprised animals born from pregnant rats treated with methylene blue (2 mg/kg) 30 and 5 min before delivery, and then the pups were subjected to PA as above. For molecular studies, mRNA was obtained at different times after asphyxia, and tissue was collected at 30 days for morphological and biochemical analysis. Perinatal asphyxia produced significant gliosis, angiogenesis, and thickening of the inner retina. Methylene blue treatment reduced these parameters. Perinatal asphyxia resulted in a significant elevation of the nitrergic system as shown by NO synthase (NOS) activity assays, Western blotting, and (immuno)histochemistry for the neuronal isoform of NOS and NADPH-diaphorase activity. All these parameters were also normalized by the treatment. In addition, methylene blue induced the upregulation of the anti-angiogenic peptide, pigment epithelium-derived factor. Application of methylene blue reduced morphological and biochemical parameters of retinopathy. This finding suggests the use of methylene blue as a new treatment to prevent or decrease retinal damage in the context of ischemic proliferative retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Polyphenols in Exercise Performance and Prevention of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate physical exercise is considered an essential component of a healthy lifestyle that leads the organism to adapt itself to different stresses, exercise, especially when exhaustive, is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage. Many efforts have been carried out to identify dietary strategies or micronutrients able to prevent or at least attenuate the exercise-induced muscle damage and stress. Unfortunately most studies have failed to show protection, and at the present time data supporting the protective effect of micronutrients, as antioxidant vitamins, are weak and trivial. This review focuses on those polyphenols, present in the plant kingdom, that have been recently suggested to exert some positive effects on exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress. In the last decade flavonoids as quercetin, catechins, and other polyphenols as resveratrol have caught the scientists attention. However, at the present time drawing a clear and definitive conclusion seems to be untimely.

  6. Preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum on neuronal damages in pentylentetrazole-induced seizure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourzaki, Mojtaba; Homayoun, Mansour; Sadeghi, Saeed; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) as a medicinal plant has been pointed to have analgesic, hypnotic and anti-oxidant effects. In the current study, a possible preventive effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant on neuronal damages was examined in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat model of seizure. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into five main groups and treated by (1) saline, (2) PTZ: 100 mg/kg PTZ (i.p) and (3-5) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. sativum during seven consecutive days before PTZ injection. After electrocorticography (ECoG), the brains were removed to use for histological examination. Results: All doses of the extract reduced duration, frequency and amplitude of the burst discharges while prolonged the latency of the seizure attacks (psativum, because of its antioxidant properties, prevents from neuronal damages in PTZ rat model of seizure. PMID:28348967

  7. Preventive effect ofCoriandrum sativumon neuronal damages in pentylentetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourzaki, Mojtaba; Homayoun, Mansour; Sadeghi, Saeed; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum ( C. sativum ) as a medicinal plant has been pointed to have analgesic, hypnotic and anti-oxidant effects. In the current study, a possible preventive effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant on neuronal damages was examined in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat model of seizure. Forty male rats were divided into five main groups and treated by (1) saline, (2) PTZ: 100 mg/kg PTZ (i.p) and (3-5) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. sativum during seven consecutive days before PTZ injection. After electrocorticography (ECoG), the brains were removed to use for histological examination. All doses of the extract reduced duration, frequency and amplitude of the burst discharges while prolonged the latency of the seizure attacks (psativum , because of its antioxidant properties, prevents from neuronal damages in PTZ rat model of seizure.

  8. Strain Rate and Stress Triaxiality Effects on Ductile Damage of Additive Manufactured TI-6AL-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Gianluca; Bonora, Nicola; Gentile, Domenico; Ruggiero, Andrew; Testa, Gabriel; Gubbioni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the effects of strain rate and stress triaxiality on ductile damage of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V, also considering the build direction, were investigated. Raw material was manufactured by means of EOSSINT M2 80 machine, based on Direct Metal Laser Sintering technology, and machined to obtain round notched bar and Rod-on-Rod (RoR) specimens. Tensile tests on round notched bar specimens were performed in a wide range of strain rates. The failure strains at different stress triaxiality were used to calibrate the Bonora Damage Model. In order to design the RoR tests, numerical simulations were performed for assessing velocities at which incipient and fully developed damage occur. Tests at selected velocities were carried out and soft-recovered specimens were sectioning and polishing to observe the developed damage. Nucleated voids maps were compared with numerical simulations results.

  9. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  10. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  11. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States); Boyer, Arthur [Department of Radiology, Scott and White Hospital, Temple, Texas (United States); Liu, Fei, E-mail: fliu@medicine.tamhsc.edu [Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Scott and White Hospital, Molecular and Cellular Medicine Department, Texas A and M Health Science Center, Temple, Texas (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.

  12. Omega-3 prevents behavior response and brain oxidative damage in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugno, A I; Chipindo, H L; Volpato, A M; Budni, J; Steckert, A V; de Oliveira, M B; Heylmann, A S; da Rosa Silveira, F; Mastella, G A; Maravai, S G; Wessler, P G; Binatti, A R; Panizzutti, B; Schuck, P F; Quevedo, J; Gama, C S

    2014-02-14

    Supplementation with omega-3 has been identified as an adjunctive alternative for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, in order to minimize symptoms. Considering the lack of understanding concerning the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the present study hypothesized that omega 3 prevents the onset of symptoms similar to schizophrenia in young Wistar rats submitted to ketamine treatment. Moreover, the role of oxidative stress in this model was assessed. Omega-3 (0.8g/kg) or vehicle was given by orogastric gavage once daily. Both treatments were performed during 21days, starting at the 30th day of life in young rats. After 14days of treatment with omega-3 or vehicle, a concomitant treatment with saline or ketamine (25mg/kg ip daily) was started and maintained until the last day of the experiment. We evaluated the pre-pulse inhibition of the startle reflex, activity of antioxidant systems and damage to proteins and lipids. Our results demonstrate that supplementation of omega-3 prevented: decreased inhibition of startle reflex, damage to lipids in the hippocampus and striatum and damage to proteins in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, these changes are associated with decreased GPx in brain tissues evaluated. Together, our results suggest the prophylactic role of omega-3 against the outcome of symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Magnesium supplementation prevents angiotensin II-induced myocardial damage and CTGF overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenberg, Piet; Merasto, Saara; Louhelainen, Marjut; Lindgren, Leena; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Müller, Dominik N; Luft, Friedrich C; Mervaala, Eero M A

    2005-02-01

    Magnesium deficiency promotes vasoconstriction and myocardial damage. Recent studies provide evidence that Ang II mobilizes intracellular Mg through AT1 receptor-mediated pathways. We tested the hypothesis of whether magnesium supplementation prevents Ang II-induced myocardial damage and induction of the profibrotic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Four-week-old double transgenic rats harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) were given dietary magnesium supplementation (0.6%) for 3 weeks. Control dTGR and normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received normal diet (Mg 0.2%). Histopathological, immunohistochemical and mRNA analysis were used to detect the treatment-related effects of dietary magnesium in dTGR. Magnesium (Mg) supplementation decreased blood pressure, ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy, protected against the development of Ang II-induced myocardial damage and increased serum ionized Mg2+ concentration (all variables P protein expressions were increased by 300% in dTGR (P supplementation prevented Ang II-induced myocardial CTGF overexpression (P supplementation also improved the therapeutic effects of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus, which produced marked hypomagnesemia when given as monotherapy. Our findings suggest a salutary effect for magnesium supplementation in the treatment of Ang II-induced myocardial complications.

  14. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim...... by scoring the tail of each individual pig. A pen was recorded as a tail damage pen and no longer included in the study if at least one pig in a pen had a bleeding tail wound; thus, only the first incidence of tail damage on pen level was recorded. Data were analysed by a Cox regression for survival analysis...

  15. The Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex in the Prevention of Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D. Gumerson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are genetically diverse but share common phenotypic features of muscle weakness, degeneration, and progressive decline in muscle function. Previous work has focused on understanding how disruptions in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex result in muscular dystrophy, supporting a hypothesis that the muscle sarcolemma is fragile and susceptible to contraction-induced injury in multiple forms of dystrophy. Although benign in healthy muscle, contractions in dystrophic muscle may contribute to a higher degree of muscle damage which eventually overwhelms muscle regeneration capacity. While increased susceptibility of muscle to mechanical injury is thought to be an important contributor to disease pathology, it is becoming clear that not all DGC-associated diseases share this supposed hallmark feature. This paper outlines experimental support for a function of the DGC in preventing muscle damage and examines the evidence that supports novel functions for this complex in muscle that when impaired, may contribute to the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy.

  16. Prevention of device-related tissue damage during percutaneous deployment of tissue-engineered heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, U A; Degenkolbe, I; Attmann, T; Schenke-Layland, K; Freitag, S; Lutter, G

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular application of pulmonary heart valves has been recently introduced clinically. A tissue-engineering approach was pursued to overcome the current limitations of bovine jugular vein valves (degeneration and limited longevity). However, deployment of the delicate tissue-engineered valves resulted in severe tissue damage. Therefore the objective of this study was to prevent tissue damage during the folding and deployment maneuver. Porcine pulmonary heart valves, small intestinal submucosa, and ovine carotid arteries were obtained from a slaughterhouse. After dissection and antimicrobial incubation, the valves were trimmed (removal of sinus and most of the muscular ring) to fit into the deployment catheter. The inside (in-stent group, n = 6) or outside (out-stent group, n = 6) of a nitinol stent was covered by an acellular small intestinal submucosa, and the valves were sutured into the stent. The valves were folded, tested for placement in the deployment catheter, and decellularized enzymatically. Myofibroblasts were obtained from carotid artery segments and seeded onto the scaffolds. The seeded constructs were placed in a dynamic bioreactor system and cultured for 16 consecutive days. After endothelial cell seeding, the constructs were folded, deployed, and processed for histology and surface electron microscopy. The valves opened and closed competently throughout the entire dynamic culture. Surface electron microscopy revealed an almost completely preserved tissue in the in-stent group. Stents covered with small intestinal submucosa on the outside, however, showed severe damage. This study demonstrates that small intestinal submucosa covering of the inside of a pulmonary valved stent can prevent stent strut-related tissue damage.

  17. IAEA Regional Workshop on Development and Validation of EOP/AMG for Effective Prevention/Mitigation of Severe Core Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Workshop contain 24 presented lectures. Authors deal with development and validation of emergency operating procedures as well as with accident management guidelines (EOP/AMG) for effective prevention and mitigation of severe core damage

  18. Fucoidan Extracted from Fucus evanescens Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Damage in a Mouse Model of Endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Kuznetsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6, as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice’s resistance to LPS.

  19. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Suykens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks. We have provided a comparative legal analysis of the financial compensation mechanisms following floods, be it through insurance, public funds, or a combination of both, with an empirical focus on Belgium, the Netherlands, England, and France. Similarities and differences between the methods in which these compensation mechanisms for flood damages enhance resilience were analyzed. The comparative analysis especially focused on the link between the recovery strategy on the one hand and prevention and mitigation strategies on the other. There is great potential within the recovery strategy for promoting preventive action, for example in terms of discouraging citizens from living in high-risk areas, or encouraging the uptake of mitigation measures, such as adaptive building. However, this large potential has yet to be realized, in part because of insufficient consideration and promotion of these connections within existing legal frameworks. We have made recommendations about how the linkages between strategies can be further improved. These recommendations relate to, among others, the promotion of resilient reinstatement through recovery mechanisms and the removal of legal barriers preventing the establishment of link-inducing measures.

  20. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tao, Shasha [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lian, Fangru [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chau, Binh T. [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fang, Deyu [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Zhang, Donna D., E-mail: dzhang@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ► Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ► Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ► Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ► Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  1. Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena A; Zamaraeva, Maria; Cheshchevik, Vitali T; Olchowik-Grabarek, Ewa; Sekowski, Szymon; Zukowska, Izabela; Golovach, Nina G; Burd, Vasili N; Zavodnik, Ilya B

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50  = 4.4 ± 0.4 µg/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50  = 2.8 ± 0.3 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50  = 53 ± 4 µg/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Addition of Rubber to soil damages the functional diversity of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Tribedi, Prosun

    2017-07-01

    Rubber is a polymer of isoprene, consisting mainly of cis-1,4-polyisoprene units. The unmanageable production and its irresponsible disposal pose severe threats to environmental ecology. Therefore, the current study focuses extensively on the ill-effects of Rubber disposal on soil microbial functional diversity as it reflects the health of ecosystem by acting as a key component in ecosystem productivity. To investigate the effect of Rubber on soil microbial functional diversity, soil samples were collected from landfill sites and three different soil microcosms (Rubber treated, untreated, and sterile soil) were prepared. The soil enzymatic activity was determined by fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis followed by the determination of the microbial metabolic potential and functional diversity by average well color development and Shannon-Weaver index (H), respectively. BiOLOG ECO plates were used for determining the microbial functional diversity of the soil microcosms. Higher heterotrophic microbial count as well as higher soil microbial activity was observed in Rubber untreated soil than Rubber treated soil microcosm. The result indicated that the addition of Rubber to soil reduced soil heterotrophic microbial count and soil microbial activity considerably. Similarly, soil microbial metabolic potential as well as microbial functional diversity of soil had been decreased by the addition of Rubber gloves in it. Variation in soil microbial metabolic spectrum between Rubber treated and untreated microcosm was confirmed by multivariate analysis. Collectively, all the results demonstrated that the addition of Rubber to soil reduced the soil microbial functional diversity considerably. Therefore, it is necessary for the commission of serious steps regarding Rubber disposal and protection of the environment from serious environmental issues.

  3. Evaluation of satellite technology for pipeline route surveillance and the prevention of third party interference damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil [Penspen Integrity, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.palmer-jones@penspen.com; p.hopkins@penspen.com; Fraser, Andy [Integrated Statistical Solutions (United States)]. E-mail: andy@issquared.co.uk; Dezobry, Jerome [Gas de France, Paris (France)]. E-mail: jerome.dezobry@gazdefrance.com; Merrienboer, Hugo Van [Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: H.A.M.van.Merrienboer@gasunie.nl

    2003-07-01

    The damage caused by Third Party Interference (TPI) is one of the major causes of pipeline failures. Consequently, new technologies for identifying activities that may cause damage to our pipelines are constantly being developed. A recently completed project sponsored by a number of pipeline operators has investigated the use of high-resolution satellites for the integrity management of onshore transmission pipelines. The sponsors were BG Technology (on behalf of Transco), Dansk Olie NatureGas, Gasunie, BP, Gaz de France, Distrigas, and the Health and Safety Executive. The project started with a general review of the satellite technologies available and their potential. The study was then focussed on the identification of activities that might result in damage to the pipeline and the potential of high-resolution optical satellites in identifying hazardous activities. A key element of the study was a comparison with existing surveillance systems, which generally involve regular aerial patrols of the pipeline route. To achieve this a survey was carried out to try and evaluate the costs and benefits of existing systems. In addition a simple model for analysing the cost benefit of pipeline surveillance was constructed, and a functional specification for a surveillance system drafted. Finally the performance of the IKONOS 2 high-resolution satellite system was tested in a controlled experiment using targets placed along a pipeline route. The results of this test were compared with a similar test of helicopter-based surveillance carried out by one of the sponsors. (author)

  4. Self-Cyclizing Antioxidants to Prevent DNA Damage Caused by Hydroxyl Radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulSalam, Safnas F; Gurjar, Purujit N; Zhu, Haizhou; Liu, Jing; Johnson, Emma S; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Landero-Figueroa, Julio; Merino, Edward J

    2017-10-18

    Antioxidant therapy is a promising treatment strategy for protecting DNA from the damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we report new self-cyclizing antioxidant reagents that are selective for the hydroxyl radical. Our mechanistic investigation revealed that the reagents react with three equivalents of oxidant in a cascade reaction to form a bicyclic final product. Among the reagents synthesized, 1 c showed favorable properties in vitro and in cellular studies. Using As 2 O 3 , which triggers ROS production, we showed that 1 c prevents formation of the guanine oxidation product 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxazol-5-one-2'-deoxyribonucleoside and lowers cellular levels of reactive oxygen. The described self-cyclizing antioxidants are efficient, flexible, and tunable reagents with the potential to limit toxic oxidative stress. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. USE OF DISC SPRINGS IN A PELLET FUEL MACHINE FOR PRESSURE REGULATION AND PREVENTION OF DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Çelik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass fuel pellets is becoming widespread as a renewable and environment-friendly energy. Pellet fuels are produced in various pellet machine types. Pellet machines encounter problems such as pressure irregularities and choke at the initial start for different kinds of biomass feedstock. In this study, disc springs are integrated into a vertical axis pellet machine for a pressure regulation and design optimization. Force-deformation and stress-deformation relations of disc springs are investigated using analytical and finite element methods. Pelletizing pressures were calculated based on disc spring force values using the Hertzian stress formula. Utilized disc springs ensured the pressure regulation, production efficiency increase and damage prevention on the die-roller mechanism.

  6. Damage on sliding bearings of internal combustion engines. Damage patterns, causes, prevention; Schaeden an Gleitlagern von Verbrennungsmotoren. Erscheinungsbilder, Ursachen, Vermeidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, U.G. [Miba Gleitlager GmbH, Laakrichen (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    Bearing failures are consequences of system deficiencies which cause an inadequate function of the hydrodynamic action and, thereby, too high a friction, at least locally. The bearing overheats, what ultimately leads to its destruction and that of adjacent components. These 'consequential damages' are frequently severe. We identify, therefore, early stages of malfunction, already as 'bearing damage'. In this condition, a diagnosis and remedial measures to avoid total destruction are possible. Typical bearing conditions, possible causes and remedies are described herein. (orig.)

  7. Solar radiation induced skin damage: review of protective and preventive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Alena; Vostálová, Jitka

    2010-12-01

    Solar energy has a number of short- and long-term detrimental effects on skin that can result in several skin disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise current knowledge on endogenous systems within the skin for protection from solar radiation and present research findings to date, on the exogenous options for such skin photoprotection. Endogenous systems for protection from solar radiation include melanin synthesis, epidermal thickening and an antioxidant network. Existing lesions are eliminated via repair mechanisms. Cells with irreparable damage undergo apoptosis. Excessive and chronic sun exposure however can overwhelm these mechanisms leading to photoaging and the development of cutaneous malignancies. Therefore exogenous means are a necessity. Exogenous protection includes sun avoidance, use of photoprotective clothing and sufficient application of broad-spectrum sunscreens as presently the best way to protect the skin. However other strategies that may enhance currently used means of protection are being investigated. These are often based on the endogenous protective response to solar light such as compounds that stimulate pigmentation, antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants. More research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of new alternatives to photoprotection such as use of DNA repair and antioxidant enzymes and plant polyphenols and to find an efficient way for their delivery to the skin. New approaches to the prevention of skin damage are important especially for specific groups of people such as (young) children, photosensitive people and patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Changes in public awareness on the subject too must be made.

  8. Ultraviolet radiation, aging and the skin: prevention of damage by topical cAMP manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Yan, Betty; D'Orazio, John A

    2014-05-15

    Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study the long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of "realized" solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii) plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations.

  9. Ultraviolet Radiation, Aging and the Skin: Prevention of Damage by Topical cAMP Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Amaro-Ortiz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study the long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of “realized” solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations.

  10. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Holly T.; O'Brien, Melissa; McDougall, Jason J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (150-175 g) by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 3 mg). On day 14 (end-stage OA), joint afferent mechanosensitivity was assessed using in vivo electrophysiology, whereas pain behaviour was measured by von Frey hair algesiometry and dynamic incapacitance. To investigate acute joint inflammation, blood flow and leukocyte trafficking were measured on day 1 after MIA. Joint nerve myelination was calculated by G-ratio analysis. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of peripheral CBD (100-300 μg) were assessed. In end-stage OA, CBD dose-dependently decreased joint afferent firing rate, and increased withdrawal threshold and weight bearing (P inflammation was reduced by local CBD treatment (P pain at later time points (P pain. Prophylactic CBD treatment prevented the later development of pain and nerve damage in these OA joints. These findings suggest that CBD may be a safe, useful therapeutic for treating OA joint neuropathic pain. PMID:28885454

  11. Dendrosomal nanocurcumin prevents morphine self-administration behavior in rats despite CA1 damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Jalaleden; Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid; Alaei, Hojjat A

    2017-12-01

    Dendrosomal nanocurcumin (DNC) is fabricated from esterification of oleic acid and polyethylene glycol residues with curcumin. DNC has shown antioxidant, neuroprotective, and neurogenesis-enhancing effects. In addition, it can attenuate morphine tolerance. Morphine self-administration is associated with neurodegenerative changes of CA1 neurons in the adult hippocampus. The present study evaluated the effect of DNC pretreatment on morphine self-administration and hippocampal damage. Rats were pretreated with DNC (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before a morphine self-administration paradigm performed in 2-h/sessions for 12 days under a FR-1 schedule. Pretreatment with both doses of DNC markedly suppressed morphine intake. Morphine self-administration resulted in a 71% reduction in the number of hippocampal CA1 neurons. DNC (5 mg/kg) pretreatment only marginally improved (by 22%) neuronal loss in this area. The data suggest that the effect of DNC on morphine self-administration is largely independent of the CA1 area. A functional restoration and regulation of reward circuit activity by DNC may reduce the motivation for morphine despite CA1 damage.

  12. Camptosorus sibiricus rupr aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis via dual effects against ROS and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shugui; Ou, Rilan; Wang, Wensheng; Ji, Liyan; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Liu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Hongming; Liu, Zhongqiu; Wu, Peng; Lu, Linlin

    2017-12-16

    Camptosorus sibiricus Rupr (CSR) is a widely used herbal medicine with antivasculitis, antitrauma, and antitumor effects. However, the effect of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-initiated tumorigenesis and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Moreover, the compounds in CSR aqueous extract need to be identified and structurally characterized. We aim to investigate the chemopreventive effect of CSR and the underlying molecular mechanism. A B[a]P-stimulated normal cell model (BEAS.2B) and lung adenocarcinoma animal model were established on A/J mice. In B[a]P-treated BEAS.2B cells, the protective effects of CSR aqueous extract on B[a]P-induced DNA damage and ROS production were evaluated through flow cytometry, Western blot, real-time quantitative PCR, single-cell gel electrophoresis, and immunofluorescence. Moreover, a model of B[a]P-initiated lung adenocarcinoma was established on A/J mice to determine the chemopreventive effect of CSR in vivo. The underlying mechanism was analyzed via immunohistochemistry and microscopy. Furthermore, the new compounds in CSR aqueous extract were isolated and structurally characterized using IR, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. CSR effectively suppressed ROS production by re-activating Nrf2-mediated reductases HO-1 and NQO-1. Simultaneously, CSR attenuated the DNA damage of BEAS.2B cells in the presence of B[a]P. Moreover, CSR at 1.5 and 3 g/kg significantly suppressed tumorigenesis with tumor inhibition ratios of 36.65% and 65.80%, respectively. The tumor volume, tumor size, and multiplicity of B[a]P-induced lung adenocarcinoma were effectively decreased by CSR in vivo. After extracting and identifying the compounds in CSR aqueous extract, three new triterpene saponins were isolated and characterized structurally. CSR aqueous extract prevents lung tumorigenesis by exerting dual effects against ROS and DNA damage, suggesting that CSR is a novel and effective agent for B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis. Moreover, by isolating

  13. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  14. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  15. Evaluation of Moisture Damage and Stripping of Asphalt Concrete Prepared With New Additives of Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim H. Al-Humeidawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The moisture induced damage and stripping are two of common reasons of premature failure of flexible pavement. The current research involved an extensive experimental investigation on two types of polymers (Novolac and PVA as modifiers in order to produce Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB. Different ratios of both additives were investigated for rheological properties of binder and mechanical properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. The rheological properties of PMB were evaluated by penetration, softening point, ductility and thin film oven tests. The mechanical properties of HMA were assessed by Marshall Stability test, Retained Marshall Stability test, indirect tensile strength test, Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR, and striping test. The results of tests showed that the Novolac modifier improves the cohesion properties of binder and the adhesion of binder to aggregate. The PVA modifier mainly improves the adhesion of binder to aggregate with less degree of that of using Novolac. Both modifiers significantly improve moisture sensitivity and decrease the stripping of HMA. Also, the results showed that the addition of 2% of Novolac to binder to produce PMB represents the optimum option. The HMA with PMB Novolac 2% improves the Marshall Stability, Retained Marshall Stability, and TSR by 45%, 14% and 44% respectively. The very small amount of these additives compared with mix components and their reasonable price make them a superior and practical solution for premature failure of flexible pavement.

  16. Logging damage in thinned, young-growth true fir stands in California and recommendations for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Mike. Srago

    1983-01-01

    Logging-damage surveys and tree-dissection studies were made in commercially thinned, naturally established young-growth true fir stands in the Lassen National Forest in northern California. Significant damage occurred to residual trees in stands logged by conventional methods. Logging damage was substantially lower in stands thinned using techniques designed to reduce...

  17. Prevention of H2O2 Induced Oxidative Damages of Rat Testis by Thymus algeriensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi, Fatma; Beghalem, Hamida; Tyagi, Amit K; Ali, Manel Ben; Mouhoub, Ramla Ben; Bellamine, Houda; Landoulsi, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the effects of Thymus algeriensis (TEO) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxicity on body and testis weight, testis sperm count, testis lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats. Rats were treated with low (LD) and high dose (HD) of H2O2 (0.1 and 1 mmol/L) in the presence or absence of TEO (150 mg/kg). The results exhibited a significant decrease in body weight and testis weight, in total sperm number decrease (P<0.05), sperm motility and percentage of sperm viability, leading to complete arrest, in sperm flagellar beat frequency by the gavage of 1 mmol/L H2O2 compared to controls. The administration of H2O2 resulted in a significant reduction in testis GSH, GPx, CAT, SOD, and GST activity and significant increase (P<0.05) in MDA concentration compared with the untreated control animals. TEO pre-treatment protected testis from the H2O2 generated oxidative stress. These results were confirmed by histological architecture examinations. H2O2 has the ability to alter the sperm function, characteristics and development of testis. However, TEO is an efficient natural agent, which can prevent the testis from H2O2-induced oxidative damage in rats. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Benefits of Prenatal Taurine Supplementation in Preventing the Onset of Acute Damage in the Mdx Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Robert G; Horvath, Deanna; van der Poel, Chris; Murphy, Robyn M

    2017-09-22

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating muscle wasting disorder with no cure. Safer supplements and therapies are needed to improve the severity of symptoms, as severe side effects are associated with the only effective treatment, corticosteroids. The amino acid taurine has shown promise in ameliorating dystrophic symptoms in mdx mice, an animal model of DMD, however little work is in 21-28 (d)ay animals, the period of natural peak damage. This study compares the effect of prenatal taurine supplementation on tibialis anterior (TA) in situ contractile function, histopathological characteristics and the abundance of Ca 2+ -handling as well as pathologically relevant proteins in non-exercised mdx mice at 28 and 70 d. Supplementation elevated TA taurine content by 25% (peffects in SERCA1, calsequestrin 1 (CSQ1), CSQ2, utrophin and myogenin protein abundances were seen between both 28 and 70 d mdx and mdx taurine-supplemented mice. Considering these findings and that taurine is a relatively cost effective, readily accessible and side effect free dietary supplement, we propose further investigation into taurine supplementation during pregnancy in a protective capacity, reminiscent of folate in the prevention of spinal bifida.

  19. N-terminal truncated UCH-L1 prevents Parkinson's disease associated damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jung Kim

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1 has been proposed as one of the Parkinson's disease (PD related genes, but the possible molecular connection between UCH-L1 and PD is not well understood. In this study, we discovered an N-terminal 11 amino acid truncated variant UCH-L1 that we called NT-UCH-L1, in mouse brain tissue as well as in NCI-H157 lung cancer and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. In vivo experiments and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX with tandem mass spectrometry (MS studies showed that NT-UCH-L1 is readily aggregated and degraded, and has more flexible structure than UCH-L1. Post-translational modifications including monoubiquitination and disulfide crosslinking regulate the stability and cellular localization of NT-UCH-L1, as confirmed by mutational and proteomic studies. Stable expression of NT-UCH-L1 decreases cellular ROS levels and protects cells from H2O2, rotenone and CCCP-induced cell death. NT-UCH-L1-expressing transgenic mice are less susceptible to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons seen in the MPTP mouse model of PD, in comparison to control animals. These results suggest that NT-UCH-L1 may have the potential to prevent neural damage in diseases like PD.

  20. Toward sensitive graphene nanoribbon-nanopore devices by preventing electron beam-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puster, Matthew; Rodríguez-Manzo, Julio A; Balan, Adrian; Drndić, Marija

    2013-12-23

    Graphene-based nanopore devices are promising candidates for next-generation DNA sequencing. Here we fabricated graphene nanoribbon-nanopore (GNR-NP) sensors for DNA detection. Nanopores with diameters in the range 2-10 nm were formed at the edge or in the center of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), with widths between 20 and 250 nm and lengths of 600 nm, on 40 nm thick silicon nitride (SiN(x)) membranes. GNR conductance was monitored in situ during electron irradiation-induced nanopore formation inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) operating at 200 kV. We show that GNR resistance increases linearly with electron dose and that GNR conductance and mobility decrease by a factor of 10 or more when GNRs are imaged at relatively high magnification with a broad beam prior to making a nanopore. By operating the TEM in scanning TEM (STEM) mode, in which the position of the converged electron beam can be controlled with high spatial precision via automated feedback, we were able to prevent electron beam-induced damage and make nanopores in highly conducting GNR sensors. This method minimizes the exposure of the GNRs to the beam before and during nanopore formation. The resulting GNRs with unchanged resistances after nanopore formation can sustain microampere currents at low voltages (∼50 mV) in buffered electrolyte solution and exhibit high sensitivity, with a large relative change of resistance upon changes of gate voltage, similar to pristine GNRs without nanopores.

  1. Caffeine Prevents Blood Retinal Barrier Damage in a Model, In Vitro, of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Grazia; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Rasà, Daniela Maria; La Cognata, Valentina; Saccone, Salvatore; Federico, Concetta; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

    2017-08-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the major cause of vision loss in patients affected by diabetic retinopathy. Hyperglycemia and hypoxia represent the key elements in the progression of these pathologies, leading to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Caffeine, a psychoactive substance largely consumed in the world, is a nonselective antagonist of adenosine receptors (AR) and it possesses a protective effect in various diseases, including eye pathologies. Here, we have investigated the effect of this substance on BRB integrity following exposure to hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult. Retinal pigmented epithelial cells, ARPE-19, have been grown on semi-permeable supports mimicking an experimental model, in vitro, of outer BRB. Caffeine treatment has reduced cell monolayer permeability after exposure to high glucose and desferoxamine as shown by TEER and FITC-dextran permeability assays. This effect is also mediated through the restoration of membrane's tight junction expression, ZO-1. Moreover, we have demonstrated that caffeine is able to prevent outer BRB damage by inhibiting apoptotic cell death induced by hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult since it downregulates the proapoptotic Bax and upregulates the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 genes. Although further studies are needed to better comprise the beneficial effect of caffeine, we can speculate that it might be used as an innovative drug for DME treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2371-2379, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced

  3. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  4. Decrease in corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride by the addition of sericin into timolol maleate eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Norio; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of sericin on corneal damage due to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) used as a preservative in commercially available timolol maleate eye drops using rat debrided corneal epithelium and a human cornea epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Corneal wounds were monitored using a fundus camera TRC-50X equipped with a digital camera; eye drops were instilled into the rat eyes five times a day after corneal epithelial abrasion. The viability of HCE-T cells was calculated by TetraColor One; and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) were used to measure antimicrobial activity. The reducing effects on transcorneal penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye drops were determined using rabbits. The corneal wound healing rate and rate constants (kH) as well as cell viability were higher following treatment with 0.005% BAC solution containing 0.1% sericin than in the case of treatment with BAC solution alone; the antimicrobial activity was approximately the same for BAC solutions with and without sericin. In addition, the kH for rat eyes instilled with commercially available timolol maleate eye drops containing 0.1% sericin was significantly higher than that of eyes instilled with timolol maleate eye drops without sericin, and the addition of sericin did not affect the corneal penetration or IOP reducing effect of commercially available timolol maleate eye drops. A preservative system comprising BAC and sericin may provide effective therapy for glaucoma patients requiring long-term anti-glaucoma agents.

  5. Drunk driving among novice drivers, possible prevention with additional psychological module in driving school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic collisions caused by drunk driving pose a significant public health problem all over the world. Therefore additional preventive activities against drunk driving should be worked out. The aim of the study was to assess drunk driving in novice drivers after a psychological intervention taking into account also impulsivity, law obedience, and alcohol-related measures. An intervention study was started with 1889 car driver's license attempters during their driving school studies. Subjects were classified as intervention group (n=1083, mean age 23.1 (SD=7.4) years), control group (n=517, mean age 22.8 (SD=7.1) years) and "lost" group (n=289, mean age 23.0 (SD=6.9) years). "Lost" group subjects had been assigned into the intervention group, but they did not participate in the intervention. Subjects of the intervention group participated in a psychological intervention on the dangers of impulsive behavior in traffic. After a three year follow-up period it appeared that in the control group and in the lost group there was a significantly higher proportion of drunk drivers than in the intervention group, 3.3% (n=17), 3.5% (n=10) and 1.5% (n=10) (p=0.026), respectively. Survival analysis confirmed that psychological intervention had a significant impact on drunk driving (p=0.015), and the impact of the intervention was persistent also in the case of higher scores in Mild social deviance. In subjects with higher scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems the impact of short psychological intervention was not sufficient for preventing drunk driving. It can be concluded that psychological intervention used during the driving school studies is an effective primary prevention activity against drunk driving. However, for drivers with high scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems, the short psychological intervention is not sufficient in reducing drunk driving behavior.

  6. Physical exercise prevents short and long-term deficits on aversive and recognition memory and attenuates brain oxidative damage induced by maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ben-Hur; Menezes, Jefferson; Souza, Mauren Assis; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    It is known from previous research that physical exercise prevents long-term memory deficits induced by maternal deprivation in rats. But we could not assume similar effects of physical exercise on short-term memory, as short- and long-term memories are known to result from some different memory consolidation processes. Here we demonstrated that, in addition to long-term memory deficit, the short-term memory deficit resultant from maternal deprivation in object recognition and aversive memory tasks is also prevented by physical exercise. Additionally, one of the mechanisms by which the physical exercise influences the memory processes involves its effects attenuating the oxidative damage in the maternal deprived rats' hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  7. A new material to prevent urethral damage after implantation of artificial devices: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Vilar Correia Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To validate the application of the bacterial cellulose (BC membrane as a protecting barrier to the urethra. Materials and Methods Forty female Wistar rats (four groups of 10: Group 1 (sham, the urethra was dissected as in previous groups and nothing applied around; Group 2, received a 0.7cm strip of the BC applied around the urethra just below the bladder neck; Group 3, received a silicon strip with the same dimensions as in group 2; Group 4, had a combination of 2 and 3 groups being the silicon strip applied over the cellulosic material. Half of the animals in each group were killed at 4 and 8 months. Bladder and urethra were fixed in formalin for histological analysis. Results Inflammatory infiltrates were more intense at 4 months at lymphonodes (80% Grade 2, statistically different in the group 2 compared with groups 1 (p=0.0044 and 3 (p=0.0154. At 8 months, all samples were classified as grade 1 indicating a less intense inflammatory reaction in all groups. In group 2, at 8 months, there was a reduction in epithelial thickness (30±1μm when com-pared to groups 1 (p=0.0001 and 3 (p<0.0001. Angiogenesis was present in groups 2 and 4 and absent in group 3. In BC implant, at 4 and 8 months, it was significant when comparing groups 4 with 1 (p=0.0159. Conclusion BC membrane was well integrated to the urethral wall promoting tissue remodeling and strengthening based on morphometric and histological results and may be a future option to prevent urethral damage.

  8. Tempol prevents cardiac oxidative damage and left ventricular dysfunction in the PPAR-α KO mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellich, Aziz; Damy, Thibaud; Conti, Marc; Claes, Victor; Samuel, Jane-Lise; Pineau, Thierry; Lecarpentier, Yves; Coirault, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α deletion induces a profound decrease in MnSOD activity, leading to oxidative stress and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that treatment of PPAR-α knockout (KO) mice with the SOD mimetic tempol prevents the heart from pathological remodelling and preserves LV function. Twenty PPAR-α KO mice and 20 age-matched wild-type mice were randomly treated for 8 wk with vehicle or tempol in the drinking water. LV contractile parameters were determined both in vivo using echocardiography and ex vivo using papillary muscle mechanics. Translational and posttranslational modifications of myosin heavy chain protein as well as the expression and activity of major antioxidant enzymes were measured. Tempol treatment did not affect LV function in wild-type mice; however, in PPAR-α KO mice, tempol prevented the decrease in LV ejection fraction and restored the contractile parameters of papillary muscle, including maximum shortening velocity, maximum extent of shortening, and total tension. Moreover, compared with untreated PPAR-α KO mice, myosin heavy chain tyrosine nitration and anion superoxide production were markedly reduced in PPAR-α KO mice after treatment. Tempol also significantly increased glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities (~ 50%) in PPAR-α KO mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that treatment with the SOD mimetic tempol can prevent cardiac dysfunction in PPAR-α KO mice by reducing the oxidation of contractile proteins. In addition, we show that the beneficial effects of tempol in PPAR-α KO mice involve activation of the glutathione peroxidase/glutathione reductase system.

  9. Resveratrol attenuates radiation damage in Caenorhabditis elegans by preventing oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Kan; Gu Guixiong; Ji Chenbo; Ni Yuhui; Chen Xiaohui; Guo Xirong; Lu Xiaowei; Gao Chunlin; Zhao Yaping

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol, a member of a class of polyphenolic compounds known as flavonols, has been extensively studied for its anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective roles. Caenorhabidits elegans is a well-established animal for investigating responses to radiation. We found that resveratrol may provide protection against hazardous radiation. Pre-treatment with resveratrol extended both the maximum and mean life span of irradiated C. elegans. Resveratrol acted as a strong radical scavenger and regulated superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression. In addition, resveratrol was shown to be capable of alleviating γ-ray radiation exposure-induced reduction in mitochondrial SOD expression. Ultimately, a correlation may exist between dietary intake of trace amounts of resveratrol and anti-aging effects. A specific response mechanism may be activated after the administration of resveratrol in irradiated animals. Our results suggest the protective effect of resveratrol is due to its strong ability to protect from oxidative stress and protective effects in mitochondria. Therefore, resveratrol is potentially an effective protecting agent against irradiative damage. (author)

  10. Prevention of retrosternal adhesion by novel biocompatible glue derived from food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Tetsuya; Masumoto, Hidetoshi; Kotani, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Tadashi; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2013-11-01

    Postoperative retrosternal adhesion increases the risk of cardiac injury during cardiac reoperation. We created a novel biodegradable glue called "Lydex" that is derived from food additives. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this new biomaterial's biocompatibility and its preventive effect on retrosternal adhesion. We performed a median sternotomy and anterior pericardiectomy on Japanese white rabbits, and then closed the chest (control, group 1; n = 12), implanted an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane (group 2; n = 12), or applied Lydex (group 3; n = 12) before closure. After 4 weeks, we evaluated macroscopic adhesion (each group; n = 6) and microscopic findings for fibrosis and macrophage infiltration (each group; n = 6). In group 3, the retrosternal adhesion score was significantly lower than in group 1 (P = .0022). There was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. The fibrotic area ratio was significantly lower in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (P < .001 vs group 1; P < .001 vs group 2). In group 3, the macrophage count was significantly lower than in group 2 (P < .001) and almost equal to that in group 1. Our findings indicate that Lydex reduces retrosternal adhesion and attenuates the progression of fibrosis with excellent biocompatibility. Lydex is a next-generation substance for safer cardiac reoperation, with excellent capability for preventing adhesion, biocompatible and biodegradable properties, and lower potential for viral infections related to human plasma or other animal-derived products. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using prophylactic antioxidants to prevent noise-induced hearing damage in young adults: a protocol for a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Annick; Ihtijarevic, Berina; Wouters, Kristien; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2014-04-05

    During leisure activities young people are often exposed to excessive noise levels resulting in an increase of noise-induced symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis. Noise-induced tinnitus is often perceived after loud music exposure and provides an important marker for overexposure as a temporary threshold shift that is often not experienced by the individual itself. As oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of noise-induced hearing loss, the use of antioxidants to prevent hearing damage has recently become the subject of research. This study proposes a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial to assess the effects of a prophylactic combination of N-acetylcysteine (600 mg) and magnesium (200 mg) prior to leisure noise exposure in young adults. The primary outcome measure is the tinnitus loudness scored by a visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary outcome measures are the differences in audiological measurements for the antioxidant treatments compared to placebo intake. Audiological testing comprising of pure tone audiometry including frequencies up to 16 kHz, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and speech-in-noise testing will be performed prior to and within 7 hours after noise exposure. By use of a mixed effects statistical model, the effects of antioxidants compared to placebo intake will be assessed. As adolescents and young adults often do not use hearing protection while being exposed to loud music, the use of preventive antioxidant intake may provide a useful and harmless way to prevent noise-induced hearing damage in this population. Furthermore, when exposed to hazardous noise levels the protection provided by hearing protectors might not be sufficient to prevent hearing damage and antioxidants may provide additive otoprotective effects. Previous research mainly focused on occupational noise exposure. The present study provides a protocol to assess the

  12. Prevention of alcohol-induced DNA damage by a proprietary glycyrrhizin/D-mannitol product: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigurupati, Harsha; Auddy, Biswajit; Biyani, Manish; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; Stohs, Sidney J

    2017-11-06

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a proprietary combination of glycyrrhizin and D-mannitol to protect against oxidative damage to DNA associated with acute alcohol consumption by human subjects in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over designed study. Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with numerous diseases. Alcohol has been shown to generate reactive oxygen species that can result in DNA damage, leading to genetic and epigenetic changes. A total of 25 subjects (13 male and 12 female) were enrolled. Alcohol intake in the form of vodka (40% ethanol) was adjusted based on 1.275 g of 100% ethanol/kg body weight for men and 1.020 g/kg body weight for women, which was consumed with and without the study product. Blood samples were drawn at 2 h after alcohol consumption, lymphocytes were isolated, and were subjected to DNA comet electrophoresis on a blinded basis. Acute alcohol consumption increased lymphocyte DNA damage by approximately 8.36%. Co-consumption of the glycyrrhizin/D-mannitol study product with alcohol reduced DNA damage to baseline levels. No adverse effects were associated with use of the study product, and no differences were observed in blood alcohol concentrations in the presence or absence of the study product in males and females. Acute alcohol ingestion resulted in measurable increases in DNA damage, which were prevented by the addition of the proprietary glycyrrhizin/D-mannitol (NTX ® ) study product to the alcohol, suggesting that the tissue-damaging effects of alcohol consumption can be ameliorated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An additional measurement of glycated albumin can help prevent missed diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingxing; Ying, Lingwen; Ma, Xiaojing; Shen, Yun; Su, Hang; Peng, Jiahui; Wang, Yufei; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-12-01

    In subjects who present a first fasting plasma glucose (FPG 1 ) ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes, diagnosis of diabetes will likely be missed without an additional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Chinese population. Recent studies have shown that glycated albumin (GA) has advantages in reflecting postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether additional measurement of GA could reduce the rate of missed diagnosis of diabetes. A total of 1287 participants (711 men, 576 women) with a FPG 1 ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes were enrolled and underwent a 75-g OGTT. Serum GA was measured by a liquid enzyme method. Diabetes was diagnosed based on the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. A total of 992 (77.08%) participants were diagnosed diabetes by OGTT and glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ). The diagnostic validity of 2-h postload plasma glucose (2hPG) was superior to other glycemic index (the diagnostic sensitivity of 2hPG, HbA 1c , the second FPG (FPG 2 ) was 87.50%, 73.99%, 63.21%, respectively). Without 2hPG after OGTT, repeat testing of FPG 2 alone would result in missed diagnosis of 36.79% of diabetic participants, whereas testing FPG 2 with HbA 1c was associated with a missed diagnosis rate of 14.31%. While using the combined criteria of FPG 2 ≥7.0mmol/l and/or HbA 1c ≥6.5% and/or GA≥17.1%, the rate of missed diagnosis was merely 9.48%. That is, the rate of missed diagnosis was reduced by 33.75% with the addition of GA measurement. The k value reflecting the consistency of diagnosis between the FPG 2 and/or HbA 1c and/or GA criteria and the 2010 ADA criteria was 0.788. For subjects with FPG 1 ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes, additional measurement of GA can help prevent missed diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Poly(Adp-ribose) synthetase inhibition prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced peroxynitrite mediated damage in diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdülger, Ali; Cinel, Ismail; Unlü, Ali; Cinel, Leyla; Mavioglu, Ilhan; Tamer, Lülüfer; Atik, Ugur; Oral, Ugur

    2002-07-01

    Although the precise mechanism by which sepsis causes impairment of respiratory muscle contractility has not been fully elucidated, oxygen-derived free radicals are thought to play an important role. In our experimental study, the effects of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on the diaphragmatic Ca(2+)-ATPase, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels and additionally histopathology of the diaphragm in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia are investigated.Thirty-two male Wistar rats, weighing between 180-200 g were randomly divided into four groups. The first group (control; n=8) received saline solution and the second (LPS group; n=8) 10 mgkg(-1) LPS i.p. 3-Aminobenzamide (3-AB) as a PARS inhibitor; was given to the third group (C+3-AB, n=8) 20 min before administration of saline solution while the fourth group (LPS+3-AB, n=8) received 3-AB 20 min before LPS injection. Six hours later, under ketamin/xylasine anesthesia diapraghmatic specimens were obtained and the rats were decapitated. Diaphragmatic specimens were divided into four parts, three for biochemical analyses and one for histopathologic assessment. In the LPS group, tissue Ca(2+)-ATPase levels were found to be decreased and tissue MDA and 3-NT levels were found to be increased (P<0.05). In the LPS+3-AB group, 3-AB pretreatment inhibited the increase in MDA and 3-NT levels and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity remained similar to those in the control group (P<0.05). Histopathologic examination of diaphragm showed edema between muscle fibers only in LPS group. PARS inhibition with 3-AB prevented not only lipid peroxidation but also the decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in endotoxemia. These results highlights the importance of nitric oxide (NO)-peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-PARS pathway in preventing free radical mediated injury. PARS inhibitors should further be investigated as a new thearapetic alternative in sepsis treatment.

