Genza Musoke Gyaviira
Full Text Available The study examines teachers' business initiatives within school (intrapreneurial ventures and highlights the economic and educational importance of these initiatives. It first unveils the prevalence of different intrapreneurial ventures among teachers, before going on to state the meaning of these practices for both the economic and professional welfare of teachers in particular, and schools in general. The study concludes with several conclusions for the development of education on the African continent.
Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush
Chepang communities are one of the most deprived ethnic communities in Nepal. According to the National Pathfinder Survey, dental caries is a highly prevalent childhood disease in Nepal. There is no data concerning the prevalence of caries along with knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices among Chepang schoolchildren. The objectives of this study were to 1) record the prevalence of dental caries 2) report experience of dental pain 3) evaluate knowledge, attitude and preventive practices on oral health of primary Chepang schoolchildren. A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 5 government Primary schools of remote Chandibhanjyang Village Development Committee (VDC) in Chitwan district. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Board within the Research Department of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Tribhuvan University. Consent was obtained from parents for conducting clinical examination and administrating questionnaire. Permission was taken from the school principal in all schools. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire on 131 schoolchildren aged 8-16-year- olds attending Grade 3-5. Clinical examination was conducted on 361 school children aged 5-16 -year-olds attending grade 1-5. Criteria set by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis. The questionnaires, originally constructed in English and translated into Nepali were administered to the schoolchildren by the researchers. SPSS 11software was used for data analysis. Caries prevalence for 5-6 -year-old was above the goals recommended by WHO and Federation of Dentistry international (FDI) of less than 50% caries free children. Caries prevalence in 5-6-year-olds was 52% and 12-13-year-olds was 41%. The mean dmft/DMFT score of 5-6 -year-olds and 12 -13-year -olds was 1.59, 0.31 and 0.52, 0.84 respectively. The DMFT scores increased with age and the d/D component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. About 31% of 8-16-year
Banavaram Anniappan Arvind
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum among school children in the above mentioned area. Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted on school children of 1st to 7th standard in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Children were examined for dental fluorosis and genu valgum. Drinking water samples were also tested for fluoride levels. Proportion of children with dental fluorosis and genu valgum were calculated by severity, age and sex. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Chisquare test or Mc Nemar test. Results: Of the 1 544 children examined 42.1% and 8.4% had dental fluorosis and genu valgum respectively. Prevalence of very mild dental fluorosis and moderate grade genu valgum were high compared to other categories. Prevalence rates increased with the age (P<0.05 and was more among girls (45.2% as compared to boys (39.1% (P<0.05. Of the 26 water samples analysed, 18 samples (69.2% revealed the fluoride content above the permissible limit. Conclusions: Findings of the present study reveal a high prevalence of dental fluorosis and genu valgum amongst school children and high fluoride level in the water. Further studies are needed to evaluate the other risk factors and reasons for gender differences.
There are many schools in developing countries which, despite the challenges they face, defy the odds and continue to perform at exceptionally high levels. We cast our gaze on one of these resilient schools in South Africa, and sought to learn about the leadership practices prevalent in this school and the enablements and ...
Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and prevalence of bullying in primary schools. We hypothesize that school conditions (e.g., size), school policies (e.g., behaviour policies), and school processes (e.g., teaching quality) are related to bullying prevalence. Surveys were administered to pupils in 35 primary schools in four local authorities in England. Pupils (N = 1,411) and teachers (N = 68) in the final year of primary school (year 6) were surveyed. This study drew on the following data sources: A pupil survey on bullying behaviours A survey of teachers on school policies and processes Analysis of data on school processes from school inspection reports Analysis of secondary data on school conditions and pupil characteristics. Three-level multilevel models were used to analyse the data. Results show a substantial school- and classroom-level effect on prevalence of bullying. Effective school policies were found to be related to levels of bullying. The study provides support for the importance of schools' embedded policies and practices in relation to bullying prevalence and provides evidence for policy on the importance of focusing on a broad range of outcomes. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Dental health awareness, attitude, and dental health-care seeking practices as risk indicators for the prevalence of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old school children in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India.
Das, Uma Mohan; Vadakkekuttical, Rosamma Joseph; Kanakkath, Harikumar; Shankunni, Smitha Pathiyari
Periodontal disease prevalence in children is an indicator of future disease burden in the adult population. Knowledge about the prevalence and risk status of periodontal disease in children can prove instrumental in the initiation of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures. This school-based cross-sectional survey estimated the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old children in Kozhikode district and assessed the risk factors. Multistage stratified random sampling and randomized cluster sampling were used in the selection of schools and study participants, respectively, in three educational districts of Kozhikode. Periodontal disease was assessed among 2000 school children aged 15-17 years, by community periodontal index. A content validated questionnaire was used to evaluate the sociodemographic characteristics and other risk factors. The prevalence of periodontal disease was estimated as 75% (72% gingivitis and 3% mild periodontitis). The prevalence was higher in urban population ( P = 0.049) and males had significantly ( P = 0.001) higher prevalence. Lower socioeconomic strata experienced slightly more periodontal disease burden. Satisfactory oral hygiene practices (material and frequency) were observed, but oral hygiene techniques were erroneous. Unhealthy dental treatment-seeking practices and unfavorable attitude toward dental treatment (ATDT) significantly influenced periodontal health status. Overall awareness about dental treatment was poor in this study population. The prevalence of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old school children in Kozhikode district is 75% and is influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Other risk factors identified were unhealthy dental treatment-seeking practices and unfavorable ATDT. Implementation of well-formulated oral health education programs is thus mandatory.
Miller, Stephen; Pike, James; Chapman, Jared; Xie, Bin; Hilton, Brian N.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.
This study examines the point-of-sale marketing practices used to promote electronic cigarettes at stores near schools that serve at-risk youths. One hundred stores selling tobacco products within a half-mile of alternative high schools in Southern California were assessed for this study. Seventy percent of stores in the sample sold electronic…
Mason, E. C. M.; McMahon, H. George
Leadership is a vital skill called for by the school counseling profession. However, limited research has been done to examine how leadership is characterized by practicing school counselors. The purpose of the exploratory study in this article was to assess leadership practices of school counselors, and to analyze the relationships among…
Background: Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship. Aims: The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and…
Cullen, W; Kearney, Y; Bury, G
Fatigue is an important symptom in general practice due to its association with physical, psychological and social problems. To determine the prevalence of fatigue as an unsolicited symptom during general practice consultations. A random sample of GPs practising in Ireland was invited to provide data on consultations held over one day. Data were recorded on the presence of fatigue as a main or supporting symptom, social and demographic characteristics. Data were recorded by 89 GPs on 1,428 consultations. The prevalence of fatigue was 25%. It was the main reason for attending the doctor in 6.5% and a secondary reason in 19%. Sixty-two per cent of patients were female and 48% were eligible for free GP services. The mean age was 47.1 years. The presence of fatigue was associated with: attending a female GP, being female, attending a GP who had been qualified for fewer years and attending the GP frequently. The prevalence of fatigue reported in this study is over three times higher than that reported in earlier work. Doctor characteristics appear to be as important as patient characteristics in determining fatigue.
Full Text Available Objectives: One of the issues that have consistently been the concern for the health affair specialists and cure and massive social governors in health fields is the rate of disorders prevalence, diseases and the related subjects to epidemiology. Purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mathematic disability amongst primary schools of Karaj. Methods: Totally 432 students were selected with multi-stage sampling method. Participants completed Raven test, Frostig Visual-Perception test and Wepman Auditory discrimination test, Rutter behavioral questionnaire and Iran Key-math test. In order to diagnosis mathematic disability, inter criterion was normal quotient intelligence and out criteria were to have one of visual perception, auditory and behavioral problems. The participants whose total standard scores in Iran Key-math test were one standard deviation below the mean were selected as a mathematical disability (MD. Results: The mathematic disability prevalence in primary students was estimated 0.46%. In addition, proportion of mathematic disability prevalence was not function of gender or grade. Discussion: The findings demonstrated that the prevalence of mathematic disability is much less than the previous researches. A possible explanation was that inappropriate screening co morbid disorders with the mathematic disability. The theoretical implications of findings are discussed in detail.
Brown, Denise M
What is the prevalence of central kitchens that use either cook-chill or cook-freeze production systems in school foodservice settings? A descriptive study using a 5-minute telephone survey during normal working hours was conducted. Questions were designed to be easily answered with minimal need to reference other documentation. Five hundred forty school foodservice directors, managers, and supervisors working in school districts of all sizes across the United States were randomly sampled from a national commercial directory of school districts for the study. A total of 353 individuals completed the survey representing 49 of 50 states. Means, standard deviations, and percentages were evaluated for all data collected. Descriptive statistics of school district characteristics, prevalence of production systems, food transport systems, inventory methods and equipment used for reheating food are reported. The most frequently reported production system was on-site kitchens (45.3%) followed by combination production systems (40.5%) where a central kitchen delivered to a number of satellite locations in addition to schools with on-site food preparation. Central kitchens without additional on-site kitchens represented 14.2% of this study. Of those school districts using either central kitchens or combination production systems, 78% reported hot-food preparation using hot-food delivery to satellites. Cook-chill or cook-freeze production systems were reported by 22% of respondents. The high proportion of school districts that prepared and delivered foods hot to satellite sites supports continuing efforts to identify food safety practices and issues related to maintaining food quality in schools.
Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.
All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.
Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.
All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Jun 1, 2015 ... Teenagers (10-19yrs) had the highest malaria prevalence rate and were followed by ... Keywords: Cluster sampling, Malaria, Prevalence, Knowledge, Practices, ... annual rainfall and humidity were relatively .... Alcohol/ Don't.
Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio
According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.
Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine
Purpose: The health-promoting schools (HPSs) framework has emerged as a promising model for promoting school connectedness in the school setting. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential for food practices to promote school connectedness within a HPSs framework. Design/methodology/approach: This study explores food practices within a…
Eddings, Geoffrey Creighton
This study examined the perceptions of school counselors regarding administrative supervision practices in K-12 public schools in South Carolina. Specifically, the goal was to gain insight into how school counselors view current building-level supervision practices in relation to Pajak's Twelve Dimensions of Supervisory Practice, as well as how…
Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.
Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)
Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie
Full Text Available Entrepreneurial leadership, as a distinctive type of leadership required for dealing with challenges and crises of current organizational settings, has increasingly been applied to improve school performance. However, there is limited research on the impact ofschool leaders' entrepreneurial leadership practices on school innovativeness. The main purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between principals' entrepreneurial leadership practices and school innovativeness through the teachers' perspectives. The participants included 294 Malaysian secondary school teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. A questionnaire containing 64 items (50 items on school principals' entrepreneurial leadership practices and 14 items on school innovativeness was utilized. An analysis of the data indicates that teachers perceive entrepreneurial leadership as highly important for school principals. However, the principals practise it moderately. Furthermore, this study found a significant correlation between teachers' perceptions of school principals' entrepreneurial leadership practices and school in-novativeness. Implications of the findings for developing school principals' entrepreneurial leadership and school innovativeness are discussed.
Everett Jones, Sherry; Guy, Gery P
Exposure to the sun's UV radiation is a leading cause of skin cancer. Positive attitudes and beliefs about sun safety behavior, which would make sun protective behavior more likely, could be promoted and supported by school policies and practices. To identify school characteristics associated with having adopted practices that promote sun safety. School-level data from the February 3 to July 23, 2014, School Health Policies and Practices Study's Healthy and Safe School Environment questionnaire were analyzed. The School Health Policies and Practices Study uses a 2-stage sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of schools. All public, state-administered, Catholic, and non-Catholic private schools with any of the grades from kindergarten through 12 were eligible for inclusion. All analyses were conducted using weighted data. Prevalence of sun safety practices. In a nationally representative sample of 828 US schools, representatives of 577 schools (69.7%) responded. Overall, sun safety practices were not common among schools. The most frequent practice was having teachers allow time for students to apply sunscreen at school (47.6%; 95% CI, 42.4%-52.9%). Few schools made sunscreen available for students to use (13.3%; 95% CI, 10.2%-17.0%), almost always or always scheduled outdoor activities to avoid times when the sun was at peak intensity (15.0%; 95% CI, 11.4%-19.6%), or asked parents to ensure that students applied sunscreen before school (16.4%; 95% CI, 12.9%-20.6%). High schools were less likely than elementary schools and middle schools to adopt several practices: for instance, 37.5% of high schools (95% CI, 29.7%-46.0%), 51.6% of middle schools (95% CI, 43.3%-59.7%), and 49.5% of elementary schools (95% CI, 42.0%-57.0%) had teachers allow time for students to apply sunscreen at school, and 11.8% of high schools (95% CI, 7.7%-17.5%), 18.2% of middle schools (95% CI, 13.3%-24.4%), and 14.7% of elementary schools (95% CI, 9.6%-21.8%) almost
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208. Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.
Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Garbin, Artênio José Insper; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba
Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611)]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.
Prevalence of iodine deficiency among school children and access to iodized salt in Zambia. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... It was carried out in 2011 and entailed determining the urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among 1, 283 school children from 30 selected schools and the amount ...
Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg
Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Stephen; Kumari, Roshni
This article investigates conceptually and practically what it means for schools to engage in the practice of continuous improvement. The analysis draws upon prior research and discussion to predict core elements of the practice of continuous improvement in schools. The predictions are then applied to a case study of continuous improvement efforts…
entrepreneurial leadership practices on school innovativeness. The main purpose ... a supportive environment for change and innovation at schools (Park, 2012). There are ..... International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3):1-43. Available at ...
No significant gender difference in prevalence between boys. (67.8%) ... species were identified in DRSTP school children, of which 9 species were pathogenic and the remaining 3 were ... with lower scores on tests of mental performance and.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport.
Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST) were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport. PMID:21812976
Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C
The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy (Castellam...... as a screening question in order to detect alcohol problems and give advice regarding reduction of alcohol consumption....
Delkamiller, Julie; Swain, Kristine; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Ritzman, Mitzi J.
Inkliuzinis praktikos nagrinėjimas Nikaragvos mokyklose. The purpose of this study was to examine Nicaraguan teachers’ efficacy for inclusive practices and current teaching practices in Nicaraguan schools as the first step in developing a special education training program. Sixty-one teachers in 15 schools completed the Teacher Efficacy of Inclusive Practice (TEIP) survey to determine their confidence in inclusive practices, collaboration and dealing with disruptive behaviors. Classroom ob...
Nov 3, 2011 ... Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Power to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among school children. This study is conducted as sub-study to the main study; the objective of which was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis, and related factors such as risk ...
Background: Asthma prevalence is high (>10%) in developed countries and although data is still missing for most of Africa, rates are increasing in developing regions as they become more westernized. We investigated the prevalence of asthma in school children in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: This was a cross sectional ...
This study was undertaken among school children in 5 communities in the lower Volta Basin in South eastern Ghana to assess sex prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the children. Results obtained showed that the disease prevalence was higher among the female pupils (64%) than their male counterparts ...
Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa
Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…
Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural area close to the southeast of Lake Langano, Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Methods: In April 2003, fresh stool samples were collected from 259 students enrolled in two primary schools located in southeast of Lake Langano.
Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana
Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…
Akmaliah, Zaidatol; Pihie, Lope; Asimiran, Soaib; Bagheri, Afsaneh
Entrepreneurial leadership, as a distinctive type of leadership required for dealing with challenges and crises of current organizational settings, has increasingly been applied to improve school performance. However, there is limited research on the impact of school leaders' entrepreneurial leadership practices on school innovativeness. The main…
Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…
Moore, Edward H.
Advances in communication technology have created many new tools for school communicators--as well as increasing complexities for their programs. As a result, solid school communication research programs offering practical research insights for planning, tracking, and assessing school communication efforts are more important than ever. Still, many…
Entrepreneurial leadership, as a distinctive type of leadership required for dealing with challenges and crises of current organizational settings, has increasingly been applied to improve school performance. However, there is limited research on the impact of school leaders' entrepreneurial leadership practices on school ...
James, Chris; Phillips, Peter
Summarizes a study using a service marketing-mix model (promoting product, place, price, promotion, people, processes, and proof) to document educational marketing practices in 11 public and private British schools. The schools visited evinced a general lack of coherent marketing practice. Administrators had little management training in…
Rodríguez, Ana Carolina Reyes; Noriega, José Angel Vera; Cuervo, Angel Alberto Valdés
Research in recent years indicates that schools, and in particular teaching practices, play an essential role in preventing bullying. This study's aim is to investigate the direct and indirect relationships between permissive and direct intervention teacher practices, school support and bullying. In a non-probabilistic way, 386 (58.1%) boys and…
Klug, Joseph H.
Teachers who engage in reflective practice are more effective and may encourage higher student achievement. The purpose of this study is to explore and describe the methods that teachers use in order to engage in reflective practice. Further, it is essential to gain an understanding of how schools, including Jesuit high schools, promote reflective…
One of the prevalent concerns in educational leadership practices in urban schools in the United States relates to diversity issues, especially the disengagement among students of certain ethnic groups with regard to succeeding in school. In this ethnographic study, educators who once served in U.S. public schools were invited to reflect on this…
Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F.; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y.; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S.
Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of this study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (location, racial/ethnic composition and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility [FRPL]) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) data were used for school characteristics (n = 505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included: 1) the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, 2) strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and 3) restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores [prevalence difference (PD)=13.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) -25.0,-2.3], and less likely to sell sports drinks (PD= -36.3, 95% CI: -51.8, -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD=17.7, 95% CI: 5.5, 29.9) and on school grounds (PD=15.6, 95% CI: 1.7, 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012 the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the impact of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. PMID:25441964
... DM and in one subject with sickle cell anemia. Conclusion: The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Nigerian adolescents is high. We recommend routine screening for microalbuminuria in adolescents for early detection and prevention of renal damage. Key words: microalbuminuria, obesity, hypertension, children, Nigeria ...
the study area. Keywords: Prevalence, Schistosomiasis, Boarding students, Potiskum, North-Eastern Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Schistosomiasis is the most common parasite transmitted through contact with fresh water. It is endemic in more than 70 low income countries where it occurs in rural areas and the fringes of cities.
Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E
To describe prevalence of anisometropia, defined in terms of both sphere and cylinder, examined cross-sectionally, in school-aged members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Cycloplegic autorefraction measurements, confirmed by retinoscopy and, when possible, by subjective refraction were obtained from 1041 Tohono O'odham children, 4 to 13 years of age. Astigmatism > or =1.00 diopter (D) was present in one or both eyes of 462 children (44.4%). Anisometropia > or =1.00 D spherical equivalent (SE) was found in 70 children (6.7%), and anisometropia > or =1.00 D cylinder was found in 156 children (15.0%). Prevalence of anisometropia did not vary significantly with age or gender. Overall prevalence of significant anisometropia was 18.1% for a difference between eyes > or =1.00 D SE or cylinder. Vector analysis of between-eye differences showed a prevalence of significant anisometropia of 25.3% for one type of vector notation (difference between eyes > or =1.00 D for M and/or > or =0.50 D for J0 or J45), and 16.2% for a second type of vector notation (between-eye vector dioptric difference > or =1.41). Prevalence of SE anisometropia is similar to that reported for other school-aged populations. However, prevalence of astigmatic anisometropia is higher than that reported for other school-aged populations.
Grossman, D C; Rauh, M J; Rivara, F P
To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment in Washington State and the factors associated with its use in Washington elementary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional mail survey performed during the summer of 1992. All elementary and secondary schools in the state of Washington. One thousand eighteen schools (47%) responded to the survey, of which 80% were publicly funded and 63% were located in urban areas. The study sample closely resembled the profile of all schools in the state. Almost 11% of participating schools permitted corporal punishment at the time of the survey and 3.2% reported its actual use during the 1991-1992 school year, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 7.2 incidents per 1000 students per year. Sixteen percent of corporal punishment actions occurred in schools not permitting its use. Ninety percent of public schools relied on district policy regarding corporal punishment. School characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment included rural location (crude odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4), enrollment of less than 500 students (crude odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7), and kindergarten to eighth-grade or kindergarten to 12th-grade enrollment (crude odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). The lack of a statewide ban on school corporal punishment at the time of this survey was associated with the continued use of corporal punishment against children in districts that continued to permit it. School policies against corporal punishment were associated with much lower prevalence. Continued efforts are needed to enact and enforce laws in the remaining states that have not yet banned corporal punishment.
Matos, Armanda P. M.; Vieira, Cristina C.; Amado, João; Pessoa, Teresa; Martins, Maria José D.
This study examined the extent and nature of cyberbullying in 23 Portuguese schools. A sample of 3,525 sixth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade students completed a self-response questionnaire assessing their perceptions and experiences of cyberbullying. The findings showed that 7.6% of students have been victimized, and 3.9% have bullied others at…
Lovato, Chris Y; Hsu, Helen C H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Hadd, Valerie; Nykiforuk, Candace I J
Point of Purchase (PoP) promotional and advertising activities are a sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. This study describes tobacco PoP activities in school neighbourhoods and compares PoP activities in retail stores between schools with high and low smoking prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 randomly selected schools across five provinces. Students in grades 10-11 completed a questionnaire on smoking. Observations were made in all retail stores located within a one-kilometre radius around the school. ANOVA tests were used to detect differences on PoP variables between high (> 20.6%) and low ( 2 days in the last 30 days. Approximately half of retail stores in each school neighbourhood exhibited tobacco PoP activities. Average school smoking prevalence was 20.99%. There were significant main effects on PoP variables between schools with high and low smoking prevalence, Wilk's lambda = 0.81, F (6,74) = 2.89, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.19. Stores near schools with high smoking prevalence had significantly lower prices per cigarette (F (1,79) = 15.34, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.16), more in-store promotions (F (1,79) = 6.73, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.08), and fewer government-sponsored health warnings (F (1,79) = 6.26, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.07) compared to schools with low smoking prevalence. Higher levels of PoP activities in stores located in the school neighbourhood are related to school smoking prevalence. Schools with low smoking prevalence had more stores that posted government health warning signs and higher cigarette prices. Legislation regulating PoP activities and health warnings in school neighbourhoods should be considered.
N.A.M.C. Goossens (Nicole)
markdownabstractThe aim of this thesis was to investigate whether particular memory strategies stemming from cognitive and educational psychology, enhance primary school vocabulary learning. Th e memory strategies investigated in this thesis were distributed practice and retrieval practice. Th e
Rutledge, Stacey A.; Cannata, Marisa
The authors report on a yearlong investigation into similar schools that performed well and less well in the same district. They found that the higher-performing schools engaged in an intentional set of systemic practices that encourage Personalization for Academic and Social Learning (PASL) in one district and integrated structures of academic…
Clark, Mary Kristen; Flynn, Perry
Purpose: We reflect on Alan Kamhi's (2011) prologue on balancing certainty and uncertainty as it pertains to school-based practice. Method: In schools, rational thinking depends on effective team processes, much like professional learning communities. We consider the conditions that are required for rational thinking and how rational team dialogue…
Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Saad
This is a research study conducted on 17 teachers who teach English in Saudi international schools. It mainly aims at exploring teaching practices in these schools in terms of the principles of communicative language teaching (CLT). It also investigates the appropriateness of CLT in this context from the point of view of teachers. Two research…
Culbreth, John R.; Scarborough, Janna L.; Banks-Johnson, Angela; Solomon, Stacey
Practicing school counselors (N = 512) were surveyed, using the Role Questionnaire (J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, & S. I. Lirtzman, 1970), to determine levels of role conflict, role incongruence, and role ambiguity. Additionally, 8 characteristics of the participants' positions as school counselors were examined to determine what factors might affect…
The overall aim of this project was to empirically explore and critically analyze the social phenomenon of sexual harassment in schools, its prevalence, structure and perceptions. Data were collected from a random sample of high-school students, horn in 1983, from all regions of Sweden, in a self-report mail survey administered in the spring of 2 001. Five hundred and forty girls and 440 boys participated. The questionnaire addressed personal experiences and perceptions ...
Kshirsagar, V Y; Agarwal, Rajiv; Bavdekar, Sandeep B
To estimate the prevalence of bullying in school children and to examine its association with common symptoms in childhood. Prospective survey using a pre-tested questionnaire for conducting a semi structured health interview. Randomly selected Public and private schools in a rural area. Children aged 8-12 years studying in three schools and their parents. Bullying was reported by 157 (31.4%) of the 500 children interviewed. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of bullying amongst boys and girls in co-education schools. However, it was significantly low in schools enrolling girls alone. Teasing and keeping names were the commonest forms noticed. Causing physical hurt was reported bv 25 (16%) students. Only 24 (24%) parents were aware that their children were being bullied. Feeling sad, preferring to stay alone and frequent tearing of clothes were almost exclusively noted in bullied children and bullied children were more likely to report symptoms such as school phobia, vomiting and sleep disturbances. Bullying is a common phenomenon amongst school going children. Frequent bullying is associated with certain symptoms and school absenteeism. Healthcare professionals. should be aware of this phenmnenon so that they can diagnose the underlying cause when these symptoms are reported and plan for appropriate interventions.
Poulsen, Erik; Christensen, Henrik W; Overgaard, Søren
The purposes of this study were to measure the prevalence of clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA) and first-time diagnosis of hip OA in consecutive patients presenting to chiropractic practices in Denmark and to report the components of the initial treatment rendered...
Hoogenveen, Rudolf; Westert, Gert; Dijkgraaf, Marcel; Schellevis, François; de Bakker, Dinny
This paper describes how to estimate the prevalence of chronic diseases in a population using data from contact registrations in general practice with a limited time length. Instead of using only total numbers of observed patients adjusted for the length of the observation period, we propose the use
Shrestha, A; Narayan, K C; Sharma, R
This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among school-going children of the Baglung municipality from December 2010 to January 2011. To find out prevalence of parasitosis among school aged children and to make necessary recommendations for preventive measures. A total of 260 stool samples were collected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on predisposing factors. Nails were observed without prior information to the subjects so as to find their hygienic practice. The stool samples were examined by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration technique. The total prevalence of the intestinal parasitosis was found to be 21.05%. The prevalence for individual parasites was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (9.23%), Giardia lamblia (5.76%), Trichuris trichuria (5%), Ancylostoma duodenale (2.65%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (2.3%). Nail hygiene and level of education were significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. The gender and age of the children, sanitary habits including toilet use, hand washing practice, and the use of the antihelminthic drug (albendazole) were not significantly associated with intestinal parasitosis. Higher prevalence was seen in boys, children belonging to age group 10-14 years, lower secondary students, among those who reported gastrointestinal problems within last six months, children from agriculture-based families and children with untrimmed nail. Major contributors for the prevalence of parasites were found to be poor personal hygiene and educational level of the children. Health education and mass treatment are recommended as a preventive measures.
Jan 1, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the prevalence of RHD among primary school pupils in Egor ... Results: Of the 1764 pupils recruited, 900 (51.02%) were females while 864 (48.98%) were males. The mean age of the pupils was 8.86 ± 2.14 years. ..... of socio-economic class in voluntary infertility control.
Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 922 school children, consisting of 463 (50.2%) males and 459 (49.8%) females were studied. The response rate was 82.2%. The overall prevalence of enuresis was 23.2%. Enuresis was notably more common in boys (male: female ratio ...
Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...
Background: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the ...
The objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitosis among school children in four woredas of Jimma zone surrounding Gilgel gibe hydraulic dam and serve as a base line data to help evaluate health promoting activities for the future and monitor those already delivered to the ...