  15. Ketogenic diet in a patient with congenital hyperinsulinism: a novel approach to prevent brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Arianna; Manganozzi, Lucilla; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Bernabei, Silvia; Gallo, Giorgia; Cusmai, Raffaella; Caviglia, Stefania; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2015-09-24

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most frequent cause of hypoglycemia in children. In addition to increased peripheral glucose utilization, dysregulated insulin secretion induces profound hypoglycemia and neuroglycopenia by inhibiting glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. This results in the shortage of all cerebral energy substrates (glucose, lactate and ketones), and can lead to severe neurological sequelae. Patients with CHI unresponsive to medical treatment can be subjected to near-total pancreatectomy with increased risk of secondary diabetes. Ketogenic diet (KD), by reproducing a fasting-like condition in which body fuel mainly derives from beta-oxidation, is intended to provide alternative cerebral substrates such ketone bodies. We took advantage of known protective effect of KD on neuronal damage associated with GLUT1 deficiency, a disorder of impaired glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, and administered KD in a patient with drug-unresponsive CHI, with the aim of providing to neurons an energy source alternative to glucose. A child with drug-resistant, long-standing CHI caused by a spontaneous GCK activating mutation (p.Val455Met) suffered from epilepsy and showed neurodevelopmental abnormalities. After attempting various therapeutic regimes without success, near-total pancreatectomy was suggested to parents, who asked for other options. Therefore, we proposed KD in combination with insulin-suppressing drugs. We administered KD for 2 years. Soon after the first six months, the patient was free of epileptic crises, presented normalization of EEG, and showed a marked recover in psychological development and quality of life. KD could represent an effective treatment to support brain function in selected cases of CHI.

  16. Blood flow restriction prevents muscle damage but not protein synthesis signaling following eccentric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Mizuki; Ando, Soichi; Poole, David C; Kano, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that resistance training exercise combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) increases muscle size and strength in humans. Eccentric contraction (ECC) frequently induces severe muscle damage. However, it is not known whether and to what extent muscle damage occurs following ECC + BFR due to the difficulty of conducting definitive invasive studies. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle fiber damage following ECC + BFR at the cellular level. High-intensity ECC was purposefully selected to maximize the opportunity for muscle damage and hypertrophic signaling in our novel in vivo animal model. Male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to the following groups: ECC and ECC + BFR at varying levels of occlusion pressure (140, 160, and 200 Torr). In all conditions, electrical stimulation was applied to the dorsiflexor muscles simultaneously with electromotor-induced plantar flexion. We observed severe histochemical muscle fiber damage (area of damaged fibers/total fiber area analyzed) following ECC (26.4 ± 4.0%). Surprisingly, however, muscle damage was negligible following ECC + BFR140 (2.6 ± 1.2%), ECC+BFR160 (3.0 ± 0.5%), and ECC + BFR200 (0.2 ± 0.1%). Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation, a downstream target of rapamycin (mTOR)-phosphorylation kinase, increased following ECC + BFR200 as well as ECC. In contrast, S6K1 phosphorylation was not altered by BFR alone. The present findings suggest that ECC combined with BFR, even at high exercise intensities, may enhance muscle protein synthesis without appreciable muscle fiber damage. PMID:26149281

  17. Evaluation of Anti- Bacteriophage as Feed Additives to Prevent (SE in Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate anti-Salmonella enteritidis (anti-SE bacteriophage as feed additives to prevent Salmonella enteritidis in broilers. The experimental diets were formulated for 2 phases feeding trial, and 3 different levels (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% of anti-SE bacteriophage were supplemented in basal diet. The basal diet was regarded as the control treatment. A total of 320 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308 were allotted by randomized complete block (RCB design in 8 replicates with 10 chicks per pen. All birds were raised on rice hull bedding in ambient controlled environment and free access to feed and water. There were no significant differences in body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR at terminal period among treatments (p>0.05. Relative weights of liver, spleen, abdominal fat and tissue muscle of breast obtained from each anti-SE bacteriophage treatment were similar to control, with a slightly higher value in anti-SE bacteriophage 0.2%. In addition, a numerical difference of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT and LDL cholesterol level was observed in the 0.2% anti-SE bacteriophage application even though blood profiles were not significantly affected by supplemented levels of anti-SE bacteriophage (p>0.05. In the result of a 14 d record after Salmonella enteritidis challenge of 160 birds from 4 previous treatments, mortality was linearly decreased with increasing anti-SE bacteriophage level (p<0.05, and Salmonella enteritidis concentration in the cecum was decreased with increasing levels of anti-SE bacteriophage (p<0.05. Based on the results of this study, it is considered that supplementation of 0.2% anti-SE bacteriophage may not cause any negative effect on growth, meat production, and it reduces mortality after Salmonella enteritidis challenge. These results imply to a possible use of anti-SE bacteriophage as an alternative feed additive instead of antibiotics

  18. Use of grafting to prevent Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage to new world Meliaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Julian; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Hilje, Luko; Tripepi, Robert R; Aguilar, Maria E; Mesen, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The susceptible species Cedrela odorata and Swietenia macrophylla to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) larvae were grafted onto the resistant species Khaya senegalensis and Toona ciliata. Six-month-old grafted plants were then compared to their reciprocal grafts and to both intact (non-grafted) and autografted plants for damage due to H. grandella larvae and for their effects on larval performance. Two experiments were conducted: one in which the apical bud of the main plant shoot was inoculated with H. grandella eggs, and the other in which the bud was inoculated with third instars. Damage in each experiment was assessed by the number of frass piles, number and length of tunnels, number of damaged leaves, and damage to the apical bud. Larval performance was evaluated in terms of time to reach pupation and pupal weight and length. In both experiments, plant damage differed significantly among treatments (P < 0.03). Resistant rootstocks conferred resistance to susceptible scions. In both experiments, grafting by itself, regardless of the rootstock and scion combination, also reduced damage caused by H. grandella larvae. Scions of autografted susceptible species had similar resistance to susceptible scions grafted on resistant rootstocks. Few larvae reached pupation, and their pupal weight and length were similar.

  19. Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage: prevention by enteric-coating and relation to prostaglandin synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, A B; Mahida, Y R; Cole, A T; Hawkey, C J

    1991-01-01

    1. Gastric damage induced by low-dose aspirin and the protective effect of enteric-coating was assessed in healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial using Latin square design. Each was administered placebo, plain aspirin 300 mg daily, plain aspirin 600 mg four times daily, enteric-coated aspirin 300 mg daily, or enteric-coated aspirin 600 mg four times daily for 5 days. Gastric damage was assessed endoscopically, and gastric mucosal bleeding measured. 2. Aspirin...

  20. Preventing Long-Term Cardiac Damage in Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelly

    Kawasaki disease is currently the leading cause of long-term cardiac damage in pediatric patients in the United States. Kawasaki disease is diagnosed based on symptomatology and by ruling out other etiology. There is a significant need for an improved, standardized treatment protocol for patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease and a more rapid initiation of treatment for these patients. Decreasing the cardiac damage caused by Kawasaki disease with timely diagnosis and treatment needs be a principal goal. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Galectin-1 Prevents Infection and Damage Induced by Trypanosoma cruzi on Cardiac Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, Alejandro F.; García, Gabriela A.; Bua, Jacqeline; Cerliani, Juan P.; Postan, Miriam; Tasso, Laura M.; Scaglione, Jorge; Stupirski, Juan C.; Toscano, Marta A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is the result of a pathologic process starting during the acute phase of parasite infection. Among different factors, the specific recognition of glycan structures by glycan-binding proteins from the parasite or from the mammalian host cells may play a critical role in the evolution of the infection. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we investigated the contribution of galectin–1 (Gal–1), an endogenous glycan-binding protein abundantly expressed in human and mouse heart, to the pathophysiology of T. cruzi infection, particularly in the context of cardiac pathology. We found that exposure of HL–1 cardiac cells to Gal–1 reduced the percentage of infection by two different T. cruzi strains, Tulahuén (TcVI) and Brazil (TcI). In addition, Gal–1 prevented exposure of phosphatidylserine and early events in the apoptotic program by parasite infection on HL–1 cells. These effects were not mediated by direct interaction with the parasite surface, suggesting that Gal–1 may act through binding to host cells. Moreover, we also observed that T. cruzi infection altered the glycophenotype of cardiac cells, reducing binding of exogenous Gal–1 to the cell surface. Consistent with these data, Gal–1 deficient (Lgals1 -/-) mice showed increased parasitemia, reduced signs of inflammation in heart and skeletal muscle tissues, and lower survival rates as compared to wild-type (WT) mice in response to intraperitoneal infection with T. cruzi Tulahuén strain. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that Gal–1 modulates T. cruzi infection of cardiac cells, highlighting the relevance of galectins and their ligands as regulators of host-parasite interactions. PMID:26451839

  2. Prevention of Cold Damage to Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Tinus; Mary Anne Sword; James P. Barnett

    2002-01-01

    When longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings are container-grown in open fields, their roots may be exposed to damaging, cold temperatures. Major losses in some nurseries have occurred. Between November 1996 and February 1997, we measured the cold hardiness of container-grown longleaf pine roots by measuring electrolyte leakage (a) of...

  3. The use of nano-quercetin to arrest mitochondrial damage and MMP-9 upregulation during prevention of gastric inflammation induced by ethanol in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somsuta; Stalin, Sami; Das, Nirmalendu; Choudhury, Somsubhra Thakur; Ghosh, Swarupa; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2012-04-01

    Gastric ulcer is a multifaceted process that involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, extracellular matrix degradation and mitochondrial damage. Mitochondria play a crucial role for homeostasis of ROS and cell survival. In our study, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of polymeric nanocapsuled quercetin (NQC) over the free quercetin (QC) molecule in prevention of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rat. NQC possessed significantly higher efficacy (~20 fold) than free QC while preventing gastric ulcers. Our data show that prior administration of NQC and/or QC significantly blocked synthesis and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 as well as infiltration of inflammatory cells and oxidative damage in rat gastric tissues. As compared to free QC, NQC protected much better the mitochondrial integrity and size along with mitochondrial functions by controlling succinate dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase in rat gastric tissues. In addition, both free QC and NQC down regulated PARP-1 as well as apoptosis during protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Herein, the effect of NQC was greater than QC on expression of enzymes like cyclooxygenase and nitric oxidase synthase (NOS)-2. We conclude that NQC with greater bioavailability offers significantly higher potency in downregulating MMP-9 and NOS-2 as well as oxidative stress in blocking ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short term feeding of a high fat diet exerts an additive effect on hepatocellular damage and steatosis in liver-specific PTEN knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatospecific deletion of PTEN results in constitutive activation of Akt and increased lipogenesis. In mice, the addition of a high fat diet (HFD) downregulates lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a HFD on hepatocellular damage induced by deletion of PTEN. Twelve-week...

  5. Targeted Delivery of Neutralizing Anti-C5 Antibody to Renal Endothelium Prevents Complement-Dependent Tissue Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Durigutto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation is largely implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical conditions and its therapeutic neutralization has proven effective in preventing tissue and organ damage. A problem that still needs to be solved in the therapeutic control of complement-mediated diseases is how to avoid side effects associated with chronic neutralization of the complement system, in particular, the increased risk of infections. We addressed this issue developing a strategy based on the preferential delivery of a C5 complement inhibitor to the organ involved in the pathologic process. To this end, we generated Ergidina, a neutralizing recombinant anti-C5 human antibody coupled with a cyclic-RGD peptide, with a distinctive homing property for ischemic endothelial cells and effective in controlling tissue damage in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. As a result of its preferential localization on renal endothelium, the molecule induced complete inhibition of complement activation at tissue level, and local protection from complement-mediated tissue damage without affecting circulating C5. The ex vivo binding of Ergidina to surgically removed kidney exposed to cold ischemia supports its therapeutic use to prevent posttransplant IRI leading to delay of graft function. Moreover, the finding that the ex vivo binding of Ergidina was not restricted to the kidney, but was also seen on ischemic heart, suggests that this RGD-targeted anti-C5 antibody may represent a useful tool to treat organs prior to transplantation. Based on this evidence, we propose preliminary data showing that Ergidina is a novel targeted drug to prevent complement activation on the endothelium of ischemic kidney.

  6. Albumin administration prevents neurological damage and death in a mouse model of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodret, Simone; Bortolussi, Giulia; Schreuder, Andrea B.; Jasprova, Jana; Vitek, Libor; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Muro, Andres F.

    2015-01-01

    Therapies to prevent severe neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus are phototherapy and, in unresponsive cases, exchange transfusion, which has significant morbidity and mortality risks. Neurotoxicity is caused by the fraction of unconjugated bilirubin not bound to albumin (free

  7. Ganoderma extract prevents albumin-induced oxidative damage and chemokines synthesis in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kar Neng; Chan, Loretta Y Y; Tang, Sydney C W; Leung, Joseph C K

    2006-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Ganoderma or lingzhi) is widely used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity. Recent studies have indicated that components extracted from Ganoderma have a wide range of pharmacological actions including suppressing inflammation and scavenging free radicals. We recently reported that tubular secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) induced by albumin is important in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial injury in the proteinuric state. In this study, we explored the protective effect of Ganoderma extract (LZ) on albumin-induced kidney epithelial injury. Growth arrested human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) were incubated with 0.625 to 10 mg/ml human serum albumin (HSA) for up to 72 h. HSA induced DNA damage and apoptosis in PTEC in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Co-incubation of PTEC with 4-64 microg/ml LZ significantly reduced the oxidative damage and cytotoxic effect of HSA in a dose-dependent manner (PGanoderma (16 microg/ml). To explore the components of LZ that exhibited most protective effect in HSA-induced PTEC damages, LZ was further separated into two sub-fractions, LZF1 (MW effective in reducing sICAM-1 released from HSA-activated PTEC whereas the high molecular weight LZ (unfractionated LZ) was more effective in diminishing IL-8 production. Our results suggest that Ganoderma significantly reduces oxidative damages and apoptosis in PTEC induced by HSA. The differential reduction of IL-8 or sICAM-1 released from HSA-activated PTEC by different components of the LZ implicates that components of Ganoderma with different molecular weights could play different roles and operate different mechanisms in preventing HSA-induced PTEC damage.

  8. Treatment with metallothionein prevents demyelination and axonal damage and increases oligodendrocyte precursors and tissue repair during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2003-01-01

    and neuroprotective proteins that are expressed during EAE and MS. We have shown recently that exogenous administration of Zn-MT-II to Lewis rats with EAE significantly reduced clinical symptoms and the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of the infiltrated central nervous system areas. We show...... for the first time that Zn-MT-II treatment during EAE significantly prevents demyelination and axonal damage and transection, and stimulates oligodendroglial regeneration from precursor cells, as well as the expression of the growth factors basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor (TGF...

  9. Piezosurgery prevents brain tissue damage: an experimental study on a new rat model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, G.; Foltán, R.; Burian, M.; Horká, E.; Adámek, S.; Hejčl, Aleš; Hanzelka, T.; Šedý, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 8 (2011), s. 840-844 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : piezosurgery * brain * tissue damage Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2011

  10. Iron chelation or anti-oxidants prevent renal cell damage in the rewarming phase after normoxic, but not hypoxic cold incubation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Stringer, M.; Verpalen, J.T.M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Kramers, C.

    2007-01-01

    It has now been firmly established that, not only ischemia/reperfusion, but also cold itself causes damage during kidney transplantation. Iron chelators or anti-oxidants applied during the cold plus rewarming phase are able to prevent this damage. At present, it is unknown if these measures act only

  11. Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) anthocyanins: preventive effect on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage and dealcoholic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Liu, Xingli; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang

    2014-03-19

    This study aimed to investigate the dealcoholic effect and preventive effect of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (PSPAs) on acute and subacute alcoholic liver damage (ALD). Seven-week-old male inbred mice were grouped into five groups: control group (without PSPAs and ethanol treatments), model group (with ethanol treatment only), low-dose group (50 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), middle-dose group (125 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), and high-dose group (375 mg PSPAs/kg body weight), and the mice in all groups were administered intragastrically. Biochemical parameters of serum and liver were determined, and the histopathological changes of liver tissue were also analyzed. Results showed that all tested parameters were ameliorated after consumption of PSPAs. Therefore, PSPAs have preventive effect on acute and subacute ALD. It is suggested that PSPAs could be used as a supplementary reagent during prophylactic and curative managements of ALD.

  12. A PILOT STUDY OF HYDROXYUREA TO PREVENT CHRONIC ORGAN DAMAGE IN YOUNG CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Courtney D.; Dixon, Natalia; Burgett, Shelly; Mortier, Nicole A.; Schultz, William H.; Zimmerman, Sherri A.; Bonner, Melanie; Hardy, Kristina K.; Calatroni, Agustin; Ware, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxyurea improves laboratory parameters and prevents acute clinical complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA) in children and adults, but its effects on organ function remain incompletely defined. Methods To assess the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in young children with SCA and to prospectively assess kidney and brain function, 14 young children (mean age 35 months) received hydroxyurea at a mean maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 28 mg/kg/day. Results After a mean of 25 months, expected laboratory effects included significant increases in hemoglobin, MCV and %HbF along with significant decreases in reticulocytes, absolute neutrophil count, and bilirubin. There was no significant increase in glomerular filtration rate by DTPA clearance or Schwartz estimate. Mean transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity changes were −25.6 cm/sec (phydroxyurea at MTD is well-tolerated by both children and families, and may prevent chronic organ damage in young children with SCA. PMID:19061213

  13. Carnitine prevents the early mitochondrial damage induced by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikula, P; Ruohola, H; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Jänne, J

    1985-06-01

    We previously found that the anti-cancer drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (mitoguazone) depresses carnitine-dependent oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured mouse leukaemia cells [Nikula, Alhonen-Hongisto, Seppänen & Jänne (1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120, 9-14]. We have now investigated whether carnitine also influences the development of the well-known mitochondrial damage produced by the drug in L1210 leukaemia cells. Palmitate oxidation was distinctly inhibited in tumour cells exposed to 5 microM-methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) for only 7 h. Electron-microscopic examination of the drug-exposed cells revealed that more than half of the mitochondria were severely damaged. Similar exposure of the leukaemia cells to the drug in the presence of carnitine not only abolished the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation but almost completely prevented the drug-induced mitochondrial damage. The protection provided by carnitine appeared to depend on the intracellular concentration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), since the mitochondria-sparing effect disappeared at higher drug concentrations.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing; Ultrafiolett straaling, solskader og forebygging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-03-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  15. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must an operator take? 192.935 Section 192.935 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... measures must an operator take? (a) General requirements. An operator must take additional measures beyond... consequence area and enhance public safety. Such additional measures include, but are not limited to...

  16. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor, Allopurinol, Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Myocardial Damage in Isoproterenol Induced Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effect of allopurinol on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in aged rats. Twelve- to fourteen-month-old male Long Evans rats were divided into three groups: control, ISO, and ISO + allopurinol. At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed for blood and organ sample collection to evaluate biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers analyses. Histopathological examinations were also conducted to assess inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Our investigation revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers were significantly increased while the level of cellular antioxidants, catalase activity, and glutathione concentration in ISO induced rats decreased. Treatment with allopurinol to ISO induced rats prevented the elevated activities of AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes, and the levels of lipid peroxidation products and increased reduced glutathione concentration. ISO induced rats also showed massive inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Furthermore, allopurinol treatment prevented the inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in ISO induced rats. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that allopurinol treatment is capable of protecting heart of ISO induced myocardial infarction in rats probably by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis.

  17. Dealing with flood damages : will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suykens, C.B.R.; Priest, Sally; van Doorn - Hoekveld, W.J.; Thuillier, Thomas; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks.

  18. Chlorogenic Acid Prevents Alcohol-induced Brain Damage in Neonatal Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zikang; Li, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation evaluates the neuroprotective effect of chlorogenic acid (CA) in alcohol-induced brain damage in neonatal rats. Ethanol (12 % v/v, 5 g/kg) was administered orally in the wistar rat pups on postnatal days (PD) 7-9. Chlorogenic acid (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered continuously from PD 6 to 28. Cognitive function was estimated by Morris water maze (MWM) test. However, activity of acetylcholinesterase, inflammatory mediators, parameters of oxidative stress and activity of caspase-3 enzyme was estimated in the tissue homogenate of cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ethanol-exposed pups. It has been observed that treatment with CA attenuates the altered cognitive function in ethanol-exposed pups. There was a significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the CA treated group compared to the negative control group. However, treatment with CA significantly ameliorates the increased oxidative stress and concentration of inflammatory mediators in the brain tissues of ethanol-exposed pups. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was also found significantly decreased in the CA treated group compared to the negative control group. The present study concludes that CA attenuates the neuronal damage induced in alcohol exposed neonatal rat by decreasing the apoptosis of neuronal cells. PMID:29318034

  19. Screening of plant resources with anti-ice nucleation activity for frost damage prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Fukuda, Satoshi; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that some polyphenols have anti-ice nucleation activity (anti-INA) against ice-nucleating bacteria that contribute to frost damage. In the present study, leaf disk freezing assay, a test of in vitro application to plant leaves, was performed for the screening of anti-INA, which inhibits the ice nucleation activity of an ice-nucleating bacterium Erwinia ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. The application of polyphenols with anti-INA, kaempferol 7-O-β-glucoside and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, to the leaf disk freezing assay by cooling at -4--6 °C for 3 h, revealed that both the compounds showed anti-INAs against E. ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. Further, this assay also revealed that the extracts of five plant leaves showed high anti-INA against E. ananas in water droplets on leaf surfaces, indicating that they are the candidate resources to protect crops from frost damage.

  20. Failure of Stainless Steel Welds Due to Microstructural Damage Prevented by In Situ Metallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Salgado Lopez

    Full Text Available Abstract In stainless steels, microstructural damage is caused by precipitation of chromium carbides or sigma phase. These microconstituents are detrimental in stainless steel welds because they lead to weld decay. Nevertheless, they are prone to appear in the heat affected zone (HAZ microstructure of stainless steel welds. This is particularly important for repairs of industrial components made of austenitic stainless steel. Non-destructive metallography can be applied in welding repairs of AISI 304 stainless steel components where it is difficult to ensure that no detrimental phase is present in the HAZ microstructure. The need of microstructural inspection in repairs of AISI 304 is caused because it is not possible to manufacture coupons for destructive metallography, with which the microstructure can be analyzed. In this work, it is proposed to apply in situ metallography as non-destructive testing in order to identify microstructural damage in the microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel welds. The results of this study showed that the external surface micrographs of the weldment are representative of HAZ microstructure of the stainless steel component; because they show the presence of precipitated metallic carbides in the grain boundaries or sigma phase in the microstructure of the HAZ.

  1. Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy’s Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Bibi R.; El-Fawal, Hassan A. N.; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2015-01-01

    This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients. PMID:26694370

  2. Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy's Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Bibi R; El-Fawal, Hassan A N; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-12-17

    This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients.

  3. Date (Phoenix dactylifera Polyphenolics and Other Bioactive Compounds: A Traditional Islamic Remedy’s Potential in Prevention of Cell Damage, Cancer Therapeutics and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi R. Yasin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes current studies of the therapeutic effects of Phoenix dactylifera, or date palm fruit, on the physiologic system. Specifically, we sought to summarize the effects of its application in preventing cell damage, improving cancer therapeutics and reducing damage caused by conventional chemotherapy. Phoenix dactylifera exhibits potent anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo. This allows the fruit to prevent depletion of intrinsic protection from oxidative cell damage and assist these defense systems in reducing cell damage. Macroscopically, this mechanism may be relevant to the prevention of various adverse drug events common to chemotherapy including hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, gastrotoxicity, and peripheral neuropathy. While such effects have only been studied in small animal systems, research suggests a potential application to more complex mammalian systems and perhaps a solution to some problems of chemotherapy in hepato-compromised and nephro-compromised patients.

  4. The experimental study of the preventional effects of drugs to lung radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Naoaki

    1977-01-01

    The author experimented on effects of Cepharanthin (CR) and Urokinase (UK) on the lung of rabbits to which 60 Co was irradiated by dividing a total dose of 10,000R into 500R a day. The rabbits irradiated were divided into 3 groups: a group administered ''CR'' (Group A), a group administered ''UK'' (Group B) and a control group (Group C). Body weight, leukocytes and chest x-ray findings were examined, and macroscopic and microscopic findings were discussed immediately and 3 months after irradiation. CR was effective in preventing the decrease of leukocytes and body weight. In the case of 5000R irradiation, an abnormal shadow was not recognized, but in the case of 10,000R irradiation, radiation pneumonitis began to appear immediately after the irradiation, and heart dilation and the shift of mediastinum on the side of irradiation were observed 3 months after that. In Group C, adhesion, hydropericardium and bleeding lesion were observed. In Groups A and B, the preventive effects were noted macroscopically. Group A seemed to show more significant results. In this group, the infiltration of the cells, and the appearance of foamy cells and eosinophyl cells which are characteristic of lung radiation disease were less observed than those in the other groups, and therefore, Group A showed more preventive effect upon inflammation than the other groups. In Group B, the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel tended to be improved 3 months after irradiation. Microthrombosis was not recognized, either. From these results, CR was effective in decreasing the infiltration of the cells, and UK was effective in decreasing the thickness of the wall of the blood vessel and in forming thromboses. Thus, these drugs should be used simultaneously because they had different reaction to the prevention of lung radiation disease. (J.P.N.)

  5. To Investigate the Effect of Colchicine in Prevention of Adhesions Caused by Serosal Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Adhesion formation is a process which starts with an inflammation caused by a number of factors and eventually results in fibrosis. Colchicine prevents adhesion formation which is antifibrous process. The effectivity of colchicine in the prevention of adhesions was investigated. Materials and Methods. A total of 36 rats were equally divided into three groups: (I control group 1 (n=12, (II abrasion group 2 (n=12, and (III abrasion + colchicine group 3 (n=12. Group 1 underwent laparotomy and was orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 2, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and they were orally given physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. In Group 3, injury was created in the cecum serosa following laparotomy and the rats were orally given colchicine 50 mcg kg/day mixed with physiological serum 2 cc/day for 10 days. Laparotomy was performed and adhesions were examined both macroscopically and microscopically. Both macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed using Zühlke’s score. Results. A significant difference was observed among the adhesion scores of the groups both macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Microscopic score was lower in group 3 than group 2. Conclusion. Oral administration of colchicine is effective in the prevention of adhesions.

  6. Indirect assessment of economic damages from the Prestige oil spill: consequences for liability and risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, María Dolores; Prada, Albino; Varela, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Xosé Vázquez

    2009-03-01

    The social losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed the compensation granted under the IOPC (International Oil Pollution Compensation) system, with losses estimated at 15 times more than the applicable limit of compensations. This is far above the level of costs for which those responsible for hydrocarbons spills are liable. The highest market losses correspond to sectors of extraction, elaboration and commercialisation of seafood. However, damages to non-commercial natural resources could constitute an outstanding group of losses for which further primary data are needed: these losses would only be compensable under the current system by means of a refund for cleaning and restoration costs. Results show that, in Europe, the responsibility for oil spills in maritime transport is limited and unclear. The consequence of this is net social losses from recurrent oil spills and internationally accepted incentives for risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons.

  7. Cockayne syndrome group B protein prevents the accumulation of damaged mitochondria by promoting mitochondrial autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Sykora, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating autosomal recessive disease characterized by neurodegeneration, cachexia, and accelerated aging. 80% of the cases are caused by mutations in the CS complementation group B (CSB) gene known to be involved in DNA repair and transcription. Recent evidence...... indicates that CSB is present in mitochondria, where it associates with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We report an increase in metabolism in the CSB(m/m) mouse model and CSB-deficient cells. Mitochondrial content is increased in CSB-deficient cells, whereas autophagy is down-regulated, presumably as a result...... of defects in the recruitment of P62 and mitochondrial ubiquitination. CSB-deficient cells show increased free radical production and an accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Accordingly, treatment with the autophagic stimulators lithium chloride or rapamycin reverses the bioenergetic phenotype of CSB...

  8. Low-dose aspirin and upper gastrointestinal damage: epidemiology, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Angel; Scheiman, James

    2007-01-01

    Low-dose aspirin (75-325 mg/day) is widely used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, due to its action on cyclo-oxygenase (COX), aspirin is associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) side effects including ulcers and bleeding. This was a comprehensive review of the literature available on the side effects associated with low-dose aspirin, together with the available treatment and prevention options, which was based on the authors' expertise in the field and a supplementary PubMed search limited to papers published in English during the last 10 years, up to November 2006. Although the risk of upper GI side effects is smaller with low-dose aspirin compared with non-selective, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), it is nevertheless a substantial healthcare issue. Factors associated with an increased risk of upper GI complications during low-dose aspirin therapy include aspirin dose, history of ulcer or upper GI bleeding, age > 70 years, concomitant use of NSAIDs (including COX-2-selective NSAIDs), and Helicobacter pylori infection. Co-administration of a gastroprotective agent such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be useful for alleviating the upper GI side effects associated with use of low-dose aspirin. Eradication of H. pylori also appears to reduce the risk of these side effects, especially in those at high risk. The use of other antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel does not seem to provide a safer alternative to low-dose aspirin in at-risk patients. Prophylactic low-dose aspirin therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing upper GI side effects. Administration of a PPI seems the most effective therapy for the prevention and/or relief of such side effects in at-risk patients. H. pylori eradication therapy further reduces the risk of upper GI bleeding in these patients.

  9. Elucidation of mechanism of blood-brain barrier damage for prevention and treatment of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masaki

    2017-03-28

    . These clearance pathways may play a role in maintenance of the barrier in the entire brain. Obstruction of the passage of fluids through the perivascular drainage and glymphatic pathways as well as damage of the BBB and BCSFB may induce several kinds of brain disorders, such as vascular dementia. In this review, we focus on the relationship between damage of the barriers and the pathogenesis of vascular dementia and introduce recent findings including our experimental data using animal models.

  10. Prevention of iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage by catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin: metal binding as a general antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carla R; Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Wilkes, Jenna A; Wang, Hsiao C; Battin, Erin E; Brumaghim, Julia L

    2012-06-07

    Concentrations of labile iron and copper are elevated in patients with neurological disorders, causing interest in metal-neurotransmitter interactions. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and amino acid (glycine, glutamate, and 4-aminobutyrate) neurotransmitters are antioxidants also known to bind metal ions. To investigate the role of metal binding as an antioxidant mechanism for these neurotransmitters, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and curcumin, their abilities to prevent iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage were quantified, cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the relationship between their redox potentials and DNA damage prevention, and UV-vis studies were conducted to determine iron and copper binding as well as iron oxidation rates. In contrast to amino acid neurotransmitters, catecholamine neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin prevent significant iron-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 3.2 to 18 μM) and are electrochemically active. However, glycine and glutamate are more effective at preventing copper-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 35 and 12.9 μM, respectively) than L-DOPA, the only catecholamine to prevent this damage (IC(50) = 73 μM). This metal-mediated DNA damage prevention is directly related to the metal-binding behaviour of these compounds. When bound to iron or copper, the catecholamines, amino acids, and curcumin significantly shift iron oxidation potentials and stabilize Fe(3+) over Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) over Cu(+), a factor that may prevent metal redox cycling in vivo. These results highlight the disparate antioxidant activities of neurotransmitters, drugs, and supplements and highlight the importance of considering metal binding when identifying antioxidants to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. 300 The Method of Antigen Specific Damage of Leucocytes by Food Additives in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Titova, Nadya

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of adverse reactions to food additives is difficult due to a variety of mechanisms involved and the lack of sufficiently reliable methods for their determination. The diagnosis of intolerance to food additives is still based only on placebo-controlled oral provocation. Methods The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intolerance to ponceau 4R (E124), indigo carmine (E132), azorubine (E122), tartrazine (E102), sunset yellow (E110) and sodium benzoate (E211) ...

  12. DNA damage induced by hydroquinone can be prevented by fungal detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroquinone is a benzene metabolite with a wide range of industrial applications, which has potential for widespread human exposure; however, the toxicity of hydroquinone on human cells remains unclear. The aims of this study are to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hydroquinone in human primary fibroblasts and human colon cancer cells (HCT116. Low doses of hydroquinone (227-454 μM reduce the viability of fibroblasts and HCT116 cells, determined by resazurin conversion, and induce genotoxic damage (DNA strand breaks, as assessed by alkaline comet assays. Bioremediation may provide an excellent alternative to promote the degradation of hydroquinone, however few microorganisms are known that efficiently degrade it. Here we also investigate the capacity of a halotolerant fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum, to remove hydroquinone toxicity under hypersaline condition. The fungus is able to tolerate high concentrations of hydroquinone and can reverse these noxious effects via degradation of hydroquinone to completion, even when the initial concentration of this compound is as high as 7265 μM. Our findings reveal that P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum efficiently degrade hydroquinone under hypersaline conditions, placing this fungus among the best candidates for the detoxification of habitats contaminated with this aromatic compound.

  13. Omega-3 supplementation can restore glutathione levels and prevent oxidative damage caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Anna R; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes long-lasting deficits in brain structure and function. In this study, we have examined the effect of PNEE on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in the adult brain with particular focus on four brain regions known to be affected by ethanol: cerebellum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus subregions). We have utilized a liquid diet model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders that is supplied to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. To examine the therapeutic potential of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, a subset of animals were provided with an omega-3-enriched diet from birth until adulthood to examine whether these fatty acids could ameliorate any deficits in antioxidant capacity that occurred due to PNEE. Our results showed that PNEE caused a long-lasting decrease in glutathione levels in all four brain regions analyzed that was accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative damage. These results indicate that PNEE induces long-lasting changes in the antioxidant capacity of the brain, and this can lead to a state of oxidative stress. Postnatal omega-3 supplementation was able to increase glutathione levels and reduce lipid peroxidation in PNEE animals, partially reversing the effects of alcohol exposure, particularly in the dentate gyrus and the cerebellum. This is the first study where omega-3 supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect in PNEE, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MAFB prevents excess inflammation after ischemic stroke by accelerating clearance of damage signals through MSR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichita, Takashi; Ito, Minako; Morita, Rimpei; Komai, Kyoko; Noguchi, Yoshiko; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Koshida, Ryusuke; Takahashi, Satoru; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2017-06-01

    Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) trigger sterile inflammation after tissue injury, but the mechanisms underlying the resolution of inflammation remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that common DAMPs, such as high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1), peroxiredoxins (PRXs), and S100A8 and S100A9, were internalized through the class A scavenger receptors MSR1 and MARCO in vitro. In ischemic murine brain, DAMP internalization was largely mediated by MSR1. An elevation of MSR1 levels in infiltrating myeloid cells observed 3 d after experimental stroke was dependent on the transcription factor Mafb. Combined deficiency for Msr1 and Marco, or for Mafb alone, in infiltrating myeloid cells caused impaired clearance of DAMPs, more severe inflammation, and exacerbated neuronal injury in a murine model of ischemic stroke. The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist Am80 increased the expression of Mafb, thereby enhancing MSR1 expression. Am80 exhibited therapeutic efficacy when administered, even at 24 h after the onset of experimental stroke. Our findings uncover cellular mechanisms contributing to DAMP clearance in resolution of the sterile inflammation triggered by tissue injury.

  15. Prevention of radiation-induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice by Aloe Vera leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehlot Prashasnika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioprotective effect of the Aloe vera leaf extract was studied in Swiss albino mice against radiation-induced changes in the liver. The mice were treated with 1000 mg/kg of body weight orally, once a day for 15 consecutive days, before exposure to a single dose of gamma radiation (6 Gy, half an hour after the last administration. The irradiation of mice caused a significant elevation in lipid peroxidation followed by a decrease in glutathione, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The treatment of mice before irradiation elevated the glutathione, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, and was accompanied by a decline in lipid peroxidation. Recovery and regeneration from radiation damage were faster in pretreated animals than the animals in the irradiation-only group. The data clearly indicate that the Aloe vera leaf extract significantly reduced the deleterious effects of radiation on the liver and it could be a useful agent in reducing the side effects of therapeutic radiation.

  16. VIP Family Members Prevent Outer Blood Retinal Barrier Damage in a Model of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Grazia; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Gagliano, Caterina; Saccone, Salvatore; Federico, Concetta; Cavallaro, Sebastiano; D'Agata, Velia

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME), characterized by an increase of thickness in the eye macular area, is due to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Hypoxia plays a key role in the progression of this pathology by activating the hypoxia-inducible factors. In the last years, various studies have put their attention on the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in retinal dysfunction. However, until now, no study has investigated their protective role against the harmful combined effect of both hyperglycemia and hypoxia on outer BRB. Therefore, in the present study, we have analyzed the role of these peptides on permeability, restoration of tight junctions expression and inhibition of hyperglycemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis, in an experimental in vitro model of outer BRB. Our results have demonstrated that the peptides' treatment have restored the integrity of outer BRB induced by cell exposure to hyperglycemia/hypoxia. Their effect is mediated through the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mammalian mitogen activated protein kinase/Erk kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways. In conclusion, our study further clarifies the mechanism through which PACAP and VIP perform the beneficial effect on retinal damage induced by hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult, responsible of DME progression. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1079-1085, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa [Korea Institute Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates.

  18. An Experimental Investigation On Minimum Compressive Strength Of Early Age Concrete To Prevent Frost Damage For Nuclear Power Plant Structures In Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kyungtaek; Kim, Dogyeum; Park, Chunjin; Ryu, Gumsung; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Janghwa

    2013-01-01

    Concrete undergoing early frost damage in cold weather will experience significant loss of not only strength, but also of permeability and durability. Accordingly, concrete codes like ACI-306R prescribe a minimum compressive strength and duration of curing to prevent frost damage at an early age and secure the quality of concrete. Such minimum compressive strength and duration of curing are mostly defined based on the strength development of concrete. However, concrete subjected to frost damage at early age may not show a consistent relationship between its strength and durability. Especially, since durability of concrete is of utmost importance in nuclear power plant structures, this relationship should be imperatively clarified. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of the minimum compressive strength specified in the codes like ACI-306R by evaluating the strength development and the durability preventing the frost damage of early age concrete for nuclear power plant. The results indicate that the value of 5 MPa specified by the concrete standards like ACI-306R as the minimum compressive strength to prevent the early frost damage is reasonable in terms of the strength development, but seems to be inappropriate in the viewpoint of the resistance to chloride ion penetration and freeze-thaw. Consequently, it is recommended to propose a minimum compressive strength preventing early frost damage in terms of not only the strength development, but also in terms of the durability to secure the quality of concrete for nuclear power plants in cold climates

  19. The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedenson Bernard

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that inactivation of virtually any component within the pathway containing the BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins would increase the risks for lymphomas and leukemias. In people who do not have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, the encoded proteins prevent breast/ovarian cancer. However BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins have multiple functions including participating in a pathway that mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks by error-free methods. Inactivation of BRCA1, BRCA2 or any other critical protein within this "BRCA pathway" due to a gene mutation should inactivate this error-free repair process. DNA fragments produced by double strand breaks are then left to non-specific processes that rejoin them without regard for preserving normal gene regulation or function, so rearrangements of DNA segments are more likely. These kinds of rearrangements are typically associated with some lymphomas and leukemias. Methods Literature searches produced about 2500 epidemiology and basic science articles related to the BRCA pathway. These articles were reviewed and copied to a database to facilitate access. Meta-analyses of statistical information compared risks for hematologic cancers vs. mutations for the components in a model pathway containing BRCA1/2 gene products. Results Deleterious mutations of genes encoding proteins virtually anywhere within the BRCA pathway increased risks up to nearly 2000 fold for certain leukemias and lymphomas. Cancers with large increases in risk included mantle cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and prolymphocytic leukemia. Mantle cell lymphoma is defined by a characteristic rearrangement of DNA fragments interchanged between chromosomes 11 and 14. DNA translocations or rearrangements also occur in significant percentages of the other cancers. Conclusion An important function of the BRCA pathway is to

  20. The approach of the PREFER project to wildfire prevention and damage assessment in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Tampellini, Maria Lucia; Vimercati, Marco; Hirn, Barbara; Sebastian-Lopez, Ana; Diagourtas, Dimitri; Eftychidis, Georgios; Clandillon, Stephen; Caspard, Mathilde; Oliveira, Sandra; Lourenco, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus Emergency project funded from the 2012 FP7 Space Work Programme, and it is aimed at developing products and services that will contribute to improve the European capacity to respond to the preparedness, prevention, and recovery management steps in the case of forest fire emergency cycle, with focus on the Mediterranean area. It is well known from the most recent reports on state of Europe's forests that the Mediterranean area is particularly affected by uncontrolled forest fires, with a number of negative consequences on ecosystems, such as desertification and soil erosion, and on the local economy. Most likely, the current risks of forest fires will be exacerbated by climate change. In particular, the climate of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin is projected to warm at a rate exceeding the global average. Wild fires will therefore remain the most serious threat to Southern European forests. In this situation, the need to collect better information and more knowledge concerning future risks of forest fires and fire prevention in the Mediterranean area is widely recognized to be a major urgent one. As part of the Copernicus programme (i.e. the European Earth Observation Programme), PREFER is based on advanced geo-information products using in particular the earth observation data acquired and developed in the frame of Copernicus. The objective of the PREFER project, started at the end of 2012, 8 partners (from Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Greece) involved and three years schedule, is the design, development and demonstration of a pre-operational "end-to-end" information service, fully exploiting satellite sensors data and able to support prevention/ preparedness and recovery phases of the Forest Fires emergency cycle in the EU Mediterranean Region. The PREFER information is as general as to be usable in the different countries of the Mediterranean Region, and acts in full complement to already existing services, such as the EC

  1. Free radicals in alcoholic myopathy: indices of damage and preventive studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preedy, Victor R; Adachi, Junko; Asano, Migiwa; Koll, Michael; Mantle, David; Niemela, Onni; Parkkila, Seppo; Paice, Alistair G; Peters, Timothy; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Seitz, Helmut; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Worrall, Simon

    2002-04-15

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy affects up to two-thirds of all alcohol misusers and is characterized by selective atrophy of Type II (glycolytic, fast-twitch, anaerobic) fibers. In contrast, the Type I fibers (oxidative, slow-twitch, aerobic) are relatively protected. Alcohol increases the concentration of cholesterol hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde-protein adducts, though protein-carbonyl concentration levels do not appear to be overtly increased and may actually decrease in some studies. In alcoholics, plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol may be reduced in myopathic patients. However, alpha-tocopherol supplementation has failed to prevent either the loss of skeletal muscle protein or the reductions in protein synthesis in alcohol-dosed animals. The evidence for increased oxidative stress in alcohol-exposed skeletal muscle is thus inconsistent. Further work into the role of ROS in alcoholic myopathy is clearly warranted.