Mar 14, 2013 ... but growing problem globally. Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South ...
Among school children, uncorrected refractive errors have a considerable impact on their participation and learning in class. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of refractive error among students in the Ejisu-Juabeng Municipality of Ghana. A survey with multi-stage sampling was undertaken. We interviewed ...
Brouwer, Patricia; Brekelmans, Mieke; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Simons, Robert-Jan
Purpose: The first aim of this study is to explore to what extent communities of practice occur in the school workplace. The second aim is to explore the relation between communities of practice and diversity in composition of teacher teams. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative as well as qualitative data were gathered from seven teacher…
Brouwer, Patricia; Brekelmans, Mieke; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Simons, Robert-Jan
Purpose – The first aim of this study is to explore to what extent communities of practice occur in the school workplace. The second aim is to explore the relation between communities of practice and diversity in composition of teacher teams. Design/methodology/approach – Quantitative as well as
Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen
This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.
Ingle, Navin Anand; Dubey, Harsh Vardhan; Kaur, Navpreet; Gupta, Rahul
Healthy teeth and oral tissues and the need for oral health care are important for any section of society. Dental caries is an infectious microbial disease of multifactorial origin in which diet, host, and microbial flora interacts over a period of time in such a way so as to encourage demineralization of the tooth enamel with resultant caries formation. Dental caries, the product of man's progress towards civilization, has a very high morbidity potential and thus, is coming into focus of the mankind. To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 year old government and private school children of Bharatpur city. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on total 1400 school children, of which 700 school children were from government schools and 700 were from private schools. Simple random sampling methodology was used to select the sample. The subjects were examined for dental caries according to WHO 1997 assessment form. Significant Caries Index was also used to assess the prevalence of dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was found higher among government school children, that is, 53%, when compared to private school children, that is, 47% and this difference was found to be statistically significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth were found to be higher in government school children (7.61 ± 2.86) as compared to private school children (4.76 ± 2.42). Dental caries was found to be the major public health problems among both the government and private school children of Bharatpur city, which need immediate attention. Regular dental checkups and practice of routine oral hygiene procedures will enable them to lead a healthier life.
Practices in the treatment of infections like the use of herbal soap (31.5%), brake oil (4.2%), Baby oil (3.9%), chicken's egg (2.7%) were reported by respondents. Poor personal hygiene and housing conditions are contributing factors to skin infections in the study area. Early introduction of health education in schools would ...
Papanderaki, Chara; Potari, Despina; Skott, Jeppe
Still more studies interpret the teacher’s role for classroom practice in participatory terms and deemphasise knowledge and beliefs understood as objectified constructs. We also do so in a study of a Greek secondary teacher. In an instructional sequence on functions she initially emphasises...... conceptual issues and student communication, but gradually changes the approach. We see this as a result of an emerging relationship stemming from the tensions between the immediate interactions and her participation in two discourses, one mathematical and one educational. This interpretation of the sequence...... is in contrast to viewing it as e.g. one of increasing incongruity between beliefs and practice. We conclude that there is some potential in the participatory approach to understanding the role of the teacher for classroom practice....
Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.
Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…
Ali Reza Zolfaghari
Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.
Bastos, José Alexandre; Cecato, Angela Maria Traldi; Martins, Marielza Regina Ismael; Grecca, Kelly Regina Risso; Pierini, Rafael
The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8%) children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD), 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.
José Alexandre Bastos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of the study was to assess public school children at the end of the first stage of elementary school. We used a protocol applied concurrently with a writing test in the form of an unexpected activity in 28 public schools; 2,893 children assessed, 687 exhibited performance below 58 points, 184 were excluded due to change of address or lack of consent; 503 children subjected to a test of intellectual capacity and reading assessment and 71 considered intellectually disabled were excluded. 226 (7.8% children, who could read, write, and had normal intellectual level, met the criteria of developmental dyscalculia (DD, 98 female and 128 male. The most influential factors in the prevalence were socioeconomic levels of the schools neighborhood, education level of parents, and being male, as demonstrated by the odds ratio and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further studies should be done so that educational policies are taken.
Opdenakker, M.C.; van Damme, J
This study examined effects of school context, student composition and school leadership on school practice and outcomes in secondary education in Flanders. The study reveals that relations between school characteristics do exist and that it is possible to explain an important part of the
Luz María Esperanza Alegría-Rivas
Full Text Available In this article, result of research from ethnography for peace, we reflect on the manifestations of violence in the educational practices in School Education in the State of Mexico which may be determining the school leaving. The purpose of this research is based on the idea that teachers can give a full sense of their teaching practices, opening spaces where teachers analyze whether there are demonstrations of violence in their teaching practice, and amend them to practice peace, which could positively influence learning processes of students with low valuations and thus reduce dropouts. Methodologically starts from ethnography to peace around context and manifestations of violence that occur in the classroom between teacher-student.
Full Text Available Larval source management has contributed to malaria decline over the past years. However, little is known about the impact of larval control practices undertaken at the household level on malaria transmission.The study was conducted in Kaya health district after the 2010 mass distribution of insecticide treated-nets and the initiation of malaria awareness campaigns in Burkina Faso. The aim was to (i estimate the level of domestic larval control practices (cleaning of the house and its surroundings, eradication of larval sources, and elimination of hollow objects that might collect water; (ii identify key determinants; and (iii explore the structural relationships between these practices, participation in awareness-raising activities and mothers' knowledge/attitudes/practices, and malaria prevalence among under-five children.Overall, 2004 households were surveyed and 1,705 under-five children were examined. Half of the mothers undertook at least one action to control larval proliferation. Mothers who had gone to school had better knowledge about malaria and were more likely to undertake domestic larval control practices. Living in highly exposed rural areas significantly decreased the odds of undertaking larval control actions. Mothers' participation in malaria information sessions increased the adoption of vector control actions and bednet use. Malaria prevalence was statistically lower among children in households where mothers had undertaken at least one vector control action or used bed-nets. There was a 0.16 standard deviation decrease in malaria prevalence for every standard deviation increase in vector control practices. The effect of bednet use on malaria prevalence was of the same magnitude.Cleaning the house and its surroundings, eradicating breeding sites, and eliminating hollow objects that might collect water play a substantial role in preventing malaria among under-five. There is a need for national malaria control programs to
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of steal...
GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba; ZINA, Lívia Guimarães; GARBIN, Artênio José Insper; MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba
OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic...
Full Text Available Adolescent smoking is an emerging health concern in the developing countries. A cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence and smoking behaviour of adolescents in Sarawak. The prevalence of smoking is 32.8% with mean age of initiation at 12.8±1.9 years. Most (67.2% adolescents are experimental smokers and the majority (67.9% did not smoke on adaily basis. Branded cigarettes are preferred (83.1% and the cigarettes are obtained either from friends (49.1% or selfpurchased (43.6%. Students prefer to smoke at their friend’s house (31.0% or at school (25.3%. Smoking prevalence among adolescents in Sarawak is high and begins early. Early intervention on smoking prevention and risk awareness is perhaps more effective if initiated before the age of 12 years.
Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Wolfson, Amy R.; El-Sheikh, Mona
Much contemporary research has demonstrated the multiple ways that sleep is important for child and adolescent development. This article reviews that research with an emphasis on how sleep parameters are related to school adjustment and achievement. Five areas of sleep research are reviewed to discern implications for practice with children using…
The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…
Rivers Patrick A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.
Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A
In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but
Full Text Available Research Question: What influence does diet and physical activity have on the occurence of overweight and obesity in school aged children? Objectives: To study the diet and physical activity factors influencing overweight and obesity in school aged children. Study Design: Cross sectional Study. Settings: Field Practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut. Participants: 400 children between 5-14 years age group Statistical Analysis: Chi Square Test Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children was 9.8% and 3.7% respectively. Among dietary factors, a significant association was seen in the prevalence of overweight and obesity with consumption of >3 meals per day(P<0.001, habit of eating in between meals(P<0.05 and in having dinner as the heaviest meal of the day (P<0.02. Among physical activity factors, a significant association was seen in the prevalence of overweight and obesity with the habit of not playing outdoor games (P<0.001, not participating in household activities(P<0.001, using some vehicular transport to go to school (P<0.001 and watching T.V. for more than 3hrs/day(P<0.001.Conclusion:Diet and Physical activity have an influence on occurrence of overweight and obesity in school aged children. Dietary and lifestyle modification must be advised to children to prevent occurrence of overweight and obesity in them.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a universal health problem with involving the people globally of all regions and society. The agonising fact is that despite several efforts towards total eradication, dental caries is still prevalent. As the prevalence of dental caries is very high among school children and there is a paucity of such data in Coimbatore and the literature review does not reveal many such studies from this area, the study was conducted in the school going children in Sulur. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. A health screening camp was conducted for the students in private school, Sulur, February 20-25, 2017, by a team of doctors from PSG UHTC. A total of 1945 students were screened. The students health details have been entered in their health card and those requiring further evaluation have been counseled and the nursing staff at school has been requested to facilitate and guide for followup. All the students were screened visually using torch with the help of mouth mirror and probe and the observation recorded. All the students who were present in school during 20th to 25th were screened and considered as the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria were the absentees during this period. The students were made to sit in an ordinary chair in broad daylight facing away from the sunlight and examined in their school. Data were compiled in an excel worksheet and the percentage calculated. RESULTS A total of 1945 students were screened, of which, 541 students were found to have dental problems that is about 28% of the total screening done. The percentage of dental caries were found to be higher compared to other dental diseases like deep caries, malalignment, malocclusion and calculus. The percentage of dental caries was found to be higher in the females about 78% than the male for whom it was about 72%. The percentage of deep
White, Martha V; Silvia, Suyapa; Muniz, Rafael; Herrem, Christopher; Hogue, Susan L
Prevention and management of anaphylaxis in schools is an area of active interest as allergy and asthma rates in children continue to increase. A greater understanding of the prevalence and characteristics of anaphylaxis can help guide preventive and management strategies both within and outside of the school setting, with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to elucidate the epidemiology of and management strategies for anaphylaxis in the school setting. A cross-sectional, Web-based survey was administered to schools that participated in an initiative that provides stock epinephrine autoinjectors (EAIs) to qualifying U.S. schools. Representatives from participating schools completed a questionnaire regarding anaphylactic reactions that occurred during the 2014-2015 school year. Weighted analyses were performed to account for differential responses between schools that completed the survey and those that did not. A total of 12,275 of the 45,819 invited schools responded to the survey. The occurrence of one or more anaphylactic events was reported by 1358 schools. Most events (89.8% [1803/2008]) occurred in students. High school students accounted for the largest proportion of anaphylactic reactions among students (40.1% [723/1802]). Food was the most commonly identified anaphylaxis trigger across grade levels, seasons, and geographic regions. The trigger was unknown to the individual who experienced anaphylaxis in 21.8% of the events (436/1998). No known history of allergy or asthma was present in 24.5% (491/2001) and 51.3% (1026/2000) of affected individuals, respectively. Transportation to the hospital or clinic for further treatment and/or management was reported for 72.6% of the individuals with anaphylactic events (1450/1997). Results from the weighted analyses were similar to those of the unweighted analyses. Anaphylaxis occurred across grade levels and in individuals with or without known risk factors, which reinforced the
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo
School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying are 26.10%, 9.03% and 28.90%, respectively. Primary school students are more likely to be involved in bullying behaviors. Students from elite schools (leading schools) are also more likely to be involved. Relation with teachers, relation with peers and perceived academic achievement are protective factors. Being a boy is the only significant predictor of school bullying among the family and demographic characteristics used. The results highlight the importance of school climate on preventing school violence and bullying, and a whole-school intervention approach is needed for future intervention. PMID:28946682
Han, Ziqiang; Zhang, Guirong; Zhang, Haibo
School violence and bullying in China is under investigated, though it has become a national concern recently. Using updated national representative survey data collected in 2016 from seven provinces across China, covering students from all pre-college school types (primary, middle, high and vocational schools), this paper analyzes the prevalence of school bullying and the correlation with several school attributes. The incidences of reported bullying, bullying others and witnessing bullying are 26.10%, 9.03% and 28.90%, respectively. Primary school students are more likely to be involved in bullying behaviors. Students from elite schools (leading schools) are also more likely to be involved. Relation with teachers, relation with peers and perceived academic achievement are protective factors. Being a boy is the only significant predictor of school bullying among the family and demographic characteristics used. The results highlight the importance of school climate on preventing school violence and bullying, and a whole-school intervention approach is needed for future intervention.
Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad
Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).
Jacobsen, Alice Juel; Buch, Anders
related to an under-standing of professionals are used to investigate the practices involved in the change processes. The article argues that the ambiguity of a primus inter pares management position among professionals leads to several paradoxes, deadlocks, and detours, all of which affect the work......This article investigates organizational reform changes as they are con-structed in the interaction between managers and teachers in a school context. The empirical basis is comprised of case studies carried out in Danish upper secondary schools. An ethnographic approach and a concept of paradox...
Caspi, Caitlin E; Davey, Cynthia; Nelson, Toben F; Larson, Nicole; Kubik, Martha Y; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S
Access to healthy foods among secondary school students is patterned by individual-level socioeconomic status, but few studies have examined how school nutrition policies and practices are patterned by school-level characteristics. The objective of our study was to examine school nutrition policies and practices by school characteristics (eg, location, racial/ethnic composition, and free/reduced priced lunch eligibility) in Minnesota secondary schools between 2008 and 2012. Data from the 2008 to 2012 Minnesota School Health Profiles survey were used to assess school nutrition policies and practices, and National Center for Educational Statistics data were used for school characteristics (n=505 secondary schools). Nutrition policies and practices included the availability of low-nutrient, energy dense (LNED) items, strategies to engage students in healthy eating, and restrictions on advertisements of LNED products in areas around the school. Among school-level characteristics, school location was most strongly related to school nutrition policies. Across all years, city schools were less likely than town/rural schools to have vending machines/school stores (prevalence difference [PD] -13.7, 95% CI -25.0 to -2.3), and less likely to sell sport drinks (PD -36.3, 95% CI -51.8 to -20.7). City schools were also more likely to prohibit advertisements for LNED products in school buildings (PD 17.7, 95% CI 5.5 to 29.9) and on school grounds (PD 15.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 29.5). Between 2008 and 2012, the prevalence of some healthy eating policies/practices (eg, limiting salty snacks, offering taste testing, and banning unhealthy food advertisements in school publications) declined in city schools only, where these policies/practices had previously been more common. Monitoring of these trends is needed to understand the influence of these policies on student outcomes across school settings. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy
Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.
The spatial practices of school administrative clerks: making space for ... their invisible, largely taken-for-granted roles in a school's everyday functioning. This main aim of this article is to make their everyday practices and contributions visible, ...
The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.
The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma (AI) on computed tomography (CT) in the general population has been reported to be as high as 4.2%. However, many of the previous studies in this field utilised a prospective approach with analysis of CT scans performed by one or more radiologists with a specialist interest in adrenal tumours and a specific focus on identifying the presence of an adrenal mass. A typical radiology department, with a focus on the patient\\'s presenting complaint as opposed to the adrenal gland, may not be expected to diagnose as many adrenal incidentalomas as would be identified in a dedicated research protocol. We hypothesised that the number of AI reported in routine clinical practice is significantly lower than the published figures would suggest. We retrospectively reviewed the reports of all CT thorax and abdomen scans performed in our hospital over a 2 year period. 3,099 patients underwent imaging, with 3,705 scans performed. The median age was 63 years (range 18-98). Thirty-seven true AI were diagnosed during the time period studied. Twenty-two were diagnosed by CT abdomen (22\\/2,227) and 12 by CT thorax (12\\/1,478), a prevalence of 0.98 and 0.81% with CT abdomen and thorax, respectively, for AI in routine clinical practice.
Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent psychiadric disorders starting from Childhood and is considered as an important mental health problem of a society. Behavioral disorders including ADHD may have distractive effects on peoples social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationship in their childhood and adulthood. Therefore, we decided to conduct the present research for ADHD in elementary school students of Khoramabad year 2004. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studing in grades one to five at elementary school in Khorramabad (N=945. Some 16 state and private schools (8 girls and 8 boys schools were selected in a cluster and multi-stage method. The standardized questionnaire Child symptom inventories – 4 (CSI4 has been used to collect data, which was a means for the prevalens of children’s psychiatric disorders. Owing to their scoring. The cases which showed ADHD were undergone clinical examination by psychiatrist. Then, the results were analyzed using descriptive statistic and X2 test. Results: The total sample was 945 children There were 50.7% and 49.3% girls and boys respectively. Some 3.17 per cent of them were reported to suffer from ADHD the most percentages of which were of inattention (40%, overactivens (33.3%, and mixed type (26.6%. ADHD was reported to be more prevalent in boys than girls (4.9% VS. 1.5%. The students in grade 5 showed the lowest, and those in grade 2 and 3 showed the highest prevalence rate of suffering from ADHD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s sex and ADHD (P<0.005. However, there seemed no significant relationship between parents age, education, job, income, grade, and the family psychiatric problems. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of the disorder including ADHD, and lack of enough attention to their consequences in children and
Burton, Suzanne L., Ed.
Middle school general music may be a student's last encounter with school music. A practical book with accessible pedagogical resources on middle school general music is needed for methods courses and music practitioners' use. The book "Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music" presents numerous ways to engage…
Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.
The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double-blind...... the double-blind challenge which was positive in 6 cases. Five of these 6 children had positive reactions to synthetic colourings and 1 to citric acid. No serious reactions were seen. Based upon calculations of the results from this study and an earlier multi-center study in children referred to hospital...
JCTIC has used open source software to develop a unique school online environment that has made evidence based practice viable in their school. In this paper the proposition is made that eLearning enables evidence based practice which in turn leads to improved student outcomes. Much has been written about evidence based practice in schools, but…
Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary
Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...
Morrison-Sandberg, Leslie F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Johnson, Karen E.
Elementary schools are an optimal setting to provide obesity prevention interventions, yet little is known about the obesity prevention practices of elementary school nurses. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current obesity-related school nursing practice in elementary schools in Minnesota, opinions regarding school nurse-led…
Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Visudhiphan, Pongsak; Santikul, Kanitta
Dyslexia is the most common subtype of learning disabilities with a prevalence ranging from 5-10 per cent. The central difficulty in dyslexia is the phonological awareness deficit. The authors have developed a screening test to assess the reading ability of Thai primary school students. 1. To study the prevalence of dyslexia in first to sixth grade students at Wat Samiannaree School. 2. To study the clinical characteristics such as sex, neurological signs, verbal intelligence and comorbid attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) of the dyslexia group. A total of 486 first to sixth grade students were administered "Raven's progressive matrices test" for estimation of intellectual functioning. Those who scored below the fifth percentile were labeled as mental retardation and excluded from the study. The students' reading ability was evaluated by 3 steps; first by classroom teachers using some items of the screening test, second by the researchers examining some more items individually, and third by the special educator assessing more details in reading and phonology. The students who had a reading ability two-grade levels below their actual grades and impairment in phonology were diagnosed with dyslexia. The prevalence of dyslexia and probable dyslexia were found to be 6.3 per cent and 12.6 per cent, respectively. The male to female ratio of dyslexia was 3.4:1. The dyslexia group had significantly lower Thai language scores than those of the normal group (p dyslexia group had a normal grossly neurological examination but 90 per cent showed positive soft neurological signs. Mean verbal intellectual quotient score in the dyslexia group assessed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Revised was 76 +/- 7. The comorbid ADHD was 8.7 per cent in the dyslexia group. Dyslexia was a common problem among primary school students in this study. Further studies in a larger population and different socioeconomic statuses are required to determine the prevalence
Kathariya, Mitesh D; Nikam, Atul Pralhad; Chopra, Kirti; Patil, Namrata N; Raheja, Hitesh; Kathariya, Renuka
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies according to gender among children. This cross-sectional study was conducted a group of 600 children, of them 293 (48.8%) were males and 275 (45.8%) females which were taken with proper sampling technique. Type III clinical examination was done to know the prevalence of dental anomalies. The Statistical software namely SPSS version 16.0 was used for data analysis. Chi-square test was used at p value of 0.05 or less. Impactions (39.2%) were the most common anomaly in this study and most of the impacted teeth were related to maxilla. A significant difference was seen in case of hypodontia, microdontia and talons cusp according to gender in which first two anomalies were more among females and last one among males. Children with one dental anomaly were 25.8%, and 13.4% were having more than one. The percentage of dental anomalies were high specially impaction and rotated teeth. So these anomalies should be treated earlier to avoid further complications. How to cite this article: Kathariya MD, Nikam AP, Chopra K, Patil NN, Raheja H, Kathariya R. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies among School Going Children in India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):10-4.
Buunk, Abraham P; Franco, Silvia; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Zurriaga, Rosario
In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital employees, 40.4%, and among school employees, 23.9% reported being the victim of mobbing at least once a week. Being the victim of mobbing was, in both hospitals and schools, more prevalent among older employees, and in hospitals, among employees who were more highly educated and who had been employed for a longer time. Men and women did not differ in reporting that one was a victim of mobbing, but men reported more perceived loss of status than women. However, among women, being the victim of mobbing was much more strongly related to experiencing a loss of status than among men. Several explanations for this gender difference and the practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima
To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.
Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.
Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural community in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, no previous vision screening study among primary schools children ...
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Low, Sabina K.; Jimerson, Shane R.
Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying…
Yonkaitis, Catherine F.
School nurses report that evidence-based practice (EBP) is not a part of their daily practice, and most have had no formal education regarding EBP or its implementation. The purpose of this review is to identify what strategies might be effective to educate school nurses about EBP as a first step toward establishing EBP in school nurse practice.…
Madsen, Kristine A; Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie
The Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools' nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP's inception in 2006 through 2012. We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP's onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose-response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools.
Fleming, D.; Schellevis, F.; Linden, M. van der; Westert, G.
General practice-based morbidity surveys have been conducted in the Netherlands and in England and Wales primarily to estimate disease prevalence and examine health inequalities. We have compared disease prevalence in general practice reported in the second Dutch Natinal Survey of General Practice
Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.
The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…
This article explores the meaning of an education based on democratic values and the implications for school leadership in practice. Based on findings from a case study in a Norwegian upper secondary school, the study describes democratic school leadership in practice, with particular attention to the distribution of power and leadership in the…
Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia
Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.
Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L
To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.
Ismail, Siti Noor
Purpose: This study attempted to determine whether the dimensions of TQM practices are predictors of school climate. It aimed to identify the level of TQM practices and school climate in three different categories of schools, namely high, average and low performance schools. The study also sought to examine which dimensions of TQM practices…
Erdener, Mehmet Akif
Parent involvement has an influence on children's educational engagement for all school levels. The objective of this study was to examine public school principals' and teachers' practices for improving parent involvement in schooling. This study used a mixed method to identify the school administrators' and teachers' perceptions about parent…
Friedlaender, Diane; Beckham, Kyle; Zheng, Xinhua; Darling-Hammond, Linda
"Growing a Waldorf-Inspired Approach in a Public School District" documents the practices and outcomes of Alice Birney, a Waldorf-Inspired School in Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD). This study highlights how such a school addresses students' academic, social, emotional, physical, and creative development. The study also…
Lewis, Jennifer; Asberry, Jacqueline; DeJarnett, Gregory; King, Gwendolyn
School culture is the belief and attitude influencing every aspect of how a school functions. Culture shared by all school stakeholders makes the actualization of both short-and long-term objectives easier. In this context, the best practices for shaping school culture for professional educators are personal mastery, team learning, and building a…
Jones, Sherry Everett; Smith, Alisa M.; Wheeler, Lani S.; McManus, Tim
Background: To determine whether schools with a formal indoor air quality management program were more likely than schools without a formal program to have policies and practices that promote superior indoor air quality. Methods: This study analyzed school-level data from the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study, a national study of…
Full Text Available Objective: To obtain information on caries prevalence and treatment needs of children aged 5-10 years to plan appropriate dental care services in rural areas. Materials and Methods: Children studying in all the primary schools (six schools in the field practice area of the Rural Health Centre of the Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Each child was clinically examined in the schools by calibrated examiners. Dental caries was assessed using diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO (1997. The chi-square test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and eight 5-10 year-old school children (247 boys and 261 girls were surveyed. Caries prevalence was 71.7 and 26.5% in primary and permanent dentition, respectively. The mean dmft and decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT scores were 3.00 and 0.42 respectively. The mean dmft decreased with age ( P < 0.01 whereas the mean DMFT increased with age ( P < 0.001. Although the mean dmft scores were not statistically significant different for the two sexes, the mean DMFT score was found to be higher among girls than among boys ( P < 0.02. The entire dmft/DMFT value represented the ′decay′ component only. There was a strong need for single surface restorations (60.6%. In the WHO index age (5-6 years, the caries prevalence was 70.2% (29.8% caries-free with a mean dmft value of 3.54 ± 3.71. Conclusion: Dental caries is a significant public health problem in this population. An extensive system to provide primary oral health care has to be developed in the rural areas of India.
Sowmini P Kamath
Full Text Available Background: Asthma in childhood is a major public health issue. Objective: To estimate prevalence and associated housing environment factors of asthma among school children. Material & Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study among school children aged six to fifteen years. Standard ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children Core Questionnaire for Asthma was used for determining the prevalence of wheezing and asthma. Demographic, housing and indoor pollution factors were collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15. Results: Prevalence of ‘wheeze ever’ and ‘current wheezers’ was 10% and 9% respectively. Physician diagnosed asthma was seen in 6.3 %. Severe asthma was noted in 28.6% of current wheezerswith 84.6% and 8.8% having one to two and four to 12 wheezing attacks per year respectively. Wheezing was present post exercise in 5.4%, nocturnal cough in 6.1%, sleep disturbance less than one night/week (40.7%, one or more nights/week (3.3% and wheezing limiting speech to few words between breaths (20.9%. Prevalence was greater among boys (9.8% than girls (7.5% and maximal in age group eight to nine years. On multiple logistic regression presence of overcrowding and absence of smoke outlet were significantly associated with current wheeze. Socio-economic status, beedi rolling practices and absence of separate kitchen was statistically significant with severe asthma. Conclusions: Current wheezer prevalence was9% and more in boys. Adoption of improved housing conditions and avoiding environmental tobacco exposure may aid in reducing childhood asthma attacks in this developing city.
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2% (95%CI: 14.8–17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p<.05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggests that stealing often has significant associated morbidity. PMID:21389165
Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health problems is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3,999) was examined by self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables, such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2 percent (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.8-17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV-TR kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p stealing behavior. Stealing appears to be fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggest that stealing often has significant associated morbidity.