  2. Spirulina platensis prevents high glucose-induced oxidative stress mitochondrial damage mediated apoptosis in cardiomyoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaun, Pratiksha; Yadav, Dhananjay; Bisen, Prakash Singh

    2018-04-01

    The current study was undertaken to study the effect of Spirulina platensis (Spirulina) extract on enhanced oxidative stress during high glucose induced cell death in H9c2 cells. H9c2 cultured under high glucose (33 mM) conditions resulted in a noteworthy increase in oxidative stress (free radical species) accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, increase in caspase activity and pro-apoptotic protein (Bax). Spirulina extract (1 μg/mL), considerably inhibited increased ROS and RNS levels, reduction in cytochrome c release, raise in mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased the over expression of proapoptotic protein Bax and suppressed the Bax/Bcl2 ratio with induced apoptosis without affecting cell viability. Overall results suggest that Spirulina extract plays preventing role against enhanced oxidative stress during high glucose induced apoptosis in cardiomyoblasts as well as related dysfunction in H9c2 cells.

  3. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Caputo, Fanny

    2015-08-20

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  4. Subchronic treatment with acai frozen pulp prevents the brain oxidative damage in rats with acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Kuo, Jonnsin; Wohlenberg, Mariane Farias; da Rocha Frusciante, Marina; Freitas, Márcia; Oliveira, Alice S; Andrade, Rodrigo B; Wannmacher, Clovis M D; Dani, Caroline; Funchal, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Acai has been used by the population due to its high nutritional value and its benefits to health, such as its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on oxidative stress parameters in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of Wistar rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Thirty male Wistar rats (90-day-old) were orally treated with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days (7 μL/g). On the 15th day, half of the animals received treatment with mineral oil and the other half with CCl 4 (3.0 mL/kg). The cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and used for analysis of creatine kinase activity (CK), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl, sulfhydryl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-test. CCl 4 was able to inhibit CK activity in all tissues tested and to provoke lipid damage in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and protein damage in the three tissues tested. CCl 4 enhanced CAT activity in the cerebral cortex, and inhibited CAT activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum and reduced SOD activity in all tissues studied. Acai frozen pulp prevented the inhibition of CK, TBARS, carbonyl and CAT activity in all brain structures and only in hippocampus for SOD activity. Therefore, acai frozen pulp has antioxidant properties and maybe could be useful in the treatment of some diseases that affect the central nervous system that are associated with oxidative damage.

  5. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fanny; de Nicola, Milena; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Giovanetti, Anna; Bejarano, Ignacio; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2015-09-01

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields.

  6. THEOS-2 Orbit Design: Formation Flying in Equatorial Orbit and Damage Prevention Technique for the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimnoo, Ammarin

    2016-07-01

    Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) has initiative THEOS-2 project after the THEOS-1 has been operated for more than 7 years which is over the lifetime already. THEOS-2 project requires not only the development of earth observation satellite(s), but also the development of the area-based decision making solution platform comprising of data, application systems, data processing and production system, IT infrastructure improvement and capacity building through development of satellites, engineering model, and infrastructures capable of supporting research in related fields. The developing satellites in THEOS-2 project are THAICHOTE-2 and THAICHOTE-3. This paper focuses the orbit design of THAICHOTE-2 & 3. It discusses the satellite orbit design for the second and third EOS of Thailand. In this paper, both THAICHOTE will be simulated in an equatorial orbit as a formation flying which will be compared the productive to THAICHOTE-1 (THEOS-1). We also consider a serious issue in equatorial orbit design, namely the issue of the geomagnetic field in the area of the eastern coast of South America, called the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). The high-energy particles of SAMA comprise a radiation environment which can travel through THAICHOTE-2 & 3 material and deposit kinetic energy. This process causes atomic displacement or leaves a stream of charged atoms in the incident particles' wake. It can cause damage to the satellite including reduction of power generated by solar arrays, failure of sensitive electronics, increased background noise in sensors, and exposure of the satellite devices to radiation. This paper demonstrates the loss of ionizing radiation damage and presents a technique to prevent damage from high-energy particles in the SAMA.

  7. Prevention of low temperature denaturation injury in T4Bo phage by low concentrations of traditional cryoprotective additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, P. R.

    1976-01-01

    The well known cryoprotective additives glucose, sucrose, glycerol, dimethyl sulphoxide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, dextran and ammonium acetate have been found to prevent inactivation of T4Bo phage frozen in sodium bromide solutions. Their protective effects in this experimental system could not be accounted for by a colligative mechanism. It is proposed that they may act by modifying the structure of the unfrozen aqueous phase rather than by direct interaction with the phage. PMID:1064671

  8. Preventing necrotizing enterocolitis by food additives in neonates: A network meta-analysis revealing the efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wentao; Sui, Wu; Mu, Linsong; Yi, Wenying; Li, Haijuan; Wei, Liqin; Yin, Weihong

    2017-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for dichotomous data and mean differences with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were estimated for continuous data. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve was used to rank efficacy and safety of the prevention methods on each endpoint. A total of 27 eligible studies with 4649 preterm infants were included in this network meta-analysis (NMA), and the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives were evaluated. Probiotic and arginine exhibited better preventive efficacy compared with placebo (OR = 0.50, 95% CrIs: 0.32-0.73; OR = 0.30, 95% CrIs: 0.12-0.73, respectively). Only probiotic achieved a considerable decrease in the risk of mortality compared to placebo (OR = 0.68, 95% CrIs: 0.46-0.98). NEC patients with lactoferrin appeared to have lower incidence of sepsis than those of placebo (OR = 0.13, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.61) or probiotic (OR = 0.18, 95% CrIs: 0.03-0.83). Based on this NMA, probiotics had the potential to be the most preferable additive, since it exhibited a significant superiority for NEC and mortality as well as a relatively balanced performance in safety.

  9. Does the addition of saline infusion sonohysterography to transvaginal ultrasonography prevent unnecessary hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, John; Sharp, Benjamin; Elliot, Nikki; McEwing, Rachael; McGeoch, Graham; Shand, Brett; Holland, Kieran

    2016-08-01

    This observational case series in 65 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding evaluated whether transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) prevented unnecessary hysteroscopy. Although SIS indicated that hysteroscopy was unnecessary in eight women, this benefit was offset by the invasive nature of the scan, the number of endometrial abnormalities falsely detected by SIS and the cost of the additional investigation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Prevention of Hippocampal Neuronal Damage and Cognitive Function Deficits in Vascular Dementia by Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Lu, Kaili; Deng, Jiangshan; Zhao, Fei; Zhao, Bing-Qiao; Zhao, Yuwu

    2016-07-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors and a widely used component of cough medicine. Recently, its indication has been extended experimentally to a wide range of disorders including inflammation-mediated central nervous system disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigate whether DM treatment has protective effects on the hippocampal neuron damage induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion [2VO]), an animal model of vascular dementia (VaD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) (10 weeks of age) rats were subjected to the 2VO, and DM was injected intraperitoneally once per day for 37 days. Neuron death, glial activation, and cognitive function were assessed at 37 days after 2VO (0.2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-0.2" and 2 mg/kg, i.p., "DM-2"). DM-2 treatment provided protection against neuronal death and glial activation in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and reduced cognitive impairment induced by 2VO in rats. The study also demonstrates that activation of the Nrf2-HO-1 pathway and upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) play important roles in these effects. These results suggest that DM is effective in treating VaD and protecting against oxidative stress, which is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD. Therefore, the present study suggests that DM treatment may represent a new and promising protective strategy for treating VaD.

  11. Exogenous melatonin supplementation prevents oxidative stress-evoked DNA damage in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ignacio; Monllor, Fabian; Marchena, Ana María; Ortiz, Agueda; Lozano, Graciela; Jiménez, Maria Isabel; Gaspar, Pilar; García, Juan F; Pariente, Jose A; Rodríguez, Ana B; Espino, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for sperm physiological functions such as capacitation, hyperactivation, and acrosome reaction, on the one hand, and for stimulating the apoptotic processes involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, on the other hand. However, the imbalance between production and removal of ROS leads to oxidative stress, which is referred to as one of the main factors involved in male infertility. The pineal hormone melatonin, given its low toxicity and well-known antioxidant capacity, could be an excellent candidate to improve sperm quality. For this reason, the objective of the present work was to analyze whether long-term supplementation with melatonin to infertile men affects human sperm quality and the quality of the embryos retrieved from their couples. Our findings showed that the daily supplementation of 6 mg melatonin, as early as after 45 days of treatment, produced an increase in melatonin endogenous levels, indirectly measured as urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6-s), an enhancement of both urinary and seminal total antioxidant capacity, and a consequent reduction in oxidative damage caused in sperm DNA. Moreover, couples whose men were given melatonin showed a statistically significant increase in the percentage of grade A (embryo with blastomeres of equal size; no cytoplasmic fragmentation), B (embryo with blastomeres of equal size; minor cytoplasmic fragmentation), and C (embryo with blastomeres of distinctly unequal size; significant cytoplasmic fragmentation) embryos at the expense of grade D (embryo with blastomeres of equal or unequal size; severe or complete fragmentation.) embryos which were clearly reduced. In summary, melatonin supplementation improves human sperm quality, which is essential to achieve successful natural and/or assisted reproduction outcome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Pharmacological Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Decreases Infection and Prevents Heart Damage in Acute Chagas' Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghabi, Mariana C.; de Souza, Elen M.; de Oliveira, Gabriel M.; Keramidas, Michelle; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C.; Bailly, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Chagas' disease induced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity affecting the cardiovascular system for which presently available therapies are largely inadequate. We previously reported that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is implicated in several regulatory aspects of T. cruzi invasion and growth and in host tissue fibrosis. This prompted us to evaluate the therapeutic action of an inhibitor of TGF-β signaling (SB-431542) administered during the acute phase of experimental Chagas' disease. Male Swiss mice were infected intraperitoneally with 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi (Y strain) and evaluated clinically for the following 30 days. SB-431542 treatment significantly reduced mortality and decreased parasitemia. Electrocardiography showed that SB-431542 treatment was effective in protecting the cardiac conduction system. By 14 day postinfection, enzymatic biomarkers of tissue damage indicated that muscle injury was decreased by SB-431542 treatment, with significantly lower blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. In conclusion, inhibition of TGF-β signaling in vivo appears to potently decrease T. cruzi infection and to prevent heart damage in a preclinical mouse model. This suggests that this class of molecules may represent a new therapeutic agent for acute and chronic Chagas' disease that warrants further clinical exploration. PMID:19738024

  14. Sulforaphane Prevents Testicular Damage in Kunming Mice Exposed to Cadmium via Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hua Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN is a natural and highly effective antioxidant. Studies suggest that SFN protects cells and tissues against cadmium (Cd toxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of SFN against oxidative damage in the testes of Kunming mice exposed to cadmium, and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Cadmium greatly reduced the serum testosterone levels in mice, reduced sperm motility, total sperm count, and increased the sperm deformity rate. Cadmium also reduces superoxide dismutase (T-SOD and glutathione (GSH levels and increases malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations. SFN intervention improved sperm quality, serum testosterone, and antioxidant levels. Both mRNA and protein expression of mouse testicular nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 was reduced in cadmium-treated group. Furthermore, the downstream genes of Nrf2, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1 were also decreased in cadmium-treated group. SFN intervention increases the expression of these genes. Sulforaphane prevents cadmium-induced testicular damage, probably via activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  15. Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes prevent oxidative damage induced by the mycotoxin zearalenone in Balb/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourgui, Lazhar; Golli, Emna El; Bouaziz, Chayma; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

    2008-05-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the most widely distributed fusarial mycotoxins which is encountered at high incidence in many foodstuffs. ZEN was associated with different reproductive disorders in animals. Several in vivo studies have shown that ZEN is hepatotoxic, haematotoxic and causes several alterations of immunological parameters. Furthermore, evidence of its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity has recently emerged from several reports. The aim of the current study was (i) to find out whether oxidative stress could be relevant for ZEN induced toxicity in vivo using Balb/c mice and (ii) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cactus cladodes Opuntia ficus to prevent the deleterious effects of ZEN. To this end, the effect of a single dose of ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w.) alone and with extract of cactus cladodes (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) on the induction of oxidative stress was monitored in kidney and liver by measuring the MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation, the catalase activity and the expression of the heat shock proteins (Hsp). Our results clearly showed that ZEN induced significant alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. Oxidative damage seems to be a key determinant of ZEN induced toxicity in both liver and kidney of Balb/c mice. The combined treatment of ZEN with the lowest tested dose of cactus extracts (25 mg/kg b.w.) showed a total reduction of ZEN induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. It could be concluded that cactus cladodes extract was effective in the protection against ZEN hazards. This could be relevant, particularly with the emergent demand for natural products which may counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and therefore prevent multiple human diseases.

  16. The role of ketotifen in the prevention of testicular damage in rats with experimental unilateral undescended testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz, Abdullah; Asci, Ramazan; Aydin, Oguz; Çavuş, Hikmet; Donmez, Gamze; Buyukalpelli, Recep

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study conducted on rats were to determine mast cell (MC) proliferation on undescended testes (UDTs); whether there is a correlation between MC proliferation and testicular damage; and whether testicular damage can be prevented with administration of an MC blocker. Sixty-five newborn male rats were divided into three groups. During the neonatal period, unilateral UDTs were experimentally induced in Group 2 and Group 3. The rats in Group 3 were given 1 mg/kg/day ketotifen orally until the end of the study. Groups 2 (n=30) and 3 (n=15) were divided into groups of ten and five rats, respectively, each of which underwent bilateral orchiectomy in either the prepubertal, pubertal, or adult period. Group 1 (n=15) underwent a sham operation followed by bilateral orchiectomy, with five rats in each of the prepubertal, pubertal, and adult periods. Testicular MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas, biopsy scores, interstitial connective tissue, seminiferous tubule (ST) diameters, and the basement membrane thickness of STs were evaluated. In Group 2 the ST diameters in the UDTs decreased, the number of MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas increased, ST basement membranes thickened, and spermatogenesis decreased. The number of MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas of the descended testes increased and spermatogenesis decreased. In Group 3, the number of MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas decreased. In unilateral UDTs, the number of MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas increased in both testes. Fibrosis developed in the ST basement membranes and interstitial areas, and spermatogenesis deteriorated. Testicular fibrosis may be prevented with administration of an MC blocker. PMID:25364234

  17. No damaging effect of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy on the thyroid axis in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Vulsma, Thomas; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Blumer, Regje M. E.; Heinen, Richard; Jaspers, Monique W. M.; Geenen, Maud M.; Offringa, Martin O.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; van den Bos, Cor

    2003-01-01

    Late effects of treatment for childhood cancer on the thyroid axis are ascribed predominantly to radiotherapy. Whether chemotherapy has an additional detrimental effect is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate this effect in young adult survivors of a broad spectrum of childhood cancers. The

  18. Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ishikura, Keisuke; Nagayama, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Maeda, Seiji; Ito, Masaharu; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) has a lot of the biological, physiological, and pharmocological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Although previous studies have appreciated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), consistent finding has not still convinced. The aim of this study was to examine the additional effect of TAU with BCAA on the DOMS and muscle damages after eccentric exercise. Thirty-six untrained male volunteers were equally divided into four groups, and ingested a combination with 2.0 g TAU (or placebo) and 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo), thrice a day, 2 weeks prior to and 4 days after elbow flexion eccentric exercise. Following the period after eccentric exercise, the physiological and blood biochemical markers for DOMS and muscle damage showed improvement in the combination of TAU and BCAA supplementation rather than in the single or placebo supplementations. In conclusion, additional supplement of TAU with BCAA would be a useful way to attenuate DOMS and muscle damages induced by high-intensity exercise.

  19. Ginkgo biloba Extract Prevents Female Mice from Ischemic Brain Damage and the Mechanism Is Independent of the HO1/Wnt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Glueck, Bryan; Hinds, Terry D; Shah, Zahoor A

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that gender differences exist in experimental or clinical stroke with respect to brain damage and loss of functional outcome. We have previously reported neuroprotective properties of Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) in transient and permanent mouse models of brain ischemia using male mice, and the mechanism of action was attributed to the upregulation of the heme oxygenase 1 (HO1)/Wnt pathway. Here, we sought to investigate whether EGb 761's protective effect in ovariectomized female mice following stroke is also mediated by the HO1/Wnt pathway. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to remove the protective effect of estrogen and were treated with EGb 761 for 7 days prior to inducing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and allowed to survive for an additional 7 days. At day 8, animals were sacrificed, and the brains were harvested for infarct volume analysis, western blots, and immunohistochemistry. The OVX female mice treated with EGb 761 showed significantly lower infarct size as compared to Veh/OVX animals. EGb 761 treatment in female mice inhibited apoptosis by preventing caspase-3 cleavage and blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. EGb 761 pretreatment significantly enhanced neurogenesis in OVX mice as compared to the Veh/OVX group and significantly upregulated androgen receptor expression with no changes in HO1/Wnt signaling. These results suggest that EGb 761 prevented brain damage in OVX female mice by improving grip strength and neurological deficits, and the mechanism of action is not through HO1/Wnt but via blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  20. Study of qinolones usage in prevention and therapy of septic complications of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petyrek, P.; Spelda, S.

    1994-01-01

    A standard model of experimental sepsis was elaborated at rats in dependence on a gamma irradiation dose and a time interval between irradiation and application infectious agents E. coli O 83:K 24:H 31. For a development of experimental sepsis was proved that it is not decisive in these laboratory animals when infectious agents is i.v. or i.p. applicated. Such amount of organisms (1-20.10 7-8 ) was applicated in particular not to develop sepsis in non-irradiated laboratory animals. Laboratory animals were irradiated with sublethal doses and approximately. LD 50-30 doses of gamma radiation. The laboratory animals were treated only in experiments and qinolone drug ofloxacin was used in the treatment of experimental sepsis. Ofloxacin perorally administrated in the dose of 40 mg/kg in an hour after application of infectious agents and its administration for 5 days in the 24-h intervals confirmed in fact 100% therapeutic effectiveness in irradiated experimental animals. In non-treated experimental groups, animals died in 24-28 hours interval after application of infectious agents and sepsis was a cause of death. In treated experimental groups, animal survived by day 30 after irradiation with sublethal doses or died during the period typical for a bone marrow syndrome of acute radiation injury after irradiation with lethal doses of gamma radiation. Acquired experimental outcomes may suggest that fluorochinolone chemotherapeuticals in the respect of their essential pharmacokinetic properties will be used for a prevention of infectious complications in acute radiation injury. (author)

  1. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    Sativum: The flavonoids in parsley -- especially luteolin -- have been shown to function as antioxidants that combine with highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules (oxygen radicals) and help prevent oxidative damage. In addition to its volatile oils and flavonoids, parsley is an excellent source of vitamin C and a good source of vitamin A (notably through its concentration of the pro-vitamin A carotenoids, beta-carotene). Vitamin C has many different functions. It is the body's primary water-soluble antioxidant, rendering harmless dangerous free radicals in all water soluble areas of the body. Beta carotene, another important antioxidant, works in the fat soluble areas of the body. (Bate-Smith et al 1962).

  2. The role of ketotifen in the prevention of testicular damage in rats with experimental unilateral undescended testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acikgoz A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Acikgoz,1 Ramazan Asci,2 Oguz Aydin,3 Hikmet Çavuş,4 Gamze Donmez,5 Recep Buyukalpelli2 1Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Kemerburgaz University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey; 4Department of Urology, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 5Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Abstract: The aims of this study conducted on rats were to determine mast cell (MC proliferation on undescended testes (UDTs; whether there is a correlation between MC proliferation and testicular damage; and whether testicular damage can be prevented with administration of an MC blocker. Sixty-five newborn male rats were divided into three groups. During the neonatal period, unilateral UDTs were experimentally induced in Group 2 and Group 3. The rats in Group 3 were given 1 mg/kg/day ketotifen orally until the end of the study. Groups 2 (n=30 and 3 (n=15 were divided into groups of ten and five rats, respectively, each of which underwent bilateral orchiectomy in either the prepubertal, pubertal, or adult period. Group 1 (n=15 underwent a sham operation followed by bilateral orchiectomy, with five rats in each of the prepubertal, pubertal, and adult periods. Testicular MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas, biopsy scores, interstitial connective tissue, seminiferous tubule (ST diameters, and the basement membrane thickness of STs were evaluated. In Group 2 the ST diameters in the UDTs decreased, the number of MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas increased, ST basement membranes thickened, and spermatogenesis decreased. The number of MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas of the descended testes increased and spermatogenesis decreased. In Group 3, the number of MCs in the interstitial and subtubular areas decreased. In unilateral UDTs, the number of MCs in the interstitial and

  3. Does the Addition of a Dynamic Pedicle Screw to a Fusion Segment Prevent Adjacent Segment Pathology in the Lumbar Spine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Hayati; Yaray, Osman; Mutlu, Muren

    2017-10-01

    Retrospective clinical cohort study. To investigate whether the combined use of dynamic pedicle screws and polyaxial pedicle screws was effective on adjacent segment pathology (ASP). Various screw and rod models have been recently developed for preventing adjacent segment disease, and hybrid systems have been described along with posterior instrumentation in the fusion segment. In the literature, although the success of dynamic systems has been demonstrated in non-fusion posterior instrumentation, it remains unclear whether the addition of a screw-based dynamic system to a fusion segment would successfully prevent ASP in the long term. The study included 101 patients who underwent surgery for degenerative spine diseases between 2007 and 2014 with lumbar stabilization that used either polyaxial pedicle screws alone or polyaxial pedicle screws plus dynamic stabilization screws (with hinged screw heads). These two patient groups were compared using retrospectively obtained postoperative new clinical findings, Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores, visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and radiological data. The proportion of patients with ASP who were radiologically assessed was low ( p 0.05). Although the combined use of dynamic screws and the static system was radiologically found to be effective for preventing ASP in patients who underwent lumbar fusion with posterior instrumentation, it did not completely eliminate ASP or result in a significant improvement in clinical ASP.

  4. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-gui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.

  5. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilg, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  6. Prevention of Dental Damage and Improvement of Difficult Intubation Using a Paraglossal Technique With a Straight Miller Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Huang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diseased teeth, or those who are difficult to intubate, have a higher risk of dental injury during laryngoscopy. We report 3 cases of smooth endotracheal intubation using a paraglossal technique with a straight Miller blade in patients with poor dentition. Three patients with poor dentition were scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia. All patients presented with extremely loose upper central incisors and had lost the other right upper teeth, while micrognathia and prominent, loose upper incisors were noted in 1 case. We elected to use a straight Miller blade using a paraglossal approach. A nasopharyngeal airway was inserted after induction of general anesthesia to facilitate mask ventilation and prevent air leakage from the mask. The Miller blade was then inserted from the right corner of the mouth, avoiding contact with the vulnerable incisors, and advanced along the groove between the tongue and tonsil. The endotracheal tube was subsequently smoothly inserted after obtaining a grade 1 Cormack and Lehane view without dental trauma in all 3 cases. Direct laryngoscopy using the paraglossal straight blade technique avoids dental damage in patients with mobile upper incisors and no right maxillary molars. It is a practical alternative method that differs from the traditional Macintosh laryngoscope in patients with a high risk of dental injury during the procedure. This technique, which provides an improved view of the larynx, might also be helpful with patients in whom intubation is difficult.

  7. Structural damages prevention of the ITER vacuum vessel and ports by elasto-plastic analysis with regards to RCC-MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.martinez@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Jun, Chang Hoon; Portafaix, Christophe; Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Chang-Ho [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Albin, Vincent [SOM Calcul – Groupe ORTEC, 121 ancien Chemin de Cassis – Immeuble Grand Pré, 13009 Marseille (France); Borrelly, Stephane [Sogeti High Tech, RE2, 180 rue René Descartes, Le Millenium – Bat C, 13857 Aix en Provence (France); Cambazar, Magali [Assystem EOS, 117 rue Jacquard, 84120 Pertuis (France); Gaucher, Thomas [SOM Calcul – Groupe ORTEC, 121 ancien Chemin de Cassis – Immeuble Grand Pré, 13009 Marseille (France); Sfarni, Samir; Tailhardat, Olivier [Assystem EOS, 117 rue Jacquard, 84120 Pertuis (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER vacuum vessel (VV) is a part of the first barrier to confine the plasma. • ITER VV as NPE necessitates a third party organization authorized by the French nuclear regulator to assure design, fabrication, and conformance testing and quality assurance, i.e. ANB. • Several types of damages have to be prevented in order to guarantee the structural integrity with regards to RCC-MR. • It is usual to employ non-linear analysis when the “classical” elastic analysis reaches its limit of linear application. • Several structural analyses were performed with many different global and local models of the whole ITER VV. - Abstract: Several types of damages have to be prevented in order to guarantee the structural integrity of a structure with regards to RCC-MR; the P-type damages which can result from the application to a structure of a steadily and regularly increasing loading or a constant loading and the S-type damages during operational loading conditions which can only result from repeated application of loadings associated to the progressive deformations and fatigue. Following RCC-MR, the S-type damages prevention has to be started only when the structural integrity is guaranteed against P-type damages. The verification of the last one on the ITER vacuum vessel and ports has been performed by limit analysis with elasto-(perfectly)plastic material behavior. It is usual to employ non-linear analysis when the “classical” elastic analysis reaches its limit of linear application. Some elasto-plastic analyses have been performed considering several cyclic loadings to evaluate also more realistic structural margins of the against S-type damages.

  8. Additional prognostic value of physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography for coronary risk assessment in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, Maxime; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Michel; Boccalon, Henri; Hanaire-Broutin, Hélène; Chamontin, Bernard; Carrié, Didier; Ferrières, Jean

    2009-11-01

    The choice of noninvasive tests used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases must be based on medical evidence. The aim of this study was to assess the additional prognostic value, over conventional risk factors, of physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography, in predicting a first coronary event. A prospective cohort study was conducted between 1996 and 2004 (n = 2,709), with follow-up in 2006 (response rate 96.6%). Participants had no history or symptoms of cardiovascular disease and had a standardized physical examination, a cardiac exercise testing, and carotid and femoral ultrasonography at baseline. Incident cases of definite coronary events were recorded during follow-up. Over the Framingham risk score, femoral bruit, positive exercise test, intima-media thickness >0.63 mm, and a femoral plaque provided significant additional information to the prediction model. The addition of the exercise test to the traditional risk factors, then the intima-media thickness and lastly the presence of femoral plaques, produces incremental increases in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.73-0.78, P = .02) and about a 50% increase in the positive predictive value (15.8%-31.4%), with no effect on the negative predictive value (96.4%-96.9%). Physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography provide incremental information on the risk of coronary event in asymptomatic adults. Exercise testing and femoral ultrasonography also improve the accuracy of the risk stratification.

  9. Analysis of the thermal comfort and impact properties of the neoprene-spacer fabric structure for preventing the joint damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ehsan; Hasani, Hossein; Rafeian, Homa; Hashemibeni, Batool

    2013-07-01

    Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a new structure consisting of perforated Neoprene foam attached to the spacer fabric and also compares the properties of thermal and moisture comfort and impact properties of this structure in comparison with Neoprene foam. In order to measure the factors related to the samples lateral pressure behavior, a tensile tester was used. A uniform pressure is applied to the samples and a force - displacement curve is obtained. The test continues until the maximum compression force is reached to 50 N. The area under the curve is much greater; more energy is absorbed during the impact. In order to investigate the dynamic heat and moisture transfer of fabrics, an experimental apparatus was developed. This device made the simulation of sweating of human body possible and consisted of a controlled environmental chamber, sweating guarded hot plate, and data acquisition system. The findings show that the Neoprene-spacer fabric structure represents higher toughness values compared to other samples (P ≤ 0.001). Neoprene-spacer fabric structure (A3) has higher rate of moisture transport than conventional Neoprene foam; because of undesirable comfort characteristics in Neoprene. Results of the tests indicate full advantage of the new structure compared with the Neoprene foam for use in orthopedic textiles (P ≤ 0.001).

  10. Optimizing service failure and damage control

    OpenAIRE

    Halbheer, D; Gartner, D; Gerstner, E; Koenigsberg, O

    2018-01-01

    Should a provider deliver a reliable service or should it allow for occasional service failures? This paper derives conditions under which randomizing service quality can\\ud benefit the provider and society. In addition to cost considerations, heterogeneity in customer damages from service failures allows the provider to generate profit\\ud from selling damage prevention services or offering compensation to high-damage customers. This strategy is viable even when reputation counts and markets ...

  11. Intensive exercise reduces the fear of additional falls in elderly people: findings from the Korea falls prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong Hyun; Park, Ji Eun; Lee, Eon Sook; Oh, Sang Woo; Cho, Sung Il; Jang, Soong Nang; Baik, Hyun Wook

    2012-12-01

    Falls among older people are a major public health problem and may result in fracture, medical complications that require hospitalization, and fear of additional falls. Given the prevalence and impact of the fear of falling again, reducing the incidence of falls is important to prevent additional falls. This study analyzed whether exercise programs decrease the fear of future falls in elderly patients who have fallen previously. A randomized controlled study was performed that included 65 elderly community-dwelling subjects who had fallen in the previous year. Subjects were randomized into two groups: an exercise group (EG, n = 36) and a control group (CG, n = 29). The EG participated in three exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. Muscle strength, balance, agility, flexibility, and muscular endurance were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, the subjects in the EG demonstrated remarkable improvement in their walking speed, balance (p = 0.003), back strength (p = 0.08), lower extremity strength (p = 0.004), and flexibility (p flexibility, and muscle strength of the participants and was associated with improved quality of life.

  12. N-acetylcysteine prevents HIV gp 120-related damage of human cultured astrocytes: correlation with glutamine synthase dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Nicola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV envelope gp 120 glycoprotein is released during active HIV infection of brain macrophages thereby generating inflammation and oxidative stress which contribute to the development of the AIDS-Dementia Complex (ADC. Gp120 has also been found capable to generate excitotoxic effect on brain tissue via enhancement of glutamatergic neurotransmission, leading to neuronal and astroglial damage, though the mechanism is still to be better understood. Here we investigated on the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, on gp120-induced damage in human cultured astroglial cells and the possible contribution of gp120-related reacting oxygen species (ROS in the imbalanced activity of glutamine synthase (GS, the enzyme that metabolizes glutamate into glutamine within astroglial cells playing a neuroprotective role in brain disorders. Results Incubation of Lipari human cultured astroglial cells with gp 120 (0.1–10 nM produced a significant reduction of astroglial cell viability and apoptosis as evaluated by TUNEL reaction and flow cytometric analysis (FACS. This effect was accompanied by lipid peroxidation as detected by means of malondialdehyde assay (MDA. In addition, gp 120 reduced both glutamine concentration in astroglial cell supernatants and GS expression as detected by immunocytochemistry and western blotting analysis. Pre-treatment of cells with NAC (0.5–5 mM, dose-dependently antagonised astroglial apoptotic cell death induced by gp 120, an effect accompanied by significant attenuation of MDA accumulation. Furthermore, both effects were closely associated with a significant recovery of glutamine levels in cell supernatants and by GS expression, thus suggesting that overproduction of free radicals might contribute in gp 120-related dysfunction of GS in astroglial cells. Conclusion In conclusion, the present experiments demonstrate that gp 120 is toxic to astroglial cells, an effect accompanied by lipid peroxidation and by altered

  13. Stage-by-stage licensing procedure, prevention of damage, control by administrative courts. Some comments on the Wyhl judgment of the Federal Administrative Court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellner, D.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the three main items of the Wyhl judgment of the Federal Administrative Court, of December 19, 1985 - 7C65/82, which are likely to set trends. The judgment clarifies the function of the socalled preliminary approval of the concept and its delimitation to the preliminary partial licence. According to the judgment, the first is a licensing requirement in substantial law. Precaution for preventing damage according to sec. 7, sub-sec (2) No. 3 Atomic Energy Act is regarded by the Court not as a prevention of hazards, but as the obligation to take every precaution to prevent damage, i.e. types of damage have to be taken into account that cannot be excluded to develop to a real hazard or potential risk. The problem of extent of control by the administrative courts is solved by the approach based on the legal functions of competence and responsibility that are to be drawn from the principle of division of power. (HSCH) [de

  14. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  15. Selenium supplementation restores the antioxidative capacity and prevents cell damage in bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Regina; Ulmer, Matthias; Zeck, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    signaling, cumulative cell damage, senescence, and tumor development. Selenium-dependent (glutathione peroxidases [GPxs] and thioredoxin reductases [TrxRs]) and selenium-independent (superoxide dismutases [SODs] and catalase [CAT]) enzyme systems regulate cellular ROS steady state levels. SODs process...

  16. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  17. Managing Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis Using a Two-Step Skincare Regimen Designed to Prevent Skin Damage and Support Skin Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grote, Erika C; Palaniswarmy, Kiruthi; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-12-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) affecting the hands is a common and difficult-to-manage condition. Occupations that necessitate contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing elevate the risk of ICD. Management strategies that do not adequately prevent accumulated damage and repair skin, can develop into chronic dermatoses which negatively impact work productivity and quality of life. A 2-step skin-care regimen (Excipial Daily Protection Hand Cream (EP) and Excipial Rapid Repair Hand Cream (ER), Galderma Laboratories, L.P.) has been developed as a daily-use management strategy to protect and repair vulnerable hands. The protective barrier cream is formulated with aluminum chlorohydrate and designed for pre-exposure application to enhance the skin's natural protective barrier and minimize excessive moisture while wearing protective gloves. The repair cream, a lipid-rich formulation, is intended for post-exposure application to rehydrate and facilitate the skin's natural healing process. The results of 3 clinical studies highlighted in this review demonstrate how the use of a 2-step skin-care regimen offers a greater protective effect against ICD than the use of barrier cream alone, and also how the formulation of the barrier cream used in these studies helps minimize the occlusion effect caused by gloves and does not interfere with the antibacterial efficacy of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. This 2-step skin-care regimen is effectively designed to manage and minimize the risk of ICD development in a variety of patients and provides clinicians an additional tool for helping patients manage ICD. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(12):1504-1510.

  18. Mitochondrial catalase overexpressed transgenic mice are protected against lung fibrosis in part via preventing alveolar epithelial cell mitochondrial DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Jablonski, Renea P; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Cheng, Yuan; Hogan, Erin; Yeldandi, Anjana; Chi, Monica; Piseaux, Raul; Ridge, Karen; Michael Hart, C; Chandel, Navdeep; Scott Budinger, G R; Kamp, David W

    2016-12-01

    Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury and mitochondrial dysfunction are important in the development of lung fibrosis. Our group has shown that in the asbestos exposed lung, the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in AEC mediate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and apoptosis which are necessary for lung fibrosis. These data suggest that mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants should ameliorate asbestos-induced lung. To determine whether transgenic mice that express mitochondrial-targeted catalase (MCAT) have reduced lung fibrosis following exposure to asbestos or bleomycin and, if so, whether this occurs in association with reduced AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Crocidolite asbestos (100µg/50µL), TiO 2 (negative control), bleomycin (0.025 units/50µL), or PBS was instilled intratracheally in 8-10 week-old wild-type (WT - C57Bl/6J) or MCAT mice. The lungs were harvested at 21d. Lung fibrosis was quantified by collagen levels (Sircol) and lung fibrosis scores. AEC apoptosis was assessed by cleaved caspase-3 (CC-3)/Surfactant protein C (SFTPC) immunohistochemistry (IHC) and semi-quantitative analysis. AEC (primary AT2 cells from WT and MCAT mice and MLE-12 cells) mtDNA damage was assessed by a quantitative PCR-based assay, apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, and ROS production was assessed by a Mito-Sox assay. Compared to WT, crocidolite-exposed MCAT mice exhibit reduced pulmonary fibrosis as measured by lung collagen levels and lung fibrosis score. The protective effects in MCAT mice were accompanied by reduced AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Similar findings were noted following bleomycin exposure. Euk-134, a mitochondrial SOD/catalase mimetic, attenuated MLE-12 cell DNA damage and apoptosis. Finally, compared to WT, asbestos-induced MCAT AT2 cell ROS production was reduced. Our finding that MCAT mice have reduced pulmonary fibrosis, AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis following exposure to asbestos or bleomycin suggests an important role

  19. Loss of Nek11 Prevents G2/M Arrest and Promotes Cell Death in HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells Exposed to Therapeutic DNA Damaging Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Sabir

    Full Text Available The Nek11 kinase is a potential mediator of the DNA damage response whose expression is upregulated in early stage colorectal cancers (CRCs. Here, using RNAi-mediated depletion, we examined the role of Nek11 in HCT116 WT and p53-null CRC cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR or the chemotherapeutic drug, irinotecan. We demonstrate that depletion of Nek11 prevents the G2/M arrest induced by these genotoxic agents and promotes p53-dependent apoptosis both in the presence and absence of DNA damage. Interestingly, Nek11 depletion also led to long-term loss of cell viability that was independent of p53 and exacerbated following IR exposure. CRC cells express four splice variants of Nek11 (L/S/C/D. These are predominantly cytoplasmic, but undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mediated through adjacent nuclear import and export signals in the C-terminal non-catalytic domain. In HCT116 cells, Nek11S in particular has an important role in the DNA damage response. These data provide strong evidence that Nek11 contributes to the response of CRC cells to genotoxic agents and is essential for survival either with or without exposure to DNA damage.

  20. Remediating buildings damaged by dampness and mould for preventing or reducing respiratory tract symptoms, infections and asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauni, Riitta; Uitti, Jukka; Jauhiainen, Merja; Kreiss, Kathleen; Sigsgaard, Torben; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2011-01-01

    Dampness and mould in buildings have been associated with adverse respiratory symptoms, asthma and respiratory infections of inhabitants. Moisture damage is a very common problem in private houses, workplaces and public buildings such as schools. To determine the effectiveness of remediating

  1. Angiotensinogen gene promoter haplotype and microangiopathy-related cerebral damage: results of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schmidt (Helena); F. Fazekas (Franz); G.M. Kostner; R. Schmidt (Reinhold); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Microangiopathy-related cerebral damage (MARCD) is a common finding in the elderly. It may lead to cognitive impairment and gait disturbances. Arterial hypertension and age are the most important risk factors. We assessed the association between MARCD and sequence

  2. Optimal conditions in (/sup 3/H)-thymidine uptake studies to prevent radiation damage to cells. A scintimetric and cytofluorographic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Arguelles, A.; Llorente, L.; Diaz-Jouanen, E.; Alarcon-Segovia, D. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City)

    1981-12-01

    Cells subjected to nucleoside incorporation studies using radiolabelled materials may suffer radiation damage that can alter the results. Scintimetric and cytofluorographic analyses were performed to confirm this and to determine the optimal experimental doses of, and exposure times to, (/sup 3/H)-TdR, in order to prevent or minimize such radiation damage to cells. The results showed that cultures of human mononuclear cells should be pulsed with 0.125 ..mu..Ci for 14 hr when stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin, 0.125 ..mu..Ci for 18 hr when stimulated with pokeweed mitogen, 0.5 ..mu..Ci for 8 hr when stimulated with concanavalin A and 0.5 ..mu..Ci for 8 hr when subjected to allogeneic stimulus, in order to achieve optimal incorporation with minimal disturbances of the cell cycle.

  3. Carnitine prevents the early mitochondrial damage induced by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 leukaemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikula, P; Ruohola, H; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Jänne, J

    1985-01-01

    We previously found that the anti-cancer drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (mitoguazone) depresses carnitine-dependent oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured mouse leukaemia cells [Nikula, Alhonen-Hongisto, Seppänen & Jänne (1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 120, 9-14]. We have now investigated whether carnitine also influences the development of the well-known mitochondrial damage produced by the drug in L1210 leukaemia cells. Palmitate oxidation was distinctly inhibited in...

  4. Lovastatin prevents cisplatin-induced activation of pro-apoptotic DNA damage response (DDR) of renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Katharina; Ziegler, Verena; Hartmann, Christina; Henninger, Christian; Thomale, Jürgen; Schupp, Nicole; Fritz, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    The platinating agent cisplatin (CisPt) is commonly used in the therapy of various types of solid tumors. The anticancer efficacy of CisPt largely depends on the formation of bivalent DNA intrastrand crosslinks, which stimulate mechanisms of the DNA damage response (DDR), thereby triggering checkpoint activation, gene expression and cell death. The clinically most relevant adverse effect associated with CisPt treatment is nephrotoxicity that results from damage to renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we addressed the question whether the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin affects the DDR of renal cells by employing rat renal proximal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells as in vitro model. The data show that lovastatin has extensive inhibitory effects on CisPt-stimulated DDR of NRK-52E cells as reflected on the levels of phosphorylated ATM, Chk1, Chk2, p53 and Kap1. Mitigation of CisPt-induced DDR by lovastatin was independent of the formation of DNA damage as demonstrated by (i) the analysis of Pt-(GpG) intrastrand crosslink formation by Southwestern blot analyses and (ii) the generation of DNA strand breaks as analyzed on the level of nuclear γH2AX foci and employing the alkaline comet assay. Lovastatin protected NRK-52E cells from the cytotoxicity of high CisPt doses as shown by measuring cell viability, cellular impedance and flow cytometry-based analyses of cell death. Importantly, the statin also reduced the level of kidney DNA damage and apoptosis triggered by CisPt treatment of mice. The data show that the lipid-lowering drug lovastatin extensively counteracts pro-apoptotic signal mechanisms of the DDR of tubular epithelial cells following CisPt injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morifuji, Masashi; Kitade, Masami; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-01-13

    We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm²). Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA), which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage.

  6. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Morifuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Methods: Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day or exopolysaccharide (EPS concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2. Results: Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA, which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Conclusion: Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage.

  7. The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, L.A.D. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Silva, R.O.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Carvalho, N.S.; Costa, N.R.D. [Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil); Aragão, K.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia da Inflamação e do Câncer, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Barbosa, A.L.R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil); Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Laboratório de Farmacologia da Inflamação e do Câncer, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Medeiros, J.V.R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil)

    2013-08-16

    Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H{sub 2}S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm{sup 2}); increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-γ-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm{sup 2}); reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K

  8. Experimental study of oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, S; Deng, Xiaohong; Tuo, J

    1998-01-01

    of the use of 2-nitropropane as a model for oxidative DNA damage relate particularly to formation of 8-aminoguanine derivatives that may interfere with HPLC-EC assays and have unknown consequences. Other model compounds for induction of oxidative DNA damage, such as ferric nitriloacetate, iron dextran...... studies provide powerful tools to investigate agents inducing and preventing oxidative damage to DNA and its role in carcinogenesis. So far, most animal experiments have concerned 8-oxodG and determination of additional damaged bases should be employed. An ideal animal model for prevention of oxidative......Animal experiments allow the study of oxidative DNA damage in target organs and the elucidation of dose-response relationships of carcinogenic and other harmful chemicals and conditions as well as the study of interactions of several factors. So far the effects of more than 50 different chemical...

  9. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  10. A current approach to using additional foods for the early prevention of deficiency states in infants during the first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Levchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers how to organize properly balanced feeding in infants during the first year of life, by using additional foods. It highlights current approaches to using the latter in the babies and provides a rationale for the tune of giving additional foods, by taking into account the readiness of an infant to eat new foods and the need to incorporate micronutrients for the prevention of anemia, rickets, and food allergy. The benefits of using commercial products are discussed.

  11. Ergothioneine prevents copper-induced oxidative damage to DNA and protein by forming a redox-inactive ergothioneine-copper complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Mao, Li; Fan, Rui-Mei; Zhu, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Ying-Nan; Wang, Jing; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Frei, Balz

    2011-01-14

    Ergothioneine (2-mercaptohistidine trimethylbetaine) is a naturally occurring amino acid analogue found in up to millimolar concentrations in several tissues and biological fluids. However, the biological functions of ergothioneine remain incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of ergothioneine in copper-induced oxidative damage to DNA and protein, using two copper-containing systems: Cu(II) with ascorbate and Cu(II) with H(2)O(2) [0.1 mM Cu(II), 1 mM ascorbate, and 1 mM H(2)O(2)]. Oxidative damage to DNA and bovine serum albumin was measured as strand breakage and protein carbonyl formation, respectively. Ergothioneine (0.1-1.0 mM) provided strong, dose-dependent protection against oxidation of DNA and protein in both copper-containing systems. In contrast, only limited protection was observed with the purported hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethyl sulfoxide and mannitol, even at concentrations as high as 100 mM. Ergothioneine also significantly inhibited copper-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate and competed effectively with histidine and 1,10-phenanthroline for binding of cuprous copper, but not cupric copper, as demonstrated by UV-visible and low-temperature electron spin resonance techniques. We conclude that ergothioneine is a potent, natural sulfur-containing antioxidant that prevents copper-dependent oxidative damage to biological macromolecules by forming a redox-inactive ergothioneine-copper complex.

  12. Commercialization of a system to prevent the insect damage by termite. Kansai Electric Power Co.; Shiroari shokugai boshi system no jitsuyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    The paper studied measures to prevent the underground power cable from insect damage by termite. To search for the termite entering the cable, fiber inspection is good, but the length which fiber reaches and the margin of cable diameter are limited. Moreover, the termite prevention use PFP pipe has been developed, but termite invades inside from the joint in PFP pipe. In AP pipe, termite invades from the place where concrete placing is poor and from cracks. As to the method to search for termite, sounds which termite emit to threaten foreign enemies were gathered by microphone, and the frequency was analyzed. As a result, it was verified that it is possible to judge if there is termite or not by checking levels in the 50-1300Hz zone (the method to let termite emit the threatening sound has been unknown). Since the path of invasion of termite is limited to the joint of cable, a thing in which chemical is put on rubber band of cable joint was developed. The chemical which was a little put on the rubber band is a domestic use insecticide generally commercially available, and adopted pyrethroids base chemical the safety of which was estimated. There is no need for spray of termite prevention agent, and the chemical is lower-priced than a change to the termite prevention cable. (NEDO)

  13. Dietary antioxidants prevent age-related retinal pigment epithelium actin damage and blindness in mice lacking αvβ5 integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Chia; Nandrot, Emeline F.; Dun, Ying; Finnemann, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    In the aging human eye, oxidative damage and accumulation of pro-oxidant lysosomal lipofuscin cause functional decline of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which contributes to age-related macular degeneration. In mice with an RPE-specific phagocytosis defect due to lack of αvβ5 integrin receptors, RPE accumulation of lipofuscin suggests that the age-related blindness we previously described in this model may also result from oxidative stress. Cellular and molecular targets of oxidative stress in the eye remain poorly understood. Here we identify actin among 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) adducts formed specifically in β5−/− RPE but not neural retina with age. HNE modification directly correlated with loss of resistance of actin to detergent extraction, suggesting cytoskeletal damage in aging RPE. Dietary enrichment with natural antioxidants grapes or marigold extract containing macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin was sufficient to prevent HNE-adduct formation, actin solubility, lipofuscin accumulation, and age-related cone and rod photoreceptor dysfunction in β5−/− mice. Acute generation of HNE-adducts directly destabilized actin but not tubulin cytoskeletal elements of RPE cells. These findings identify destabilization of the actin cytoskeleton as a consequence of physiological, sublethal oxidative burden of RPE cells in vivo that is associated with age-related blindness and that can be prevented by consuming an antioxidant-rich diet. PMID:22178979

  14. Preventive effects of an original combination of grape seed polyphenols with amine fluoride on dental biofilm formation and oxidative damage by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furiga, A; Roques, C; Badet, C

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the preventive effects of an original combination of a grape seed extract (GSE) with an amine fluoride (Fluorinol(®) ) on dental plaque formation and oxidative damage caused by oral bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was assessed using the broth macrodilution method, and their antiplaque activity was evaluated on a multispecies biofilm grown on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs. The effect on glucosyltransferases activity was analysed through reductions in the overall reaction and the quantity of insoluble glucan synthesized. The combination of 2000 μg ml(-1) of GSE with 10·2 mg ml(-1) of Fluorinol(®) significantly decreased the biofilm formation (up to 4·76 log10 of reduction) and inhibited by 97·4% the insoluble glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferases. The antioxidant activity of this combination, alone or incorporated into a formulated mouthwash (Eludril daily(®) ), was determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), and both showed significantly greater antioxidant capacity than vitamin C. The GSE/Fluorinol(®) combination showed both a significant antiplaque activity and an important antioxidant capacity in vitro, without any bactericidal effects. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on the properties of an original combination of a polyphenolic extract with amine fluoride that could be used for the prevention of oral diseases and oxidative damage associated. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Additive effect of PTH (1-34) and zoledronate in the prevention of disuse osteopenia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegger, Jens Bay; Nielsen, Esben Sommer; Brüel, Annemarie; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2014-09-01

    Immobilization is known to cause a rapid bone loss due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption and decreased osteoblastic bone formation. Zoledronate (Zln) is a potent anti-resorptive pharmaceutical, while intermittent PTH is a potent bone anabolic agent. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PTH or Zln alone or in combination could prevent immobilization-induced osteopenia. Immobilization was achieved by injecting 4IU Botox (BTX) into the right hind limb musculature. Seventy-two 16-week-old female Wistar rats were randomized into 6 groups; baseline (Base), control (Ctrl), BTX, BTX+PTH, BTX+Zln, and BTX+PTH+Zln. PTH (1-34) (80μg/kg) was given 5days/week and Zln (100μg/kg) was given once at study start. The animals were killed after 4weeks of treatment. The bone properties were evaluated using DEXA, μCT, dynamic bone histomorphometry, and mechanical testing. BTX resulted in lower femoral trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (-25%, pPTH resulted in higher femoral BV/TV (+31%, pPTH+Zln resulted in higher femoral BV/TV (+70%, pPTH or Zln alone prevented the BTX-induced osteopenia, whereas PTH and Zln given in combination not only prevented, but also increased BV/TV and BFR/BS, and maintained Fmax at the distal femoral metaphysis compared with Ctrl. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanocurcumin–pyrroloquinoline formulation prevents hypertrophy–induced pathological damage by relieving mitochondrial stress in cardiomyocytes under hypoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Sarita; Bhardwaj, Varun; Bansal, Anju; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh; Saraswat, Deepika

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the therapeutic effect of a nanocurcumin formulation (NCF) containing nanocurcumin (NC) and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on ameliorating hypoxia-induced stress in hypertrophied primary human ventricular cardiomyocytes (HVCM) under hypoxic conditions, as validated in a Sprague-Dawley rat model of chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). Based on our previous findings, here, we analyzed the improvement in the protective efficacy of NCF against mitochondrial damage. The electron transport chain Complexes’ activities were analyzed as a chief operational center for mitochondrial homeostasis, along with key gene and protein markers for mitochondrial biogenesis, redox function, fatty acid oxidation, bio-energetic deficit and cell survival. NCF supplementation imparts cyto-protection from hypoxia-induced hypertrophy and damage in both in vitro and in vivo models while maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis better than NC and PQQ alone. This study proposes the use of NCF as a potential candidate molecule for imparting protection from high altitude-induced maladies in ascendants.

  17. Preventing Electromagnetic Pulse Irradiation Damage on Testis Using Selenium-rich Cordyceps Fungi. A Preclinical Study in Young Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Lang, Haiyang; Lin, Yanyun; Guo, Qiyan; Yang, Mingjuan; Guo, Juan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Junye; Liu, Yaning; Zeng, Lihua; Guo, Guozhen

    2017-02-01

    Networked 21st century society, globalization, and communications technologies are paralleled by the rise of electromagnetic energy intensity in our environments and the growing pressure of the environtome on human biology and health. The latter is the entire complement of environmental factors, including the electromagnetic energy and the technologies that generate them, enacting on the digital citizen in the new century. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation might have serious damaging effects not only on electronic equipment but also in the whole organism and reproductive health, through nonthermal effects and oxidative stress. We sought to determine whether EMP exposure (1) induces biological damage on reproductive health and (2) the extent to which selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (daily coadministration) offer protection on the testicles and spermatozoa. In a preclinical randomized study, 3-week-old male BALB/c mice were repeatedly exposed to EMP (peak intensity 200 kV/m, pulse edge 3.5 ns, pulse width 15 ns, 0.1 Hz, and 400 pulses/day) 5 days per week for four consecutive weeks, with or without coadministration of daily selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (100 mg/kg). Testicular index and spermatozoa formation were measured at baseline and 1, 7, 14, 28, and 60 day time points after EMP exposure. The group without Cordyceps cotreatment displayed decreased spermatozoa formation, shrunk seminiferous tubule diameters, and diminished antioxidative capacity at 28 and 60 days after exposure (p digital citizenship.

  18. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel. The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%, AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L, and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  1. CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of p19INK4d avoids DNA damage-induced neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus and prevents loss of cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, María Florencia; Belluscio, Laura M; de la Fuente, Verónica; Berardino, Bruno G; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Byk, Laura; Marazita, Mariela; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2014-07-01

    DNA damage, which perturbs genomic stability, has been linked to cognitive decline in the aging human brain, and mutations in DNA repair genes have neurological implications. Several studies have suggested that DNA damage is also increased in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanisms connecting DNA damage with neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. CDK5, a critical enzyme in the development of the central nervous system, phosphorylates a number of synaptic proteins and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. In addition to these physiological roles, CDK5 has been involved in the neuronal death initiated by DNA damage. We hypothesized that p19INK4d, a member of the cell cycle inhibitor family INK4, is involved in a neuroprotective mechanism activated in response to DNA damage. We found that in response to genotoxic injury or increased levels of intracellular calcium, p19INK4d is transcriptionally induced and phosphorylated by CDK5 which provides it with greater stability in postmitotic neurons. p19INK4d expression improves DNA repair, decreases apoptosis and increases neuronal survival under conditions of genotoxic stress. Our in vivo experiments showed that decreased levels of p19INK4d rendered hippocampal neurons more sensitive to genotoxic insult resulting in the loss of cognitive abilities that rely on the integrity of this brain structure. We propose a feedback mechanism by which the neurotoxic effects of CDK5-p25 activated by genotoxic stress or abnormal intracellular calcium levels are counteracted by the induction and stabilization of p19INK4d protein reducing the adverse consequences on brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. BL153 Partially Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Liver Damage Probably via Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate whether a magnolia extract, named BL153, can prevent obesity-induced liver damage and identify the possible protective mechanism. To this end, obese mice were induced by feeding with high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal as fat and the age-matched control mice were fed with control diet (10% kcal as fat for 6 months. Simultaneously these mice were treated with or without BL153 daily at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg by gavage. HFD feeding significantly increased the body weight and the liver weight. Administration of BL153 significantly reduced the liver weight but without effects on body weight. As a critical step of the development of NAFLD, hepatic fibrosis was induced in the mice fed with HFD, shown by upregulating the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1, which were significantly attenuated by BL153 in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism study revealed that BL153 significantly suppressed HFD induced hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress and slightly prevented liver inflammation. These results suggest that HFD induced fibrosis in the liver can be prevented partially by BL153, probably due to reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  3. Comparison of recidivism rates for a teenage trauma prevention program after the addition of high-fidelity patient simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marjorie Lee; Zinkan, J Lynn; Smith, Geni; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; Youngblood, Amber Q; Dodd, Ashley; Parker, Walter; Strachan, Samuel; Sloane, Peter; Tofil, Nancy

    2017-11-29

    We evaluated the benefits of adding high-fidelity simulation to a teenage trauma prevention program to decrease recidivism rates and encourage teens to discuss actionable steps toward safe driving. A simulated pediatric trauma scenario was integrated into an established trauma prevention program. Participants were recruited because they were court-ordered to attend this program after misdemeanor convictions for moving violations. The teenage participants viewed this simulation from the emergency medical services (EMS) handoff to complete trauma care. Participants completed a postsimulation knowledge assessment and care evaluation, which included narrative data about the experience. Qualitative analysis of color-coded responses identified common themes and experiences in participants' answers. Court records were reviewed 6 years after course completion to determine short- and long-term recidivism rates, which were then compared to our program's historical rate. One hundred twenty-four students aged 16-20 years participated over a 2-year study period. Narrative responses included general reflection, impressions, and thoughts about what they might change as a result of the course. Participants reported that they would decrease speed (30%), wear seat belts (15%), decrease cell phone use (11%), and increase caution (28%). The recidivism rate was 55% within 6 years. At 6 months it was 8.4%, at 1 year it was 20%, and it increased approximately 5-8% per year after the first year. Compared with our programs, for historical 6-month and 2-year recidivism rates, no significant difference was seen with or without simulation. Adding simulation is well received by participants and leads to positive reflections regarding changes in risk-taking behaviors but resulted in no changes to the high recidivism rates This may be due to the often ineffectiveness of fear appeals.

  4. Quality investigation of building structure using ground penetrating radar (GPR) as an early study to prevent severe structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumai, M. Fariz; Fernando, Stephen; Nugroho, Gatot; Natania, Kana; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Many infrastructures in Indonesia suffered damage in a short period of time. It proves that there are still many buildings in Indonesia which have questionable quality so a method is needed for checking the quality of the building. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a method used to describe the structure of the building on the inside that cannot be seen from the outside in this case Parahyangan Reksa Raga (PASAGA) Bridge was examined with 19.7 m × 3.3 m × 1.5 m dimension. Thismethod uses propagation of electromagnetic wave, which will give Radargram response inside a building based on the characteristics of the medium such as magnetic permeability, electric permittivity and electrical conductivity. GPR method is one of geophysical method which is effective, efficient, and environmentally friendly. The measurements were carried out using MALA RAMAC X3M device with frequency 800 MHz. The results show thatindication of fractures was found at less than 1 m depth in the structure from the Radargram display of PASAGA Bridge and supported by the observation data on the surface.

  5. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail: songyangwenrong@hotmail.com

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably.

  6. Flow measurement in turbine bearings. A measure to prevent damage; Durchflussmessung an Turbinenlagern. Eine Massnahme zur Verhuetung von Schaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, T. [STEAG AG, Heizkraftwerk Herne (Germany); Schenk, K. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The temperature of sliding bearings for turbines, pumps, compressors, blowers and motors is normally continually monitored. Depending on the type of construction and size of the aggregates, it has been common practice since the beginning of 1960 to measure the temperature of the bearing metal directly instead of the outflowing oil. Provided measurements are made also in areas of the highest surface compression, any deficiency, i.e. overload due to increasing bearing metal temperatues, are noticed at an early stage. In case of other design types, however, serious damage might result. But also serious maintenance errors due to the closure of bearing oil flow have forced us to implement more suitable measuring measures, one of them being an ultrasonic quantity measurement, that can be refurbished without great expenditure during operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gleitlager fuer Turbinen, Pumpen, Verdichter, Geblaese, Getriebe und Motoren werden ueblicherweise kontinuierlich temperaturmaessig ueberwacht. Seit Anfang 1960 werden je nach Bauart und Groesse der Aggregate Temperaturen nicht mehr des ablaufendes Oeles, sondern des Weissmetalls direkt gemessen. Vorausgesetzt, es wird auch im Bereich der hoechsten Flaechenpressung gemessen, werden Maengel, d.h. Ueberbelastung durch ansteigende Weissmetalltemperaturen, schnell erkannt. Bei anderen Konstruktionen hingegen kann es zu schweren Schaeden kommen. Aber auch gravierende Wartungsfehler durch Verschluss der Lageroelzufuhr haben uns gezwungen, geeignetere Messmethoden anzuwenden. Hierzu gehoert eine Mengenmessung mittels Ultraschall, die ohne viel Aufwand waehrend des Betriebes nachgeruestet werden kann. (orig.)

  7. Method to prevent ejecta from damaging the Compact Torus Accelerator driver of an inertial fusion energy power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, S.E.K.; Moir, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Concern has been expressed about the conceptual design of fusion reactors using a Compact Torus Accelerator (CTA). A CTA accelerates a plasma torus toward a fusion target. When the torus nears the target, it is compressed and focused down to a small volume, creating a very high energy density and initiating a fusion micro explosion. The focusing cone is destroyed with each shot due to the stress from the passage of the torus as well as from the force of the explosion (1 800 MJ of yield, ∼0.5 Ton TNT equivalent). The focusing cone could be made of solidified Li 2 BeF 4 ; the same material used in liquid state to protect the reaction chamber from the micro explosion and to transport heat away to a power plant. The problem with this design is that when the focusing cone is shattered, the resulting small pieces of solid and liquid debris (ejecta) might be carded along by the expanding vapor of the explosion and might enter the CTA itself, causing damage and shortening the life of the CTA. The proposed solution for this possible problem is to bend the focusing cone so that the ejecta no longer have a clear path to the CTA. Calculations show that the plasma torus may be sent through a radius of curvature of less than 0.5 m just after the focusing cone, without significantly disturbing the plasma

  8. Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: The prevention of curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Demei; Hu, Lihua; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Zhang, Pu; Fu, Juanli; Wang, Wenchao; Xu, Duo; Du, Hong; Hu, Qiuling; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cells), oxidative stress (the elevation of TBAR level and the inhibition of SOD and catalase activities) and inflammation (up-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). However, these changes were alleviated upon pretreatment with curcumin. Interestingly, TCBQ has no effect on caspase family genes or B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) protein expressions, which implied that TCBQ-induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. Moreover, curcumin was shown to induce phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). In summary, the protective mechanisms of curcumin against TCBQ-induced hepatoxicity may be related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, along with the inhibition of inflammatory response via the activation of Nrf2 signaling. - Highlights: • TCBQ-intoxication significantly increased AST and ALT activities. • TCBQ-intoxication induced oxidative stress in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced inflammatory response in mice liver. • TCBQ-intoxication induced hepatotoxicity is independent of apoptosis. • Curcumin relieved TCBQ-induced liver damage remarkably

  9. SRSF1 Prevents DNA Damage and Promotes Tumorigenesis through Regulation of DBF4B Pre-mRNA Splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated alternative splicing events have been implicated in many types of cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we observe that the splicing factor SRSF1 regulates DBF4B exon6 splicing by specifically binding and promoting its inclusion. Knockdown of the exon6-containing isoform (DBF4B-FL significantly inhibits the tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells in vitro and in mice, and SRSF1 inactivation phenocopies DBF4B-FL depletion. DBF4B-FL and SRSF1 are required for cancer cell proliferation and for the maintenance of genomic stability. Overexpression of DBF4B-FL can protect against DNA damage induced by SRSF1 knockdown and rescues growth defects in SRSF1-depleted cells. Increased DBF4B exon6 inclusion parallels SRSF1 upregulation in clinical colorectal cancer samples. Taken together, our findings identify SRSF1 as a key regulator of DBF4B pre-mRNA splicing dysregulation in colon cancer, with possible clinical implications as candidate prognostic factors in cancer patients.

  10. Silver nanoparticles protect human keratinocytes against UVB radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis: potential for prevention of skin carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumit; Tyagi, Nikhil; Bhardwaj, Arun; Rusu, Lilia; Palanki, Rohan; Vig, Komal; Singh, Shree R.; Singh, Ajay P.; Palanki, Srinivas; Miller, Michael E.; Carter, James E.; Singh, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation from the sun is an established etiological cause of skin cancer, which afflicts more than a million lives each year in the United States alone. Here, we tested the chemopreventive efficacy of silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs) against UVB-irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). AgNPs were synthesized by reduction-chemistry and characterized for their physicochemical properties. AgNPs were well tolerated by HaCaT cells and their pretreatment protected them from UVB-irradiation-induced apoptosis along with significant reduction in cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimer formation. Moreover, AgNPs pre-treatment led to G1-phase cell-cycle arrest in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. AgNPs were efficiently internalized in UVB-irradiated cells and localized into cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Furthermore, we observed an altered expression of various genes involved in cell-cycle, apoptosis and nucleotide-excision repair in HaCaT cells treated with AgNPs prior to UVB-irradiation. Together, these findings provide support for potential utility of AgNPs as novel chemopreventive agents against UVB-irradiation-induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25804413

  11. The prevention of radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial cells by salvianic acid A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of radiation always provokes public debate, and the uses of radiation for therapeutic and other purposes have always been associated with some anxiety. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases including cerebrovascular diseases, coronary artery diseases, and myocardial infarction. Salvianolic acid A (SAA d (+-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid is the principal effective, watersoluble constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. In our present study, radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC in the presence and absence of SAA were examined. We investigated the effects of SAA on ROS formation and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, the lipid peroxidative index and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH. Finally, we investigated whether the reduction of radiation-induced cell death caused by SAA might be related to mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Present findings indicate that SAA is a promising radioprotective agent with a strong antioxidant activity. SAA exerted its protective action on the proliferative activity of HIEC cells as evidenced by decreased cytotoxicity after exposure to γ-radiation. It is possible that SAA achieved its radioprotective action, at least in part, by enhancing DNA repair and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, by scavenging ROS and by inhibiting the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  12. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys. Part 4: effect of Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2 as additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Akira; Ogura, Hideo

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a casting investment that prevents the blackening of the cast surface of noble metal alloys. Experimental investments were prepared using a gypsum-bonded investment in which a hydroxide, namely Mg(OH)2 or Ca(OH)2, was added. An Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was cast into the mold made of the prepared investment. The addition of both hydroxides showed a significant effect on the color of as-cast surfaces, which was improved with increase in additive content. When Mg(OH)2 or Ca(OH)2 was added at more than 4.0 mass% to the investment, it was useful in preventing the blackening of the as-cast surfaces of an Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. As for differences in the effects between Mg(OH)2 and Ca(OH)2, they were not found.

  13. Peptidylarginine deiminases: novel drug targets for prevention of neuronal damage following hypoxic ischemic insult (HI) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sigrun; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Thei, Laura; Mawjee, Priyanka; Bennett, Kate; Thompson, Paul R; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Nicholas, Anthony P; Peebles, Donald; Hristova, Mariya; Raivich, Gennadij

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic (HI) injury frequently causes neural impairment in surviving infants. Our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still limited. Protein deimination is a post-translational modification caused by Ca(+2) -regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a group of five isozymes that display tissue-specific expression and different preference for target proteins. Protein deimination results in altered protein conformation and function of target proteins, and is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, gene regulation and autoimmunity. In this study, we used the neonatal HI and HI/infection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation] murine models to investigate changes in protein deimination. Brains showed increases in deiminated proteins, cell death, activated microglia and neuronal loss in affected brain areas at 48 h after hypoxic ischaemic insult. Upon treatment with the pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine, a significant reduction was seen in microglial activation, cell death and infarct size compared with control saline or LPS-treated animals. Deimination of histone 3, a target protein of the PAD4 isozyme, was increased in hippocampus and cortex specifically upon LPS stimulation and markedly reduced following Cl-amidine treatment. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for PAD enzymes in neural impairment in neonatal HI Encephalopathy, highlighting their role as promising new candidates for drug-directed intervention in neurotrauma. Hypoxic Ischaemic Insult (HI) results in activation of peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) because of calcium dysregulation. Target proteins undergo irreversible changes of protein bound arginine to citrulline, resulting in protein misfolding. Infection in synergy with HI causes up-regulation of TNFα, nuclear translocation of PAD4 and change in gene regulation as a result of histone deimination. Pharmacological PAD inhibition significantly reduced HI brain damage. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry

  14. Magnesium chloride alone or in combination with diazepam fails to prevent hippocampal damage following transient forebrain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Milani

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, magnesium ion (Mg2+ acts as an endogenous modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-coupled calcium channels, and may play a major role in the pathomechanisms of ischemic brain damage. In the present study, we investigated the effects of magnesium chloride (MgCl2, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/kg, either alone or in combination with diazepam (DZ, on ischemia-induced hippocampal cell death. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia for 15 min using the 4-vessel occlusion model. MgCl2 was applied systemically (sc in single (1x, 2 h post-ischemia or multiple doses (4x, 1, 2, 24 and 48 h post-ischemia. DZ was always given twice, at 1 and 2 h post-ischemia. Thus, ischemia-subjected rats were assigned to one of the following treatments: vehicle (0.1 ml/kg, N = 34, DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 24, MgCl2 (2.5 mmol/kg, N = 10, MgCl2 (5.0 mmol/kg, N = 17, MgCl2 (7.5 mmol/kg, N = 9 or MgCl2 (5 mmol/kg + DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 14. Seven days after ischemia the brains were analyzed histologically. Fifteen minutes of ischemia caused massive pyramidal cell loss in the subiculum (90.3% and CA1 (88.4% sectors of the hippocampus (P0.05. Both DZ alone and DZ + MgCl2 reduced rectal temperature significantly (P<0.05. No animal death was observed after drug treatment. These data indicate that exogenous magnesium, when administered systemically post-ischemia even in different multiple dose schedules, alone or with diazepam, is not useful against the histopathological effects of transient global cerebral ischemia in rats.

  15. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  16. [The concept of loss of chance: A major evolution in the definition of damage or how to prevent litigation for loss of chance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T-D

    2016-07-01

    The concept of medical error in responsibility litigation was based until the past last years on a necessary direct and definite causal link between fault and injury. In France, since the 1960s and increasingly during the last decade, the idea of loss of chance arose, considered as a new and genuine prejudice (practically, a fixable damage); it became the subject of several legal precedents from the Cour de cassation and the Conseil d'État. Thus, plaintiffs may currently demand a compensation for a loss of chance even though a doubt exists on the causal link between the fault and the observed damage. The most frequent litigation circumstances implying a loss of chance are lack of information, lack or delay in diagnosis, delay in action, and default in medical assessment. Based on practical cases, the author presents the most propitious situations where litigation for loss of chance may occur and discusses possible preventive measures. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. An Emerging Role of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in Preventing Advanced-Glycation-End-Product-Mediated Damages in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Puddu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is a gut hormone produced in the intestinal epithelial endocrine L cells by differential processing of the proglucagon gene. Released in response to the nutrient ingestion, GLP-1 plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 has been shown to regulate blood glucose levels by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion and inhibiting glucagon secretion, gastric emptying, and food intake. These antidiabetic activities highlight GLP-1 as a potential therapeutic molecule in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes, (a disease characterized by progressive decline of beta-cell function and mass, increased insulin resistance, and final hyperglycemia. Since chronic hyperglycemia contributed to the acceleration of the formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs, a heterogeneous group of compounds derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with free amino groups of proteins implicated in vascular diabetic complications, the administration of GLP-1 might directly counteract diabetes pathophysiological processes (such as pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. This paper outlines evidence on the protective role of GLP-1 in preventing the deleterious effects mediated by AGEs in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Prevention of UV-induced damage to the anterior segment using class I UV-absorbing hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Heather L; Reuter, Kathleen S; Sinnott, Loraine T; Nichols, Jason J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether class I ultraviolet (UV) light-blocking contact lenses prevent UV-induced pathologic changes in a rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 4), as follows: senofilcon A (class I UV blocking) contact lenses; lotrafilcon A contact lenses (no reported UV blocking); no contact lens. The contralateral eye was patched without a contact lens. Animals received UV-B (1.667 J/cm(2)) exposure daily for 5 days. Postmortem tissue was examined as follows: in the cornea, the expression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) was evaluated by zymography, and apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and caspase-3 ELISA; ascorbate in the aqueous humor was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; crystalline lens apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and caspase-3 ELISA. Exposed corneas showed a significant increase in MMP-2 and -9, TUNEL-positive cells, and caspase-3 activity in the lotrafilcon A group compared with the senofilcon A group (all P = 0.03). A significant decrease in aqueous humor ascorbate was observed in the exposed lotrafilcon A lens-wearing group compared with the exposed senofilcon A lens-wearing group (P = 0.03). Exposed crystalline lenses had significantly increased caspase-3 activity in the lotrafilcon A group compared with the senofilcon A group (P = 0.03). Increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were noted in both the lotrafilcon A and the non-contact lens groups. The authors show that senofilcon A class I UV-blocking contact lenses are capable of protecting the cornea, aqueous humor, and crystalline lens of rabbits from UV-induced pathologic changes.

  19. Interactions among the Escherichia coli mutT, mutM, and mutY damage prevention pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Robert G; White, Steven J; Koyama, Carol; Moore, Sean C; Dunn, Ronnie L; Schaaper, Roel M

    2003-02-03

    We have investigated in detail the interactions between the Escherichia coli mutT, mutM, and mutY error-prevention systems. Jointly, these systems protect the cell against the effects of the oxidative stress product, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a base analog with ambiguous base-pairing properties, pairing with either A or C during DNA synthesis. mutT mutator strains display a specific increase in A.T-->C.G transversions, while mutM and mutY mutator strains show specific G.C-->T.A increases. To study in more detail the in vivo processing of the various mutational intermediates leading to A.T-->C.G and G.C-->T.A transversions, we analyzed defined A.T-->C.G and G.C-->T.A events in strains containing all possible combinations of these mutator alleles. We report three major findings. First, we do not find evidence that the mutT allele significantly increases G.C-->T.A transversions in either mut(+), mutM, mutY or mutMmutY backgrounds. We interpret this result to indicate that incorporation of 8-oxodGTP opposite template C may not be frequent relative to incorporation opposite template A. Second, we show that mutT-induced A.T-->C.G transversions are significantly reduced in strains carrying mutY and mutMmutY deficiencies suggesting that 8-oxoG, when present in DNA, preferentially mispairs with dATP. Third, the mutY and mutMmutY deficiencies also decrease A.T-->C.G transversions in the mutT(+) background, suggesting that, even in the presence of functional MutT protein, A.T-->C.G transversions may still result from 8-oxodGTP misincorporation.

  20. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have long been used against life-threatening diseases including diabetes, with more or less success. Some of these plants have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, which could help improving diabetes inconveniences. In that context, we investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, hypothesizing that co-administration of spirulina with rat diet could ameliorate diabetes complications and provide as benefits as the common antidiabetic insulin. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0.5 IU/rat) for 21 days. Both spirulina and insulin treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase of glycogen level. Spirulina supplementation also impeded loss of body weight and ameliorated hepatic toxicity indices, i.e. alkaline phosphatases and transaminases activities, bilirubin levels and lipid peroxidation. Besides, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in the serum. Moreover, diabetic rats fed with spirulina exhibited sig changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver (ie, decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). The beneficial effects of spirulina or insulin were confirmed by histological study of the liver of diabetic rats. Overall, this study indicates that treatment with spirulina decreased hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats, this amelioration being even more pronounced than that provided by insulin injection. Therefore, administration of this alga would be very helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Extra-virgin olive oil and its phenolic extract prevent inflammatory response and joint damage in murine experimental arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosillo, M.A.; Sanchez-Hidalgo, M.; AlarcOn-de-la-Lastra, C.

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of EVOO in Mediterranean countries has shown beneficial effects. A wide range of evidence indicates that the phenolic compounds present in EVOO are endowed with anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, we evaluated the effects of dietary EVOO and treatment with its phenolic extract (PE) in a model of RA, the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. On day 0, DBA-1/J mice were immunized with bovine collagen type II (CII). On day 21, the mice received a booster injection. We have demonstrated that EVOO and its PE decreases joint edema, cell migration, cartilage degradation and bone erosion. Our data indicate that dietary EVOO and PE treatment inhibit JNK, p38 and signal transducer and STAT-3. In addition, both EVOO and PE decrease NF-κB translocation leading to the down-regulation of the arthritic process. These results support the interest of natural diet components in the development of therapeutic products for arthritic conditions. [es

  2. Developmental toxicity of ethanol in chick heart in ovo and in micromass culture can be prevented by addition of vitamin C and folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Samreen; Pratten, Margaret K

    2009-09-01

    The teratogenic effects of ethanol include malformations of the cardiovascular system, which may be abrogated by multivitamin therapy. Chick cardiomyocytes in micromass culture were treated with ethanol alone or with supplementation with folate or vitamin C. Ethanol alone caused a loss of cell viability and differentiation (beating) whereas those cells treated in addition with vitamins were comparable to the control. Chick embryos were injected on day 3 of incubation with PBS, ethanol alone or with additional vitamin C or folic acid. On day 9 embryos were examined for viability, growth retardation and gross malformation and the hearts were processed for histology. Results showed that ethanol significantly decreased survival of embryos or caused growth retardation and gross malformation (pEmbryos incubated with addition of vitamin C or folic acid were comparable to the control. Data obtained in this study suggest that supplementation with vitamin C or folic acid during pregnancy may prevent defects in heart development brought about by ethanol.

  3. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Flávia G; Galan, Bryan S M; Santos, Priscila C; Pritchett, Kelly; Pfrimer, Karina; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Papoti, Marcelo; Marchini, Júlio S; de Freitas, Ellen C

    2017-01-01

    not improve aerobic parameters, but was effective in increasing taurine plasma levels and decreasing oxidative stress markers, which suggests that taurine may prevent oxidative stress in triathletes.

  4. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. De Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    did not improve aerobic parameters, but was effective in increasing taurine plasma levels and decreasing oxidative stress markers, which suggests that taurine may prevent oxidative stress in triathletes.

  5. Mental space travel: damage to posterior parietal cortex prevents egocentric navigation and reexperiencing of remote spatial memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Solcz, Stephanie; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2010-05-01

    The ability to navigate in a familiar environment depends on both an intact mental representation of allocentric spatial information and the integrity of systems supporting complementary egocentric representations. Although the hippocampus has been implicated in learning new allocentric spatial information, converging evidence suggests that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might support egocentric representations. To date, however, few studies have examined long-standing egocentric representations of environments learned long ago. Here we tested 7 patients with focal lesions in PPC and 12 normal controls in remote spatial memory tasks, including 2 tasks reportedly reliant on allocentric representations (distance and proximity judgments) and 2 tasks reportedly reliant on egocentric representations (landmark sequencing and route navigation; see Rosenbaum, Ziegler, Winocur, Grady, & Moscovitch, 2004). Patients were unimpaired in distance and proximity judgments. In contrast, they all failed in route navigation, and left-lesioned patients also showed marginally impaired performance in landmark sequencing. Patients' subjective experience associated with navigation was impoverished and disembodied compared with that of the controls. These results suggest that PPC is crucial for accessing remote spatial memories within an egocentric reference frame that enables both navigation and reexperiencing. Additionally, PPC was found to be necessary to implement specific aspects of allocentric navigation with high demands on spontaneous retrieval. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Lichen metabolites prevent UV light and nitric oxide-mediated plasmid DNA damage and induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Piovano, M; Lombardo, L; Garbarino, J; Cardile, V

    2008-09-26

    In humans both UV-A and UV-B can cause gene mutations and suppress immunity, which leads to skin cancer, including melanoma. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) appears particularly promising as ROS and RNS production by both UV-A and UV-B contributes to inflammation, immunosuppression, gene mutation and carcinogenesis. We evaluated the effect of two lichen compounds, sphaerophorin (depside) and pannarin (depsidone) on pBR322 DNA cleavage induced by hydroxyl radicals (()OH), and by nitric oxide (NO), and their superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) scavenging capacity. In addition, we investigated the growth inhibitory activity of these compounds against human melanoma cells (M14 cell line). Sphaerophorin and pannarin showed a protective effect on plasmid DNA and exhibited a superoxide dismutase like effect. The data obtained in cell culture show that these lichen metabolites inhibit the growth of melanoma cells, inducing an apoptotic cell death, demonstrated by the fragmentation of genomic DNA (COMET and TUNEL Assays) and by a significant increase of caspase-3 activity, and correlated, at least in part, to the increase of ROS generation, These results confirm the promising biological properties of sphaerophorin and pannarin and encourage further investigations on their molecular mechanisms.

  7. The use of additive ceramic hollow spheres on cement slurry to prevent lost circulation in formation `X' having low pressure fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Novia; Mursyidah, Syahindra, Michael

    2018-03-01

    When drilling, if the hydrostatic pressure is higher than formation pressure (fracture pressure) it will cause lost circulation during cementing process. To solve this problem, hydrostatic pressure of slurry can be decreased by lowering the slurry density by using some additives. Ceramic Hollow Spheres (CHS) is lightweight additive. This additive comes with low specific gravity so it can lowered the slurry density. When the low-density slurry used in cementing process, it can prevent low circulation and fractured formation caused by cement itself. Class G cement is used in this experiment with the standard density of this slurry is 15.8 ppg. With the addition of CHS, slurry density lowered to 12.5 ppg. CHS not only used to lower the slurry density, it also used to make the same properties with the standard slurry even the density has been lowered. Both thickening time and compressive strength have not change if the CHS added to the slurry. With addition of CHS, thickening time at 70 Bc reached in 03 hours 12 minutes. For the compressive strength, 2000 psi reached in 07 hours 07 minutes. Addition of CHS can save more time in cementing process of X formation.

  8. Combination of Obestatin and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevents Aggravation of Endocrine Pancreatic Damage in Type II Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussien, Noha I; Ebrahim, Nesrine; Mohammed, Ola M; Sabry, Dina

    2017-11-30

    One of the new promising therapies in treatment of diabetes mellitus is mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which have an interesting therapeutic potentiality based on their paracrine effect and transdifferentiation potentiality. Also obestatin improves the generation of functional β cells/islet-like cell clusters in vitro, suggesting implications for cell-based replacement therapy in diabetes. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combination of both MSCs and obestatin on an experimental model of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty male rats were divided into; group I (control group), group II (T2DM group) induced by administration of high fat diet (HFD) and injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in low dose, group III (T2DM treated with MSCs), group IV (T2DM treated with obestatin), group V (T2DM treated with MSCs and obestatin). Fasting blood glucose, C-peptide, insulin and lipid profile were measured. HOMA-IR and HOMA- β were calculated. Pancreatic expression of insulin, glucagon like peptide -1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) mRNA levels were measured. In addition pancreatic histological changes, insulin and Bax were analyzed by immunohistochemical examination of islets of Langerhans. Diabetic rats showed significant increase in HOMA-IR, serum glucose and lipid profile levels with significant decrease in insulin, HOMA- β , GLP-1 and Pdx1 levels. MSCs and obestatin caused significant improvement in all parameters with more significant improvement in combined therapy. The protective effects afforded by MSCs and obestatin may derive from improvement of the metabolic profile, antiapoptosis and by increase in pancreatic GLP-1and Pdx1 gene expression.

  9. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istrati, D.; Lacatusu, I.; Bordei, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O.; Stefan, L.M.; Stan, R.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to − 45 mV) and displayed average sizes of 70 nm to 140 nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract–bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Highlights: • Safety phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers (NLC) based on two kinds of bioactives • Carrot extract incorporation into nanostructured carriers ranged from 78 to 88.3%. • High antioxidant activity of NLC by scavenging up to 98% free oxygen radicals • Extract entrapment represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. • Remarkable regenerative effect of L929 cell, with a proliferation of 133.4%

  10. Phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers based on dual vegetable actives involved in the prevention of cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istrati, D.; Lacatusu, I.; Bordei, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, L.M. [National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independentei Street No. 296, 060031 Bucharest (Romania); Stan, R. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Badea, N., E-mail: nicoleta.badea@gmail.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, A. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No. 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-07-01

    The growing scientific interest in exploitation of vegetable bioactives has raised a number of questions regarding their imminent presence in pharmaceutical formulations. This study intends to demonstrate that a dual combination between vegetable oil (e.g. thistle oil, safflower oil, sea buckthorn oil) and a carrot extract represents an optimal approach to formulate safe carrier systems that manifest cell regeneration effect and promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Inclusion of both natural actives into lipid carriers imparted a strong negative charge on the nanocarrier surface (up to − 45 mV) and displayed average sizes of 70 nm to 140 nm. The entrapment efficiency of carrot extract into nanostructured carriers ranged between 78.3 and 88.3%. The in vitro release study has demonstrated that the entrapment of the extract represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. Besides the excellent antioxidant properties (e.g. scavenging up to 98% of the free oxygen radicals), the results of cellular integrity (e.g. cell viability of 133%) recommend these nanocarriers based on dual carrot extract–bioactive oil as a promising trend for the treatment of certain disorders in which oxidative stress plays a prominent role. In addition, the lipid nanocarriers based on safflower oil and sea buckthorn oil demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS induced THP-1 macrophages, by inhibiting the secretion of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α. - Highlights: • Safety phyto-mediated nanostructured carriers (NLC) based on two kinds of bioactives • Carrot extract incorporation into nanostructured carriers ranged from 78 to 88.3%. • High antioxidant activity of NLC by scavenging up to 98% free oxygen radicals • Extract entrapment represents a viable way for an equilibrated release of carotenoids. • Remarkable regenerative effect of L929 cell, with a proliferation of 133.4%.