Nikhita, Chimatapu Sri; Jadhav, Pradeep R; Ajinkya, Shaunak A
Mobile phones have become an essential part of modern human life. They have many attributes which makes them very attractive to both young and old. There has been an increasing trend of use of mobile phones among students. Data has now started emerging with respect to the negative physical and psychological consequences of excessive use of mobile phones. New research has shown excessive use of mobile phones leading to development of symptoms suggestive of dependence syndrome. To study the prevalence of Mobile Phone Dependence (MPD) in secondary school adolescents. Cross-sectional, observational study conducted in secondary section of English-medium schools at Navi Mumbai (India). Four hundred and fifteen students studying in 8(th), 9(th) and 10(th) standards of schools at Navi Mumbai (India) having personal mobile phone were randomly included in the study. Participant information like age, gender, family type, phone type, duration of use per day and years of mobile phone usage was recorded. They were administered an MPD questionnaire based upon the dependence syndrome criteria as per ICD-10. According to their responses, participants who fulfilled three or more of the diagnostic criteria were rated as having MPD. Mobile Phone Dependence was found in 31.33% of sample students. It was significantly associated with gender (p=0.003, OR=1.91, CI: 1.23-2.99), family type (p=0.0012), type of mobile phone used (pphone (pphone usage (p =0.004, OR=2.4, CI: 1.31-4.55). Mobile Phone Dependence has been found to be an emerging public health problem. There is need to recognize and identify early the growing trends and negative consequences of inappropriate mobile phone use in young users so as to generate awareness, and plan educational and treatment interventions, if need be, so as to prevent a major public health concern.
Kenter, E G; Okkes, I M
To gain insight into the prevalence and treatment of severe fatigue in general practice. Secondary data analysis. By means of an episode-oriented morbidity registration by 54 GPs throughout the Netherlands over the period 1985-1994 it was established how often in the course of one year 'fatigue' was listed as the reason for consultation, what diagnoses were then made, how long episodes of care because of 'fatigue' lasted and what interventions took place (n = 93,297). Of the patients with a care episode because of 'fatigue' lasting at least 6 months, age, sex, comorbidity and consumption of care were established; for this purpose use was also made of a file containing data on 4 years in succession (n = 9630). Per annum, 92 per 1000 listed patients consulted the GP because of fatigue. Somatic or psychic diagnoses were made in 27.7 per 1000 patients listed. The episode of care lasted 4 weeks at most in 86% and at least 6 months in approximately 4%. The GPs' management of patients with 'fatigue' included physical examination in 63% and blood testing in 34%, conversation in 35%, prescription of medication in 24% and referral to a specialist in 3%. Of the 97 patients with fatigue lasting longer than 6 months, 61% had a chronic disease or psychic problems. Fatigue is frequently encountered in general practice, but the estimate that one per 1000 listed patients meets the criteria of the chronic fatigue syndrome looks a little high. It appears that GPs, in accordance with recommendations, mostly adopt a policy of wait and see.
The Best Practices Manual was written as a part of the promotional effort for EnergySmart Schools, provided by the US Department of Energy, to educate school districts around the country about energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Knowledge, Attitude And Practice (Kap) Of School Teachers On Malaria, Helminthiasis And Associated Risk Factors In Primary Schools In Onitsha, Anambra State, South-Eastern Nigeria. ... Animal Research International. Journal Home ...
Knowledge, attitude and practices of adolescent secondary school students in Uvwie ... METHOD: A cross sectional study was carried out on 358 senior secondary ... secondary school students in Uvwie have a fairly good knowledge of AIDS, ...
Ansary, Nadia S.; Elias, Maurice J.; Greene, Michael B.; Green, Stuart
The authors quantify and unpack the prevalence and effects of bullying on children and adolescents before prescribing provisos for schools to consider when planning preventive and responsive approaches to bullying.
Eaton, Danice K; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Lowry, Richard; Perry, Geraldine S; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B
We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda
Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease.
Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Mishra, Prashant; Debnath, Nitai; Vasthare, Ramprasad
This cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and severity of dental erosion and to determine the potential risk factors for dental erosion among 11- to 14-year-old school children in South India. The total sample size for the study was 605, of which 303 school children were from private schools and 302 from public schools. A questionnaire was designed to record information about socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits and risk factors for dental erosion. Chi square test, bivariate analysis and Logistic regression analysis were performed to analyse the data. The children who consumed lemon several times a day (OR = 13.41, P dental erosion. The overall prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low (8.9%). Erosion was found to be greater in posterior teeth (65.6%) than anterior teeth (34.4%). Loss of enamel only with loss of surface contour was observed in most (94.8%) of the cases. The prevalence of dental erosion was found to be low in school children. Private school children were affected more by dental erosion. Frequency of lemon consumption and consumption of carbonated drinks were identified as risk factors.
Uscher-Pines, Lori; Schwartz, Heather L; Ahmed, Faruque; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; Meza, Erika; Baker, Garrett; Uzicanin, Amra
During an evolving influenza pandemic, community mitigation strategies, such as social distancing, can slow down virus transmission in schools and surrounding communities. To date, research on school practices to promote social distancing in primary and secondary schools has focused on prolonged school closure, with little attention paid to the identification and feasibility of other more sustainable interventions. To develop a list and typology of school practices that have been proposed and/or implemented in an influenza pandemic and to uncover any barriers identified, lessons learned from their use, and documented impacts. We conducted a review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature on social distancing interventions in schools other than school closure. We also collected state government guidance documents directed to local education agencies or schools to assess state policies regarding social distancing. We collected standardized information from each document using an abstraction form and generated descriptive statistics on common plan elements. The document review revealed limited literature on school practices to promote social distancing, as well as limited incorporation of school practices to promote social distancing into state government guidance documents. Among the 38 states that had guidance documents that met inclusion criteria, fewer than half (42%) mentioned a single school practice to promote social distancing, and none provided any substantive detail about the policies or practices needed to enact them. The most frequently identified school practices were cancelling or postponing after-school activities, canceling classes or activities with a high rate of mixing/contact that occur within the school day, and reducing mixing during transport. Little information is available to schools to develop policies and procedures on social distancing. Additional research and guidance are needed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of school
Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F
The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.
Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M.; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda
Background Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Methods Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls? only boarding school; and, boys? onl...
developing countries however, the prevalence of post-operative pain is relatively very high and pain control strategies ... Keywords: post-operative pain, prevalence, predictors, pain management, satisfaction, Tanzania. Introduction ..... perception and patterns of cerebral activation during noxious heat stimulation in humans.
Murray, Desiree W; Molina, Brooke S G; Glew, Kelly; Houck, Patricia; Greiner, Andrew; Fong, Dalea; Swanson, James; Arnold, L Eugene; Lerner, Marc; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B; Jensen, Peter S
This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of services reported by school staff for 543 high school students participating in the 8 year follow-up of the multi-site Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA). Overall, 51.6% of students with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were receiving services through an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) or a 504 plan, a rate higher than expected for this age group. Less than 5% of these had 504 plans; 35.5% attended special education classes. Very few services (except tutoring) were provided outside of an IEP or 504 plan. Almost all students with services received some type of academic intervention, whereas only half received any behavioral support or learning strategy. Less than one-fourth of interventions appear to be evidence-based. Students receiving services showed greater academic and behavioral needs than those not receiving services. Services varied based upon type of school, with the greatest number of interventions provided to students attending schools that only serve those with disabilities. Original MTA treatment randomization was unrelated to services, but cumulative stimulant medication and greater severity predicted more service receipt. Results highlight a need for accommodations with greater evidence of efficacy and for increased services for students who develop academic difficulties in high school.
McDonald, Tonya Senne
While traditional public school and charter school systems continue to undergo dramatic reforms in response to the educational crisis, charter schools are praised as possessing the distinguishing characteristic of maintaining autonomy in exchange for increased accountability (Buckley & Schneider, 2009). The expectations for charter schools are…
Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.
Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…
Monnat, Shannon M; Lounsbery, Monica A F; McKenzie, Thomas L; Chandler, Raeven Faye
Schools are important settings for not only providing and promoting children's physical activity (PA) but also for reducing PA disparities. We investigated associations between school-level demographic characteristics (racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition, urban-rural status, and student-to-teacher ratio) and 16 PA-promoting practices in 347 Nevada public elementary, middle, and high schools in 2014. We found that low-cost and easy-to-implement practices are most prevalent. There is relative demographic equity in ten of 16 PA practices and significant differences in six PA practices in Nevada schools. Schools with comparatively larger percentages of Black students are the most disadvantaged, as they have the fewest PA-supportive practices in place. Higher percent black was associated with lower odds of providing classroom activity breaks (AOR=0.632, 95% CI=0.453-0.881) and bike racks (AOR=0.60, 95% CI=0.362-0.996), greater odds of withholding recess/PE for disciplinary reasons (AOR=1.377, 95% CI=1.006-1.885), and lower odds of having recess supervisors who are trained to promote PA (AOR=0.583, 95% CI=0.374-0.909). Schools with greater percentages of Hispanic students have lower odds of providing before-school PA programs (AOR=0.867, 95% CI=0.761-0.987), whereas schools with greater percentages of low-SES students have greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Higher student-to-teacher ratio was also associated with greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Urban-rural status was unrelated to all PA practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Farhadi A2 1. Instructor, Department of Society Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Instructor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Childhood period it one of the most important stages of life in which individuals personality is formed. The majority of behavioral problems are due to attention deficit to the sensitive periods of childhood. This attention deficit leads to lack of agreement with environment and causes behavioural problems in children. Behavioural problem is attributed to a persons behaviour that his IQ isn lowered, but his or her mental and behavioural equilibrium is deviated from social norm and has severity, repetition and continuance in numerous times and places, so that his educational performance and behaviour will be frustrated and his efficiency is reduced. Such children are always rejected by others and in school there are a lot of grievances against them. Therefore, to pay attention children common behavioural problems is one of the most important topics and it prompt detection makes its treatment possible. So this study designed to determine prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children. Materials and methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 600 rural and urban pre-school children selected using random one stage sampling method. Data gathering tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic and behavioural disorders signs obtained from DSM IV. Reability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the university teaching members and retest method with a correlation coefficient 98%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver 11 and Ch-square test. Results: Results of the study showed that 79% of the rural, and 68% of the urban children were at least involved in one of the behavioural
Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…
Finn, Cindy A.
In Quebec, school psychology is alive and well. This article outlines current challenges and opportunities related to the practice of psychology in Quebec English schools. Changes to the practice of psychology in Quebec over the last decade have had an impact on the delivery of psychological services in schools. Modifications of the admission…
Johnson, R. Coranne; Zwiers, Michael L.
Over the past 15 years, the practice of school psychology in the province of Alberta reflects the entrenchment of assessment with the emerging possibility of a broader service provider role. This article articulates the influence that politics and government has had on the role of school psychologists in Alberta schools as special education…
The purpose of this study was to identify the current practice and problems of school based supervision in government primary schools of Jile Timuga Woreda of Oromia Zone. A descriptive survey design of research methodology was employed. Regarding sampling, there were 39 primary schools grouped in 10 cluster ...
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008
As countries strive to reform education systems and improve student results, school leadership is high on education policy agendas. But in many countries, the men and women who run schools are overburdened, underpaid and near retirement. And few people are lining up for their jobs. Based on an OECD study of school leadership practices and policies…
Finnigan, Kara S.
In theory, the charter school concept is based on a trade-off or exchange: greater autonomy for increased accountability. Although charter schools have been operating for more than 10 years, little is known about charter school autonomy in practice. This mixed-methods study used survey and case study data to examine the degree of autonomy of…
Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna
A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suarez-Ortega, Magdalena; Ballesteros-Velazquez, Belen; Malik-Lievano, Beatriz
In this article, we present key aspects of a research project entitled "Students' Cultural Diversity and School Efficacy: A Repertory of Best Practice in Compulsory Learning Centers." First, we present our concept of cultural diversity and a reflection regarding "best school practices" and the notion of "student…
Background: The prevalence of hypertension seems to be increasing in children and adults in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Different studies have been carried out on the prevalence of hypertension amongst adolescents living in urban areas reflecting this seeming increase in the prevalence of hypertension. However ...
Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Kutnick, P.
The research detailed in this paper provides a systematic description and analysis of grouping practices in primary and secondary schools in England. Practices are compared to main findings in developmental and educational literature with regard to effective contexts for learning and recent ideas about pedagogy. The research is based on an analysis of 4924 groupings from 672 Reception, Year 2 and Year 5 classes in 331 primary schools and 248 Year 7 and Year 10 classes in 47 secondary schools....
TNTP has been investigating the importance of school environment and leadership practices using a survey tool called "Instructional Culture Insight," which measures teachers' perceptions of their school environments. In "Greenhouse Schools: How Schools Can Build Cultures Where Teachers and Students Thrive (2012)," TNTP found…
Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L
Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist. We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs. Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%). Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.
context of the academic subjects which they study at school, rather than in areas traditionally associated with learners' out-of-school interests ... the majority of the learners had not seen their parents reading a book ..... Harvard University Press.
Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.
Cognitive development unfolds in many contexts, and one of the most important of these contexts is school. Thus, understanding the school context is critical for understanding development. This article discusses some of the reasons why cognitive developmental researchers might wish to conduct research in schools, describes how to get started…
Hallinan, Maureen T., Ed.
Chapters in this book focus on a wide array of educational issues that command attention at the end of the 20th century. Various aspects of contemporary schooling are explored, and models of school organization and functioning are proposed in the following chapters: (1) "Achievement-Oriented School Design" (James S. Coleman); (2)…
Lane, Julie M.; Jones, David R.
The 1997 Amendments of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children placed in private schools by their parents are no longer afforded the right to special education services. However, IDEA does state that child find activities between public school representatives and private schools are to remain intact. This study…
George, Patricia, Ed.; Potter, Eugenia Cooper, Ed.
School-based management (SBM), sometimes called site-based management, is fast becoming the hottest restructuring item in the arsenal of reformers, teachers' unions, governors, and legislators who want to change the traditional ways in which schools and school districts do business. This document comprises three main sections with contributions…
Gershoff, Elizabeth T
School corporal punishment continues to be a legal means of disciplining children in a third of the world's countries. Although much is known about parents' use of corporal punishment, there is less research about school corporal punishment. This article summarizes what is known about the legality and prevalence of school corporal punishment, about the outcomes linked to it, and about interventions to reduce and eliminate school corporal punishment around the world.
Melo, Alice Cristina Medeiros; Garcia, Leila Posenato
Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. T...
Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J
The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie
Introduction The Alliance for a Healthier Generation’s Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools’ nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP’s inception in 2006 through 2012. Methods We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP’s onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose–response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools. PMID:25996984
School of Medicine & Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, The University of Dodoma, P.O ... and immunosuppressive, and it is associated with both local wound and ..... American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the ...
Hayter, Mark; Piercy, Hilary; Massey, Marie-Therese; Gregory, Trudy
This paper is a report of a study to explore how school nurses perceive the influence of schools on their role in delivering sex and relationship education in primary schools. School nurses play a key role in sex education in English schools. However, sex education is a contentious issue meaning the sex education of children is often an area of tension within the curriculum. However, the impact of these tensions upon school nursing practice is poorly described. Three focus groups with a convenience sample of 16 nurses experienced in conducting sex and relationship education were conducted during 2006. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and subjected to a thematic analysis. Four themes were identified in the data: 'covert surveillance' refers to school staff conducting clandestine surveillance of the classroom actions of the nurse; 'overt surveillance' reflects how nurses felt they were being openly monitored by teachers in the classroom; 'Teacher attitude' refers to the interventions of the supervising teacher in the classroom during the sex education session and 'resistance practices' detailed how nurses attempted to manage the disciplinary practices of the school. School nurses need to be pragmatic about the fact that there will be some attempts by the school to regulate sex education. Developing an early dialogue with the school can mediate this. Closer working practices and the involvement of school nurses in the development of sex education policy and practice is vital to ensure that they continue to make a valuable contribution to sex education in schools.
School of Public Health, University of the Limpopo. Sovenga, South Africa ... KEY WORDS: substance use, rural high school students, South Africa ... increased into the 1990s, these behaviours ..... Canada's Mental Health Supplement, 68,. 12.
Yousef H. Aldebasi
Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected RE in children is relatively high and represents an important public health problem in school-aged children in Qassim province. Performance of routine periodical vision screening throughout childhood may reverse this situation.
Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from eight city administrative divisions. Proportional random sampling method to select forty five (45) schools out of 320 public, private and non-formal schools was used. Using the school ...
A study of geohelminthes infections among primary school children aged 8 to 13 years was conducted in four selected primary schools in Panda Development Area, Karu LGA, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of four hundred and eighty (480) soil samples collected from the four schools, 314 (82.63) were found to be positive ...
Selekman, Janice; Guilday, Patricia
The Scope and Standards of Professional School Nursing Practice states that school nurses should evaluate the quality and effectiveness of their practice. School nurses have not yet identified and adopted outcomes by which this effectiveness can be measured. This study used focus groups during a national meeting of school nurse leaders to identify the desired outcomes that could be used to measure the efficacy of school nursing practice. Ten desired outcome themes were identified with numerous specific indicators as possible ways to measure the desired outcome in each theme. The student-, school-, and nurse-focused outcome themes were as follows: (a) increased student seat time, (b) receipt of first aid and acute care measures, (c) receipt of competent health-related interventions or skills, (d) meeting of the comprehensive needs of children with chronic conditions, (e) enhanced school health via wellness promotion and disease prevention measures, (f) referrals, (g) safe environment, (h) enhanced school health via community outreach, (i) cost-effective school nurse services, and (j) student, parent, and staff satisfaction. The school nurse participants were supportive of having potential outcomes identified and unanimously endorsed the findings at the conclusion of the study. They have provided a comprehensive framework from which evaluation tools can be developed to measure the efficacy of school nursing.
Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda
Background Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Conclusions Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease. PMID:25330010
Wexler, Jade; Mitchell, Marisa A.; Clancy, Erin E.; Silverman, Rebecca D.
This study reports findings from an exploration of the literacy practices of 10 high school science teachers. Based on observations of teachers' instruction, we report teachers' use of text, evidence-based vocabulary and comprehension practices, and grouping practices. Based on interviews with teachers, we also report teachers' perceptions…
The Best Practices Manual was written as a part of the promotional effort for EnergySmart Schools, provided by the US Department of Energy, to educate school districts around the country about energy efficiency and renewable energy. Written specifically for architects and engineers, The Best Practices Manual is designed to help those who are responsible for designing or retrofitting schools, as well as their project managers. This manual will help design staff make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to the school systems and communities.
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide and has implications for a variety of diseases. This has been due to various causes such as poor nutrition, inactivity or both. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary ...
Conclusion: In present study the frequency of gingivitis was found to be higher. According to the high prevalence of gingivitis the most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children, parents, and teachers ...
Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others
Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)
Truin, G.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Mulder, J.; Kootwijk, A.J.; Jong, E. de
In 2005 a dental survey of the prevalence of caries among 6- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in The Hague was carried out. In the case of the 12-year-olds, the prevalence of dental erosion was also studied. The sample consisted of 814 students in twelve primary schools in The Hague. The results
The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) developed the Framework for 21st Century School Nursing Practice to reflect current school nurse practice. The Framework of practice was introduced in June 2015, and feedback was requested and obtained from practicing school nurses in a variety of ways. The final version of the Framework is introduced in this article. This article updates (and replaces) the articles in the July 2015 NASN School Nurse related to the Framework. Central to the Framework is student-centered nursing care that occurs within the context of the students' family and school community. Surrounding the student, family, and school community are the nonhierarchical, overlapping key principles of Care Coordination, Leadership, Quality Improvement, and Community/Public Health.These principles are surrounded by the fifth principle, Standards of Practice, which is foundational for evidence-based and clinically competent quality care. Each of these principles is further defined by practice components. Suggestions are provided regarding how the Framework can be used in a variety of settings to articulate and prioritize school nursing practice. The ultimate goal is to provide a resource to guide school nurses in their practice to help students be healthy, safe, and ready to learn. © 2015 The Author(s).
Ray, Dee C.; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Warren, E. Scott; Balkin, Richard S.
When elementary school counselors have a solid developmental understanding of children, play therapy might be one counseling intervention that they use with their students. Landreth (2002) has promoted the use of play therapy in schools by explaining that its objective is to help children get ready to profit from what teachers have to offer. Play…
Mann, Nadine L.
A Louisiana school district has made tremendous progress toward developing and implementing an environmentally friendly solid waste management program. Packaging changes in school food service, newspaper and aluminum can recycling, and composting of leaf and yard waste have contributed to reduced waste sent to the local landfill. (MLF)
Frisby, Craig L.; Jimerson, Shane R.
Immigration into the United States is a particularly salient topic of current contemporary educational, social, and political discussions. The school-related needs of immigrant children and youth can be well served by rigorous research and effective school psychology preservice training and preparation. This overview highlights key definitions,…
Rosenilde Nogueira Paniago
Full Text Available This study discusses an investigation done with teachers of a public school, located on countryside, city of Água Boa, Mato Grosso, with a view to looking for new alternatives to the teaching practice on school, by means of using the collaborative realization of projects and researches as pedagogical alternatives. As qualitative approach, the investigation has developed by means of the study of benchmarks, that discuss the research on teaching formation, on teaching practice, education on/of the countryside and, of the projects’ realization of teaching and research with and by teachers. The work enabled to get closer relationship between school and community, to articulate the theoretical knowledge, studied on school, and the life of countryside students, showing the necessity of theoretico-methodological formation with collective engagement of teachers and public politics that propitiate the emergence of conditions to the new practices of teaching on school on/of the countryside by the bias of search.
Carr, Tara F; Beamer, Paloma I; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A; Gerald, Lynn B; Rosales, Cecilia B; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Pivniouk, Oksana N; Vercelli, Donata; Halonen, Marilyn; Gameros, Mercedes; Martinez, Fernando D; Wright, Anne L
Mexican-born children living in the United States have a lower prevalence of asthma than other US children. Although children of Mexican descent near the Arizona (AZ)-Sonora border are genetically similar, differences in environmental exposures might result in differences in asthma prevalence across this region. The objective of this study was to determine if the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in these children varies across the AZ-Sonora border. The International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children written and video questionnaires were administered to 1753 adolescents from 5 middle schools: Tucson (school A), Nogales, AZ (schools B, C), and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico (schools D, E). The prevalence of asthma and symptoms was compared, with analyses in the AZ schools limited to self-identified Mexican American students. Compared with the Sonoran reference school E, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma was significantly higher in US schools A (OR 4.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.72-8.80), B (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.88-6.42), and C (OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.78-9.60). The adjusted OR for wheeze in the past year was significantly higher in schools A (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.20-4.01) and B (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.42-5.01) on the written questionnaire and significantly higher in A (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.22-3.75), B (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.07-3.53), and Sonoran school D (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.28-4.30) on the video questionnaire compared with school E. Asthma and wheeze prevalence differed significantly between schools and was higher in the United States. Environmental factors that may account for these differences could provide insight into mechanisms of protection from asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nesamony Maneksh Kumar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is defined as having excess body fat due to ‘calorie imbalance’ -too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed. Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term effects on health and well-being. This study is aimed to highlight the burden of obesity among school children. The objectives of this study are to find the prevalence of obesity among school children aged 11-15 years and to compare prevalence of obesity among school children of government and private schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS School-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2 private and 2 government schools of a rural area in Trivandrum district. Total 800 students (200 from each school aged 11-15 years in 6 th to 10 th standards were selected by systematic random sampling and consent were obtained. Height (cm and weight (kg were measured using stadiometer and standardised weighing machine, respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated and categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese. The prevalence is expressed in percentages. RESULTS In this study, the total prevalence of overweight and obesity among the total 800 school children is found to be 4% and 1%, respectively. An alarming incidental finding is that the underweight prevalence is 61%, which is significantly high and should be addressed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity is 4.25% and 1.75%, respectively in private schools, whereas it is 3.5% and 1%, respectively, in government schools. There is not a significant difference between private and government school children. This may be due to the awareness about problems of obesity and its effects among school children and also timely health checkups in the schools. CONCLUSION This study done in a rural area found that there is a significant prevalence of obesity and overweight as well as a very high prevalence of underweight. It indicates that childhood obesity is an emerging health problem in rural areas
Bender, Stacy L.; Roth, Rachel; Zielenski, Alicia; Longo, Zachary; Chermak, Ashley
Mindfulness has been gaining momentum in the field of school psychology, however compared to other applied psychology fields, less research on mindfulness interventions has been conducted. This study systematically reviewed mindfulness literature and empirical studies in nine school psychology journals from 2006-2016. The prevalence of mindfulness…
Falck, Russel S.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Li, Linna; Carlson, Robert G.
Background: Illicit drug use by school-aged teens can adversely affect their health and academic achievement. This study used a survey administered in schools to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use among teenagers in a Midwestern community. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 11th- and 12th-grade students (N = 3974) in 16…
Buunk, Abraham P.; Franco, Silvia; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Zurriaga, Rosario
In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of acute malnutrition in pre-school children in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Four kindergartens in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Subjects: Pre-school children attending kindergartens in Karma Albald village (n ...
Full Text Available Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province Objective: The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats in the world. The majority of smokers in the adolescent group has started smoking at early ages. Smoking prevalence among adolescents are reported to be approximately 10%. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and related factors among secondary and high school students in Tokat province. Method: Population of this cross-sectional study consists of secondary and high school students in Tokat. Sample size was calculated as 1072 by using proportional stratified cluster sampling method according to type of school, gender and age. The study has been completed with 1069 students (secondary school: 557, high school: 512. Sociodemographic characteristics and the smoking habits of students were determined through questionaries. The students who smoking at least one cigarette in a day were accepted as smokers. Results: 50.9% of secondary school students were male, mean age was 12.1±1.3, 74.5% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 10.8% (male:17.3%, female:4% and it was higher for students with <70 (16.3% average school grades than those with ≥70 (6.8% (p<0.05. 52.3% of high school students were female, mean age was 16.2±1.3, 80.7% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 18% (male:29.9%, female:7.1% and it was higher for students which have secondary or above maternal education level (23.8% than those students which have lower maternal education level (15.7%; higher in those whom parents live seperate or have died (42.3% than those whom parents live together (16.7%; higher in those that have average school grades <70 (23.8% than those with ≥70 (11.3% (p<0.05. Place of residence, income level and profession of parents were not significant effect on smoking prevalence. The most common cause of start smoking was curiosity (42.4%. Conclusions: Nearly one in
Thomson, Jessica L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Martin, Corby K.; LeBlanc, Monique M.; Onufrak, Stephen J.
Objective: Determine school characteristics associated with healthy/unhealthy food service offerings or healthy food preparation practices. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Nationally representative sample of public and private elementary, middle, and high schools. Participants: Data from the 2006 School Health Policies…
Sung, Youl-Kwan; Lee, Yoonmi
In this article, we examine the characteristics of a progressive school-change project in South Korea called the "Hyukshin" School (HS) movement. HSs are public schools that are intended to disseminate progressive and democratic practices. We obtained data from interviews with participating teachers, official documents, reports, and…
Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.
The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously…
Schools are at the forefront of the institutions that need to be in close relations with the social environment. In this regard, practices of the public relations are prominent. This obligation is also responsibility of the school principals, as there are no public relations units in public schools. The purpose of this research is to reveal the…
Effective management of blindness due to refractive errors is readily available in developed countries. 1 ... Key words: Refractive errors, Children, Prevalence, Kenya. 165 .... financial support towards the funding of this study. REFERENCES. 1.
Castillo, Jose M.; Curtis, Michael J.; Gelley, Cheryl
Every 5 years, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) conducts a national study of the field. Surveys are sent to randomly selected regular members of NASP to gather information on school psychologists' demographic characteristics, context for professional practices, and professional practices. The latest iteration of the national…
Handler, Marcie W.; Rey, Jannette; Connell, James; Thier, Kimberly; Feinberg, Adam; Putnam, Robert
School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been identified as an effective and efficient method to teach students prosocial skills. It requires both effective behavior support practices and systems that will support these changes, including data-based decision making among the school leadership team. There are many practical and systemic…
The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which principals practice strategic management skills in students' administration in secondary schools in Anambra State. All the two hundred and fifty-nine (259) secondary school principals of the six education zones of Anambra State were used for the study.
Wiles, David K.; Rockoff, Edward
Explores the legal implications of in-school suspension practices through consideration of individual versus institutional rights within a special punitive-rehabilitative setting. Argues that the prison hospital model is applicable to in-school suspension programs and discusses a number of legal questions raised by the prison hospital model.…
Felver, Joshua C.; Doerner, Erin; Jones, Jeremy; Kaye, Nicole C.; Merrell, Kenneth W.
Although the use of mindfulness is increasing in other areas of applied psychology, school psychology has yet to embrace it in practice. This article introduces school psychologists to the burgeoning field of mindfulness psychology and to the possibilities that it offers to their discipline. A background on the Western scientific study and…
The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…
Based on 30 interviews with teachers and parents conducted in a Swedish compulsory school, this article discusses the current growing body of research on home-school relations that stress the importance of parents' engagement and involvement as a key factor that influences pupils' academic performance. The focus is on gendered practices in…
Garland, Virginia E.
What is the school principal's role in ensuring ethical technology use while promoting the use of wireless and advanced technologies in instruction? The rapid advances in technology in only the past 5 years, including the increase in laptops and smart phones, have transformed both educational practices and the role of the school principal as…
Burns, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Jody K.; Kimmel, Sue C.
To properly prepare pre-service school librarians, school library educators in online courses must provide opportunities for collaborative engagement. This collaborative education should also recognize the pedagogical benefit of the organic formation of communities of practice that develop within areas outside of curriculum content. This…
Hongboontri, Chantarath; Keawkhong, Natheeporn
This mixed-methods research project documents the school culture of Hope University's Language Institute and reveals the reciprocal relationship between the school culture and the instructional practices of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in this particular institute. Altogether, 62 EFL teachers agreed to complete a questionnaire.…
Silveira, Jason M.; Goff, Sarah C.
The purpose of this study was to measure music teachers' attitudes toward transgender individuals and toward school practices that support transgender students. Participants (N = 612) included men and women who teach a variety of music subjects in elementary, middle, and high schools, in urban, suburban, and rural areas. An online questionnaire…
Vygotsky regarded the site of learning to be within a matrix of relational action. From this perspective, learning social responsibility will involve a focus on the learning environments that are made available in schools. Adapting the concept of restorative justice to a school context, restorative practice offers a range of relevant learning…
In the ongoing pursuit for creating safe, nurturing and relational school cultures, educators continue to turn to restorative justice (rj) principles and practice. Predominantly, schools begin to engage with rj in an effort to address harm done, causing its discourse to be situated in literature tied to classroom management and behaviour. However,…
This article examines teaching practices and pedagogies shown in three Hollywood movies. Although some government reports and the media articles may assert that the quality of teaching in public schools is poor, by contrast mainstream movies of the "urban high school" genre often champion teachers who are able to make a difference in…
Cain, Melissa Anne
This paper explores the preliminary outcomes of research into the place and role of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five International Schools in Singapore. It highlights the ways in which school philosophy, policy, curriculum and in-service training influence teacher practice. The research provides insights into the challenges…
Werner, D. Leonard; Heiberger, Michael H.; Feldman, Jerome; Johnston, Edward
A survey of second and third year students (n=1,092) at 16 optometric schools found 5.5 percent admitted to cheating in optometry school (and 13.9 percent admitted cheating in college), a finding similar to that found for medical students, whose self-reported cheating ranged from 4.7 percent to 10 percent. (Author/DB)
Savitha Deepthi Yannam
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH. Materials and Methods: A sample of 2,864 students aged 8-12 years were selected from government and private schools in Chennai. MIH was diagnosed clinically based on the diagnostic criteria established by the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (EAPD 2003. Results: A total of 277 children (9.7% had MIH. There was statistically significant difference in prevalence related to age but there was no statistical difference in prevalence with respect to gender. Conclusion: Prevalence of MIH was 9.7% in the child population residing in Chennai. Males and females were equally affected. The rate of occurrence and severity of MIH are more in the right mandibular first molar. The severity of MIH is more in molars compared to incisors (P < 0.001 and is more in government schools compared to private schools (P = 0.002.
Srinivasa; Chaithanya C; Ravindra
Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were includ...
Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail
Background This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal back...
García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos
The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272
Full Text Available Susan Jick,1 Lin Li,1 Victor M Gastanaga,2 Alexander Liede,2 Rohini K Hernandez2 1Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Boston University School of Public Health, Lexington, MA, USA; 2Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks and South San Francisco, CA, USA Background: The reported proportion of cancer patients who experience hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM is low, particularly in the pediatric population, ranging between <1% and 5%. HCM can be observed with any type of tumor in children and occurs most commonly with leukemia. While HCM is a potentially fatal condition, the prevalence of HCM is not well understood in pediatric cancer patients. Methods: Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified pediatric cancer patients with recorded corrected serum calcium (CSC from 2003 through 2014. Hypercalcemic patients (CSC ≥10.8 mg/dL were classified into 4 CSC levels. We estimated the annual prevalence of HCM using Byar’s method. Results: Among 517 pediatric cancer patients, leukemia, lymphoma, and brain tumors were the most frequent cancer types. The prevalence of HCM overall (grade 1 or higher ranged from 0.24% to 0.81% between 2003 and 2014. There were too few cases to compare prevalence by type of cancer. Conclusion: We provide the first systematic analysis using a UK population-based data source to estimate the number of pediatric cancer patients affected with HCM by grade. Our findings showed that the prevalence of pediatric HCM was very low (0.24%–0.81% over the 12-year study period, which is consistent with previous study of adult cancer patients in the UK (0.20%–0.67%. Keywords: hypercalcemia, pediatric, cancer, prevalence, Clinical Practice Research Datalink
Rosiane da Silva Fontana
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH em crianças de quatro escolas públicas brasileiras. MÉTODO: Estudo de prevalência. A população consistiu em todos os alunos de 1ª à 4ª séries do ensino fundamental com idades entre 6 e 12 anos de quatro escolas públicas (CIEPs. Na primeira etapa do estudo, os professores efetuaram triagem para TDAH utilizando os critérios diagnósticos do Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais - IV Edição (DSM-IV. A triagem resultou em dois grupos de crianças: suspeitos e não suspeitos. Na segunda etapa, os pais das crianças suspeitas foram convidados a comparecerem à escola para entrevista com os pesquisadores e preenchimento dos critérios diagnósticos de TDAH, anamnese e exame físico pediátrico e neurológico. Ao final desta etapa, as crianças foram classificadas em "casos" de TDAH e crianças "indeterminadas" (crianças que preenchiam parcialmente os critérios diagnósticos. RESULTADOS: De uma população de 602 alunos, 461 fizeram parte do estudo. A prevalência de TDAH considerando o conjunto das 4 escolas foi 13%. A proporção masculino: feminino foi 2:1. O subtipo de TDAH mais freqüente foi o misto com 61,7% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de TDAH nestes escolares brasileiros (13% é mais elevada que a prevalência tradicionalmente mencionada (3-5%. O sexo masculino foi mais acometido que o feminino e o subtipo de TDAH mais prevalente foi o misto, ambos de acordo com estudos anteriores.OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children from four Brazilian public elementary schools. METHOD: Study population consisted of all students from the first through fourth grades, age range 6-12 years, who attended four public elementary schools (CIEPs. This prevalence study comprised two steps. During the first step, school teachers screened their own pupils for ADHD using
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The speech disorders may produce irreparable damage to childs speech and language development in the psychosocial view. The voice, speech sound production and fluency disorders are speech disorders, that may result from delay or impairment in speech motor control mechanism, central neuron system disorders, improper language stimulation or voice abuse. Materials and Methods: This study examined the prevalence of speech disorders in 1393 Arakian students at 1 to 6th grades of primary school. After collecting continuous speech samples, picture description, passage reading and phonetic test, we recorded the pathological signs of stuttering, articulation disorder and voice disorders in a special sheet. Results: The prevalence of articulation, voice and stuttering disorders was 8%, 3.5% and%1 and the prevalence of speech disorders was 11.9%. The prevalence of speech disorders was decreasing with increasing of student’s grade. 12.2% of boy students and 11.7% of girl students of primary school in Arak had speech disorders. Conclusion: The prevalence of speech disorders of primary school students in Arak is similar to the prevalence of speech disorders in Kermanshah, but the prevalence of speech disorders in this research is smaller than many similar researches in Iran. It seems that racial and cultural diversity has some effect on increasing the prevalence of speech disorders in Arak city.
Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary
Prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers’ classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial on the Pine Ri...
Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a global problem and occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Child abuse is a behaviour which causes physical, psychological, emotional or sexual abuses, consequentlylead to damage of children,s health, peace of mind and education. Based on these considerations, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of child abuse among junior high school students of Khoramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 907 junior high school students randomly selected .Data collection tool was a multiple questionnaire incloding child and parents’ demographic information, and a physical emotional abuse and neglect questionnaire. It,s validity and reliability was done by content validity and Test re test. Data were analysed using SPSS v. 19. Results: The findings of this study showed that average age of the cases was 13.36±1.04 and 5.4% of them were always under physical abuse and the most physical abuse was slap on the face , 7.3% emotional abuse and 5.5% neglect. Statistical test showed a significant relation between abuses and parents, educational level, job, addiction and divorce. Conclusion: Results showed that child abuse is common among families, therefore, monitoring of children, ratification of rules supporting children, planing and administration of preventive educational programs can be effective to reduce child abuse.
The need to foster healthy lifestyle is essential in health profession and pertinent to prevent obesity and future morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular metabolic risk factors. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2016) 5(3), 45-55. Keywords: Obesity, overweight, risk, practicing Nurses, Kumasi ...
Apr 7, 2014 ... This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Terms & Conditions of ... Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young .... Communities are urged to give young people opportunities to play a role in poli-.
Cayley E. Velazquez
In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.
Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura
South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.
Aims:The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices and related diseases among Libyan students and employees.Methods: Six hundred selfadministered structured questionnaires were used to investigate self-perception of halitosis and oral hygiene practices among a ...
2Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia ... Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of death in the world. ... were stratified by gender. Percents and .... The success of the.
Gupta, Madhu; Gupta, Bhupinder P; Chauhan, Anil; Bhardwaj, Ashok
Data on eye diseases among school children is not readily available. Considering the fact that one-third of India's blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under five when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. To estimate the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age 6-16 years. Government and private coeducational schools in urban area of Shimla. Cross-sectional. Government and private coeducational schools selected by stratified random sampling. About 1561 school children, studying in elementary through secondary class in these schools were examined from August 2001 to January 2002 in Shimla. A doctor did visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic examination. The Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level. Prevalence of ocular morbidity was 31.6% (CI=29.9-32.1%), refractive errors 22% (CI=21.1-22.8%), squint 2.5% (CI=2.4-2.6%), color blindness 2.3% (CI=2.2-2.4%), vitamin A deficiency 1.8 % (CI=1.7-1.9%), conjunctivitis 0.8% (CI=0.79-0.81%). Overall prevalence of ocular morbidity in government and private schools did not show any statistical significant difference. Prevalence of conjunctivitis was significantly (P< 0.5) more in government schools. A high prevalence of ocular morbidity among high-school children was observed. Refractive errors were the most common ocular disorders.
Full Text Available Background: Data on eye diseases among school children is not readily available. Considering the fact that one-third of India′s blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under five when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age 6-16 years. Settings: Government and private coeducational schools in urban area of Shimla. Design: Cross-sectional Materials and Methods: Government and private coeducational schools selected by stratified random sampling. About 1561 school children, studying in elementary through secondary class in these schools were examined from August 2001 to January 2002 in Shimla. A doctor did visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic examination. Statistical analysis: The Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity was 31.6% (CI=29.9-32.1%, refractive errors 22% (CI=21.1-22.8%, squint 2.5% (CI=2.4-2.6%, color blindness 2.3% (CI=2.2-2.4%, vitamin A deficiency 1.8 % (CI=1.7-1.9%, conjunctivitis 0.8% (CI=0.79-0.81%. Overall prevalence of ocular morbidity in government and private schools did not show any statistical significant difference. Prevalence of conjunctivitis was significantly (P< 0.5 more in government schools. Conclusion: A high prevalence of ocular morbidity among high-school children was observed. Refractive errors were the most common ocular disorders.
Schonwetter, Dieter J; Schwartz, Barry
Practice management has become an increasingly important aspect of dental education over the years in order to better prepare students for the reality of practice. The aim of this study was to quantify and describe practice management courses taught at the ten Canadian dental schools in order to identify common approaches, compare hours, determine types of instructors, and assess the relationship between courses' learning objectives and the Association of Canadian Faculties of Dentistry (ACFD) competencies and Bloom's cognitive levels. The academic deans at these ten schools were surveyed in 2016; all ten schools responded for a 100% response rate. The authors also gathered syllabi and descriptions of the courses and analyzed them for themes. The results showed a total of 22 practice management courses in the ten Canadian dental schools. The courses provided 27 to 109 hours of teaching and were mostly taught in the third and fourth years and by dentists on three main topics: ethics, human resource management, and running a private practice. The courses were correlated to the ACFD competencies related to ethics, professionalism, application of basic principles of business practices, and effective interpersonal communication. Most of the courses' learning objectives addressed comprehension and knowledge in Bloom's cognitive levels of learning. These results can help to guide discussions on how practice management courses can be developed, improved, and refined to meet the challenges of preparing students for dental practice.