  11. Prevention of vascular dysfunction and arterial hypertension in mice generated by assisted reproductive technologies by addition of melatonin to culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhaj, Emrush; Pireva, Agim; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Allemann, Yves; Cerny, David; Dessen, Pierre; Sartori, Claudio; Scherrer, Urs; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2015-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) induce vascular dysfunction in humans and mice. In mice, ART-induced vascular dysfunction is related to epigenetic alteration of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, resulting in decreased vascular eNOS expression and nitrite/nitrate synthesis. Melatonin is involved in epigenetic regulation, and its administration to sterile women improves the success rate of ART. We hypothesized that addition of melatonin to culture media may prevent ART-induced epigenetic and cardiovascular alterations in mice. We, therefore, assessed mesenteric-artery responses to acetylcholine and arterial blood pressure, together with DNA methylation of the eNOS gene promoter in vascular tissue and nitric oxide plasma concentration in 12-wk-old ART mice generated with and without addition of melatonin to culture media and in control mice. As expected, acetylcholine-induced mesenteric-artery dilation was impaired (P = 0.008 vs. control) and mean arterial blood pressure increased (109.5 ± 3.8 vs. 104.0 ± 4.7 mmHg, P = 0.002, ART vs. control) in ART compared with control mice. These alterations were associated with altered DNA methylation of the eNOS gene promoter (P culture media prevented eNOS dysmethylation (P = 0.005, vs. ART + vehicle), normalized nitric oxide plasma concentration (23.1 ± 14.6 μM, P = 0.002 vs. ART + vehicle) and mesentery-artery responsiveness to acetylcholine (P culture media prevents ART-induced vascular dysfunction. We speculate that this approach will also allow preventing ART-induced premature atherosclerosis in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Gamma ray induced oxidative damage to human red blood cells proteins under hypotonic conditions and its prevention by natural phenolic malabaricone compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, K.; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    As an oxygen shuttle, Human RBCs must continue to perform the task while being exposed to a wide range of environments for each vascular circuit and to a variety of xenobiotics across its life time. The inability to synthesise new protein makes them uniquely vulnerable to oxidative stress. Antioxidants can help in protecting the RBCs from oxidative insults. Currently herbal antioxidants gained worldwide popularity as drugs and food/drug supplements for the treatment of various diseases. The present effort was aimed at formulating some natural phenolic compounds isolated from M.malabarica (mal B and mal C) to prevent the biochemical parameters which are considered as biomarkers of redox balance primarily contribute to alterations in red blood cells proteins during gamma radiation induced oxidative stress. Compared to control gamma ray treatment with hypotonic stress resulted in significant haemolysis, associated with increased MDA (3.3 fold, p<0.001) and met-haemoglobin (7.0 fold, p<0.001). The structural deformation due to membrane damage was confirmed from SEM images and Heinz body formation, while the cell permeability was evident from the K + efflux (30.4%, p<0.05) and increased intracellular Na + concentration (5.2%, p<0.05). The membrane damage, due to the reduction of the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and depletion (p<0.001) of ATP, 2,3-DPG by 54.7% and Na + -K + ATPase activity (48.%) indicated loss of RBC functionally. Pre-treatment of the RBCs with mal B (5μM), mal C (2.5 μM) or vitamin E (50 μM) for 1 h reversed these adverse effects of gamma radiation under hypotonic conditions on all these parameters and provided significant protection against oxidative haemolysis. (author)

  13. Increased protein damage in renal glomeruli, retina, nerve, plasma and urine and its prevention by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy in a rat model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachalias, N; Babaei-Jadidi, R; Rabbani, N; Thornalley, P J

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify protein damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration in a rat model of diabetes at the sites of development of microvascular complications, including the effects of thiamine and benfotiamine therapy. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by 55 mg/kg streptozotocin and moderated by insulin (2 U twice daily). Diabetic and control rats were given thiamine or benfotiamine (7 or 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) over 24 weeks. Plasma, urine and tissues were collected and analysed for protein damage by stable isotopic dilution analysis MS. There were two- to fourfold increases in fructosyl-lysine and AGE content of glomerular, retinal, sciatic nerve and plasma protein in diabetes. Increases in AGEs were reversed by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy but increases in fructosyl-lysine were not. Methionine sulfoxide content of plasma protein and 3-nitrotyrosine content of sciatic nerve protein were increased in diabetes. Plasma glycation free adducts were increased up to twofold in diabetes; the increases were reversed by thiamine. Urinary excretion of glycation, oxidation and nitration free adducts was increased by seven- to 27-fold in diabetes. These increases were reversed by thiamine and benfotiamine therapy. AGEs, particularly arginine-derived hydroimidazolones, accumulate at sites of microvascular complication development and have markedly increased urinary excretion rates in experimental diabetes. Thiamine and benfotiamine supplementation prevented tissue accumulation and increased urinary excretion of protein glycation, oxidation and nitration adducts. Similar effects may contribute to the reversal of early-stage clinical diabetic nephropathy by thiamine.

  14. Development of casting investment preventing blackening of noble metal alloys part 3. Effect of reducing agent addition on the strength and expansion of the investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yukun; Nakai, Akira; Ogura, Hideo

    2004-06-01

    Different reducing agents (B, Al, Si and Ti) were individually added to two gypsum-bonded investments to prepare investments preventing surface blackening of some noble cast alloys. The effect of different additive contents on green-body and burnout compressive strength, setting and thermal expansion of the investments were evaluated. The strength and expansion of the investments were changed by the additives. The compressive strength of Al-, Si- and Ti-added investments decreased with the increase of additive contents. The burnout strength of B-added investments significantly increased while green-body strength remained unchanged. The setting expansion of the B-added investments increased while those of the Al-, Si- and Ti-added investments decreased with the increase of additive contents. The thermal expansion of the Si- and Ti-added investments decreased, and that of the Al- and B-added investments remained unchanged. Further study is necessary to evaluate the effects of these additives on the accuracy of dental castings.

  15. Lingering immune dysregulation of inflammatory dermatoses, particularly psoriasis, probably drives metabolic syndrome culminating in cardiovascular damage and needs preventive public health guidelines as well as comprehensive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugal Kishor Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin namely, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, confers greater risk of cardiovascular disease on its patients than the sum of the individual components. It is increasingly being associated with inflammatory dermatoses, especially psoriasis. Determination of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome is conditioned by the changing views regarding its pathogenesis. Approximately, a quarter of the world′s population harbors this syndrome, whose reported prevalence in India (5-30% has escalated with an increase in urbanization and socioeconomic status. Due to, up to 3 times, the risk of cardiovascular mortality and up to 24 times risk of diabetes mellitus, the epidemiological significance of metabolic syndrome ideally necessitates formulation of preventive guidelines by public health authorities. Chronic inflammation, involving several cytokines and adipokines, forms the bridge between this syndrome and psoriasis and underlies the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, the primary lesion of coronary artery disease, in whose pathogenesis oxidative stress and genetic factors also play a role. Up to 4-fold increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality is reported globally in psoriatics. Increasing index of suspicion of this syndrome by the dermatologists, prevention of cardiovascular damage by lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation and redressal of the inherent depression in these patients is as imperative in management as is the specific therapy of the skin lesions of this systemic, rather than "just a skin," disease as well as the lipid-lowering, antihypertensive and antidiabetic agents.

  16. Taurine prevents arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative stress and apoptotic damage: Role of NF-κB, p38 and JNK MAPK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Das, Joydeep; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to its complex pathogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanism of arsenic-induced cardiac abnormalities and the use of antioxidants as the possible protective agents in this pathophysiology. Conditionally essential amino acid, taurine, accounts for 25% to 50% of the amino acid pool in myocardium and possesses antioxidant properties. The present study has, therefore, been carried out to investigate the underlying mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage and cell death. Arsenic reduced cardiomyocyte viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular calcium overload, and induced apoptotic cell death by mitochondrial dependent caspase-3 activation and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. These changes due to arsenic exposure were found to be associated with increased IKK and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation. Pre-exposure of myocytes to an IKK inhibitor (PS-1145) prevented As-induced caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Arsenic also markedly increased the activity of p38 and JNK MAPKs, but not ERK to that extent. Pre-treatment with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) attenuated NF-κB and IKK phosphorylation indicating that p38 and JNK MAPKs are mainly involved in arsenic-induced NF-κB activation. Taurine treatment suppressed these apoptotic actions, suggesting that its protective role in arsenic-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is mediated by attenuation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Similarly, arsenic intoxication altered a number of biomarkers related to cardiac oxidative stress and other apoptotic indices in vivo and taurine supplementation could reduce it. Results suggest that taurine prevented arsenic-induced myocardial pathophysiology, attenuated NF-κB activation via IKK, p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and could possibly provide a protection against As

  17. Antibodies trap tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue damage by driving IL-4Rα-independent alternative differentiation of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from chronic helminth infections with no effective vaccines currently available. Antibodies and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM form crucial components of protective immunity against challenge infections with intestinal helminths. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies target these large multi-cellular parasites remain obscure. Alternative activation of macrophages during helminth infection has been linked to signaling through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα, but the potential effects of antibodies on macrophage differentiation have not been explored. We demonstrate that helminth-specific antibodies induce the rapid trapping of tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue necrosis following challenge infection with the natural murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp. Mice lacking antibodies (JH (-/- or activating Fc receptors (FcRγ(-/- harbored highly motile larvae, developed extensive tissue damage and accumulated less Arginase-1 expressing macrophages around the larvae. Moreover, Hp-specific antibodies induced FcRγ- and complement-dependent adherence of macrophages to larvae in vitro, resulting in complete larval immobilization. Antibodies together with helminth larvae reprogrammed macrophages to express wound-healing associated genes, including Arginase-1, and the Arginase-1 product L-ornithine directly impaired larval motility. Antibody-induced expression of Arginase-1 in vitro and in vivo occurred independently of IL-4Rα signaling. In summary, we present a novel IL-4Rα-independent mechanism of alternative macrophage activation that is antibody-dependent and which both mediates anti-helminth immunity and prevents tissue disruption caused by migrating larvae.

  18. Role of enzymatic activity in muscle damage and cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops asper Asp49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins: are there additional effector mechanisms involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Obando, Diana; Díaz, Cecilia; Angulo, Yamileth; Gutiérrez, José María; Lomonte, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Viperid venoms often contain mixtures of Asp49 and Lys49 PLA2 myotoxin isoforms, relevant to development of myonecrosis. Given their difference in catalytic activity, mechanistic studies on each type require highly purified samples. Studies on Asp49 PLA2s have shown that enzyme inactivation using p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB) drastically affects toxicity. However, based on the variable levels of residual toxicity observed in some studies, it has been suggested that effector mechanisms independent of catalysis may additionally be involved in the toxicity of these enzymes, possibly resembling those of the enzymatically inactive Lys49 myotoxins. A possibility that Lys49 isoforms could be present in Asp49 PLA2 preparations exists and, if undetected in previous studies, could explain the variable residual toxicity. This question is here addressed by using an enzyme preparation ascertained to be free of Lys49 myotoxins. In agreement with previous reports, inactivation of the catalytic activity of an Asp49 myotoxin preparation led to major inhibition of toxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The very low residual levels of myotoxicity (7%) and cytotoxicity (4%) observed can be attributed to the low, although detectable, enzyme remaining active after p-BPB treatment (2.7%), and would be difficult to reconcile with the proposed existence of additional catalytic-independent toxic mechanisms. These findings favor the concept that the effector mechanism of toxicity of Asp49 PLA2 myotoxins from viperids fundamentally relies on their ability to hydrolyze phospholipids, arguing against the proposal that membrane disruption may also be caused by additional mechanisms that are independent of catalysis.

  19. Role of enzymatic activity in muscle damage and cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops asper Asp49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins: are there additional effector mechanisms involved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mora-Obando

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Viperid venoms often contain mixtures of Asp49 and Lys49 PLA2 myotoxin isoforms, relevant to development of myonecrosis. Given their difference in catalytic activity, mechanistic studies on each type require highly purified samples. Studies on Asp49 PLA2s have shown that enzyme inactivation using p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB drastically affects toxicity. However, based on the variable levels of residual toxicity observed in some studies, it has been suggested that effector mechanisms independent of catalysis may additionally be involved in the toxicity of these enzymes, possibly resembling those of the enzymatically inactive Lys49 myotoxins. A possibility that Lys49 isoforms could be present in Asp49 PLA2 preparations exists and, if undetected in previous studies, could explain the variable residual toxicity. This question is here addressed by using an enzyme preparation ascertained to be free of Lys49 myotoxins. In agreement with previous reports, inactivation of the catalytic activity of an Asp49 myotoxin preparation led to major inhibition of toxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The very low residual levels of myotoxicity (7% and cytotoxicity (4% observed can be attributed to the low, although detectable, enzyme remaining active after p-BPB treatment (2.7%, and would be difficult to reconcile with the proposed existence of additional catalytic-independent toxic mechanisms. These findings favor the concept that the effector mechanism of toxicity of Asp49 PLA2 myotoxins from viperids fundamentally relies on their ability to hydrolyze phospholipids, arguing against the proposal that membrane disruption may also be caused by additional mechanisms that are independent of catalysis.

  20. Photoexcited riboflavin induces oxidative damage to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Yoshioka, Takuto

    2015-08-01

    Photoexcited riboflavin induced damage of human serum albumin (HSA), a water soluble protein, resulting in the diminishment of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue. Because riboflavin hardly photosensitized singlet oxygen generation and sodium azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, did not inhibit protein damage, electron transfer-mediated oxidation of HSA was speculated. Fluorescence lifetime of riboflavin was not affected by HSA, suggesting that the excited triplet state of riboflavin is responsible for protein damage through electron transfer. In addition, the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives, triplet quenchers, on photosensitized protein damage could be evaluated using this photosensitized reaction system of riboflavin and HSA.

  1. Prunella vulgaris extract and rosmarinic acid prevent UVB-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostálová, Jitka; Zdarilová, Adéla; Svobodová, Alena

    2010-04-01

    Solar radiation is a very important exogenous factor in skin pathogenesis and can lead to the development of a number of skin disorders. UVB irradiation is known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation and especially DNA lesions in exposed cells. It is important, therefore, to identify agents that can offer protection against UVB-caused skin damage. Natural compounds have been studied for their possible ability to control/modulate various lifestyle-related diseases. The application of plant compounds/extracts with screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may also successfully protect the skin against UV-caused injury. We assessed the potency of Prunella vulgaris extract (PVE) and its main phenolic acid component, rosmarinic acid (RA), to suppress UVB-induced (295-315 nm) alterations to human keratinocytes HaCaT using a solar simulator. Pre- and post-treatment of HaCaT cells with PVE (5-50 mg/l) and RA (0.18-1.8 mg/l) reduced breakage together with the apoptotic process. PVE and RA also significantly eliminated ROS production and diminished IL-6 release. Taken together, both PVE and RA prevent UVB-caused injury to keratinocytes. However their efficacy needs to be demonstrated in vivo.

  2. Improved estimates of separation distances to prevent unacceptable damage to nuclear power plant structures from hydrogen detonation for gaseous hydrogen storage. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report provides new estimates of separation distances for nuclear power plant gaseous hydrogen storage facilities. Unacceptable damage to plant structures from hydrogen detonations will be prevented by having hydrogen storage facilities meet separation distance criteria recommended in this report. The revised standoff distances are based on improved calculations on hydrogen gas cloud detonations and structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Also, the results presented in this study do not depend upon equivalencing a hydrogen detonation to an equivalent TNT detonation. The static and stagnation pressures, wave velocity, and the shock wave impulse delivered to wall surfaces were computed for several different size hydrogen explosions. Separation distance equations were developed and were used to compute the minimum separation distance for six different wall cases and for seven detonating volumes (from 1.59 to 79.67 lbm of hydrogen). These improved calculation results were compared to previous calculations. The ratio between the separation distance predicted in this report versus that predicted for hydrogen detonation in previous calculations varies from 0 to approximately 4. Thus, the separation distances results from the previous calculations can be either overconservative or unconservative depending upon the set of hydrogen detonation parameters that are used. Consequently, it is concluded that the hydrogen-to-TNT detonation equivalency utilized in previous calculations should no longer be used

  3. Lansoprazole prevents experimental gastric injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through a reduction of mucosal oxidative damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandizzi, Corrado; Fornai, Matteo; Colucci, Rocchina; Natale, Gianfranco; Lubrano, Valter; Vassalle, Cristina; Antonioli, Luca; Lazzeri, Gloria; Tacca, Mario Del

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated the mechanisms of protection afforded by the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole against gastric injury induced by different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with indomethacin (100 µmol/kg), diclofenac (60 µmol/kg), piroxicam (150 µmol/kg) or ketoprofen (150 µmol/kg). Thirty minutes before NSAIDs, animals were orally treated with lansoprazole 18 or 90 µmol/kg. Four hours after the end of treatments, the following parameters were assessed: gastric mucosal PGE2, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) or non-proteic sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) levels; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mucosal COX-2 mRNA; gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated animals; in vitro effects of lansoprazole (1-300 µmol/L) on the oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) induced by copper sulphate. RESULTS: All NSAIDs elicited mucosal necrotic lesions which were associated with neutrophil infiltration and reduction of PGE2 levels. Increments of MPO and MDA contents, as well as a decrease in GSH levels were detected in the gastric mucosa of indomethacin- or piroxicam-treated animals. Indomethacin enhanced mucosal cyclooxygenase-2 expression, while not affecting cyclooxygenase-1. At the oral dose of 18 µmol/kg lansoprazole partly counteracted diclofenac-induced mucosal damage, whereas at 90 µmol/kg it markedly prevented injuries evoked by all test NSAIDs. Lansoprazole at 90 µmol/kg reversed also the effects of NSAIDs on MPO, MDA and GSH mucosal contents, without interfering with the decrease in PGE2 levels or indomethacin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. However, both lansoprazole doses markedly inhibited acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. Lansoprazole concentration-dependently reduced the oxidation of LDLs in vitro. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, besides the inhibition of acid secretion, lansoprazole protection against NSAID

  4. Role of Ocimum basilicum L. in prevention of ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral damage, and motor dysfunctions in mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Arora, Shruti; Shri, Richa

    2011-10-11

    The genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae) has a long history of use as culinary and medicinal herbs. Many species are used for their antioxidant and neuroprotective activity in various parts of the world. Ocimum basilicum Linn. has been used traditionally for the treatment of anxiety, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, headaches, nerve pain, as anticonvulsant and anti-inflammatory, and used in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Ocimum basilicum leaves on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral damage, and motor dysfunctions in mice. Global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min followed by reperfusion for 24h. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content was determined by colorimetric assay. Short-term memory was evaluated using elevated plus-maze. Inclined beam walking was employed to assess motor coordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced significant increase in cerebral infarct size and lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and reduced GSH content, and impaired short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with standardized ethyl acetate extract of Ocimum basilicum (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size and lipid peroxidation, restored GSH content, and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. The results of the study suggest that Ocimum basilicum could be useful clinically in the prevention of stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis Of Damage Arising From Exploitation Of The Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploitation, due to a variety of reasons, aircrafts are damaged or suffer from different failures. In the process of operation, using appropriate methods of diagnosis, failure, damage, and relative deregulation of individual elements or units can be detected. For this purpose, one can apply a number of indirect diagnostic methods with the use of recorded diagnostic signals or a direct diagnosis with the use of non-destructive methods. The proper identification of the technical condition allows to determine the causes of irregularities and take actions aimed at preventing their occurrence. The article presents the types of exploitation damage of a multi-purpose aircraft. In addition, the criteria for the division of damage and research methods of the causes of damage are presented. Furthermore, an analysis of the scope of activities to be performed during the research of causes of damage to the aircraft is made.

  6. Damage control surgery in the era of damage control resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, C M; MacGoey, P; Navarro, A P; Brooks, A J

    2014-08-01

    Damage control surgery (DCS) is a concept of abbreviated laparotomy, designed to prioritize short-term physiological recovery over anatomical reconstruction in the seriously injured and compromised patient. Over the last 10 yr, a new addition to the damage control paradigm has emerged, referred to as damage control resuscitation (DCR). This focuses on initial hypotensive resuscitation and early use of blood products to prevent the lethal triad of acidosis, coagulopathy, and hypothermia. This review aims to present the evidence behind DCR and its current application, and also to present a strategy of overall damage control to include DCR and DCS in conjunction. The use of DCR and DCS have been associated with improved outcomes for the severely injured and wider adoption of these principles where appropriate may allow this trend of improved survival to continue. In particular, DCR may allow borderline patients, who would previously have required DCS, to undergo early definitive surgery as their physiological derangement is corrected earlier. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Radiation-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, V.A.; Santiago-Delpin, E.A.; Lanaro, A.E.; Castro-Vita, H.; Arroyo, G.; Moscol, J.A.; Gomez, C.; Velazquez, J.; Prado, K.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer with or without chemotherapy, the risk of liver radiation damage has become a significant concern for the radiotherapist when the treated tumour is located in the upper abdomen or lower thorax. Clinically evident radiation liver damage may result in significant mortality, but at times patients recover without sequelae. The dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks to the entire liver with 5 fractions per week of 200 rads each, seems to be tolerated well clinically by adult humans. Lower doses may lead to damage when used in children, when chemotherapy is added, as in recent hepatectomy cases, and in the presence of pre-existent liver damage. Reduced fractionation may lead to increased damage. Increased fractionation, limitation of the dose delivered to the entire liver, and restriction of the high dose irradiation volume may afford protection. With the aim of studying the problems of hepatic radiation injury in humans, a project of liver irradiation in the dog is being conducted. Mongrel dogs are being conditioned, submitted to pre-irradiation studies (haemogram, blood chemistry, liver scan and biopsy), irradiated under conditions resembling human cancer therapy, and submitted to post-irradiation evaluation of the liver. Twenty-two dogs have been entered in the study but only four qualify for the evaluation of all the study parameters. It has been found that dogs are susceptible to liver irradiation damage similar to humans. The initial mortality has been high mainly due to non-radiation factors which are being kept under control at the present phase of the study. After the initial experiences, the study will involve variations in total dose and fractionation, and the addition of anticoagulant therapy for possible prevention of radiation liver injury. (author)

  8. ADDITION OF ADJUVANTS IN RECOMBINANT SUBUNIT VACCINES FOR THE PREVENTION OF GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV INFECTION IN HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV which is a member of Megalocytivirus causes mass mortalities in marine fish in Indonesia. This study was conducted to know the effectiveness of recombinant subunit vaccine of GSDIV with an addition of adjuvants against GSDIV infection. Inactive bacteria Eschericia coli containing recombinant MCP-GSDIV protein was added with montanide ISA adjuvant at a ratio of 3:7. The vaccine was administered to humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis by intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 0.1 mL/fish. Test of the vaccine in humpback grouper was performed in four replicates (four trials. Results of the vaccination showed that the recombinant protein vaccine added with the adjuvant increased immunity of humpback grouper, indicated by higher relative percent survival (RPS= 77.78% compared to negative control (PBS and 50% higher compared to protein control (pET Sumo CAT at two weeks post vaccination. The RPS values of the recombinant protein vaccine were still higher (53.57%-72.73% than those of the control vaccine and 25%-53.33% of the protein control in the 4th week post vaccination. GSDIV detection by PCR showed that MCP-GSDIV-DNA and pET Sumo CAT-DNA were not detected in the vaccinated fish after one, two, three, and four weeks post vaccination. The fish died in both of vaccinated and control groups after experimental challenge with GSDIV were found to be infected with GSDIV. It can be stated that recombinant subunit vaccine of GSDIV with the addition of montanide ISA adjuvant could be used to prevent and diminish mortalities of grouper against GSDIV infection.

  9. A Low-Cost Environmental Monitoring System: How to Prevent Systematic Errors in the Design Phase through the Combined Use of Additive Manufacturing and Thermographic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Danza, Ludovico; Meroni, Italo; Pollastro, Maria Cristina

    2017-04-11

    nEMoS (nano Environmental Monitoring System) is a 3D-printed device built following the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) approach. It can be connected to the web and it can be used to assess indoor environmental quality (IEQ). It is built using some low-cost sensors connected to an Arduino microcontroller board. The device is assembled in a small-sized case and both thermohygrometric sensors used to measure the air temperature and relative humidity, and the globe thermometer used to measure the radiant temperature, can be subject to thermal effects due to overheating of some nearby components. A thermographic analysis was made to rule out this possibility. The paper shows how the pervasive technique of additive manufacturing can be combined with the more traditional thermographic techniques to redesign the case and to verify the accuracy of the optimized system in order to prevent instrumental systematic errors in terms of the difference between experimental and actual values of the above-mentioned environmental parameters.

  10. Adding Additional Acute Medications to a Triptan Regimen for Migraine and Observed Changes in Headache-Related Disability: Results From the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Serrano, Daniel; Reed, Michael L; Kori, Shashi H; Cunanan, Cedric M; Adams, Aubrey Manack; Lipton, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    Though triptans are the most widely used acute treatments for migraine, response to treatment is sometimes suboptimal. Triptan therapy is often augmented by the addition of other acute treatments. The benefits of this practice have not been examined in large-scale, real-world observational studies. To assess changes in headache-related disability associated with adding additional acute treatments to a triptan regimen by category of added treatment including: a second triptan, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids or barbiturates. Subjects were participants in the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study, a longitudinal, US population-based study of individuals with "severe" headache. Respondents who met International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 beta criteria for migraine were on triptan therapy per respondent self-report, used the same triptan, and provided headache-related disability data for at least 2 consecutive years. Subjects were divided based on headache days per month into 3 groups: low-frequency episodic migraine (LFEM, 0-4), moderate-frequency episodic migraine (MFEM, 5-9), and high-frequency episodic migraine/chronic migraine (HFEM/CM, ≥ 10 headache days per month). HFEM and CM were combined into a single group for analyses because of sample size limitations. Patterns of acute treatment for migraine were monitored from one year to the next over the following couplets of years (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009). The first eligible couplet was analyzed for each respondent. Medication regimens studied included: (1) maintaining current triptan use (consistent group); (2) adding a different triptan; (3) adding an NSAID; or (4) adding a combination analgesic containing opioids or barbiturates. We assessed change in Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) score from the first to the second year of a couplet, contrasting scores of participants with consistent use with those who added an acute treatment to

  11. Arsenic-Induced Antioxidant Depletion, Oxidative DNA Breakage, and Tissue Damages are Prevented by the Combined Action of Folate and Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Nirmallya; Deb, Bimal; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a grade I human carcinogen. It acts by disrupting one-carbon (1C) metabolism and cellular methyl (-CH3) pool. The -CH3 group helps in arsenic disposition and detoxification of the biological systems. Vitamin B12 and folate, the key promoters of 1C metabolism were tested recently (daily 0.07 and 4.0 μg, respectively/100 g b.w. of rat for 28 days) to evaluate their combined efficacy in the protection from mutagenic DNA-breakage and tissue damages. The selected tissues like intestine (first-pass site), liver (major xenobiotic metabolizer) and lung (major arsenic accumulator) were collected from arsenic-ingested (0.6 ppm/same schedule) female rats. The hemo-toxicity and liver and kidney functions were monitored. Our earlier studies on arsenic-exposed humans can correlate carcinogenesis with DNA damage. Here, we demonstrate that the supplementation of physiological/therapeutic dose of vitamin B12 and folate protected the rodents significantly from arsenic-induced DNA damage (DNA fragmentation and comet assay) and hepatic and renal tissue degeneration (histo-architecture, HE staining). The level of arsenic-induced free-radical products (TBARS and conjugated diene) was significantly declined by the restored actions of several antioxidants viz. urate, thiol, catalase, xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the tissues of vitamin-supplemented group. The alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea and creatinine (hepatic and kidney toxicity marker), and lactate dehydrogenase (tissue degeneration marker) were significantly impaired in the arsenic-fed group. But a significant protection was evident in the vitamin-supplemented group. In conclusion, the combined action of folate and B12 results in the restitution in the 1C metabolic pathway and cellular methyl pool. The cumulative outcome from the enhanced arsenic methylation and antioxidative capacity was protective against arsenic induced mutagenic DNA breakages and tissue damages.

  12. Comparative analysis of the relative potential of silver, Zinc-oxide and titanium-dioxide nanoparticles against UVB-induced DNA damage for the prevention of skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Nikhil; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Arora, Sumit; Omar, Yousef; Ijaz, Zohaib Mohammad; Al-Ghadhban, Ahmed; Deshmukh, Sachin K; Carter, James E; Singh, Ajay P; Singh, Seema

    2016-12-01

    Sunscreen formulations containing UVB filters, such as Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and titanium-dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to limit the exposure of human skin to UV-radiations. Unfortunately, these UVB protective agents have failed in controlling the skin cancer incidence. We recently demonstrated that silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) could serve as novel protective agents against UVB-radiations. Here our goal was to perform comparative analysis of direct and indirect UVB-protection efficacy of ZnO-, TiO 2 - and Ag-NPs. Sun-protection-factor calculated based on their UVB-reflective/absorption abilities was the highest for TiO 2 -NPs followed by Ag- and ZnO-NPs. This was further confirmed by studying indirect protection of UVB radiation-induced death of HaCaT cells. However, only Ag-NPs were active in protecting HaCaT cells against direct UVB-induced DNA-damage by repairing bulky-DNA lesions through nucleotide-excision-repair mechanism. Moreover, Ag-NPs were also effective in protecting HaCaT cells from UVB-induced oxidative DNA damage by enhancing SOD/CAT/GPx activity. In contrast, ZnO- and TiO 2 -NPs not only failed in providing any direct protection from DNA-damage, but rather enhanced oxidative DNA-damage by increasing ROS production. Together, these findings raise concerns about safety of ZnO- and TiO 2 -NPs and establish superior protective efficacy of Ag-NPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effect of sanguinarine on ultraviolet B-mediated damages in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin: implications for prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Haseeb; Reagan-Shaw, Shannon; Eggert, David M; Tan, Thomas C; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB component (280-320 nm), to human skin is the major cause of skin cancers. UV exposure also leads to the development of precancerous conditions such as actinic keratosis and elicits a variety of other adverse effects such as sunburn, inflammation, hyperplasia, immunosuppression and skin aging. Therefore, there is a need to intensify our efforts towards the development of novel mechanism-based approaches/agents for the protection of UVB-mediated damages. Chemoprevention is being investigated as a potential approach for the management of UV damages including skin cancer. We have earlier shown that sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid, inhibits UVB exposure-mediated damages in HaCaT keratinocytes. In this study, to determine the relevance of our in vitro findings to in vivo situations, we assessed the effects of sanguinarine on UVB-mediated damages in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrated that a topical application of sanguinarine (5 micromol 0.3 mL(-1) ethanol per mouse), either as a pretreatment (30 min prior to UVB) or posttreatment (5 min after UVB), resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-mediated increases in skin edema, skin hyperplasia and infiltration of leukocytes. Further, sanguinarine treatments (pre and post) also resulted in a significant decrease in UVB mediated (1) generation of H2O2 and (2) increases in the protein levels of markers of tumor promotion/proliferation viz. ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Kiel antigen-67. Based on this data, we suggest that sanguinarine could be developed as an agent for the management of conditions elicited by UV exposure including skin cancer. However, further detailed studies are needed to support this suggestion.

  14. Averting HIV infections in New York City: a modeling approach estimating the future impact of additional behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E; Nucifora, Kimberly A; Mensah, Nana; Kowalski, Alexis; Sweeney, Monica; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Shepard, Colin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2013-01-01

    New York City (NYC) remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted). An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average). The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average). Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs.

  15. Averting HIV Infections in New York City: A Modeling Approach Estimating the Future Impact of Additional Behavioral and Biomedical HIV Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E.; Nucifora, Kimberly A.; Mensah, Nana; Kowalski, Alexis; Sweeney, Monica; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Shepard, Colin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background New York City (NYC) remains an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Given the variety of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies available and the significant resources required to implement each of them, comparative studies are needed to identify how to maximize the number of HIV cases prevented most economically. Methods A new model of HIV disease transmission was developed integrating information from a previously validated micro-simulation HIV disease progression model. Specification and parameterization of the model and its inputs, including the intervention portfolio, intervention effects and costs were conducted through a collaborative process between the academic modeling team and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The model projects the impact of different prevention strategies, or portfolios of prevention strategies, on the HIV epidemic in NYC. Results Ten unique interventions were able to provide a prevention benefit at an annual program cost of less than $360,000, the threshold for consideration as a cost-saving intervention (because of offsets by future HIV treatment costs averted). An optimized portfolio of these specific interventions could result in up to a 34% reduction in new HIV infections over the next 20 years. The cost-per-infection averted of the portfolio was estimated to be $106,378; the total cost was in excess of $2 billion (over the 20 year period, or approximately $100 million per year, on average). The cost-savings of prevented infections was estimated at more than $5 billion (or approximately $250 million per year, on average). Conclusions Optimal implementation of a portfolio of evidence-based interventions can have a substantial, favorable impact on the ongoing HIV epidemic in NYC and provide future cost-saving despite significant initial costs. PMID:24058465

  16. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Katherine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Results Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT and three controlled clinical trials (CCT. Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI 0.54 to 0.84 and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71 lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72 injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76 and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86 injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42. The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76 in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP significantly reduces the incidence of anterior

  17. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Katherine; Barton, Christian; Malliaras, Peter; Morrissey, Dylan

    2012-07-19

    Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and three controlled clinical trials (CCT). Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR) statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.84) and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71) lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72) injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP) significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76) and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86) injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP) strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42). The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76) in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP) significantly reduces the incidence of anterior knee pain (RR 0.27, CI 0.14 to 0.54) in

  18. Role of l-carnitine in the prevention of seminiferous tubules damage induced by gamma radiation: a light and electron microscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Kanter, Mehmet; Uzal, Mustafa Cem

    2009-01-01

    The present study, we hypothesized that l-carnitine can minimize germ-cell depletion and morphological features of late cell damage in the rat testis following gamma (γ)-irradiation. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups. Control group received physiological saline 0.2 ml intraperitoneally (i.p.), as placebo. Radiation group received scrotal γ-irradiation of 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiation + l-carnitine group received scrotal γ-irradiation plus 200 mg/kg i.p. l-carnitine. l-carnitine starting 1 day before irradiation and 21 days (three times per week) after irradiation. Testis samples of the all groups were taken at day 21, 44 and 70 post-irradiation. All samples were processed at the light and electron microscopic levels. Morphologically, examination of γ-irradiated testis revealed presence of marked disorganization and depletion of germ cells, arrest of spermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and vacuolization in the germinal epithelium. The type and extent of these changes varied at different post-treatment intervals. The damage was evident at the 21st day and reached maximum level by the 44th day. By day 44 post-irradiation, the changes were most advanced, and were associated with atrophied seminiferous tubules without germ cells, the increase in the number and size of vacuolizations in germinal epithelium, and the absent multinucleated giant cells due to spermatids had completely disappeared. The increase in nucleus invaginations, the dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cysternas and the increase in the number and size of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells were determined at the electron microscopic level. In conclusion, l-carnitine supplementation during the radiotherapy would be effective in protecting against radiation-induced damages in rat testis, and thereby may improve the quality of patient's life after the therapy. (orig.)

  19. Prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human dermal fibroblasts by new UV filters, assessed using a novel in vitro experimental system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Brugè

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: UVA rays present in sunlight are able to reach the dermal skin layer generating reactive oxygen species (ROS responsible for oxidative damage, alterations in gene expression, DNA damage, leading to cell inflammation, photo-ageing/-carcinogenesis. Sunscreens contain UV filters as active ingredients that absorb/reflect/dissipate UV radiation: their efficiency depends on their spectral profile and photostability which should then be reflected in biological protection of underlying skin. METHODS: A set of new UV filters was synthesized, and the most photostable one was compared to BMDBM, a widely used UVA filter. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to UVA radiation which was filtered by a base cream containing or not UV filters placed above cell culture wells. The endpoints measured were: cell viability (MTT assay, ROS generation (DCFH-DA assay, mitochondrial function (JC-1 assay, DNA integrity (Comet assay and gene expression (MMP-1, COL1A1 by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The new UV filter resulted more efficient than BMDBM in preserving cell viability, mitochondrial functionality and oxidative DNA damage, despite similar inhibition levels of intracellular ROS. Moreover, expression of genes involved in dermal photoageing were positively affected by the filtering action of the tested molecules. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental model proposed was able to validate the efficacy of the new UV filter, taking into account important cellular events related to UV-induced intracellular oxidative stress, often underestimated in the assessments of these compounds. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The model may be used to compare the actual biological protection of commercial sunscreens and suncare products aside from their SPF and UVA-PF values.

  20. Prevention of UVA-induced oxidative damage in human dermal fibroblasts by new UV filters, assessed using a novel in vitro experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugè, Francesca; Tiano, Luca; Astolfi, Paola; Emanuelli, Monica; Damiani, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    UVA rays present in sunlight are able to reach the dermal skin layer generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for oxidative damage, alterations in gene expression, DNA damage, leading to cell inflammation, photo-ageing/-carcinogenesis. Sunscreens contain UV filters as active ingredients that absorb/reflect/dissipate UV radiation: their efficiency depends on their spectral profile and photostability which should then be reflected in biological protection of underlying skin. A set of new UV filters was synthesized, and the most photostable one was compared to BMDBM, a widely used UVA filter. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to UVA radiation which was filtered by a base cream containing or not UV filters placed above cell culture wells. The endpoints measured were: cell viability (MTT assay), ROS generation (DCFH-DA assay), mitochondrial function (JC-1 assay), DNA integrity (Comet assay) and gene expression (MMP-1, COL1A1) by RT-qPCR. The new UV filter resulted more efficient than BMDBM in preserving cell viability, mitochondrial functionality and oxidative DNA damage, despite similar inhibition levels of intracellular ROS. Moreover, expression of genes involved in dermal photoageing were positively affected by the filtering action of the tested molecules. The experimental model proposed was able to validate the efficacy of the new UV filter, taking into account important cellular events related to UV-induced intracellular oxidative stress, often underestimated in the assessments of these compounds. The model may be used to compare the actual biological protection of commercial sunscreens and suncare products aside from their SPF and UVA-PF values.

  1. Role of l-carnitine in the prevention of seminiferous tubules damage induced by gamma radiation: a light and electron microscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Kanter, Mehmet [Trakya University, Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Uzal, Mustafa Cem [Trakya University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey)

    2009-08-15

    The present study, we hypothesized that l-carnitine can minimize germ-cell depletion and morphological features of late cell damage in the rat testis following gamma ({gamma})-irradiation. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups. Control group received physiological saline 0.2 ml intraperitoneally (i.p.), as placebo. Radiation group received scrotal {gamma}-irradiation of 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiation + l-carnitine group received scrotal {gamma}-irradiation plus 200 mg/kg i.p. l-carnitine. l-carnitine starting 1 day before irradiation and 21 days (three times per week) after irradiation. Testis samples of the all groups were taken at day 21, 44 and 70 post-irradiation. All samples were processed at the light and electron microscopic levels. Morphologically, examination of {gamma}-irradiated testis revealed presence of marked disorganization and depletion of germ cells, arrest of spermatogenesis, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and vacuolization in the germinal epithelium. The type and extent of these changes varied at different post-treatment intervals. The damage was evident at the 21st day and reached maximum level by the 44th day. By day 44 post-irradiation, the changes were most advanced, and were associated with atrophied seminiferous tubules without germ cells, the increase in the number and size of vacuolizations in germinal epithelium, and the absent multinucleated giant cells due to spermatids had completely disappeared. The increase in nucleus invaginations, the dilatation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum cysternas and the increase in the number and size of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells were determined at the electron microscopic level. In conclusion, l-carnitine supplementation during the radiotherapy would be effective in protecting against radiation-induced damages in rat testis, and thereby may improve the quality of patient's life after the therapy. (orig.)

  2. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  3. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Katherine; Barton, Christian; Malliaras, Peter; Morrissey, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up...

  4. Effectiveness of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced damages on the male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşı, S; Güvenç, M; Çiftçi, M; Sönmez, M; Özer Kaya, Ş; Çay, M; Aksakal, M

    2014-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the likelihood of detrimental effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) on male reproductive system through oxidative stress mechanism and also protective effects of cinnamon bark oil (CBO). For this purpose, 28 healthy male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, seven rats in each. Group 1 received only olive oil daily; group 2 was treated with 100 mg kg(-1) CBO daily; group 3 was treated with only 0.25 ml kg(-1) CCl4 weekly; and group 4 received weekly CCl4 + daily CBO. All administrations were made by intragastric catheter and maintained for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular oxidative stress markers and testicular apoptosis were examined. CCl4 administration caused significant decreases in body and reproductive organ weights, testicular catalase (CAT) activity, sperm motility and concentration, and significant increases in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic index along with some histopathological damages compared with the control group. However, significant improvements were observed in absolute weights of testis and epididymis, all sperm quality parameters, LPO level, apoptotic index and testicular histopathological structure following the administration of CCl4 together with CBO when compared to group given CCl4 only. The findings of this study clearly suggest that CBO has protective effect against damages in male reproductive organs and cells induced by CCl4 . © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A summary of information on the rust Puccinia psidii Winter (guava rust) with emphasis on means to prevent introduction of additional strains to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    The neotropical rust fungus Puccinia psidii(P. psidii) was originally described from the host common guava in its native Brazil but has been found since on hosts throughout the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), including a dramatic host jump to nonnative Eucalyptus plantations. Most rust fungi are able to live only on a very narrow range of host species. P. psidii is unusual both for having a broad host range and for the intensity of its damage to susceptible young growth. This rust first got a foothold in the United States in Florida more than three decades ago. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has since considered it a nonactionable, nonreportable pest. Hawaii and Florida are the only two states with native species in the myrtle family. Over a period of 30 years, this rust has done little damage to any of the scattered native Myrtaceae in Florida, although the host range of the rust has gradually grown to about 30 mostly nonnative species in the family, apparently because of increasing genetic variety of the rust by repeated introductions. However, Florida’s native Myrtaceae are among the roughly 1,100 neotropical species that are largely resistant to P. psidii. The 3,000 species of non-neotropical Myrtaceae of the Pacific, Australia, Asia, and Africa are expected to prove much more vulnerable to P. psidii. Little is known about the genetics or genetic strains of P. psidii, although existing literature shows that there are numerous strains that have differential ability to infect suites of host plants.

  6. Preventive measures against earthquake damage to museum collections: The recuperation of the exhibits at the Lorca archaeological museum; Medidas de prevencion ante seismos para las colecciones de museos: el caso del museo arqueologico de Lorca y la recuperacion de sus colecciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, E.; Hernandez, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    As a result of the earthquake on 11 May 2011 the Lorca municipal archaeological museum suffered serious damage to its structure and its exhibits. The lack of preventive measures and the inadequacy of steps taken before the earthquake aggravated the severity of damage. We have assessed the damage to the exhibits and analysed the causes that exacerbated the impact of the seismic movement. We also describe the work carried out by the Institute of Spain's Cultural Heritage (IPCE) to recuperate the collections and detail the measures and general criteria for the prevention and minimization of damage that the museum must implement to reduce the damage to its collections to a minimum during any subsequent earthquakes. (Author) 12 refs.

  7. Programmed cell death triggered by nucleotide pool damage and its prevention by MutT homolog-1 (MTH1) with oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Oka, Sugako; Sheng, Zijing; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Sakumi, Kunihiko

    2010-11-28

    Accumulation of oxidized bases such as 8-oxoguanine in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA triggers various cellular dysfunctions including mutagenesis, and programmed cell death or senescence. Recent studies have revealed that oxidized nucleoside triphosphates such as 8-oxo-dGTP in the nucleotide pool are the main source of oxidized bases accumulating in the DNA of cells under oxidative stress. To counteract such deleterious effects of nucleotide pool damage, mammalian cells possess MutT homolog-1 (MTH1) with oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase and related enzymes, thus minimizing the accumulation of oxidized bases in cellular DNA. Depletion or increased expression of the MTH1 protein have revealed its significant roles in avoiding programmed cell death or senescence as well as mutagenesis, and accumulating evidences indicate that MTH1 is involved in suppression of degenerative disorders such as neurodegeneration. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. RILEM recommendations for the prevention of damage by alkali-aggregate reactions in new concrete structures state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 219-ACS

    CERN Document Server

    Sims, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the full set of RILEM Recommendations which have been produced to enable engineers, specifiers and testing houses to design and produce concrete which will not suffer damage arising from alkali reactions in the concrete. There are five recommended test methods for aggregates (designated AAR-1 to AAR-5), and an overall recommendation which describes how these should be used to enable a comprehensive aggregate assessment (AAR-0). Additionally, there are two Recommended International Specifications for concrete (AAR-7.1 & 7.2) and a Preliminary International Specification for dams and other hydro structures (AAR-7.3), which describe how the aggregate assessment can be combined with other measures in the design of the concrete to produce a concrete with a minimised risk of developing damage from alkali-aggregate reactions.

  9. Teratogenic effects of diabetic conditions in chick heart in ovo and in micromass culture may be prevented by addition of vitamin C and folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Samreen; Pratten, Margaret K

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diseases like diabetes mellitus may cause developmental defects. Supplementation with folic acid and vitamin C during the periconceptional period has been shown to prevent some neural tube and congenital heart defects. Hearts were dissected from 5 days-old White Leghorn chick embryos, the cells isolated and cultured in micromass under diabetic conditions, with and without folic acid and vitamin C. Contractile activity, cell viability (resazurin reduction) and protein assays were performed. Results indicated diabetic conditions reduced contractile activity and cell viability, whilst vitamin C (100 μM) and folic acid (1 mM) administered concurrently significantly improved them to values comparable with the control. Day 3 chick embryos in ovo were injected with glucose+hydroxybutyrate or a combination of these and vitamins. Diabetic conditions caused gross and histological malformations, but these effects were abrogated by vitamin supplement. Teratogenic effects on heart development could possibly be prevented by vitamin supplementation during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of cytosolic Phospholipase A2 prevents prion peptide-induced neuronal damage and co-localisation with Beta III Tubulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Victoria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and the subsequent metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA to prostaglandins have been shown to play an important role in neuronal death in neurodegenerative disease. Here we report the effects of the prion peptide fragment HuPrP106-126 on the PLA2 cascade in primary cortical neurons and translocation of cPLA2 to neurites. Results Exposure of primary cortical neurons to HuPrP106-126 increased the levels of phosphorylated cPLA2 and caused phosphorylated cPLA2 to relocate from the cell body to the cellular neurite in a PrP-dependent manner, a previously unreported observation. HuPrP106-126 also induced significant AA release, an indicator of cPLA2 activation; this preceded synapse damage and subsequent cellular death. The novel translocation of p-cPLA2 postulated the potential for exposure to HuPrP106-126 to result in a re-arrangement of the cellular cytoskeleton. However p-cPLA2 did not colocalise significantly with F-actin, intermediate filaments, or microtubule-associated proteins. Conversely, p-cPLA2 did significantly colocalise with the cytoskeletal protein beta III tubulin. Pre-treatment with the PLA2 inhibitor, palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3 reduced cPLA2 activation, AA release and damage to the neuronal synapse. Furthermore, PACOCF3 reduced expression of p-cPLA2 in neurites and inhibited colocalisation with beta III tubulin, resulting in protection against PrP-induced cell death. Conclusions Collectively, these findings suggest that cPLA2 plays a vital role in the action of HuPrP106-126 and that the colocalisation of p-cPLA2 with beta III tubulin could be central to the progress of neurodegeneration caused by prion peptides. Further work is needed to define exactly how PLA2 inhibitors protect neurons from peptide-induced toxicity and how this relates to intracellular structural changes occurring in neurodegeneration.

  11. Control of blood pressure and prevention of end-organ damage in patients with accelerated hypertension by combination with arotinolol and extended release nifedipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Nakamoto, H; Nemoto, H; Sugahara, S; Okada, H

    2000-03-01

    In patients with accelerated (malignant) hypertension, end-organ damage is the determinant factor for prognosis. Although recent advances in antihypertensive therapy have improved the outcome of patients with accelerated hypertension, the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy still remains less convinced. In this study, we followed 13 patients clinically diagnosed with accelerated hypertension (defined as diastolic blood pressure > 130 mmHg, retinopathy with K-W IV and accelerated renal impairment) for 3 yr. One patient died due to acute myocardial infarction arising from poor compliance with antihypertensive therapy. One patient was maintained on hemodialysis for 3 yr. One patient was introduced for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for a year and then lived without dialysis therapy. The remaining 10 patients were followed for 3 yr. All patients were initially treated with intravenous administration of calcium antagonist for reduction of blood pressure, followed by hemodialysis therapy if needed. After stabilization of blood pressure, combination therapy with extended release nifedipine (40 to 80 mg daily) and arotinolol (20 mg daily) was started. The targets for blood pressure control were a systolic pressure of 135 mmHg and a diastolic pressure of 80 mmHg. If blood pressure control was unsatisfactory, guanabenz (2 to 4 mg before bedtime), a central acting drug, was added. At presentation, the mean diastolic blood pressure (mDBP) among the 10 remaining patients was 134 +/- 2 mmHg, the mean serum creatinine (mScr) was 4.5 +/- 0.7 mg/dl and the left ventricular mass index (LVMi) as measured by echocardiography was 150 +/- 9 g/m2. At 1 yr, the mDBP was reduced to 90 +/- 3 mmHg, the mScr to 2.9 +/- 0.9 mg/dl and the LVMi to 140 +/- 9 g/m2. At 3 yr, the mDBP was stabilized at 79 +/- 3 mmHg, the mScr maintained at 2.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, and the LVMi reduced to 128 +/- 9 g/m2. These results indicate that appropriate blood pressure control is important for

  12. A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents cumulative damage from repeated exposure to sub-erythemal solar ultraviolet radiation representative of temperate latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Christiaens, F; Bredoux, C; Compan, D; Zucchi, H; Lombard, D; Fourtanier, A; Young, A R

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown the detrimental effects of 19 sub-erythemal exposures to daily ultraviolet radiation (DUVR, which mimics non-extreme exposure conditions), delivered over 4 weeks to volunteers. This source had UVA (320-400 nm) to UVB (290-320 nm) irradiance ratio of 25, instead of that close to 10 that is typically the case with solar-simulated radiation (SSR) that represents summer global sunlight with a clear sky and quasi-zenith solar irradiance. Here, we report on an extension of this previous study, in which we evaluated the photoprotection afforded by a broad-spectrum daily-care product with a low-sun protection factor (SPF 8, UVA-PF 7 and 3* rated UVA protection). We assessed cellular and molecular markers of photodamage that are relevant to skin cancer and photoageing. This study shows that biological effects of repeated exposure to DUVR can be prevented by a broad-spectrum daily-care product and that the level of protection afforded varies with the studied endpoint. Efficient daily UVR protection, as provided by a broad-spectrum daily-care product, is necessary to prevent the 'silent' sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  13. Tiliacora triandra (Colebr. Diels leaf extract enhances spatial learning and learning flexibility, and prevents dentate gyrus neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachiryah Thong-asa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a local Thai vegetable, Tiliacora triandra (Colebr. Diels, also known as Yanang, against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty male ICR mice were divided into three experimental groups of BLCCAO + 10% Tween 80, BLCCAO + T. triandra 300 mg/kg, and BLCCAO + T. triandra 600 mg/kg. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was induced by three minutes of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BLCCAO followed by 18 days of reperfusion. Leaf extract was administered orally 24 hours after arterial occlusion and continued for 18 consecutive days. Cognitive abilities were evaluated using the Morris water maze. Histological analysis was conducted in the dorsal hippocampus subregions CA1, CA3, and DG and white matter regions (the corpus callosum, internal capsule, and optic tract using 0.1 % cresyl violet and 0.1% Luxol fast blue staining. Results: Results showed that T. triandra leaf extract at the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg significantly enhanced spatial learning, and learning flexibility, and prevented neuronal death in the DG of mice following ischemia/reperfusion. Conclusion: T. triandra leaf extract enhanced spatial learning, and learning flexibility, and prevented DG neuronal death in a mice model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

  14. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  15. Moderate Dose of Trolox Preventing the Deleterious Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Spermatozoa In vitro through Reduction of Oxidative Stress Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shang-Shu; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Zhou; Liu, Xiang; Tian, Hong; Huo, Yong-Wei; Wang, Li-Rong; Han, Yan; Xing, Jun-Ping

    2018-02-20

    The worsening of semen quality, due to the application of Wi-Fi, can be ameliorated by Vitamin E. This study aimed to demonstrate whether a moderate dose of trolox, a new Vitamin E, inhibits oxidative damage on sperms in vitro after exposure to Wi-Fi radiation. Each of the twenty qualified semen, gathered from June to October 2014 in eugenics clinic, was separated into four aliquots, including sham, Wi-Fi-exposed, Wi-Fi plus 5 mmol/L trolox, and Wi-Fi plus 10 mmol/L trolox groups. At 0 min, all baseline parameters of the 20 samples were measured in sequence. Reactive oxygen species, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase were evaluated in the four aliquots at 45 and 90 min, as were sperm DNA fragments, sperm mitochondrial potential, relative amplification of sperm mitochondrial DNA, sperm vitality, and progressive and immotility sperm. The parameters were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's posttest. Among Wi-Fi plus 5 mmol/L trolox, Wi-Fi-exposed and Wi-Fi plus 10 mmol/L trolox groups, reactive oxygen species levels (45 min: 3.80 ± 0.41 RLU·10 -6 ·ml -1 vs. 7.50 ± 0.35 RLU·10 -6 ·ml -1 vs. 6.70 ± 0.47 RLU·10 -6 ·ml -1 , P electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Addition of exogenous NAD+ prevents mefloquine-induced neuroaxonal and hair cell degeneration through reduction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in cochlear organotypic cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalian Ding

    Full Text Available Mefloquine is widely used for the treatment of malaria. However, this drug is known to induce neurological side effects including depression, anxiety, balance disorder, and sensorineural hearing loss. Yet, there is currently no treatment for these side effects.In this study, we show that the coenzyme NAD(+, known to play a critical role in maintaining the appropriate cellular redox environment, protects cochlear axons and sensory hair cells from mefloquine-induced degeneration in cultured rat cochleae. Mefloquine alone destroyed hair cells and nerve fiber axons in rat cochlear organotypics cultures in a dose-dependent manner, while treatment with NAD(+ protected axons and hair cells from mefloquine-induced degeneration. Furthermore, cochlear organs treated with mefloquine showed increased oxidative stress marker levels, including superoxide and protein carbonyl, and increased apoptosis marker levels, including TUNEL-positive nuclei and caspases-3. Treatment with NAD(+ reduced the levels of these oxidative stress and apoptosis markers.Taken together, our findings suggest that that mefloquine disrupts the cellular redox environment and induces oxidative stress in cochlear hair cells and nerve fibers leading to caspases-3-mediated apoptosis of these structures. Exogenous NAD(+ suppresses mefloquine-induced oxidative stress and prevents the degeneration of cochlear axons and sensory hair cells caused by mefloquine treatment.

  17. Addition of exogenous NAD+ prevents mefloquine-induced neuroaxonal and hair cell degeneration through reduction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in cochlear organotypic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dalian; Qi, Weidong; Yu, Dongzhen; Jiang, Haiyan; Han, Chul; Kim, Mi-Jung; Katsuno, Kana; Hsieh, Yun Hua; Miyakawa, Takuya; Salvi, Richard; Tanokura, Masaru; Someya, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine is widely used for the treatment of malaria. However, this drug is known to induce neurological side effects including depression, anxiety, balance disorder, and sensorineural hearing loss. Yet, there is currently no treatment for these side effects. In this study, we show that the coenzyme NAD(+), known to play a critical role in maintaining the appropriate cellular redox environment, protects cochlear axons and sensory hair cells from mefloquine-induced degeneration in cultured rat cochleae. Mefloquine alone destroyed hair cells and nerve fiber axons in rat cochlear organotypics cultures in a dose-dependent manner, while treatment with NAD(+) protected axons and hair cells from mefloquine-induced degeneration. Furthermore, cochlear organs treated with mefloquine showed increased oxidative stress marker levels, including superoxide and protein carbonyl, and increased apoptosis marker levels, including TUNEL-positive nuclei and caspases-3. Treatment with NAD(+) reduced the levels of these oxidative stress and apoptosis markers. Taken together, our findings suggest that that mefloquine disrupts the cellular redox environment and induces oxidative stress in cochlear hair cells and nerve fibers leading to caspases-3-mediated apoptosis of these structures. Exogenous NAD(+) suppresses mefloquine-induced oxidative stress and prevents the degeneration of cochlear axons and sensory hair cells caused by mefloquine treatment.

  18. Tort Damages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this Chapter, I provide an overview of Law and Economics literature regarding tort damages. Where necessary, attention is also spent to rules of tort liability. Both types of rules provide behavioral incentives to both injurers and victims, with respect to their level of

  19. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haynes, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  20. Effect of green spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) addition in physical, chemical, and sensory properties of marshmallow as an alternative prevention of iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhistira, B.; Affandi, D. R.; Nusantari, P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Consuming vegetable which contain iron, including spinach, is an alternative to fulfill iron requirement. Fe will be more easily absorbed in the presence of vitamin C. Tomato is one of vitamin C source that can be used. Spinach can be applied into confectionary products in the form of marshmallow. This research aimed to find out the physical, chemical and sensory properties of green spinach Marshmallow in addition of Tomato, the best formula, and define the category of nutrition contents based on Acuan Label Gizi (ALG). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with one factor that was different proportion of spinach:tomato (75%: 25%; 50%: 50%; 25%: 75%). The data were analyzed using One Way Anova with 5% significance level. The result of this study showed that the difference of spinach and tomato proportion affect tensile strength, moisture, ash content, Fe content, crude fiber, vitamin C, color and marshmallow’s flavor. Best marshmallow formulation of 25% spinach in addition of 75% tomato had Fe content of 1.159 mg/100g and vitamin C of 44 mg/100g.

  1. Mechanism of mitochondrial permeability transition pore induction and damage in the pancreas: inhibition prevents acute pancreatitis by protecting production of ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Mareninova, Olga A; Odinokova, Irina V; Huang, Wei; Murphy, John; Chvanov, Michael; Javed, Muhammad A; Wen, Li; Booth, David M; Cane, Matthew C; Awais, Muhammad; Gavillet, Bruno; Pruss, Rebecca M; Schaller, Sophie; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Tepikin, Alexei V; Petersen, Ole H; Pandol, Stephen J; Gukovsky, Ilya; Criddle, David N; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Sutton, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is caused by toxins that induce acinar cell calcium overload, zymogen activation, cytokine release and cell death, yet is without specific drug therapy. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated but the mechanism not established. We investigated the mechanism of induction and consequences of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the pancreas using cell biological methods including confocal microscopy, patch clamp technology and multiple clinically representative disease models. Effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the MPTP were examined in isolated murine and human pancreatic acinar cells, and in hyperstimulation, bile acid, alcoholic and choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented acute pancreatitis. MPTP opening was mediated by toxin-induced inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptor calcium channel release, and resulted in diminished ATP production, leading to impaired calcium clearance, defective autophagy, zymogen activation, cytokine production, phosphoglycerate mutase 5 activation and necrosis, which was prevented by intracellular ATP supplementation. When MPTP opening was inhibited genetically or pharmacologically, all biochemical, immunological and histopathological responses of acute pancreatitis in all four models were reduced or abolished. This work demonstrates the mechanism and consequences of MPTP opening to be fundamental to multiple forms of acute pancreatitis and validates the MPTP as a drug target for this disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002435.htm Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  3. Early postnatal additional high-dose oral vitamin A supplementation versus placebo for 28 days for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sascha; Gortner, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Prematurity and the associated risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remain a significant threat to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Vitamin A has been considered a therapeutic alternative in reducing the rate of BPD and mortality. To investigate whether early postnatal, additional high-dose oral vitamin A supplementation for 28 days is more efficient in reducing BPD or death in ELBW infants than placebo treatment. This is a multicenter, double-blind RCT comparing postnatal high-dose oral vitamin A supplementation (5,000 IU vitamin A/kg/day vs. placebo) for 28 days in ELBW neonates requiring mechanical ventilation, noninvasive ventilatory support or supplemental oxygen at 24 h of age. The primary end point is the proportion of children who died before 36 weeks' gestational age or developed moderate or severe BPD. BPD is defined as the need for supplemental oxygen to maintain SaO2 of ≥92% at rest at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). Clinical secondary end points include the following: BPD (including mild form), intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, total number of days of mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation, and safety and tolerability of high-dose vitamin A supplementation. The results of the NeoVitaA trial will provide robust data with regard to the efficacy of high-dose oral vitamin A supplementation in reducing the incidence of BPD or death at 36 weeks' PMA in ELBW infants. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The prevention of musculoskeletal complaints: a randomized controlled trial on additional effects of a work-related psychosocial coaching intervention compared to physiotherapy alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Annette; Angerer, Peter; Müller, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Research shows that psychosocial factors play a significant role on the emergence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC). The aim of this study was to determine whether a coaching intervention which was focussed on enabling better strategies for coping with work stressors is superior to physiotherapy alone in the reduction of MSC. 68 nurses were randomized to an intervention group (IG, n = 34) or a control group (CG, n = 34). The IG and CG completed a weekly individual physiotherapy unit (10 weeks). Additionally, the IG passed five coaching sessions (fortnightly), plus one opening and one closing session. The primary outcome was MSC, secondary outcomes were work ability and work-related wellbeing. Outcomes were obtained by physical examinations and questionnaires. Data were analyzed by t-test, Chi-Square test, ANOVA with repeated measurements, and multilevel analyzes. In respect of MSC, the IG compared to the CG showed a significant improvement in the pain severity of everyday movements, and trends towards an improvement of movement in the vertebral column as well as a reduction of the pain severity due to maximum degree movements. No effects were observed in respect to muscle strengths, and restrictions of everyday activities. The IG exhibited a significant improvement of work ability in reference to the physical working demands, and work-related wellbeing. Analysis indicates that improvements in the IG increased further in the 12 weeks after the intervention. The results suggest that the coaching, beyond physiotherapy, can support the reduction of MSC, the improvement of work ability and work-related wellbeing.

  5. Research into damage - avoiding damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The brochure reports on the work of five European materials testing institutions. Subjects covered are prevention of accidents and catastrophies, energy conservation, environmental pollution, and the safeguarding of values of national economy. (RW) [de

  6. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  7. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid contained in beer, prevents the induction of preneoplastic lesions and DNA damage in liver and colon induced by the heterocyclic aromatic amine amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferk, Franziska; Huber, Wolfgang W.; Filipic, Metka; Bichler, Julia; Haslinger, Elisabeth; Misik, Miroslav; Nersesyan, Armen; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Zegura, Bojana; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) is a hop derived prenylated flavonoid contained in beer. Earlier findings indicated that it has promising chemopreventive properties and protects cells against DNA damage by carcinogens via inhibition of their activation. Furthermore, it was found that XN inhibits DNA synthesis and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, inactivates oxygen radicals and induces apoptosis. Since evidence for its chemoprotective properties is restricted to results from in vitro experiments, we monitored the impact of XN on the formation of amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced preneoplastic foci in livers and colons of rats (9/group). Additionally, we studied its effects on IQ-induced DNA damage in colonocytes and hepatocytes in single cell gel electrophoresis assays and on the activities of a panel of drug metabolising enzymes. Consumption of the drinking water supplemented with XN (71 μg/kg b.w.) before and during carcinogen treatment led to a significant reduction of the number of GST-p + foci in the liver by 50% and also to a decrease of the foci area by 44%. DNA migration was decreased significantly in both, colon mucosa and liver cells, but no alterations of the activities of different phases I and II enzymes were found in hepatic tissue. Our findings indicate that XN protects against DNA damage and cancer induced by the cooked food mutagen. Since the effects were observed with low doses of XN which are reached after consumption of brews with high XN levels, our findings may be relevant for humans.

  8. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  9. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  10. Investigating mechanisms of tendon damage by measuring multi-scale recovery following tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrea H; Szczesny, Spencer E; Santare, Michael H; Elliott, Dawn M

    2017-07-15

    Tendon pathology is associated with damage. While tendon damage is likely initiated by mechanical loading, little is known about the specific etiology. Damage is defined as an irreversible change in the microstructure that alters the macroscopic mechanical parameters. In tendon, the link between mechanical loading and microstructural damage, resulting in macroscopic changes, is not fully elucidated. In addition, tendon damage at the macroscale has been proposed to initiate when tendon is loaded beyond a strain threshold, yet the metrics to define the damage threshold are not determined. We conducted multi-scale mechanical testing to investigate the mechanism of tendon damage by simultaneously quantifying macroscale mechanical and microstructural changes. At the microscale, we observe full recovery of the fibril strain and only partial recovery of the interfibrillar sliding, indicating that the damage initiates at the interfibrillar structures. We show that non-recoverable sliding is a mechanism for tendon damage and is responsible for the macroscale decreased linear modulus and elongated toe-region observed at the fascicle-level, and these macroscale properties are appropriate metrics that reflect tendon damage. We concluded that the inflection point of the stress-strain curve represents the damage threshold and, therefore, may be a useful parameter for future studies. Establishing the mechanism of damage at multiple length scales can improve prevention and rehabilitation strategies for tendon pathology. Tendon pathology is associated with mechanically induced damage. Damage, as defined in engineering, is an irreversible change in microstructure that alters the macroscopic mechanical properties. Although microstructural damage and changes to macroscale mechanics are likely, this link to microstructural change was not yet established. We conducted multiscale mechanical testing to investigate the mechanism of tendon damage by simultaneously quantifying macroscale

  11. Sustained response and prevention of damage progression in patients with neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease treated with anakinra: a cohort study to determine three- and five-year outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Cailin H; Plass, Nikki; Snow, Joseph; Wiggs, Edythe A; Brewer, Carmen C; King, Kelly A; Zalewski, Christopher; Kim, H Jeffrey; Bishop, Rachel; Hill, Suvimol; Paul, Scott M; Kicker, Patrick; Phillips, Zachary; Dolan, Joseph G; Widemann, Brigitte; Jayaprakash, Nalini; Pucino, Frank; Stone, Deborah L; Chapelle, Dawn; Snyder, Christopher; Butman, John A; Wesley, Robert; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2012-07-01

    Blocking interleukin-1 with anakinra in patients with the autoinflammatory syndrome neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) reduces systemic and organ-specific inflammation. However, the impact of long-term treatment has not been established. This study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term effect of anakinra on clinical and laboratory outcomes and safety in patients with NOMID. We conducted a cohort study of 26 NOMID patients ages 0.80-42.17 years who were followed up at the NIH and treated with anakinra 1-5 mg/kg/day for at least 36 months. Disease activity was assessed using daily diaries, questionnaires, and C-reactive protein level. Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, hearing, vision, and safety were evaluated. Sustained improvements in diary scores, parent's/patient's and physician's global scores of disease activity, parent's/patient's pain scores, and inflammatory markers were observed (all Phearing. Cochlear enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging correlated with continued hearing loss. Visual acuity and peripheral vision were stable. Low optic nerve size correlated with poor visual field. Bony lesions progressed. Adverse events other than viral infections were rare, and all patients continued to receive the medication. These findings indicate that anakinra provides sustained efficacy in the treatment of NOMID for up to 5 years, with the requirement of dose escalation. Damage progression in the CNS, ear, and eye, but not bone, is preventable. Anakinra is well tolerated overall. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Prevention of Noise Damage to Cochlear Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    difference We therefore conclude that it is more likely that female hormones are protecting against susceptibility as opposed to male hormones...of synapse counts among all experimental conditions, those in A as well as saline/vehicle and systemic 4 mg/Kg IEM-1460 (IEMs4mg). There is no... animals at the approximate level of the animals ’ ears. The variation of the noise level across the animals ’ ears and across time is ə dB

  13. Prevention of Noise Damage to Cochlear Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    neurotrophic factor CNTF in promoting synapse regeneration. KEYWORDS Anandamide Auditory Brainstem Response Calcium Ion Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptors...excitotoxic trauma (kainic acid) in vitro? f) Does CNTF promote synapse regeneration in vitro as does NT-3? W81XWH-14-1-0494 Annual Progress Report 29... CNTF ) is expressed in the organ of Corti at high levels, comparable to NT-3. We have also found that CNTF is approximately as effective as NT-3 in

  14. Sulfur Mustard Damage to Cornea: Preventive Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varma, Shambhu

    2004-01-01

    Studies are in progress to determine the efficacy and mechanism of a formulation containing anti-alkylating, antioxidants and metabolic accelerators present in VM against mustard induced skin toxicity...

  15. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, B.; Rössner ml., Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 733, 1-2 (2012), s. 39-49 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08005; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/50/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Chromosomal aberrations * DNA adducts * DNA repair Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2012

  16. Phosphazene additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  17. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  18. Damaged Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  19. Damage growth in aerospace composites

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel methods for the simulation of damage evolution in aerospace composites that will assist in predicting damage onset and growth and thus foster less conservative designs which realize the promised economic benefits of composite materials. The presented integrated numerical/experimental methodologies are capable of taking into account the presence of damage and its evolution in composite structures from the early phases of the design (conceptual design) through to the detailed finite element method analysis and verification phase. The book is based on the GARTEUR Research Project AG-32, which ran from 2007 to 2012, and documents the main results of that project. In addition, the state of the art in European projects on damage evolution in composites is reviewed. While the high specific strength and stiffness of composite materials make them suitable for aerospace structures, their sensitivity to damage means that designing with composites is a challenging task. The new approaches describ...

  20. Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000326.htm Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care To use the sharing features on ... or at other unusual times. Treating and Preventing Nerve Damage from Diabetes Treating diabetic neuropathy can make some symptoms of ...

  1. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  2. Damage Atlas for Photographic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Van Camp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La conservation des documents photographiques peut nécessiter des interventions préventives ou curatives. Ce choix est guidé par leur état de conservation. Une meilleure connaissance des détériorations est donc cruciale. Le répertoire présenté ici essaie de les classifier selon des caractéristiques spécifiques et leur niveau de gravité. Les différents types de dégradation sont illustrés et décrits avec une terminologie précise. L’auteur propose en regard de ceux-ci l’intervention qui semble la plus appropriée. Ce répertoire s’adresse à toutes les personnes concernées par la photographie, qu’ils soient dans le milieu de la conservation ou dans le domaine artistique, dans les musées ou dans les archives. In order to rescue a damaged photographic object, preventive or conservative actions are needed. Knowing the specific characteristics of different types of damage is crucial. A damage atlas can provide these characteristics. With this atlas the damage can be recognised and appropriate actions can be taken. This damage atlas offers a first attempt to such a characterisation in the field of photography. The damage atlas contains images and the necessary information about damage on photographic material. The atlas with special annotations about the terminology and the grade of the damage is meant for everybody who works with photographic material, as well in museums as in archives.

  3. BDS thin film damage competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  4. Damage analysis: damage function development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The derivation and application of damage functions, including recent developments for the U.S. LMFBR and CTR programs, is reviewed. A primary application of damage functions is in predicting component life expectancies; i.e., the fluence required in a service spectrum to attain a specified design property change. An important part of the analysis is the estimation of the uncertainty in such fluence limit predictions. The status of standardizing the procedures for the derivation and application of damage functions is discussed. Improvements in several areas of damage function development are needed before standardization can be completed. These include increasing the quantity and quality of the data used in the analysis, determining the limitations of the analysis due to the presence of multiple damage mechanisms, and finally, testing of damage function predictions against data obtained from material surveillance programs in operating thermal and fast reactors. 23 references. (auth)

  5. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Hora, P.

    2012-01-01

    The anisotropy in damage can be driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic defor-mation state named Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic (shape and/or distribution) second phase particles named Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). Most anisotropic damage models are based

  6. Autophagy in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Czarny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR involves DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, but autophagy is also suggested to play a role in DDR. Autophagy can be activated in response to DNA-damaging agents, but the exact mechanism underlying this activation is not fully understood, although it is suggested that it involves the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. mTORC1 represses autophagy via phosphorylation of the ULK1/2–Atg13–FIP200 complex thus preventing maturation of pre-autophagosomal structures. When DNA damage occurs, it is recognized by some proteins or their complexes, such as poly(ADPribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 (MRN complex or FOXO3, which activate repressors of mTORC1. SQSTM1/p62 is one of the proteins whose levels are regulated via autophagic degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by knockout of FIP200 results in upregulation of SQSTM1/p62, enhanced DNA damage and less efficient damage repair. Mitophagy, one form of autophagy involved in the selective degradation of mitochondria, may also play role in DDR. It degrades abnormal mitochondria and can either repress or activate apoptosis, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. There is a need to clarify the role of autophagy in DDR, as this process may possess several important biomedical applications, involving also cancer therapy.

  7. The 2BFit study: is an unsupervised proprioceptive balance board training programme, given in addition to usual care, effective in preventing ankle sprain recurrences? Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence that athletes have a twofold risk for re-injury after a previous ankle sprain, especially during the first year post-injury. These ankle sprain recurrences could result in disability and lead to chronic pain or instability in 20 to 50% of these cases. When looking at the high rate of ankle sprain recurrences and the associated chronic results, ankle sprain recurrence prevention is important. Objective To evaluate the effect of a proprioceptive balance board training programme on ankle sprain recurrences, that was applied to individual athletes after rehabilitation and treatment by usual care. Methods/Design This study was designed as a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of one year. Healthy individuals between 12 and 70 years of age, who were actively participating in sports and who had sustained a lateral ankle sprain up to two months prior to inclusion, were eligible for inclusion in the study. The intervention programme was compared to usual care. The intervention programme consisted of an eight-week proprioceptive training, which started after finishing usual care and from the moment that sports participation was again possible. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and every month for 12 months. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of recurrent ankle injuries in both groups within one year after the initial sprain. Secondary outcomes were severity and etiology of re-injury and medical care. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated from a societal perspective. A process evaluation was conducted for the intervention programme. Discussion The 2BFit trial is the first randomized controlled trial to study the effect of a non-supervised home-based proprioceptive balance board training programme in addition to usual care, on the recurrence of ankle sprains in sports. Results of this study could possibly lead to changes in practical guidelines on the treatment of ankle sprains. Results will

  8. A randomized controlled trial comparing hydration therapy to additional hemodialysis or N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy: the Dialysis-versus-Diuresis (DVD) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, H; Fobker, M; Wellmann, J; Becke, B; Fleiter, J; Heitmeyer, C; Breithardt, G; Hense, H-W; Schaefer, R M

    2007-03-01

    Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious complication with increasing frequency and an unfavorable prognosis. Previous analyses of surrogate parameters have suggested beneficial effects of hemodialysis that are assessed in this randomized clinical trial. We performed a prospective single-center trial in 424 consecutive patients with serum creatinine concentrations between 1.3- 3.5 mg/dl who underwent elective coronary angiography. Patients were randomized to one of three treatment strategies with all patients receiving pre- and postprocedural hydration: One group received no additional therapy, patients in the second group were hemodialyzed once, and the third group received oral N-acetylcysteine. The frequency of CIN (defined as an increase in serum creatinine>or=0.5 mg/dl) from 48 to 72 h after catheterization was 6.1% in the hydration-only group, 15.9% with hemodialysis treatment, and 5.3% in the N-ACC group (intention-to-treat analysis; P=0.008). There were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to increased (>or=0.5 mg/dl) serum creatinine concentrations after 30-60 days (4.8%, 5.1%, and 3.1%, respectively; P=0.700). Analyses of long-term follow-up (range 63 to 1316 days) by Cox regressions models of the study groups found quite similar survival rates (P=0.500). In contrast to other (retrospective) studies, long-term survival of patients with vs those without CIN within 72 h was not different, but patients who still had elevated creatinine concentrations at 30-60 days suffered from a markedly higher 2-year mortality (46% vs 17%, P=0.002). In conclusion, hemodialysis in addition to hydration therapy for the prevention of CIN provided no evidence for any outcome benefit but evidence for probable harm. Increased creatinine concentrations at 30-60 days, but not within 72 h, were associated with markedly reduced long-term survival.

  9. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Jimenez, F.; Castro-Garcia, S.; Blanco-Roldan, G. L.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, E. J.; Gil-Ribes, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the Manzanilla variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of bruise 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations. (Author) 34 refs.

  10. Isolation of table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jimenez-Jimenez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The high sensitivity of table olives to mechanical damage limits mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers. The objective of this study was the identification, evaluation and temporal evolution assessment of the sources of damage caused to the fruits. To do this, digital image analysis was used for the objective determination of damage produced to table olives. Harvesting tests were performed in an intensive olive orchard with trees of the ‘Manzanilla’ variety in Seville, Spain. Mechanical harvesting with trunk shakers and subsequent detachment of the fruits to the ground produced a level of interference 12 times greater than the levels obtained from manual harvesting. Fruit-fruit and fruit-branch impacts and friction from the movement of the fruit in the tree canopy during vibration and detachment were the main causes of damage to the fruits. These causes represented a mean value of 60% of the damage produced to the fruits from mechanical harvesting. In addition, most bruising from mechanical damage occurred in the first hour after harvesting and followed an exponential tendency. The information obtained about table olive damage causes and bruise time evolution during fruit detachment with trunk shaker can be used by the producers to determine how to reduce and prevent bruising during harvesting operations.

  11. Protection of the gastrointestinal tract epithelium against damage from low pH beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E

    2008-09-01

    Extensive consumption of low pH beverages such as citrus juices (pHs 2.3 to 4.3), alcoholic beverages (pHs 2.7 to 4.5), and soft drinks (pHs 2.3 to 4.2) has raised the question of whether exposure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to acidic beverages will cause damage to the epithelial lining. To evaluate the potential effects of low pH beverages on the GI tract epithelium, a detailed examination of the literature was undertaken. In some animal models, there is evidence of damage to GI epithelial cells following exposure to low pH beverages; however, in these studies there is no definitive relationship between acidity and the amount or severity of damage. Results from several other studies, conducted in both animals and humans, indicate a lack of adverse effects on epithelial cells. Furthermore, there is no evidence that damage is irreversible. Permanent damage from routine exposure to acidic beverages in humans would not be expected because of repair mechanisms that are available to maintain a healthy epithelium. Additionally, numerous physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms are in place to prevent damage to the epithelial cells. Finally, the safe history of consumption of low pH beverages, including various fruit juices, supports the conclusion that low pH beverage ingestion does not cause damage to the GI epithelium.

  12. Hippocampal Sclerosis: Causes and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew Charles

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the commonest cause of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults, and is associated with alterations to structures and networks beyond the hippocampus.In addition to being a cause of epilepsy, the hippocampus is vulnerable to damage from seizure activity. In particular, prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) can result in hippocampal sclerosis. The hippocampus is also vulnerable to other insults including traumatic brain injury, and inflammation. Hippocampal sclerosis can occur in association with other brain lesions; the prevailing view is that it is probably a secondary consequence. In such instances, successful surgical treatment usually involves the resection of both the lesion and the involved hippocampus. Experimental data have pointed to numerous neuroprotective strategies to prevent hippocampal sclerosis. Initial neuroprotective strategies aimed at glutamate receptors may be effective, but later, metabolic pathways, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation are involved, perhaps necessitating the use of interventions aimed at multiple targets. Some of the therapies that we use to treat status epilepticus may neuroprotect. However, prevention of neuronal death does not necessarily prevent the later development of epilepsy or cognitive deficits. Perhaps, the most important intervention is the early, aggressive treatment of seizure activity, and the prevention of prolonged seizures. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Flood damage estimation of companies: A comparison of Stage-Damage-Functions and Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieg, Tobias; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Merz, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The development of appropriate flood damage models plays an important role not only for the damage assessment after an event but also to develop adaptation and risk mitigation strategies. So called Stage-Damage-Functions (SDFs) are often applied as a standard approach to estimate flood damage. These functions assign a certain damage to the water depth depending on the use or other characteristics of the exposed objects. Recent studies apply machine learning algorithms like Random Forests (RFs) to model flood damage. These algorithms usually consider more influencing variables and promise to depict a more detailed insight into the damage processes. In addition they provide an inherent validation scheme. Our study focuses on direct, tangible damage of single companies. The objective is to model and validate the flood damage suffered by single companies with SDFs and RFs. The data sets used are taken from two surveys conducted after the floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in the years 2002 and 2013 in Germany. Damage to buildings (n = 430), equipment (n = 651) as well as goods and stock (n = 530) are taken into account. The model outputs are validated via a comparison with the actual flood damage acquired by the surveys and subsequently compared with each other. This study investigates the gain in model performance with the use of additional data and the advantages and disadvantages of the RFs compared to SDFs. RFs show an increase in model performance with an increasing amount of data records over a comparatively large range, while the model performance of the SDFs is already saturated for a small set of records. In addition, the RFs are able to identify damage influencing variables, which improves the understanding of damage processes. Hence, RFs can slightly improve flood damage predictions and provide additional insight into the underlying mechanisms compared to SDFs.

  14. Radiation damages in solids and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevc, P.; Kogovsek, F.; Kanduser, A.; Peternelj, M.; Skaleric, U.; Funduk, N.

    1977-01-01

    In submitted research work we have studied radiation damages in ferroelectric crystals and application of ferroelectric crystals. Studying the radiation damages we have introduced new technique of EPR measurements under high hydrostatic pressure, that will enable us to obtain additional data on crystal lattice dynamics. A change of piroelectric coefficient with high radiation doses in dopped TGS has been measured also

  15. SUM06 Index for Damage to Flora from Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In addition to health effects in humans, Ozone exposure also causes damage to plants. One index used in calculating the potential damage to plants from Ozone...

  16. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  17. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  18. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii......) investigated which and how many markers to measure and (iv) finally discussed whether measuring subclinical organ damage provided benefits beyond risk prediction. In conclusion, more studies and if possible randomized studies are needed to investigate (i) the importance of markers of subclinical organ damage...

  19. The ageing epigenome: damaged beyond repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, David A; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

    2009-07-01

    Of all the proposed causes of ageing, DNA damage remains a leading, though still debated theory. Unlike most other types of age-related cellular damage, which can hypothetically be reversed, mutations in DNA are permanent. Such errors result in the accumulation of changes to RNA and protein sequences with age, and are tightly linked to cellular senescence and overall organ dysfunction. Over the past few years, an additional, more global role has emerged for the contribution of DNA damage and genomic instability to the ageing process. We, and others have found that DNA damage and the concomitant repair process can induce genome-wide epigenetic changes, which may promote a variety of age-related transcriptional and functional changes. Here, we discuss the link between DNA damage, chromatin alterations and ageing, an interplay that explains how seemingly random DNA damage could manifest in predictable phenotypic changes that define ageing, changes that may ultimately be reversible.

  20. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... of additive interaction derived from multiplicative models-an approach that is both counter-intuitive and sometimes invalid. This paper presents a straightforward and intuitive way of assessing deviation from additivity of effects in survival analysis by use of the additive hazards model. The model directly...... an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed...

  1. Radiation damage of structural materials

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsky, Jaroslav

    1994-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of nuclear power plants is critical in the prevention or control of severe accidents. This monograph deals with both basic groups of structural materials used in the design of light-water nuclear reactors, making the primary safety barriers of NPPs. Emphasis is placed on materials used in VVER-type nuclear reactors: Cr-Mo-V and Cr-Ni-Mo-V steel for RPV and Zr-Nb alloys for fuel element cladding. The book is divided into 7 main chapters, with the exception of the opening one and the chapter providing a phenomenological background for the subject of radiation damage. Ch

  2. Left-Insular Damage, Autonomic Instability and Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuey, Nuria; Zonjy, Bilal; Theerannaew, Wanchat; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Sahadevan, Jayakumar; Lhatoo, Samden D.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the only two sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) cases from 320 prospectively recruited patients in the three-year Prevention and Risk Identification of SUDEP Mortality (PRISM) Project. Both patients had surgically refractory epilepsy, evidence of left insular damage following previous temporal/temporo-insular resections, and progressive changes in Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in monitored evaluations prior to death. Insular damage is known to cause autonomic dysfunction and increased mortality in acute stroke. This report suggests a possible role for the insula in the pathogenesis of SUDEP. The presence of intrinsic insular lesions or acquired insular damage in refractory epilepsy patients may be an additional risk factor for SUDEP. PMID:26797084

  3. Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, repair the damaged hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), are produced from feedstock by the genus Pseudozyma, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics, the hair care properties of MELs were investigated using damaged hair. On electron microscopic observation, the damaged hair was dramatically recovered with applying MEL-A and MEL-B. The tensile strength of the damaged hair increased by treatment with MEL-A (122.0 +/- 13.5 gf/p), MEL-B (119.4 +/- 7.6 gf/p) and ceramide (100.7 +/- 15.9 gf/p) compared with only lauryl glucoside (96.7 +/- 12.7 gf/p), indicating the advantage of MELs on hair care treatment. In addition, the average friction coefficient of the damaged hair was maintained after treatment with MEL-A (0.108 +/- 0.002), MEL-B (0.107 +/- 0.003) and the ceramide (0.111 +/- 0.003), although lauryl glucoside treatment increased the average friction coefficient (0.126 +/- 0.003). The increase of bending rigidity by treatment with lauryl glucoside (0.204 +/- 0.002) was prevented by treatment with MEL-A (0.129 +/- 0.002), MEL-B (0.176 +/- 0.003) and the ceramide (0.164 +/- 0.002). Consequently, MELs are proposed to be the new hair care ingredient, which are the highly useful agent for not only for the recovery of damaged hair but also for providing the smooth and flexible hair.

  4. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  5. DDR-mediated crosstalk between DNA-damaged cells and their microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquin, Nicolas; Carrier-Leclerc, Audrey; Dessureault, Mireille; Rodier, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is an evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade that senses and responds to double-strand DNA breaks by organizing downstream cellular events, ranging from appropriate DNA repair to cell cycle checkpoints. In higher organisms, the DDR prevents neoplastic transformation by directly protecting the information contained in the genome and by regulating cell fate decisions, like apoptosis and senescence, to ensure the removal of severely damaged cells. In addition to these well-studied cell-autonomous effects, emerging evidence now shows that the DDR signaling cascade can also function in a paracrine manner, thus influencing the biology of the surrounding cellular microenvironment. In this context, the DDR plays an emerging role in shaping the damaged tumor microenvironment through the regulation of tissue repair and local immune responses, thereby providing a promising avenue for novel therapeutic interventions. Additionally, while DDR-mediated extracellular signals can convey information to surrounding, undamaged cells, they can also feedback onto DNA-damaged cells to reinforce selected signaling pathways. Overall, these extracellular DDR signals can be subdivided into two time-specific waves: a rapid bystander effect occurring within a few hours of DNA damage; and a late, delayed, senescence-associated secretory phenotype generally requiring multiple days to establish. Here, we highlight and discuss examples of rapid and late DDR-mediated extracellular alarm signals.

  6. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  7. Impact damage of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Young T.; Springer, George S.

    1986-01-01

    A model is described for estimating the impact damage of fiber reinforced composite plates. The displacements and stresses are calculated by a three dimensional transient, finite element method of solution of the governing equations applicable to a linearly elastic body. The region in which damage occurs is estimated using the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. A computer code was developed which can be used to calculate the impact force, displacements and velocities of the plate and the impact body, stresses and strains in the plate, and the damage area. Sample numerical results are presented illustrating the type of information provided by the code. Comparisons between measured and calculated damage areas are also given.

  8. DNA damage by Auger emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.F.; d'Cunha, Glenn; Gibbs, Richard; Murray, Vincent; Pardee, Marshall; Allen, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    125 I atoms can be introduced at specific locations along a defined DNA target molecule, either by site-directed incorporation of an 125 I-labelled deoxynucleotide or by binding of an 125 I-labelled sequence-selective DNA ligand. After allowing accumulation of 125 I decay-induced damage to the DNA, application of DNA sequencing techniques enables positions of strand breaks to be located relative to the site of decay, at a resolution corresponding to the distance between adjacent nucleotides [0.34 nm]. Thus, DNA provides a molecular framework to analyse the extent of damage following [averaged] individual decay events. Results can be compared with energy deposition data generated by computer-simulation methods developed by Charlton et al. The DNA sequencing technique also provides information about the chemical nature of the termini of the DNA chains produced following Auger decay-induced damage. In addition to reviewing the application of this approach to the analysis of 125 I decay induced DNA damage, some more recent results obtained by using 67 Ga are also presented. (author)

  9. Study Protocol: The Norfolk Diabetes Prevention Study [NDPS]: a 46 month multi - centre, randomised, controlled parallel group trial of a lifestyle intervention [with or without additional support from lay lifestyle mentors with Type 2 diabetes] to prevent transition to Type 2 diabetes in high risk groups with non - diabetic hyperglycaemia, or impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Melanie; Murray, Nikki; Bachmann, Max; Barton, Garry; Clark, Allan; Howe, Amanda; Greaves, Colin; Sampson, Mike

    2017-01-06

    This 7 year NIHR programme [2011-2018] tests the primary hypothesis that the NDPS diet and physical activity intervention will reduce the risk of transition to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in groups at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. The NDPS programme recognizes the need to reduce intervention costs through group delivery and the use of lay mentors with T2DM, the realities of normal primary care, and the complexity of the current glycaemic categorisation of T2DM risk. NDPS identifies people at highest risk of T2DM on the databases of 135 general practices in the East of England for further screening with ab fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c]. Those with an elevated fasting plasma glucose [impaired fasting glucose or IFG] with or without an elevated HbA1c [non -diabetic hyperglycaemia; NDH] are randomised into three treatment arms: a control arm receiving no trial intervention, an arm receiving an intensive bespoke group-based diet and physical activity intervention, and an arm receiving the same intervention with enhanced support from people with T2DM trained as diabetes prevention mentors [DPM]. The primary end point is cumulative transition rates to T2DM between the two intervention groups, and between each intervention group and the control group at 46 months. Participants with screen detected T2DM are randomized into an equivalent prospective controlled trial with the same intervention and control arms with glycaemic control [HbA1c] at 46 months as the primary end point. Participants with NDH and a normal fasting plasma glucose are randomised into an equivalent prospective controlled intervention trial with follow up for 40 months. The intervention comprises six education sessions for the first 12 weeks and then up to 15 maintenance sessions until intervention end, all delivered in groups, with additional support from a DPM in one treatment arm. The NDPS programme reports in 2018 and will provide trial outcome data for a group delivered

  10. Radiation damage to histones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.K.; Adelstein, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The damage to histones irradiated in isolation is being elaborated to aid the identification of the crosslinking sites in radiation-induced DNA-histone adducts. Histones are being examined by amino acid analysis to determine the destruction of residues and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to delineate changes in conformation. For the slightly lysine-rich histone, H2A, a specific attack on selective residues has been established, the aromatic residues, tyrosine and phenylalanine, and the heterocyclic residue, histidine, being significantly destroyed. In addition, a significant increase in aspartic acid was found; this may represent a radiation product from scission of the ring in the histidine residues. The similarity of the effects on residues in nitrous oxide-saturated and nitrogen-saturated solutions suggests that OH . and e/sub aq//sup -/ are equally efficient and selective in their attack. On gel electrophoresis degradation of the histone H2A was found to be greatest for irradiations in nitrous oxide-saturated solutions, suggesting CH . is the most effective radical for producing changes in conformation; O/sub 2//sup -/ was essentially ineffective. Other histones are being examined for changes in amino acid composition, conformation, and for the formation of radiation products

  11. Electron damage and defects in organic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howitt, D.G.

    1976-06-01

    The nature of the defects discernable from and the radiation damage that is induced by high resolution electron microscopy is reported. The structural aspects of the radiation damage process can be correlated to the expected radiochemical decomposition of these materials and these effects identified. The types of local defect formed by radiation damage are often clearly distinguishable, in high resolution images, from those inherent in the microstructure. Techniques used in this type of electron microscopy and the limitations imposed by radiation damage are described as are the relevant radiochemical characteristics of these processes. In copper pthalocyanine, microstructural features distinct from those induced by radiation damage were identified which are consistent with those predicted and described by other workers in similar materials. The high resolution studies indicate that some of the microstructures observed are caused by structural rearrangements that can account, to some extent, for additional crystallographic forms that have been identified in this material and the photochemical behaviour of related structures

  12. On the residual properties of damaged FRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbino, R.; Torrijos, M. C.; Giaccio, G.

    2017-09-01

    A discussion on the residual behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is performed based on two selected cases of concrete degradation: the exposure at High Temperatures and the development of Alkali Silica Reactions. In addition, and taking in mind that the failure mechanism in FRC is strongly related with the fibre pull-out strength, the bond strength in damaged matrices was shown concluding that the residual bond strength is less affected than the matrix strength. As the damage increases, the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity decrease, being the modulus of elasticity the most affected. There were no significant changes produced by the incorporation of fibres on the residual behaviour when compared with previous experience on plain damage concrete. Regarding the tensile behaviour although the first peak decreases as the damage increases, even for a severely damage FRC the residual stresses remain almost unaffected.

  13. Bilding (Kay) Ki Damaje PSA (:60) (Damaged Buildings)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    An important public health announcement about your safety when entering damaged buildings. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  14. Damage Theory Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures.......This report contains a series of validation examples for the theoretical model implemented in the computer program DAMAGE. note that the validation examples are for assembled structures....

  15. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  16. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  17. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  18. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  19. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75±1.55 μm versus after supplementation: 70.25±1.31 μm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels

  20. Personnel decontamination and preventive skin care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Skin contamination arises from contact with contaminated aqueous solutions and from transmission of radioactively contaminated dirt particles. As long as the surface of the skin is neither inflamed nor showing any lesions, normally only a limited part of the top layer (epidermis), i.e. the upper layers of the stratum corneum, is contaminated. The intact horny layer has a barrier function protecting against the penetration of chemicals and dirt particles. The horny layer can be damaged by water, solvents, alkaline substances, and acids. In general, it is safe to say that the horny layer acts as a natural barrier to the penetration of liquid and particulate impurities into lower layers of the skin. As long as the horny layer is intact and free from lesions, the risk of incorporation can be considered low. When decontaminating and cleansing the skin, also in daily skin cleansing, care must be taken to prevent the acid protective layer and the horny layer from being compromised. Daily cleansing and cleansing for decontamination must be carried out with a mild, weakly acidic detergent. In addition, prevention should be achieved daily by applying a non-greasy skin lotion to protect the skin. Following a systematic regular regimen in skin cleansing and preventive skin care as well as a specific approach in skin decontamination and cleansing will avoid damage to the skin and remove any contamination incurred. This approach comprises a three-pronged concept, namely skin protection, cleansing and care. (orig.)

  1. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures.

  2. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Do Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  3. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Andrew D. [Horticultural Sciences Department and; Henry, Christopher S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, email:; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637; Fiehn, Oliver [Genome Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616, email:; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie [Microbiology and Cell Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, email: ,

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms.

  4. The role of p53 in the response to mitotic spindle damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor protein has defined roles in G1/S and G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in response to a range of cellular stresses including DNA damage, dominant oncogene expression, hypoxia, metabolic changes and viral infection. In addition to these responses, p53 can also be activated when damage occurs to the mitotic spindle. Initially, spindle damage activates a p53-independent checkpoint which functions at the metaphase-anaphase transition and prevents cells from progressing through mitosis until the completion of spindle formation. Cells eventually escape from this block (a process termed 'mitotic slippage'), and an aberrant mitosis ensues in which sister chromatids fail to segregate properly. After a delay period, p53 responds to this mitotic failure by instituting a G1-like growth arrest, with an intact nucleus containing 4N DNA, but without the cells undergoing division. Cells lacking wild-type p53 are still able to arrest transiently at mitosis, and also fail to undergo division, underscoring that the delay in mitosis is p53-independent. However, these cells are not prevented from re-entering the cell cycle and can reduplicate their DNA unchecked, leading to polyploidy. Additionally, p53-null cells which experience spindle failure often show the appearance of micronuclei arising from poorly segregated chromosomes which have de-condensed and been enclosed in a nuclear envelope. The ability of p53 to prevent their formation suggests an additional G2 involvement which prevents nuclear breakdown prior to mitosis. The molecular mechanism by which p53 is able to sense mitotic failure is still unknown, but may be linked to the ability of p53 to regulate duplication of the centrosome, the organelle which nucleates spindle formation. (authors)

  5. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4−/− model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Florian P.; Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena; Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris; Rust, Christian; Trauner, Michael; Denk, Gerald U.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D 3 -deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D 3 -administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D 3 has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH) 2 -vitamin D 3 inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen ® -assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4 −/− (Abcb4 −/− )-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4 −/− -mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4 −/− -mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has no effect on biliary fibrosis after 4 weeks

  6. 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} prevents activation of hepatic stellate cells in vitro and ameliorates inflammatory liver damage but not fibrosis in the Abcb4{sup −/−} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Florian P., E-mail: florian.reiter@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Hohenester, Simon; Nagel, Jutta M.; Wimmer, Ralf; Artmann, Renate; Wottke, Lena [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Makeschin, Marie-Christine; Mayr, Doris [Institute of Pathology, University of Munich, Thalkirchner Str. 36, D-80337 Munich (Germany); Rust, Christian [Department of Medicine I, Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder, Romanstr. 93, D-80639 Munich (Germany); Trauner, Michael [Hans Popper Laboratory of Molecular Hepatology, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Denk, Gerald U. [Department of Medicine II, Liver Center Munich, University of Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377 Munich (Germany)

    2015-04-03

    Background/Purpose of the study: Vitamin D{sub 3}-deficiency is common in patients with chronic liver-disease and may promote disease progression. Vitamin D{sub 3}-administration has thus been proposed as a therapeutic approach. Vitamin D{sub 3} has immunomodulatory effects and may modulate autoimmune liver-disease such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although various mechanisms of action have been proposed, experimental evidence is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that active 1,25-(OH){sub 2}-vitamin D{sub 3} inhibits activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro and modulates liver-injury in vivo. Methods: Proliferation and activation of primary murine HSC were assessed by BrdU- and PicoGreen{sup ®}-assays, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence-microscopy, quantitative-PCR, and zymography following calcitriol-treatment. Wild-type and ATP-binding cassette transporter b4{sup −/−} (Abcb4{sup −/−})-mice received calcitriol for 4 weeks. Liver-damage, inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed by serum liver-tests, Sirius-red staining, quantitative-PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and hydroxyproline quantification. Results: In vitro, calcitriol inhibited activation and proliferation of murine HSC as shown by reduced α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-β-protein-levels, BrdU and PicoGreen®-assays. Furthermore, mRNA-levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13 were profoundly increased. In vivo, calcitriol ameliorated inflammatory liver-injury reflected by reduced levels of alanine aminotransferase in Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice. In accordance, their livers had lower mRNA-levels of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 and a lower count of portal CD11b positive cells. In contrast, no effect on overall fibrosis was observed. Conclusion: Calcitriol inhibits activation and proliferation of HSCs in vitro. In Abcb4{sup −/−}-mice, administration of calcitriol ameliorates inflammatory liver-damage but has

  7. Clinical research of teeth damage from radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Erzhou; Yan Maosheng; Chen Wei; Li Qing

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze various factors inducing teeth damage from radiotherapy and the preventive and treatment methods. Methods: One hundred cases of patients treated by radiotherapy were divided into two groups. In group one there were 60 cases whose teeth were irradiated during treatment; in group two there were 40 cases whose teeth were not irradiated during treatment. Results: The caries incidence was 60% for group one and 15% for group two (P<0.01). By auto-control in 15 patients, the caries incidence on the sick side was obviously higher than that of the healthy side. Hundred percent caries incidence was found in 6 cases who received a dosage of 70 Gy. Conclusion: The authors believe that radiation damage to the teeth is associated with the following factors: 1. The dosage and location of irradiation are closely related to caries incidence; 2. The active dentinoblasts are very sensitive to radiation; 3. Damage to the salivary glands from radiotherapy can result in reduction of salvia and pH value, leading to a high growth rate of Streptococcus mutans. Following preventive measures could be considered in future cases: to apply a caries prevention coating or protective dental crown and TPS, to adjust the dose and time of irradiation, to select conformal radiotherapy technique. The key points for protecting the teeth and salivary gland from caries and damage are protection of the proliferation ability of pulp cells, anti-inflammation, promotion of microcirculation, and strengthening body resistance

  8. Prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador: replanejando o trabalho através das negociações cotidianas Preventing damage to workers' health: redesigning jobs through day-to-day negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Sato

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar algumas reflexões sobre a prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador através do replanejamento do trabalho. Compreendendo o replanejamento como processo de negociação de escolhas organizacionais, apresenta as características das negociações cotidianas processadas no chão de fábrica e relata, a título de exemplo, um caso de negociação cotidiana que toma por objeto a organização do processo de trabalho da produção fabril de uma indústria de alimentos. Por fim, discute os alcances e os limites de tais negociações à luz da prevenção de agravos à saúde do trabalhador.This paper reflects on prevention of harm to workers' health by redesigning jobs. Assuming redesign as the process of negotiating organizational choices, the author discusses the characteristics of routine negotiation at the workplace, illustrated by daily negotiations in work process organization at a Brazilian food-processing factory. Finally, the author discusses both the range and limits of such negotiations in the prevention of harm to workers' health.

  9. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  10. Optimal statistical damage detection and classification in an experimental wind turbine blade using minimum instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand for carbon neutral energy in a challenging economic environment is a driving factor for erecting ever larger wind turbines in harsh environments using novel wind turbine blade (WTBs) designs characterized by high flexibilities and lower buckling capacities. To counteract resulting increasing of operation and maintenance costs, efficient structural health monitoring systems can be employed to prevent dramatic failures and to schedule maintenance actions according to the true structural state. This paper presents a novel methodology for classifying structural damages using vibrational responses from a single sensor. The method is based on statistical classification using Bayes' theorem and an advanced statistic, which allows controlling the performance by varying the number of samples which represent the current state. This is done for multivariate damage sensitive features defined as partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) estimated from vibrational responses and principal component analysis scores from PACCs. Additionally, optimal DSFs are composed not only for damage classification but also for damage detection based on binary statistical hypothesis testing, where features selections are found with a fast forward procedure. The method is applied to laboratory experiments with a small scale WTB with wind-like excitation and non-destructive damage scenarios. The obtained results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed procedure and are promising for future applications of vibration-based structural health monitoring in WTBs.

  11. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  12. Continuous damage mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboche, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The classical structural life predictions are based on stabilized stress-strain analysis and some parametric relations with the number of cycles to failure. During the last ten years a different approach, initiated by the works of Kachanov and Rabotnov for creep rupture, has been developed by different laboratories. This continuous Damage Mechanics, treating the damaged material as a macroscopically homogeneous one, leads to the possibility of globally modelling the nucleation and the propagation of microdefects including their effect on the stress-strain behaviour. This paper presents the general theory and several applications to a turbine blade refractory alloy. It includes the description of sequence effects and creep-fatigue interaction. The generalization for three-dimensional conditions, where anisotropic damage effects are possible, is discussed and some new proposals are given for the determination of simple anisotropic damage equations. (orig.)

  13. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  14. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  15. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  16. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  17. Multi-Dimensional Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Snyder, Sarah J. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods and systems may provide for a structure having a plurality of interconnected panels, wherein each panel has a plurality of detection layers separated from one another by one or more non-detection layers. The plurality of detection layers may form a grid of conductive traces. Additionally, a monitor may be coupled to each grid of conductive traces, wherein the monitor is configured to detect damage to the plurality of interconnected panels in response to an electrical property change with respect to one or more of the conductive traces. In one example, the structure is part of an inflatable space platform such as a spacecraft or habitat.

  18. Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinfeld, Michael; Grinfeld, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Basic principles of Phenomenological Mechanochemistry of Damage (PMD) have been formulated in Grinfeld and Wright. To some extent, it is a natural extension of the traditional damage theory, presented by Kachanov. Contrary to Kachanov's approach, the PMD theory includes, in addition to the bulk elastic energy, the energy associated with braking/recovery of chemical bonds. Therefore, in addition to the elasticity equations it includes the equation, describing evolution/dynamics of chemical bonds. Although ``chemical bonds'' is a nano-scale concept, we treat the bonds using phenomenological approach. The additional equation of damage evolution is of the rate type, thus, making the whole model rate-dependent (even in quasi-static approach.) In the paper, we review some earlier results and generalized them by taking into account electromagnetic effects.

  19. Features of categorization of prevention of conducting meetings, rallies, demonstrations, marches, picketing or participation in them as a crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovichenko K.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimum rates of applying article 149 of the RF Criminal Code, caused by crime categorization errors and technical and legal defects of article’s structure are stated. The elements of crime under this article include violating the constitutional right to freedom of meetings as a result of preventing mass actions. The commission of unlawful act by an official should be categorized as a crime according to article 149 when using prevention means stipulated in objective side of this act. Improper use of official position for illegal prevention and use of violence to people form a cumulative crime (articles 149 and 286 of the RF Criminal Code. Signs of violence and threats to use violence, specified by corpus delicti, draw a question on the amount of damage to health which does not demand additional categorization. Damage limits implies beating and slight damage to health. More serious damage forms a cumulative crime. Any threats to use violence are included in the elements of crime under study. Thus, illegal prevention of conducting public mass action can be categorized as a cumulative crime. Gross violation of public order which expresses contempt against public (committed by using means, specified in Art. 213 of the FR Criminal Code and simultaneously prevents conducting a rally, meeting, demonstration, march, picketing or participating in them (ideal cumulative crime complicates the categorization. If such prevention is accompanied with gross violation of public order, the act should be categorized as a cumulative crime according to articles 149 and 213.

  20. DNA damage in Fabry patients: An investigation of oxidative damage and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancini, Giovana Brondani; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Manini, Paula Regina; Faverzani, Jéssica Lamberty; Netto, Cristina Brinckmann Oliveira; Deon, Marion; Giugliani, Roberto; Saffi, Jenifer; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with loss of activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. In addition to accumulation of α-galactosidase A substrates, other mechanisms may be involved in FD pathophysiology, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher levels of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in Fabry patients were previously reported. However, DNA damage by oxidative species in FD has not yet been studied. We investigated basal DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair capacity, and reactive species generation in Fabry patients and controls. To measure oxidative damage to purines and pyrimidines, the alkaline version of the comet assay was used with two endonucleases, formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (EndoIII). To evaluate DNA repair, a challenge assay with hydrogen peroxide was performed. Patients presented significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage and oxidative damage to purines. Oxidative DNA damage was induced in both DNA bases by H2O2 in patients. Fabry patients presented efficient DNA repair in both assays (with and without endonucleases) as well as significantly higher levels of oxidative species (measured by dichlorofluorescein content). Even if DNA repair be induced in Fabry patients (as a consequence of continuous exposure to oxidative species), the repair is not sufficient to reduce DNA damage to control levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytoprotective effect of phloroglucinol on oxidative stress induced cell damage via catalase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Chae, Sungwook; Zhang, Rui; Jung, Myung Sun; Ham, Young Min; Baik, Jong Seok; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2006-02-15

    We investigated the cytoprotective effect of phloroglucinol, which was isolated from Ecklonia cava (brown alga), against oxidative stress induced cell damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. Phloroglucinol was found to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxy radical, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thus prevented lipid peroxidation. As a result, phloroglucinol reduced H(2)O(2) induced apoptotic cells formation in V79-4 cells. In addition, phloroglucinol inhibited cell damage induced by serum starvation and radiation through scavenging ROS. Phloroglucinol increased the catalase activity and its protein expression. In addition, catalase inhibitor abolished the protective effect of phloroglucinol from H(2)O(2) induced cell damage. Furthermore, phloroglucinol increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the results suggest that phloroglucinol protects V79-4 cells against oxidative damage by enhancing the cellular catalase activity and modulating ERK signal pathway. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A Mediterranean diet with additional extra virgin olive oil and pistachios reduces the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM: A randomized controlled trial: The St. Carlos GDM prevention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Assaf-Balut

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM prevalence is increasing and becoming a major public health concern. Whether a Mediterranean diet can help prevent GDM in unselected pregnant women has yet to be studied.We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of GDM with two different dietary models. All consecutive normoglycemic (<92 mg/dL pregnant women at 8-12 gestational weeks (GW were assigned to Intervention Group (IG, n = 500: MedDiet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and pistachios; or Control Group (CG, n = 500: standard diet with limited fat intake. Primary outcome was to assess the effect of the intervention on GDM incidence at 24-28 GW. Gestational weight gain (GWG, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean section (CS, preterm delivery, perineal trauma, small and large for gestational age (SGA and LGA and admissions to neonatal intensive care unit were also assessed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat.A total of 874 women completed the study (440/434, CG/IG. According to nutritional questionnaires and biomarker analysis, women in the IG had a good adherence to the intervention. 177/874 women were diagnosed with GDM, 103/440 (23.4% in CG and 74/434(17.1% in IG, p = 0.012. The crude relative risk (RR for GDM was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56-0.95; p = 0.020 IG vs CG and persisted after adjusted multivariable analysis, 0.75(95% CI: 0.57-0.98; p = 0.039. IG had also significantly reduced rates of insulin-treated GDM, prematurity, GWG at 24-28 and 36-38 GW, emergency CS, perineal trauma, and SGA and LGA newborns (all p<0.05.An early nutritional intervention with a supplemented MedDiet reduces the incidence of GDM and improves several maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  3. Viscoplastic regularization of local damage models: revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, M. S.; Wisselink, H. H.; Meinders, T.

    2013-02-01

    Local damage models are known to produce pathological mesh dependent results. Regularization techniques are therefore mandatory if local damage models are used for academic research or industrial applications. The viscoplastic framework can be used for regularization of local damage models. Despite of the easy implementation of viscoplasticity, this method of regularization did not gain much popularity in comparison to the non-local or gradient damage models. This work is an effort to further explore viscoplastic regularization for quasi-static problems. The focus of this work is on ductile materials. Two different types of strain rate hardening models i.e. the Power law (with a multiplicative strain rate part) and the simplified Bergström van Liempt (with an additive strain rate part) models are used in this study. The modified Lemaitre's anisotropic damage model with a strain rate dependency was used in this study. It was found that the primary viscoplastic length scale is a function of the hardening and softening (damage) parameters and does not depend upon the prescribed strain rate whereas the secondary length scale is a function of the strain rate. As damage grows, the effective regularization length gradually decreases. When the effective regularization length gets shorter than the element length numerical results become mesh dependent again. This loss of objectivity can not be solved but the effect can be minimized by selecting a very fine mesh or by prescribing high deformation velocities.

  4. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  5. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Moyer, E. L.; Kumar, A.; Tahimic, Candice C. G.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss can occur due to many challenges such age, radiation, microgravity, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a critical role in bone resorption by osteoclasts (Bartell et al. 2014). We hypothesize that suppression of excess ROS in skeletal cells, both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, regulates skeletal growth and remodeling. To test our hypothesis, we used transgenic mCAT mice which overexpress the human anti-oxidant catalase gene targeted to the mitochondria, the main site for endogenous ROS production. mCAT mice have a longer life-span than wildtype controls and have been used to study various age-related disorders. To stimulate remodeling, 16 week old mCAT mice or wildtype mice were exposed to treatment (hindlimb-unloading and total body-irradiation) or sham treatment conditions (control). Tissues were harvested 2 weeks later for skeletal analysis (microcomputed tomography), biochemical analysis (gene expression and oxidative damage measurements), and ex vivo bone marrow derived cell culture (osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis). mCAT mice expressed the transgene and displayed elevated catalase activity in skeletal tissue and marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts grown ex vivo. In addition, when challenged with treatment, bone tissues from wildtype mice showed elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating oxidative damage) whereas mCAT mice did not. Correlation analysis revealed that increased catalase activity significantly correlated with decreased MDA levels and that increased oxidative damage correlated with decreased percent bone volume (BVTV). In addition, ex-vivo cultured osteoblast colony growth correlated with catalase activity in the osteoblasts. Thus, we showed that these transgenic mice can be used as a model to study the relationship between markers of oxidative damage and skeletal properties. mCAT mice displayed reduced BVTV and trabecular number relative to wildtype mice, as well as increased structural model index in the

  6. Phototrauma prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffrig, J R

    2001-01-01

    In response to an alarming increase in skin cancer rates, much work is being done to find causes, identify populations at risk, and appropriately modify behaviors and protective strategies. The causes of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers are multifactorial; however, the evidence implicating ultraviolet radiation as a major factor is mounting. Sunlight consists of four important wavelengths. Two of them, UVA and UVB, are the most harmful because they cause direct cellular trauma and immunologic suppression. Sunburn is a delayed prostaglandin-mediated erythema that implies severe damage to DNA in a cumulative fashion. Avoidance recommendations include activity planning strategies, apparel choices, and sunscreen use. Clothing is generally protective and hats should cover highly exposed areas. Special apparel products incorporate UV protection into the fabric and offer an additional strategy for workers and enthusiasts who frequently venture into the outdoors. A sunscreen is a topical agent that provides protection against UV radiation. Specifics of sunscreen classification and labeling by the Food and Drug Administration are covered in this article, along with selection and application strategies for outdoor adventurers and travelers. Whereas ultraviolet radiation avoidance and sunscreen use are vital, public education will remain the cornerstone of an effective plan to reduce skin cancer rates.

  7. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it

  8. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  9. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  10. Identification of sandstone core damage using scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abdul Razak; Jaafar, Mohd Zaidi; Sulaiman, Wan Rosli Wan; Ismail, Issham; Shiunn, Ng Yinn

    2017-12-01

    Particles and fluids invasion into the pore spaces causes serious damage to the formation, resulting reduction in petroleum production. In order to prevent permeability damage for a well effectively, the damage mechanisms should be identified. In this study, water-based drilling fluid was compared to oil-based drilling fluids based on microscopic observation. The cores were damaged by several drilling fluid systems. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the damage mechanism caused by the drilling fluids. Results showed that the ester based drilling fluid system caused the most serious damage followed by synthetic oil based system and KCI-polymer system. Fine solids and filtrate migration and emulsion blockage are believed to be the major mechanisms controlling the changes in flow properties for the sandstone samples.

  11. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., placing sod, or seeding completed work. (d) Adequacy of requirements of local cooperation. In determining.../Cooperation Agreements § 203.83 Additional requirements. (a) Maintenance deficiencies. Rehabilitation... furnishing flood fight assistance during an emergency. (b) Areas of minor damage, flood control works...

  12. Pemberian Probiotik Multispesies dalam Media Budi Daya Ikan Lele Dumbo untuk Mencegah Penyakit Motile Aeromonads Septicemia (ADDITION OF MULTISPECIES PROBIOTICS IN THE CULTURE MEDIUM OF AFRICAN CATFISH TO PREVENT THE MOTILE AEROMONADS SEPTICEMIA DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilma Putri Fidyandini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the disease that often led to mortality in catfish resulting in harvest failure is Motile AeromonadsSepticemia (MAS caused by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila. To avoid this situation, the preventionand control of disease is very crucial. An environmentally friendly approach acceptable in aquaculture isthe use of probiotics to control the pathogenic infection. African catfishes used in the study weighted of1,97±0,7g/fish, and were maintained in the aquarium size of 56x39x34 cm3filled with 30 liters of waterwith stock density of 25 fishes . Probiotic was given daily for 28 days. This research was consisted of 6treatments; (A AH26 NAR103 CFU/mL, probiotics ND2 CefR 105 CFU/mL dan P23 CipR 105 CFU/mL ; (BAH26 NAR103 CFU/mL, probiotics ND2 CefR 103 CFU/mL dan L1k TetR 103 CFU/mL; (C AH26 NAR103CFU/mL, probiotics P23 CipR 104 CFU/mL dan L1k TetR 104 CFU/mL; (D AH26 NAR103 CFU/mL, probioticsND2 CefR 105 CFU/mL, P23 CipR 105 CFU/mL dan L1k TetR 105 CFU/mL; (K+ AH26 NAR103 CFU/mL, without probiotics; (K- Without the addition of probiotics and without AH26 NAR in the media. Eachtreatment has 3 replications. The results showed that the combination of probiotics ND2CefR103CFU/mLand L1k TetR103CFU/mLcan supressedA. hydrophila cell density up to 40% lower, induced immuneresponses (hematocrit level and respiratory burst activity and increased the survival rate of catfishuntilthe end of the research.

  13. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  14. mapDamage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginolhac, Aurélien; Rasmussen, Morten; Gilbert, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ancient DNA extracts consist of a mixture of contaminant DNA molecules, most often originating from environmental microbes, and endogenous fragments exhibiting substantial levels of DNA damage. The latter introduce specific nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation signatures in sequenci...... of the SAMtools suite and R environment and has been validated on both GNU/Linux and MacOSX operating systems....

  15. Ultraviolet Laser Damage Dependence on Contamination Concentration in Fused Silica Optics during Reactive Ion Etching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laixi Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The reactive ion etching (RIE process of fused silica is often accompanied by surface contamination, which seriously degrades the ultraviolet laser damage performance of the optics. In this study, we find that the contamination behavior on the fused silica surface is very sensitive to the RIE process which can be significantly optimized by changing the plasma generating conditions such as discharge mode, etchant gas and electrode material. Additionally, an optimized RIE process is proposed to thoroughly remove polishing-introduced contamination and efficiently prevent the introduction of other contamination during the etching process. The research demonstrates the feasibility of improving the damage performance of fused silica optics by using the RIE technique.

  16. Metabolite damage and repair in metabolic engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jiayi; Jeffryes, James G.; Henry, Christopher S.; Bruner, Steven D.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2017-11-01

    The necessarily sharp focus of metabolic engineering and metabolic synthetic biology on pathways and their fluxes has tended to divert attention from the damaging enzymatic and chemical side-reactions that pathway metabolites can undergo. Although historically overlooked and underappreciated, such metabolite damage reactions are now known to occur throughout metabolism and to generate (formerly enigmatic) peaks detected in metabolomics datasets. It is also now known that metabolite damage is often countered by dedicated repair enzymes that undo or prevent it. Metabolite damage and repair are highly relevant to engineered pathway design: metabolite damage reactions can reduce flux rates and product yields, and repair enzymes can provide robust, host-independent solutions. Herein, after introducing the core principles of metabolite damage and repair, we use case histories to document how damage and repair processes affect efficient operation of engineered pathways - particularly those that are heterologous, non-natural, or cell-free. We then review how metabolite damage reactions can be predicted, how repair reactions can be prospected, and how metabolite damage and repair can be built into genome-scale metabolic models. Lastly, we propose a versatile 'plug and play' set of well-characterized metabolite repair enzymes to solve metabolite damage problems known or likely to occur in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects.

  17. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nanna Borup; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jensen, Troels M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening programmes for type 2 diabetes inevitably find more individuals at high risk for diabetes than people with undiagnosed prevalent disease. While well established guidelines for the treatment of diabetes exist, less is known about treatment or prevention strategies...... for individuals found at high risk following screening. In order to make better use of the opportunities for primary prevention of diabetes and its complications among this high risk group, it is important to quantify diabetes progression rates and to examine the development of early markers of cardiovascular...... disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from...

  18. Laser damage test bench for space optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Wolfgang; Allenspacher, Paul

    2017-11-01

    At the German Aerospace Center in Stuttgart a laser damage test bench is run to evaluate damage thresholds of various optical components. The system setup is based on the current ISO standards 11254 [1-3] for single shot and multiple pulse operation. The laser damage test bench contains two repetitively pulsed laser sources, a Ti:Sapphire and a Nd:YAG laser, operating at wavelengths of 775 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. Harmonic wavelength converters to the visible spectral range are available. Both lasers are supplying the same damage testing rig. Online damage assessment techniques like sensitive scatter probe monitoring and video microscopy monitoring are used. The system is suited and has been tested extensively in the past for dielectric coated optics like beam turning mirrors, reflectors and windows, nonlinear optical components, semiconductors, and laser crystals. The damage test bench is located in a class 10,000 cleanroom environment under a laminar flowbox providing an additional isolation factor of >103. The tests can also be performed in sealed optical compartments in partial vacuum and under long term irradiation conditions. All experiments are supported by theoretical simulation of laser-material interactions, down to the sub-ps timescale [4].

  19. Oxidative protein damage and the proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, S; Höhn, A; Grune, T

    2012-01-01

    Protein damage, caused by radicals, is involved in many diseases and in the aging process. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how protein damage can be limited, repaired or removed. To degrade damaged proteins, several intracellular proteolytic systems exist. One of the most important contributors in intracellular protein degradation of oxidized, aggregated and misfolded proteins is the proteasomal system. The proteasome is not a simple, unregulated structure. It is a more complex proteolytic composition that undergoes diverse regulation in situations of oxidative stress, aging and pathology. In addition to that, numerous studies revealed that the proteasome activity is altered during life time, contributing to the aging process. In addition, in the nervous system, the proteasome plays an important role in maintaining neuronal protein homeostasis. However, alterations in the activity may have an impact on the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss what is presently known about protein damage, the role of the proteasome in the degradation of damaged proteins and how the proteasome is regulated. Special emphasis was laid on the role of the proteasome in neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. DNA Damage in Plant Herbarium Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Cuenca, Argelia; Richardson, James E.; Vrielink-van Ginkel, Ria; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Bakker, Freek T.

    2011-01-01

    Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of DNA post-mortem damage is essential to determine the accuracy of molecular data from herbarium specimens. In this study we present an assessment of DNA damage as miscoding lesions in herbarium specimens using 454-sequencing of amplicons derived from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA. In addition, we assess DNA degradation as a result of strand breaks and other types of polymerase non-bypassable damage by quantitative real-time PCR. Comparing four pairs of fresh and herbarium specimens of the same individuals we quantitatively assess post-mortem DNA damage, directly after specimen preparation, as well as after long-term herbarium storage. After specimen preparation we estimate the proportion of gene copy numbers of plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA to be 2.4–3.8% of fresh control DNA and 1.0–1.3% after long-term herbarium storage, indicating that nearly all DNA damage occurs on specimen preparation. In addition, there is no evidence of preferential degradation of organelle versus nuclear genomes. Increased levels of C→T/G→A transitions were observed in old herbarium plastid DNA, representing 21.8% of observed miscoding lesions. We interpret this type of post-mortem DNA damage-derived modification to have arisen from the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine during long-term herbarium storage. Our results suggest that reliable sequence data can be obtained from herbarium specimens. PMID:22163018

  1. DNA damage in plant herbarium tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Cuenca, Argelia; Richardson, James E; Vrielink-van Ginkel, Ria; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Bakker, Freek T

    2011-01-01

    Dried plant herbarium specimens are potentially a valuable source of DNA. Efforts to obtain genetic information from this source are often hindered by an inability to obtain amplifiable DNA as herbarium DNA is typically highly degraded. DNA post-mortem damage may not only reduce the number of amplifiable template molecules, but may also lead to the generation of erroneous sequence information. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of DNA post-mortem damage is essential to determine the accuracy of molecular data from herbarium specimens. In this study we present an assessment of DNA damage as miscoding lesions in herbarium specimens using 454-sequencing of amplicons derived from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA. In addition, we assess DNA degradation as a result of strand breaks and other types of polymerase non-bypassable damage by quantitative real-time PCR. Comparing four pairs of fresh and herbarium specimens of the same individuals we quantitatively assess post-mortem DNA damage, directly after specimen preparation, as well as after long-term herbarium storage. After specimen preparation we estimate the proportion of gene copy numbers of plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA to be 2.4-3.8% of fresh control DNA and 1.0-1.3% after long-term herbarium storage, indicating that nearly all DNA damage occurs on specimen preparation. In addition, there is no evidence of preferential degradation of organelle versus nuclear genomes. Increased levels of C→T/G→A transitions were observed in old herbarium plastid DNA, representing 21.8% of observed miscoding lesions. We interpret this type of post-mortem DNA damage-derived modification to have arisen from the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine during long-term herbarium storage. Our results suggest that reliable sequence data can be obtained from herbarium specimens.

  2. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  3. Radiation damage to DNA constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergene, R.

    1977-01-01

    The molecular changes of the DNA molecule, in various systems exposed to inoizing radiation, have been the subject of a great number of studies. In the present work electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) has been applied to irradiated crystalline systems, in particular single crystals of DNA subunits and their derivatives. The main conclusions about the molecular damage are based on this technique in combination with molecular orbital calculations. It should be emphasized that the ESR technique is restricted to damage containing unpaired electrons. These unstable intermediates called free radicals seem, however, to be involved in all molecular models describing the action of radiation on DNA. One of the premises for a detailed theory of the radiation induced reactions at the physico-chemical level seems to involve exact knowledge of the induced free radicals as well as the modes of their formation and fate. For DNA, as such, it is hardly possible to arrive at such a level of knowledge since the molecular complexity prevents selective studies of the many different radiation induced products. One possible approach is to study the free radicals formed in the constituents of DNA. In the present work three lines of approach should be mentioned. The first is based on the observation that radical formation in general causes only minor structural alterations to the molecule in question. The use of isotopes with different spin and magnetic moment (in particular deuterium) may also serve a source of information. Deuteration leads to a number of protons, mainly NH - and OH, becoming substituted, and if any of these are involved in interactions with unpaired protons the resonance pattern is influeneed. The third source of information is molecular orbital calculation. The electron spin density distribution is a function in the three dimensional space based on the system's electronic wave functions. This constitutes the basis for the idea that ESR data can be correlated with

  4. An overview of the international regime governing liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturms, W.; Reye, S.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1986, the IAEA has been seized with considerations of all aspects of international nuclear liability, with a view to establishing a comprehensive international regime that would obtain widest adherence. The practical work is currently being done in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage. The efforts, which were first concentrated on the improvement of the existing civil liability regime, resulted in adoption, in 1988, of the Joint Protocol to the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, combining them into one expanded regime. At present, the work is focused on the following questions: (a) Revision of the Vienna Convention: In this context, specific draft amendments are considered relating to some key issues where need for improvement has been recognized, such as geographical scope, application to military installations, expansion of the definition of damage to cover environmental damage, preventative measures and consequential losses, increase of liability limits, provision of funds by the Installation State, extension of time limits for submission of claims, restriction of exonerations, etc. (b) International State liability and its relationship with the civil liability regime: Emphasis is placed on proposals for Installation State involvement in the provision of public funds in addition to compensation paid by the operator. (c) Elaboration of a supplementary funding system to cover damage exceeding compensation available under the Vienna and Paris Conventions

  5. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  6. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  7. Radiation damage of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1966-11-01

    Study of radiation damage covered the following: Kinetics of electric resistance of uranium and uranium alloy with 1% of molybdenum dependent on the second phase and burnup rate; Study of gas precipitation and diffusion of bubbles by transmission electron microscopy; Numerical analysis of the influence of defects distribution and concentration on the rare gas precipitation in uranium; study of thermal sedimentation of uranium alloy with molybdenum; diffusion of rare gas in metal by gas chromatography method

  8. Guidelines for the secondary prevention of rheumatic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrazaq Al-Jazairi

    2017-03-01

    Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease can be prevented with appropriate antibiotics administration to prevent the progression of valve damage. The current use of primary and secondary prevention antibiotics in Saudi Arabia is not known. Therefore, this clinical practice guideline is developed, based on the best available evidence, to promote appropriate antibiotics secondary prophylaxis use for prevention of rheumatic heart disease.

  9. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  10. Damage by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.

    1961-01-12

    Photochemical air pollution in the Los Angeles and San Francisco bay areas of California causes damage to the foliage of many plants and reduces the growth of a variety of glasshouse-grown crops. Not only is commercial flower production adversely affected, but a wide variety of critically controlled plant experiments conducted by several research institutions also are hampered. Moderate to severe plant damage has been experienced during the past several years for all but a few weeks in the winter months in standard glasshouses at the University of California at Riverside. Plants in glasshouses can be protected from photochemical air pollution by passing all of the air entering the house through activated carbon filters. The phytotoxic products of the photochemical reactions are ozone, the recently described peroxyacetyl nitrite PAN and the oxidants, as yet unidentified, produced by ozone-olefin reactions. Although ethylene occurs in the photochemical air pollution complex and is damaging to a variety of plants, it is not removed by activated carbon. A combination of filter-cooler unit is described which filters phytotoxicants from the air in greenhouses.

  11. Pediatric Cardiac Anamnesis: Prevention of Additional Diagnostic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Zijo; Naser, Nabil; Begic, Edin

    2018-01-01

    Pediatrics is defined as the science of a healthy and sick child from birth to end of adolescence. Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the leading causes of mortality in adults, with frequent onset in childhood. The cardiologic examination starts with anamnesis in a pleasant atmosphere, refined space, enough time and patience, detailed measurements, and preferably a noncrying child. Anamnesis, regardless of the development of diagnostic procedures, still constitutes the basis of every clinical examination. The basic characteristics of pediatric cardiac anamnesis are comprehensiveness, that is, details, clarity, concurrency, and chronology. Proper and conscientiously taken anamnesis with a thorough clinical examination of a sick child is a solid protection against dehumanizing the relationship between a physician and patient. Pediatric cardiac anamnesis can be variable, completely negative, but very rich. Anamnesis should, first of all, clarify whether only a child is sick or it is perceived like that be his or her environment. Preschool and school-age children are normally attending anamnesis. High-quality, comprehensive medical history can keep the patient at one level of health care, with a strict focus primarily on the diagnostic processes, reduce crowds in specialist and subspecialist institutions, and make economic savings. A large number of patients in specialist and subspecialist clinics can be reduced by proper screening and by developing primary health-care system (from the local health-care center). Taking patient's medical history with thoroughness has a strong educative character for young doctors at the beginning of their careers.

  12. Apophyseal damage in adolescent athlete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrer, S.; Huber, W.; Dirisamer, A.; Kainberger, F.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing demands on the adolescent athlete in high perfomance sports puts high biomechanical stress on the growing structures of the active and passive locomotor system. The ''growing factor'' itself increases stretching forces on tendon insertions, which are often overloaded when a physical demanding sport is performed additionally. The apophysis is an ossification nucleus near the tendon insertion, which appears before the growing age resumes and these apophysis finally fuses with the adjacent bone. The tensile forces from vigorous sports activity leads to a chronic or acute avulsion of the ossifying tendon insertion. The radiological appearance of this apophyseal damage with ossification and osteolytic processes is sometimes difficult with respect to differential diagnoses. Apophyseal impairment is associated with pain, tenderness to palpation and decreased muscle function. If it is not diagnosed and treated properly it can lead to end of career in many adolescent athletes. (orig.) [de

  13. Protein damage in drop-on-demand printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Gary M; Markey, Andrea A; Holloway, Charles K

    2004-12-22

    Inkjet printing technology is used to synthesize microarrays consisting of a variety of compounds. In this communication, we characterize damage to a model enzyme, peroxidase, caused by the rapid compression experienced by the solution during the printing process. We also find that damage is mitigated by the addition of trehalose and glucose to the printed solution.

  14. Weather-Related Flood and Landslide Damage: A Risk Index for Italian Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Messeri

    Full Text Available The frequency of natural hazards has been increasing in the last decades in Europe and specifically in Mediterranean regions due to climate change. For example heavy precipitation events can lead to disasters through the interaction with exposed and vulnerable people and natural systems. It is therefore necessary a prevention planning to preserve human health and to reduce economic losses. Prevention should mainly be carried out with more adequate land management, also supported by the development of an appropriate risk prediction tool based on weather forecasts. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between weather types (WTs and the frequency of floods and landslides that have caused damage to properties, personal injuries, or deaths in the Italian regions over recent decades. In particular, a specific risk index (WT-FLARI for each WT was developed at national and regional scale. This study has identified a specific risk index associated with each weather type, calibrated for each Italian region and applicable to both annual and seasonal levels. The risk index represents the seasonal and annual vulnerability of each Italian region and indicates that additional preventive actions are necessary for some regions. The results of this study represent a good starting point towards the development of a tool to support policy-makers, local authorities and health agencies in planning actions, mainly in the medium to long term, aimed at the weather damage reduction that represents an important issue of the World Meteorological Organization mission.

  15. Weather-Related Flood and Landslide Damage: A Risk Index for Italian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messeri, Alessandro; Morabito, Marco; Messeri, Gianni; Brandani, Giada; Petralli, Martina; Natali, Francesca; Grifoni, Daniele; Crisci, Alfonso; Gensini, Gianfranco; Orlandini, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of natural hazards has been increasing in the last decades in Europe and specifically in Mediterranean regions due to climate change. For example heavy precipitation events can lead to disasters through the interaction with exposed and vulnerable people and natural systems. It is therefore necessary a prevention planning to preserve human health and to reduce economic losses. Prevention should mainly be carried out with more adequate land management, also supported by the development of an appropriate risk prediction tool based on weather forecasts. The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between weather types (WTs) and the frequency of floods and landslides that have caused damage to properties, personal injuries, or deaths in the Italian regions over recent decades. In particular, a specific risk index (WT-FLARI) for each WT was developed at national and regional scale. This study has identified a specific risk index associated with each weather type, calibrated for each Italian region and applicable to both annual and seasonal levels. The risk index represents the seasonal and annual vulnerability of each Italian region and indicates that additional preventive actions are necessary for some regions. The results of this study represent a good starting point towards the development of a tool to support policy-makers, local authorities and health agencies in planning actions, mainly in the medium to long term, aimed at the weather damage reduction that represents an important issue of the World Meteorological Organization mission.

  16. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training Stephanie Adrianse, MD1, Lance M. Pollack, Ph.D2, Cherrie B...behavioral factors associated with consistent use of effective contraceptive methods (consistent-effective use) in male and female soldiers in training

  17. Prevention of ear damage during vibrating table concrete compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauer, E.

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa dificultad de oír provocada por la intensa acción del ruido de larga duración, es actualmente una de las enfermedades profesionales más frecuentes en la República Democrática de Alemania. Para evitar su propagación se han creado especialmente para la industria de la construcción y de materiales de construcción en el año 1966 bases legales, en las que se han declarado obligatorias las prescripciones de la TGL 10 687. Entretanto se ha perfeccionado este estándar. Las innovaciones más importantes para la industria de materiales de construcción consisten en el procedimiento de medida diferente y en el nivel de ruido permisible que resulta. El medidor de nivel de ruido por impulsos que se utiliza para la medida del ruido debe ajustarse también a la valoración de frecuencia A y a la valoración de tiempo I (ruido de impulso cuando se desea medir el ruido perjudicial para el oído. El nivel de presión sonora, con un efecto de ruido ininterrumpido (> 5 h durante un turno de trabajo, no debe superar el valor de 90 dB (AI (hasta ahora N 85

  18. The preventive function of collective actions for damages inconsumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. van den Bergh (Roger); L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractFrom a deterrence perspective, private enforcement of consumer law can be insufficient for several reasons. Individual consumers may find it too costly to start a lawsuit (‘rational apathy’) or they may not even know that an infringement has occurred (‘information asymmetry’). If public

  19. Prostacyclin infusion may prevent secondary damage in pericontusional brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinstrup, Peter; Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator, inhibitor of leukocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation, and has been suggested as therapy for cerebral ischemia. A case of focal traumatic brain lesion that was monitored using intracerebral microdialysis, and bedside analysis and display is reported here........ When biochemical signs of cerebral ischemia progressed, i.v. infusion of prostacyclin was started....

  20. Enhanced Lung Function and Prevention of Peroxidative Damage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the effects of vitamin E supplementation on the lung function and lipid peroxidation status of asthmatic children. Fifteen asthmatics (ten male and five female) aged between 6 and 13years, all in a stable state, were recruited from the paediatric out-patient respiratory clinic of the Lagos ...

  1. Off-pump coronary artery bypass prevents visceral organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, Benjamin; Bomberg, Hagen; Pritzer, Hartmut; Prabhu, Sudesh; Petzina, Rainer; Kempski, Oliver; Horstick, Georg; Cremer, Jochen; Hoffmann, Grischa

    2014-06-01

    Visceral malperfusion after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) results in high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of CABG performed by surgical techniques on visceral perfusion and function. Pigs (n = 28) were studied in four groups: I. Sham; II. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB): 1 h stabilizer with 40 min intracoronary shunt; III. Extracorporeal circulation (ECC): 1 h ECC with 40 min aortic cross-clamping and cardioplegic arrest; IV. Impella: 1 h left ventricular blood-pump support and stabilizer with 40 min intracoronary shunt. A left internal mammary to left anterior descending coronary artery bypass was performed in Groups II-IV. All animals were observed for a further 240 min. During the experiment haemodynamics, creatinine clearance, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP), pancreatic (lipase and amylase) and liver enzymes (α-glutathione s-transferase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT)) were measured. Visceral perfusion (VP) was assessed in both kidneys, intestine, pancreas, liver and spleen with 15 µm fluorescent microspheres. During OPCAB surgery, VP decreased slightly. Renal functional parameters, iFABP, pancreatic and liver enzymes remained unchanged. ECC and Impella led to significantly reduced renal, pancreatic and intestinal blood flow (P < 0.05). Creatinine clearance, pancreatic and liver (GPT, GGT) enzymes were significantly decreased only after ECC (P < 0.05). ECC and Impella resulted in a significantly increased iFABP level (P < 0.05). GOT was elevated significantly after surgery in Groups II, III and IV (P < 0.05). CABG with ECC or Impella leads to impaired visceral blood flow and function. OPCAB minimizes these procedure associated alterations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. 20-hydroxyecdysone prevents oxidative stress damage in adult Pyrrhocoris apterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishnan, Natraj; Večeřa, J.; Kodrík, Dalibor; Sehnal, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2007), s. 114-124 ISSN 0739-4462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/06/1591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : glutathione * gama-glutamyl transpeptidase * 20-hydroxyecdysone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2007

  3. Military Robotics and Collateral Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kott, Robert Douglass ;Alexander

    2004-01-01

    .... Such concepts raise important questions in terms of their impact on collateral damage. In a broader context, western warfare in general places a continuously growing emphasis on issues of collateral damage...

  4. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom...... compartment layout, in an attempt to determine the probability of exceeding the design requirements. Distributions for the extent of damage, such as damage length, height and width, are determined. Furthermore, attempts are made at identifying the governing grounding scenarios and deriving a formula...

  5. Recent trends in fracture and damage mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zybell, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of topics in fracture and damage mechanics. It presents historical perspectives as well as recent innovative developments, presented by peer reviewed contributions from internationally acknowledged authors.  The volume deals with the modeling of fracture and damage in smart materials, current industrial applications of fracture mechanics, and it explores advances in fracture testing methods. In addition, readers will discover trends in the field of local approach to fracture and approaches using analytical mechanics. Scholars in the fields of materials science, engineering and computational science will value this volume which is dedicated to Meinhard Kuna on the occasion of his 65th birthday in 2015. This book incorporates the proceedings of an international symposium that was organized to honor Meinhard Kuna’s contributions to the field of theoretical and applied fracture and damage mechanics.

  6. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  7. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, Xuening; ZHAN, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods, preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life, increasing varieties of foods, enhancing convenience of foods, facilitating food processing, and satisfying other demands. However, excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security. Therefore, it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food addi...

  8. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Christou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.10, and p<0.05, resp.. Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p<0.001. Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p=0.37, whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p=0.99. Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions.

  9. The economic benefits of wildfire prevention education

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.A. Hermansen-Baez; J.P. Prestemon; D.T. Butry; K.L. Abt; R. Sutphen

    2011-01-01

    While there are many activities that can limit damages from wildfires, such as firefighting efforts and prescribed burning, wildfire prevention education programs can be particularly beneficial. This was confirmed through a study conducted by the Southern Research Station and the National Institute of Standards and Technology that demonstrated that wildfire prevention...

  10. 139 PREVENTION AND SCREENING FOR DIABETES MELLITUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Prevention was initially construed narrowly in terms of protective measures like vaccination & improved nutrition that targeted only healthy people with the aim of preventing advanced disease. Presently, there is a further extension of the definition to cover the treatment of sick individuals, reversal of damage.

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  14. Prevention in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    for the conference, collected materials from scribes during the conference and additional resources collated in advance of the meeting, authors agreed on the summary document. RESULTS: The Prevention in Practice conference aimed to collate information about which diseases could be prevented in practice, how diseases...... could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. CONCLUSIONS: While examples of best practice were...

  15. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  16. DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span. PMID:26385091

  17. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  18. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  19. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  20. Radiation damage in graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, John Harry Walrond

    1965-01-01

    Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This

  1. Tokamak ARC damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage.

  2. Tokamak ARC damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Gorker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Tokamak fusion reactors will have large plasma currents of approximately 10 MA with hundreds of megajoules stored in the magnetic fields. When a major plasma instability occurs, the disruption of the plasma current induces voltage in the adjacent conducting structures, giving rise to large transient currents. The induced voltages may be sufficiently high to cause arcing across sector gaps or from one protruding component to another. This report reviews a tokamak arcing scenario and provides guidelines for designing tokamaks to minimize the possibility of arc damage

  3. Model of designating the critical damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwolińska Bożena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing company in the lean way presumes no breakdowns nor reserves in the whole delivery chain. However, achieving such low indicators is impossible. That is why in some production plants it is extremely important to focus on preventive actions which can limit damages. This article depicts the method of designating the critical damages in accordance with lean maintenance method. The article consists of two parts which make for an integral body. Part one depicts the characteristic of a realistic object, it also contains productions capabilities analysis of certain areas within the production structure. Part two depicts the probabilistic model of shaping maximal time loss basing on emptying and filling interoperational buffers.

  4. Protective effect of early placement of nasogastric tube with solid dilator on tissue damage and stricture formation after caustic esophageal burns in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defagó, Victor; Moyano, Jimena; Bernhardt, Celina; Sambuelli, Gabriela; Cuestas, Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    The ingestion of caustic substances remains an important public health issue worldwide. Children represent 80% of the ingestion injury population globally. Accidental alkaline material accounts for most caustic ingestions. There is no conclusive evidence of tissue damage and stricture protection of a nasogastric-tube with a solid dilator in the literature, therefore it was hypothesized that early intraesophageal tube placement does not cause additional histopathologic damage and prevents strictures. An exploratory study on experimental caustic esophageal burns in a rabbit model was designed. In the treated group a silicone tube was placed immediately after causing the burns, while the untreated group followed the natural course of the burn. On the twenty-secondday, an esophagectomy was performed on all animals for microscopic (Histopathologic Damage Score and Stenosis Index) and macroscopic analysis. Forty animals were randomly divided into two groups. The Histopathologic Damage Score was 3.7±1.1 in the treated group versus 3.9±1.2 in the untreated group (p=.9690). The Stenosis Index was 0.6±0.1 in treated rabbits versus 2.3±0.2 in untreated (ptube with solid dilator prevents stenosis formation and does not produce greater tissue damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuum theory of fibrous tissue damage mechanics using bond kinetics: application to cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nims, Robert J; Durney, Krista M; Cigan, Alexander D; Dusséaux, Antoine; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-02-06

    This study presents a damage mechanics framework that employs observable state variables to describe damage in isotropic or anisotropic fibrous tissues. In this mixture theory framework, damage is tracked by the mass fraction of bonds that have broken. Anisotropic damage is subsumed in the assumption that multiple bond species may coexist in a material, each having its own damage behaviour. This approach recovers the classical damage mechanics formulation for isotropic materials, but does not appeal to a tensorial damage measure for anisotropic materials. In contrast with the classical approach, the use of observable state variables for damage allows direct comparison of model predictions to experimental damage measures, such as biochemical assays or Raman spectroscopy. Investigations of damage in discrete fibre distributions demonstrate that the resilience to damage increases with the number of fibre bundles; idealizing fibrous tissues using continuous fibre distribution models precludes the modelling of damage. This damage framework was used to test and validate the hypothesis that growth of cartilage constructs can lead to damage of the synthesized collagen matrix due to excessive swelling caused by synthesized glycosaminoglycans. Therefore, alternative strategies must be implemented in tissue engineering studies to prevent collagen damage during the growth process.

  6. Hurricane Katrina: Fishing and Aquaculture Industries -- Damage and Recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Eugene H

    2005-01-01

    .... In addition, inland areas account for much of the U.S. farmed catfish production. This report summarizes damage assessments and recovery efforts, with initial reports primarily anecdotal until more accurate assessments become available...

  7. Efectividad de la Película Barrera No Irritante en la prevención de lesiones de piel: Revisión sistemática Effectiveness of No Sting Barrier Film for preventing skin damage: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pedro García-Fernández

    2009-03-01

    proposed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE. As a measure of the effect size we used the Relative Risk with the 95% Confidence Interval. Meta-analysis was not performed because high clinical heterogeneity between studies was detected. Results: Thirty studies on NSBF use have been identified, but 19 have not been included in this review by several reasons (14 were not comparative studies; 3 by poor methodological quality and 2 by very low quality of evidence: Results can be grouping into 4 groups, according to the type of skin damage: skin irritation prevention (1 study; radiodermitis (2; perilesional skin in venous ulcers (4 and incontinence ulcers (4. These studies compare NSBF with barrier creams, petrolatum, glycerol or moisturizing creams. Additionally 4 cost-effectiveness studies have been selected. These studies found a reduction in the cost per case when using NSBF instead of others skin care products. Conclusions: The use of NSBF reduces significantly the erythema extent in the edges of exudative venous ulcers (evidence: high, with an overall clinical effectiveness similar to zinc oxide creams (moderate. NSBF is easier to apply and remove than zinc oxide creams (moderate. In patients with incontinence ulcers, the use of NSBF reduces the extent of dermatitis better than usuallyused moisturizing creams (NNT= 5 (moderate and have equal effectiveness in dermatitis prevention as zinc oxide creams or petrolatum (high, but with better effect in decreasing redness and denudation areas (high. In radiotherapy treated patients, the NSBF reduce both the area and severity of radiodermitis (moderate. The use of NSBF have a cost per case, including nursing time costs, significantly lower than the use of zinc oxide creams (high.

  8. Simulating past droughts and associated building damages in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Corti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts can induce important building damages due to shrinking and swelling of soils, leading to costs as large as for floods in some regions. Previous studies have focused on damage data analysis, geological or constructional aspects. Here, a study investigating the climatic aspects of soil subsidence damage is presented for the first time. We develop a simple model to examine if the meteorology has a considerable impact on the interannual variability of damages from soil subsidence in France. We find that the model is capable of reproducing yearly drought-induced building damages for the time period 1989–2002, thus suggesting a strong meteorological influence. Furthermore, our results reveal a doubling of damages in these years compared to 1961–1990, mainly as a consequence of increasing temperatures. This indicates a link to climate change. We also apply the model to the extreme summer of 2003, which caused a further increase in damage by a factor four, according to a preliminary damage estimate. The simulation result for that year shows strong damage underestimation, pointing to additional sources of vulnerability. Damage data suggest a higher sensitivity to soil subsidence of regions first affected by drought in the 2003 summer, possibly due to a lack of preparedness and adaptation. This is of strong concern in the context of climate change, as densely populated regions in Central Europe and North America are expected to become newly affected by drought in the future.

  9. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first...

  10. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  11. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  12. Manual on the Fatigue of Structures. II. Causes and Prevention of Damage. 7. Mechanical Surface Damage,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    conjuguee du frottement et de la corrosion sur les aciers inoxydables. Corrosion, Vol.19, N°4, pp. 159-170, June July 1971. Archiv. Eisenhüttenwesen, Vol...National Aeronautical Meeting, New-York. 1961. Influence des conditions d’usinage par rectification sur I’etat structural et les contraintes residuelles...Contact Problems. Ph. D. Thesis. University of Minnesota, USA, 1954. Interaction entre le frottement et la corrosion. CoIIoque CEFRACOR, March 1971

  13. Hydrogen damage in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen damage has been studied in a wide variety of stainless steels. Both internal and external hydrogen damage were evaluated by ductility or J-integral under rising tensile loads and by fractography. Analysis of the data has emphasized the potential effects of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen damage. Strain-induced martensite was neither necessary nor sufficient for hydrogen damage in the alloys studied. Neither ductility loss nor fracture-mode change correlated generally with martensite formation. Alloy composition, particularly nickel and nitrogen contents, was the primary factor in resistance to hydrogen damage. Thermomechanical processing, however, could alter the degree of hydrogen damage in an alloy and was critical for optimizing resistance to hydrogen damage. 10 figures, 10 tables

  14. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  15. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbach, N. L. J. T.; Brown, O. F.; Vanden Borre, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  16. Food additives data book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jim; Hong-Shum, Lily

    2011-01-01

    .... Compiled by food industry experts with a proven track record of producing high quality reference work, this volume is the definitive resource for technologists using food additives"-- "The use...

  17. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  18. Aliskiren prevents the toxic effects of peritoneal dialysis fluids during chronic dialysis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pérez-Martínez

    Full Text Available The benefits of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD in patients with end-stage renal failure are short-lived due to structural and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. In this report, we provide evidence for the in vitro and in vivo participation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS in the signaling pathway leading to peritoneal fibrosis during PD. Exposure to high-glucose PD fluids (PDFs increases damage and fibrosis markers in both isolated rat peritoneal mesothelial cells and in the peritoneum of rats after chronic dialysis. In both cases, the addition of the RAAS inhibitor aliskiren markedly improved damage and fibrosis markers, and prevented functional modifications in the peritoneal transport, as measured by the peritoneal equilibrium test. These data suggest that inhibition of the RAAS may be a novel way to improve the efficacy of PD by preventing inflammation and fibrosis following peritoneal exposure to high-glucose PDFs.

  19. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  20. Protective effects of topical application of a poorly soluble antioxidant astaxanthin liposomal formulation on ultraviolet-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Susumu; Takahashi, Kanako; Inai, Yuko; Shiota, Kanako; Sakamoto, Ryota; Yamada, Asako; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Eiji; Kogure, Kentaro

    2012-08-01

    Astaxanthin (Asx) would be expected to prevent ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin damage, as it is regarded as a potent antioxidative carotenoid in biological membranes. However, it is difficult to administer Asx topically to skin because of its poor water solubility. In this study, we attempted to solve this problem by preparing liposomes containing Asx (Asx-lipo), which were dispersible in the water phase, and therefore, suitable for topical application to the skin. Asx-lipo was shown to have potent scavenging ability against chemiluminescence-dependent singlet oxygen production in the water phase. When Asx-lipo was applied to skin before UV exposure, UV-induced skin thickening was prevented. Interestingly, collagen reduction induced by UV exposure was also prevented by preadministration of Asx-lipo. In addition, topical administration of Asx-lipo containing cationic lipid inhibited melanin production in skin exposed to UV. Consequently, we succeeded in preventing UV-induced skin damage using a topical application of a liposomal formulation containing Asx. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cathepsin D protects renal tubular cells from damage induced by high glucose independent of its enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Wang, Tian; Li, Si; Meng, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Li, De-Tian; Du, Zhen-Xian; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Although glomerular and vascular damage have been considered the main characteristics of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), accumulating data now indicate that tubular atrophy also plays a major role. Cathepsin D (CatD) is the major aspartate protease within lysosomes. The current study demonstrated that CatD expression was altered in the renal tubular epithelium in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). In contrast to its low and uniform distribution in the tubular epithelium in normal kidney tissues, CatD demonstrated flecked and increased expression in tubules with relatively integral structures, and disappeared in disordered tubules in DM kidney tissues. In vitro studies demonstrated that CatD protected HK2 cells from the damage induced by high glucose and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), independent of its enzymatic activity. In addition, the current study demonstrated that AGEs induced lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Overexpression of CatD prevented LMP and maintained the MMP in HK2 cells exposed to AGEs. In addition, the catalytic activity of CatD was not required for its role in LMP prevention and MMP maintenance. These results indicate, for the first time that CatD may improve the viability of renal tubular cells in the presence of diabetic mediators independent of its enzymatic activity by preventing LMP and stabilizing the MMP.

  2. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: Etiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayatt Sukh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of head and neck cancer remains a challenge. Despite advances in surgical reconstructive techniques, most patients will require adjuvant therapy in the form of radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy to improve locoregional control. The short- and long term side effects of radiotherapy can be difficult to treat. In this review the causative effects and pathogenesis of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible will be highlighted. In addition, preventive measures and clinical features of radiotherapy induced damage will be presented. Finally, medical and surgical management of osteoradionecrosis, as well as, reconstructive surgery of the mandible will be discussed. At the end of this paper the reader should have up to date knowledge concerning the etiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with osteoradionecrosis of the mandible.

  3. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  4. Evaluating the economic damages of transport disruptions using a transnational and interregional input-output model for Japan, China, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimoto, Hiroshi; Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Yuzuru

    2017-10-01

    Damage to transportation networks as a result of natural disasters can lead to economic losses due to lost trade along those links in addition to the costs of damage to the infrastructure itself. This study evaluates the economic damages of transport disruptions such as highways, tunnels, bridges, and ports using a transnational and interregional Input-Output Model that divides the world into 23 regions: 9 regions in Japan, 7 regions in China, and 4 regions in Korea, Taiwan, ASEAN5, and the USA to allow us to focus on Japan's regional and international links. In our simulation, economic ripple effects of both international and interregional transport disruptions are measured by changes in the trade coefficients in the input-output model. The simulation showed that, in the case of regional links in Japan, a transport disruption in the Kanmon Straits causes the most damage to our targeted world, resulting in economic damage of approximately 36.3 billion. In the case of international links among Japan, China, and Korea, damage to the link between Kanto in Japan and Huabei in China causes economic losses of approximately 31.1 billion. Our result highlights the importance of disaster prevention in the Kanmon Straits, Kanto, and Huabei to help ensure economic resilience.

  5. Fused Lasso Additive Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN.

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  8. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient ... popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts ...

  14. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  15. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  16. Additives in plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  17. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossman, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan

    2011-01-01

    To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis.......To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis....

  18. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  19. Study on effective modifiers for damaging salts in mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Rodgriguez-Navarro

    2014-01-01

    The use of crystallization modifiers for the prevention or mitigation of salt crystallization damage has recently received a lot of research interest in the field of building conservation. However, the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in a lime-based mortar, is still a very new field of

  20. The DNA-damage response in human biology and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Stephen P; Bartek, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    , signal its presence and mediate its repair. Such responses, which have an impact on a wide range of cellular events, are biologically significant because they prevent diverse human diseases. Our improving understanding of DNA-damage responses is providing new avenues for disease management....

  1. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  2. Bilding (Kay) Ki Damaje PSA (:30) (Damaged Buildings)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    An important public health announcement about safety precautions for potential physical and chemical hazards found in damaged buildings. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  3. Using preloading to protect bearings against lightning damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Blaj, M.A.; Hogeman, Edwin; Storck, Rob

    2015-01-01

    When a radar system onboard a ship is struck by lightning the current has to be conducted via defined paths to prevent damage. A key element to protect is the bearing system between the rotating and stationary part. The conventional way of protecting bearing is to provide a bypass current path via

  4. A nonlinear CDM based damage growth law for ductile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Abhinav; Priya Ajit, K.; Sarkar, Prabir Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A nonlinear ductile damage growth criterion is proposed based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach. The model is derived in the framework of thermodynamically consistent CDM assuming damage to be isotropic. In this study, the damage dissipation potential is also derived to be a function of varying strain hardening exponent in addition to damage strain energy release rate density. Uniaxial tensile tests and load-unload-cyclic tensile tests for AISI 1020 steel, AISI 1030 steel and Al 2024 aluminum alloy are considered for the determination of their respective damage variable D and other parameters required for the model(s). The experimental results are very closely predicted, with a deviation of 0%-3%, by the proposed model for each of the materials. The model is also tested with predictabilities of damage growth by other models in the literature. Present model detects the state of damage quantitatively at any level of plastic strain and uses simpler material tests to find the parameters of the model. So, it should be useful in metal forming industries to assess the damage growth for the desired deformation level a priori. The superiority of the new model is clarified by the deviations in the predictability of test results by other models.

  5. New damage-sensitive feature for structures with bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W. F.; Yu, L.

    2017-05-01

    Compared with riveted and welded joints, bolted joints have advantages of easily dismantled, high load carrying and load-transferring capacity. However, bolted joints are also weaker components of assembled structures. Structural damage detection (SDD) on bolted joints is much required in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). A new SDD method is proposed for damage identification of structures with bolted joints based on residual error of AR model in time series analysis. Firstly, a new data standardization process is defined to maintain the information of damage location. Then, a new structural damage feature sensitive to structural damage is developed based on the standard deviation of AR model residual errors. To verify the proposed method, a bolted joint structure is designed and fabricated in laboratory, connection damages of structures are simulated by loosening the bolted joints. The acceleration responses of structures with bolted joints under healthy and damage cases are acquired. Finally, the SDD is performed by traditional DSF and the new DSF. The illustrated results show that the proposed method is a hybrid tool for the bolted joint damage detection with the new damage-sensitive feature. In addition, some related issues will be discussed as well.

  6. Electron damage in organic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howitt, D.G.; Thomas, G.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage in three crystalline organic materials (l-valine, cytosine, copper phthalocyanine) have been investigated by electron microscopy. The degradation of these materials has been found to be consistent with a gradual collapse of their crystal structures brought about by ionization damage to the comprising molecules. It is inferred that the crystallinity of these materials is destroyed by ionizing radiation because the damaged molecules cannot be incorporated into the framework of their original structures. (author)

  7. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    State University, Applied Research Laboratory • Rich Martukanitz • Ken Meinert • Ted Reutzel • Jay Keist • Griffin Jones • Jay Tressler...Directorate. In this talk we highlight a few projects in additively manufactured electronics (e.g., batteries, capacitors, antennas) that span bench

  8. Biobased lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  9. Precursor Additive Manufacturing Inventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C.; Bourell, D.

    2018-03-01

    Most modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes were invented and commercialized in a short period of time spanning 1984-2000. This paper reports on AM processes invented in the 1974-1987 time period, known as precursor AM processes. The critical difference between the two periods is public knowledge and utilization of distributed computing.

  10. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  11. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  12. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  13. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  14. Analysis of Boling's laser-damage morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Boling observed that his total-internal-reflection laser-damage sites in glass closely resembled the scattering cross section for small (ka << 1), perfectly conducting sphere and suggested that a very small plasma formed and grew to a larger size, still with ka << 1 satisfied. Even with ka = 1, for which the cross section is different from that observed, the scattered field still is too small to explain the damage in terms of constructive interference between the incident- and scattered fields. Furthermore, the characteristic shape of the scattering cross section that matches the damage patterns is for circular polarization or unpolarized light, in contrast to the experimental plane polarizations. Extending the ideas to include effects of the scattered field outside the glass, such as plasma formation, and to include the correct field (with interesting polarization, including longitudinal circuler polarization at certain distances from the surface) incident on the sphere may explain the experiments. Additional experiments and analysis would be useful to determine if the extended model is valid and to investigate related materials improvement, nondestructive testing, and the relation between laser damage, plasma initiation, and failure under stress, all initiated at small isolated spots

  15. Feral burro populations: Distribution and damage assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.

    1997-12-01

    This report was prepared to document (1) regional use of the National Training Center (NTC), Fort Irwin, CA, by burros, (2)influence of available water sources for burro use, (3) burro-related damage at several NTC sensitive habitat areas, and (4) management recommendations. All work described in this report was conducted in 1996 and 1997. Roadside transects were conducted and mapped using Geographical Positioning Systems/Geographical Information Systems (GPS/GIS) to indirectly measure relative abundance of feral burros (scat per mile) and to examine the spatial relationship of burro use to permanent or semi-permanent water sources that exist on the NTC. The authors also surveyed several permanent springs for burro-related damage and mapped the impact areas using GPS/GIS to quantify the extent of damage and to provide guidance on size and extent of burro exclosures in those areas. Photographs of the spring sites were also archived and permanent photo points were established for long-term monitoring of feral burro damage areas. In addition, aquatic invertebrate data collected during another spring site study were summarized and discussed in relation to burro-related impacts on the NTC`s sensitive habitats. Several water-quality parameters were also obtained from each spring, including temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and total dissolved solids.

  16. Damage control productivity : an input damage abatement approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Carpentier, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the value of the marginal product of three different pesticides from different specifications of the production function. The specifications are the output damage abatement specification proposed by Lichtenberg and Zilberman, a general input damage abatement specification and a

  17. Protective effect of Kombucha tea on brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Kabiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Kombucha on cerebral damage induced by ischemia in rats (n=99. Cerebral infarct volume in the ischemic rats received Kombucha solution showed no significance alteration. However, the permeability of blood-brain barrier significantly decreased in both ischemic rats received 15 mg/kg Kombucha tea and Sham group. In addition, brain water content in the ischemic groups treated with Kombucha solution was significantly higher than the Sham group, although right hemispheres in all of the treated groups illustrated higher brain water content than the left ones. Brain anti-oxidant capacity elevated in the ischemic rats treated with Kombucha and in the Sham group. Brain and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations significantly decreased in both of the ischemic groups injected with Kombucha. The findings suggest that Kombucha tea could be useful for the prevention of cerebral damage.

  18. Cellular Responses to Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakananda Basu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is one of the most effective anticancer agents widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. It is generally considered as a cytotoxic drug which kills cancer cells by damaging DNA and inhibiting DNA synthesis. How cells respond to cisplatin-induced DNA damage plays a critical role in deciding cisplatin sensitivity. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage activates various signaling pathways to prevent or promote cell death. This paper summarizes our current understandings regarding the mechanisms by which cisplatin induces cell death and the bases of cisplatin resistance. We have discussed various steps, including the entry of cisplatin inside cells, DNA repair, drug detoxification, DNA damage response, and regulation of cisplatin-induced apoptosis by protein kinases. An understanding of how various signaling pathways regulate cisplatin-induced cell death should aid in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer.

  19. [Present status of gastrointestinal damage due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Tomoki; Ishikawa, Shigenao; Miyoshi, Masatsugu; Kurahara, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are roughly divided into a low-dose aspirin group used for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and non-aspirin NSAIDs used for treatment of bone and joint diseases. Both cause gastrointestinal damage directly or indirectly. In the present study, we reviewed gastrointestinal damage due to non-aspirin NSAIDs with respect to the esophagus, stomach/duodenum, small intestine and colon. Damage due to NSAIDs occurs in all digestive tracts and since the analgesic effect of NSIADs hides subjective symptoms, the symptoms are often not treated until they are advanced to a serious state. Further, patients receiving NSAIDs are mostly elderly and have complications so that the onset of the conditions is serious and prevention is important. It is necessary to investigate a method that is effective for preventing damage for all digestive tracts and the mechanisms of damage must be understood for this reason.

  20. Determination of Bruising Damages of Tomato during Road Transportation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mansouri Alam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The most important post-harvest mechanical damage is bruising. Bruising occurs during the stages of handling, transporting and packaging due to quasi-static and dynamic loads. Vibrations of tomato fruits during transportation by truck will decrease their quality. More than 2.5 million tons damages have been reported during tomato transportation in Iran. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize different parameters of damages during road transportation in order to detect and prevent bruising injury. Materials and Methods In this study, healthy Super Queen verity of tomatoes devoid of any corrosion and mechanical damage multipliers were used. Aaverage of 7 and 5 pieces of fruit in each length and width, respectively in 13*25*37 cm boxes with a capacity of 8 kg were arranged. The boxes were divided into 2 types of truck suspension (model M2631 AIMCO, manufactured in 2010 with air suspension and Nissan trucks 2400, manufactured in 2010 with suspension spring. Boxes were established in three different heights truck, floor truck, height of middle and top of truck, in addition to two different situation boxes on the front axle (S1 and rear axle (S2. In each situation, three levels of height (H1, floor truck, the truck (H2 and the truck (H3 there. The location of each sample inside the fruit boxes bottom row (Loc1 and top (Loc2 boxes marked with marker. In this study, two types of road, highway asphalt and asphalt secondary road was used for transportation. Trucks and vans had the same distance route about 400 km. Fruits were transferred to Hamadan agricultural college. Rheology lab test was a hit with the pendulum. In this study, the amount of energy absorbed from the index (as a parameter to determine the sensitivity and the fruits bruises were used. Hit test was done after transportation of fruits and transferring those to the laboratory in less than 2 hours. Impact energy products were considered higher than the dynamic submission

  1. Ribonucleotide triggered DNA damage and RNA-DNA damage responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bret D; Williams, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that the transient contamination of DNA with ribonucleotides exceeds all other known types of DNA damage combined. The consequences of ribose incorporation into DNA, and the identity of protein factors operating in this RNA-DNA realm to protect genomic integrity from RNA-triggered events are emerging. Left unrepaired, the presence of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA impacts cellular proliferation and is associated with chromosome instability, gross chromosomal rearrangements, mutagenesis, and production of previously unrecognized forms of ribonucleotide-triggered DNA damage. Here, we highlight recent findings on the nature and structure of DNA damage arising from ribonucleotides in DNA, and the identification of cellular factors acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR) to counter RNA-triggered DNA damage.

  2. Treatment of anisotropic damage development within a scalar damage formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Munson, D. E.

    This paper is concerned with describing a damage mechanics formulation which provides for non-isotropic effects using a scalar damage variable. An investigation has been in progress for establishing the constitutive behavior of rock salt at long times and low to moderate confining pressures in relation to the possible use of excavated rooms in rock salt formations as repositories for nuclear waste. An important consideration is the effect of damage manifested principally by the formation of shear induced wing cracks which have a stress dependent orientation. The analytical formulation utilizes a scalar damage parameter, but is capable of indicating the non-isotropic dependence of inelastic straining on the stress state and the confining pressure. Also, the equations indicate the possibility of volumetric expansions leading to the onset of tertiary creep and eventually rupture if the damage variable reaches a critical value.

  3. DNA damage protection against free radicals of two antioxidant neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Oku, Hirosuke; Wada, Koji

    2016-03-15

    Sugarcane molasses is a potential by-product of the sugarcane manufacturing industry that is rich in antioxidant materials. The present study aimed to obtain antioxidative compounds from sugarcane molasses and to evaluate their ability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Two neolignan glucosides were isolated from sugarcane molasses using bioassay and UV spectra monitoring-guided fractionation. The compounds were elucidated as (7R,8S)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and (7S,8R)-simulanol-9'-O-β-d-glucoside (2). Neolignan glucoside 2 protected against DNA damage caused by free radicals more effectively than did neolignan glucoside 1 (13.62 and 9.08 µmol L(-1) for peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, respectively, compared to 48.07 and 14.42 µmol L(-1) ). Additionally, neolignan glucoside 2 exhibited superior DNA protection against free radicals compared with various known antioxidative compounds, including p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid and epigallocatechin gallate. The isolated neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses are able to protect DNA from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. This is the first identification of these two compounds in sugarcane molasses. The sugarcane molasses can therefore be used as potential nutraceutical preventative agents, and the findings may foster the utilization of this by-product as a bioresource-based product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. Copyright © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin

  5. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herst, Patries M [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2014-06-15

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

  6. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  7. Implantation damage in silicon devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    Ion implantation, is an attractive technique for producing doped layers in silicon devices but the implantation process involves disruption of the lattice and defects are formed, which can degrade device properties. Methods of minimizing such damage are discussed and direct comparisons made between implantation and diffusion techniques in terms of defects in the final devices and the electrical performance of the devices. Defects are produced in the silicon lattice during implantation but they are annealed to form secondary defects even at room temperature. The annealing can be at a low temperature ( 0 C) when migration of defects in silicon in generally small, or at high temperature when they can grow well beyond the implanted region. The defect structures can be complicated by impurity atoms knocked into the silicon from surface layers by the implantation. Defects can also be produced within layers on top of the silicon and these can be very important in device fabrication. In addition to affecting the electrical properties of the final device, defects produced during fabrication may influence the chemical properties of the materials. The use of these properties to improve devices are discussed as well as the degradation they can cause. (author)

  8. [Nursing Experience With a Patient With Gastrostomy Leakage Resulting in Moisture-Associated Skin Damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Hsu, Hsiao-Hui; Lyu, Ji-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Leakage is a common complication of gastrostomy. Exposure of the skin surrounding the gastrostomy tube to moisture or chemical irritants may cause moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. This case study describes a nursing experience with gastrostomy leakage that resulted in MASD. An assessment conducted from July 29, 2015 to August 20, 2015 revealed that heavy gastronomy leakage had caused extensive skin erosion, ulceration, hyperplasia, and superficial infection. Simultaneously, the patient was required to conduct complex stoma care, which resulted in physical and psychological exhaustion. Changes in traditional tube and wound care were discussed on multiple occasions with an interdisciplinary healthcare team. Based on the evidence-based literature, we provide gastrostomy and MASD management strategies. Through team collaboration, we prevented gastric contents from contacting the patient's skin directly, improved patient comfort, controlled effluent and skin infections, maintained fluid and electrolyte balances, and acce-lerated the healing of the damaged skin. We recommend that healthcare professionals caring for patients with gastrostomy leakage be provided with early skin protection programs to learn the standard methods for identifying and correcting leakage factors, containing effluent, and adequately stabilizing the gastrostomy tube in order to reduce the impact on the patient's quality of life. In addition, patient education on tube and skin care should be provided to prevent the reoccurrence of complications.

  9. Environmental enrichment protects the retina from early diabetic damage in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Dorfman

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials, retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats.

  10. Role of copper in photochemical damage to hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J M; Iveson, R; Flagler, M J; Davis, M G; Newland, A B; Greis, K D; Sun, Y; Chaudhary, T; Aistrup, E R

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this work was to identify whether low levels of redox metals such as copper will accelerate damage to hair on exposure to UV irradiation and whether this damage can be prevented. The methods used were proteomics to measure the protein damage via protein loss after different periods of exposure and mass spectroscopy methods to identify specific marker peptides that are specifically created by this type of damage. In this work, we have developed new insights into the mechanism of UV damage using these proteomic methods. A marker fragment in the hair protein loss extract was identified (m/z = 1279) that is unique to UV exposure and increases with time of UV exposure. We have also identified for the first time in hair the role of exogenous copper in increasing UV damage both in terms of total protein degradation and also increased formation of the marker fragment and proposed a mechanism of action. It has been demonstrated that shampoo treatment containing a chelant such as N,N'-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) reduced copper accumulation in hair. This work provides evidence for the role of copper in UV-induced damage to hair and strategies to reduce copper levels in hair using a chelant such as EDDS. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Post-flood damage data: requirements for disaster forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster forensic investigation analyses the unfolding of a disaster and attempts to identify its multiple causes of damage which can lead to (i improved disaster prevention and management from lessons learnt, and (ii more effective mitigation measures in the aftermath of a disaster. The way in which damage data are collected after a flood event as well as the types of collected data influences their usability within forensic investigations. In order to explore whether or not existing data can be used for disaster forensic analysis, the European Project IDEA (Improving Damage assessments to Enhance cost-benefit Analyses is investigating existing gaps in damage information so as to identify possible paths towards improving data quality. This paper focuses in detail on a forensic analysis of the interlinked damage to economic activities and infrastructure in the Severn floods of 2007 in the UK. Besides investigating the usability of existing data, this research investigated: (i the relative weight of direct and indirect costs to business and infrastructure companies; (ii to what extent damage to infrastructure has impacted on indirect damage to businesses. Finally recommendations for improving the data for use in forensic investigation are offered.

  12. Damage detection and health monitoring of operational structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Reese, G.

    1994-09-01

    Initial damage detection/health monitoring experiments have been performed on three different operational structures: a fracture critical bridge, a composite wind turbine blade, and an aging aircraft. An induced damage test was performed on the Rio Grande/I40 bridge before its demolition. The composite wind turbine test was fatgued to failure with periodic modal testing performed throughout the testing. The front fuselage of a DC-9 aircraft was used as the testbed for an induced damage test. These tests have yielded important insights into techniques for experimental damage detection on real structures. Additionally, the data are currently being used with current damage detection algorithms to further develop the numerical technology. State of the art testing technologies such as, high density modal testing, scanning laser vibrometry and natural excitation testing have also been utilized for these tests.

  13. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdy Al-Awaida

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT.

  14. Plasma membrane disruption: repair, prevention, adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Steinhardt, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Many metazoan cells inhabit mechanically stressful environments and, consequently, their plasma membranes are frequently disrupted. Survival requires that the cell rapidly repair or reseal the disruption. Rapid resealing is an active and complex structural modification that employs endomembrane as its primary building block, and cytoskeletal and membrane fusion proteins as its catalysts. Endomembrane is delivered to the damaged plasma membrane through exocytosis, a ubiquitous Ca2+-triggered response to disruption. Tissue and cell level architecture prevent disruptions from occurring, either by shielding cells from damaging levels of force, or, when this is not possible, by promoting safe force transmission through the plasma membrane via protein-based cables and linkages. Prevention of disruption also can be a dynamic cell or tissue level adaptation triggered when a damaging level of mechanical stress is imposed. Disease results from failure of either the preventive or resealing mechanisms.

  15. Treacher Collins syndrome TCOF1 protein cooperates with NBS1 in the DNA damage response

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccia, Alberto; Huang, Jen-Wei; Izhar, Lior; Sowa, Mathew E.; Harper, J. Wade; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) maintains genomic integrity following DNA damage to prevent cancer and developmental disorders. The DDR operates in part through controlling localization of factors to chromatin. Here, we detail an interaction between the DDR protein NBS1 and TCOF1, a nucleolar protein mutated in Treacher Collins syndrome that regulates ribosomal DNA transcription. We show that NBS1 relocalizes to nucleoli after DNA damage in a manner dependent on TCOF1 and independent on the NBS...

  16. Liver Damage Associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Ren, Jingtian; Li, Yan; Zhai, Jingbo; Mu, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Wenke; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To summarize the characteristics and analysis of relevant factors and to give references for prevention and further study of liver damage associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (HSW), we provide a systematic review of case reports and case series about liver damage associated with HSW. Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to June 2014. Case reports and case series involving liver damage associated with HSW were included. Results. This review co...

  17. Gasoline detergent additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstman, S.; Hayden, T.E.; Nalesnik, T.E.; Benfaremo, N.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a gasoline fuel composition. It comprises a major portion of a gasoline fuel and a minor amount, as a gasoline detergent additive, of a Mannich coupled product of bis-polyisobutylene succinimide of an amine, prepared by: reacting an alkenyl succinimide acid anhydride with an amine to form a bis-succinimide; treating the bis-succinimide with nonylphenol in the presence of an aldehyde to form a Mannich phenol coupled bis-succinimide product; and recovering the product Mannich phenol coupled bis-succinimide.

  18. Furfural induces reactive oxygen species accumulation and cellular damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slininger Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuels offer a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuel. However, current methods are not sufficient and the technology required in order to use lignocellulosic biomass as a fermentation substrate faces several challenges. One challenge is the need for a robust fermentative microorganism that can tolerate the inhibitors present during lignocellulosic fermentation. These inhibitors include the furan aldehyde, furfural, which is released as a byproduct of pentose dehydration during the weak acid pretreatment of lignocellulose. In order to survive in the presence of furfural, yeast cells need not only to reduce furfural to the less toxic furan methanol, but also to protect themselves and repair any damage caused by the furfural. Since furfural tolerance in yeast requires a functional pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, and the PPP is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS tolerance, we decided to investigate whether or not furfural induces ROS and its related cellular damage in yeast. Results We demonstrated that furfural induces the accumulation of ROS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, furfural was shown to cause cellular damage that is consistent with ROS accumulation in cells which includes damage to mitochondria and vacuole membranes, the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear chromatin. The furfural-induced damage is less severe when yeast are grown in a furfural concentration (25 mM that allows for eventual growth after an extended lag compared to a concentration of furfural (50 mM that prevents growth. Conclusion These data suggest that when yeast cells encounter the inhibitor furfural, they not only need to reduce furfural into furan methanol but also to protect themselves from the cellular effects of furfural and repair any damage caused. The reduced cellular damage seen at 25 mM furfural compared to 50 mM furfural may be linked to the observation that at 25 mM furfural yeast were able to exit the furfural

  19. Preventive and therapeutic effects of SkQ1-containing Visomitin eye drops against light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Yu P; Gancharova, O S; Eichler, O V; Philippov, P P; Grigoryan, E N

    2014-10-01

    The human retina is constantly affected by light of varying intensity, this being especially true for photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium. Traditionally, photoinduced damages of the retina are induced by visible light of high intensity in albino rats using the LIRD (light-induced retinal degeneration) model. This model allows study of pathological processes in the retina and the search for retinoprotectors preventing retinal photodamage. In addition, the etiology and mechanisms of retina damage in the LIRD model have much in common with the mechanisms of the development of age-related retinal disorders, in particular, with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We have studied preventive and therapeutic effects of Visomitin eye drops (based on the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1) on albino rat retinas damaged by bright light. In the first series of experiments, rats receiving Visomitin for two weeks prior to illumination demonstrated significantly less expressed atrophic and degenerative changes in the retina compared to animals receiving similar drops with no SkQ1. In the second series, the illuminated rats were treated for two weeks with Visomitin or similar drops without SkQ1. The damaged retinas of the experimental animals were repaired much more effectively than those of the control animals. Therefore, we conclude that Visomitin SkQ1-containing eye drops have pronounced preventive and therapeutic effects on the photodamaged retina and might be recommended as a photoprotector and a pharmaceutical preparation for the treatment of AMD in combination with conventional medicines.

  20. Balancing repair and tolerance of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Dragony; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Samson, Leona D.

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents constitute a major class of frontline chemotherapeutic drugs that inflict cytotoxic DNA damage as their main mode of action, in addition to collateral mutagenic damage. Numerous cellular pathways, including direct DNA damage reversal, base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR), respond to alkylation damage to defend against alkylation-induced cell death or mutation. However, maintaining a proper balance of activity both within and between these pathways is crucial ...