Hall, Richard; Ellis, Richard; Hardin, Tim
This manual, written in response to requirements of the Washington State legislature, focuses on practices which can be undertaken during the siting, design, construction, or renovation of a school, recommends practices to help ensure good indoor air quality during building occupancy, and suggests protocols and useful reference documents for…
It is crucial to the progression of the school counselling profession that counsellors-in-training receive the training, knowledge, and practice in leadership that they need to counter systemic challenges that they may face. Effective leadership practices have been shown in research to be instrumental in promoting program delivery success in the…
Rossiter, Melissa; Glanville, Theresa; Taylor, Jennifer; Blum, Ilya
Background: Schoolteachers can affect students' eating habits in several ways: through nutrition knowledge, positive role modeling, and avoidance of unhealthy classroom food practices. In this study, the knowledge, attitudes, and eating behaviors of prospective teachers as determinants of intended classroom food practices and the school…
Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad A; Ehsani, Fatemeh; Behtash, Hamid; Ghanipour, Marziyeh
The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in teachers and to evaluate the association of individual and occupational characteristics with the prevalence of LBP. In this cross-sectional study, 586 asymptomatic teachers were randomly selected from 22 primary and high schools in Semnan city of Iran. Data on the personal, occupational characteristics, pain intensity, and functional disability as well as the prevalence and risk factors of LBP were collected using different questionnaires. Point, last month, last 6 months, annual, and lifetime prevalence rates of LBP were 21.8%, 26.3%, 29.6%, 31.1%, and 36.5%, respectively. The highest prevalence was obtained for the high school teachers. The prevalence of LBP was significantly associated with age, body mass index, job satisfaction, and length of employment (P teachers appears to be high. High school teachers were more likely to experience LBP than primary school teachers. Factors such as age, body mass index, length of employment, job satisfaction, and work-related activities were significant factors associated with LBP in this teacher population. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abou Ella, Mahmoud; Saleh, Marwa; Habil, Ihab; El Sawy, Mohammed; El Assal, Lamia
To determine the prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo. A cross-sectional design was employed. Using a multi-stage random sample from 10 schools in Cairo, a total of 8765 primary school students were enrolled in the study. The teacher referring method was initially used to detect stuttering students, which was then confirmed by a Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Personal data were collected for all students and separate questionnaires were administered to the parents of each stuttering child, inquiring about consanguinity, family history, presence of other disorders and family attitudes towards the child. Prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo was 1.03%. The prevalence of stuttering showed a declining trend in the older age group. Stuttering was 7-fold more prevalent among left-handed students. Males had a higher prevalence of stuttering, but didn't reach statistical significance. Anxiety was expressed in 25% of the families of affected children. Positive family history was found in 28% of cases, mainly among first-degree relatives. The current study showed a prevalence of stuttering comparable to other areas of the world with some evidence of hereditary background, although lower than that reported by other studies.
Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Paccaud, Fred
We compared the prevalence of body weight categories between public and private schools in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. In 2004-2006, weight and height were measured and self-reported information on physical activity collected in children of three selected grades in all schools in the country. Overweight, obesity and thinness were defined according to standard criteria. Based on 8 462 students (377 in private schools), the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was markedly higher in private than public schools (boys: 37% [95% CI: 31-44] vs. 15% [14-16]; girls: 33% [26-41] vs. 20% [19-22]). The prevalence of thinness grade 1 was lower in private than public schools (boys: 9% [5-13] vs. 20% [19-21]; girls: 13% [8-18] vs. 19% [18-20]). Students in private schools reported more physical activity at leisure time while students in public schools reported larger weekly walking time. Our findings suggest that school type may be a useful indicator for assessing the association between socio-economic status and overweight in children, and that overweight affects wealthy children more often than others in developing countries.
Farsi, Deema J.; Elkhodary, Heba M.; Merdad, Leena A.; Farsi, Najat M.A.; Alaki, Sumer M.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Bakhaidar, Haneen A.; Alolayyan, Mohammed A.
Objectives To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child’s caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p<0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC. PMID:27874156
Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Wataha, John C; Heaton, Lisa J; Rothen, Marilynn; Sobieraj, Martin; Scott, JoAnna; Berg, Joel
The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain, yet appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. The authors conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices and to investigate associated risk factors. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 787 adult patients from 37 general dental practices within Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed by means of participants' responses to a question regarding pain in their teeth and gingivae, and practitioner-investigators conducted a clinical examination to rule out alternative causes of pain. Participants recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale and the Seattle Scales in response to a one-second air blast. The authors used generalized estimating equation log-linear models to estimate the prevalence and the prevalence ratios. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was 12.3 percent; patients with hypersensitivity had, on average, 3.5 hypersensitive teeth. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was higher among 18- to 44-year olds than among participants 65 years or older; it also was higher in women than in men, in participants with gingival recession than in those without gingival recession and in participants who underwent at-home tooth whitening than in those who did not. Hypersensitivity was not associated with obvious occlusal trauma, noncarious cervical lesions or aggressive toothbrushing habits. One in eight participants from general practices had dentin hypersensitivity, which was a chronic condition causing intermittent, low-level pain. Patients with hypersensitivity were more likely to be younger, to be female and to have a high prevalence of gingival recession and at-home tooth whitening. Given dentin hypersensitivity's prevalence, clinicians should diagnose it only after
Reeder, Anthony I; Jopson, Janet A; Gray, Andrew
For schools with primary age students, to report the percentages meeting specific requirements of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP). Schools were randomly selected, within geographic regions, from the Ministry of Education schools database. A questionnaire, mailed to school principals, assessed schools regarding 12 criteria for accreditation: policy, information, hats, 'play in the shade', sunscreen, clothing, role modelling, curriculum, planning, rescheduling, shade provision and review. Post-stratification weights (for achieving each criterion) were used to compensate for oversampling within some regions and differential response rates between regions, using the number of schools per region. 388 schools (representative in socioeconomic decile, size and type) participated. Less than 4% fully met accreditation criteria. Clothing (42%), curriculum delivery and shade (each 54%) requirements were met by the fewest schools. Staff role modelling (92%) was the most commonly met. Schools with uniforms tended to have more protective clothing expectations. Ongoing promotion is needed to consolidate gains and encourage comprehensive sun protection through policies, practices, environment and curriculum. Staff role modelling requirements may be strengthened by implementing existing occupational guidelines for mitigating UVR hazards. There is a need to further assist schools, particularly regarding sun protective clothing, curriculum delivery and environmental shade.
This study explores smartness as a cultural construct rather than a biological capacity. The cultural construction of smartness has broad consequences related to teacher expectations, student academic identity development, and schooling inequities. This study is based on a 1-year ethnography in a kindergarten classroom, and the author investigates…
Federal laws address some of the factors that have been associated with school failure, specifically poverty and disability. The primary federally funded legislation that addresses the needs of at-risk youths in public are the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 2004 and No Child Left Behind (2002). This article reviews the intended…
Green, Monica; Somerville, Margaret
Many teachers are keen to implement sustainability education in primary schools but are lacking the confidence, skills and knowledge to do so. Teachers report that they do not understand the concept and cannot integrate sustainability into an already overcrowded curriculum. Identifying how teachers successfully integrate sustainability education…
Jan 13, 2011 ... Another possible explanation for the low prevalence of ... April 12, 2011, IP: 22.214.171.124] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal ... appear to be neater than boys, as they pay more attention.
Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9% of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004. Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001, that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007, but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9 and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87 and hyperopia (OR=11.87, were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.
Data was collected using the validated International study of Asthma and Allergies in .... lowed up by phone or visited at home. Asthma case was defined based on the ISAAC criteria of wheezing in the ... the erroneous data entry record to reflect the participant .... work has shown difference in asthma prevalence within.
Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Butler, Michelle; Bell, Andrew Colin; Wyse, Rebecca; Campbell, Elizabeth; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John
School-based vegetable and fruit programs can increase student consumption of vegetables and fruit and have been recommended for adoption by Australian schools since 2005. An understanding of the prevalence and predictors of and the barriers to the adoption of school-based vegetable and fruit programs is necessary to maximize their adoption by schools and ensure that the health benefits of such programs to children are realized. The aim of this study was to determine Australian primary school Principals' attitudes and barriers to the implementation of vegetable and fruit breaks; the prevalence of vegetable and fruit breaks in schools and the implementation strategies used and associated with their recommended adoption (daily in at least 80% of classes). A random sample of 384 school Principals completed a 20-min telephone interview. While Principals were highly supportive of vegetable and fruit breaks, only 44% were implementing these to a recommended level. When controlling for all school characteristics, recommended vegetable and fruit break adoption was 1.9 and 2.2 times greater, respectively, in schools that had parent communication strategies and teachers trained. A substantial opportunity exists to enhance the health of children through the adoption of vegetable and fruit breaks in schools.
Haile Fentahun Darge
Full Text Available Background. Visual impairment and blindness are major public health problems in developing countries where there is no enough health-care service. Objective. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment among school children. Materials and Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 15 June 2015 and 30 November 2015 at Arada subcity primary schools, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Two schools were selected randomly, and 378 students were screened from grades 1 to 8 using systematic random sampling method. Snellen chart was used for visual acuity test. Students who had visual acuity of ≤6/12 were further examined by an ophthalmologist to diagnose the reason for low vision. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 378 students were screened, and 192 (50.8% were females and the remaining 186 (49.2% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VA of ≤6/12 on either eye was 5.8%, VA < 6/18 on either eye was 1.1%, and VA < 6/18 on the better eye was 0.53%. In this study, color blindness [OR: 19.65, 95% CI (6.01–64.33] was significantly associated with visual acuity impairment. Conclusion. The prevalence of visual impairment among school children in the study area was 5.8% and school screening is recommended.
Darge, Haile Fentahun; Shibru, Getahun; Mulugeta, Abiy; Dagnachew, Yinebeb Mezgebu
Visual impairment and blindness are major public health problems in developing countries where there is no enough health-care service. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment among school children. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 15 June 2015 and 30 November 2015 at Arada subcity primary schools, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Two schools were selected randomly, and 378 students were screened from grades 1 to 8 using systematic random sampling method. Snellen chart was used for visual acuity test. Students who had visual acuity of ≤6/12 were further examined by an ophthalmologist to diagnose the reason for low vision. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. A total of 378 students were screened, and 192 (50.8%) were females and the remaining 186 (49.2%) were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VA) of ≤6/12 on either eye was 5.8%, VA visual acuity impairment. The prevalence of visual impairment among school children in the study area was 5.8% and school screening is recommended.
Ndetei, David Musyimi; Mutiso, Victoria; Musyimi, Christine; Mokaya, Aggrey G; Anderson, Kelly K; McKenzie, Kwame; Musau, Abednego
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders among upper primary school children in grades five through seven in Kenya. The Youth Self Report (YSR) instrument was adapted for use in Kenyan schools and administered to 2267 school children in grades five through seven from 23 randomly selected schools. We estimated the prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders, and used logistic regression analyses to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with each disorder. The prevalence of any mental disorder among Kenyan school children was 37.7 % (95 % CI = 35.7-39.7 %). Somatic complaints were the most prevalent (29.6 %, 95 % CI = 27.8-31.5 %), followed by affective disorders (14.1 %, 95 % CI = 12.7-15.6 %) and conduct disorder (12.5 %, 95 % CI = 11.2-13.9). The presence of one or more comorbid mental disorder was seen among 18.2 % (95 % CI = 16.6-19.8 %) of children. Male sex, living in a peri-urban vs. rural area, being held back in school, having divorced or separated parents, and having an employed mother were associated with an increased likelihood of having most of the mental disorders examined, whereas increasing age was associated with a reduced likelihood. We observed a high prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kenya. If not detected early, these disorders may interfere with children's psychological, social, and educational development. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing screening measures in schools that can detect single and multiple disorders in order to improve the mental health and well-being of the next generation.
Ahmad, T.; Bilal, R.; Khanum, A.
Most Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infected individuals remain asymptomatic, but the presence of H. pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Despite the fact of high prevalence of H. pylori infection around the world, data about its prevalence in children in Pakistan is scanty. Our study was the first epidemiologic study in Pakistan designed to assess H. pylori prevalence in a school based population of children without gastrointestinal symptoms. The children were enrolled from three schools in the suburbs of Islamabad and their anthropometric data were noted. The non-invasive urea breath test was applied to find the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Overall, 72.3% of apparently healthy children were harboring the H. pylori bacterium and the prevalence was 69% in 3-6 years, 71% in 7-8 years, 79% in 9-10 years, 76% in 11-12 years and 55% in 13-16 years of age. The prevalence decreased in the higher age group significantly, while gender was not a risk factor for acquiring this infection as the prevalence of infection was not significantly different in males and females (74.0% vs. 70.3%, p=0.41). The lower prevalence in higher age group might be explained by change in degree of contact, Increasing antibody production with increasing age or improvement in sanitary habits of children as compared to younger children. (author)
Schools are challenged to improve classroom practices as they are expected to enhance students’ motivation. While leadership, school organizational conditions and teacher factors are considered essential for improving classroom practices, more should be known about the interplay between school
M OMRANI FARD
Full Text Available Introduction. Bifid uvulae is a silent abnormality in children which can almost exist without clinical problems but in some instances it is accompanied with either sub mucosal cleft and hypernasality.
Methods. In a cross sectional study, the examiners carried out oral examination of 3000 children and the structure of the uvulae was evaluated as normal or bifid.
Results. The prevalence of bifid uvula was 0.8 percent (25 children. Positive family history, familial marriage and positive teratogen exposure history were detected in four, twenty and eight percent of bifid uvalae cases, respectively.
Discussion. Bifid uvulue prevalence in European and American children was reported more than our findings. This gap may be due to different cultural habits as well as environmental factors.
Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico
We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and
Background: Though strabismus is a common presenting ocular problem at outpatient clinics of ophthalmology its magnitude in Ethiopia is not known. Objective: To determine the magnitude and type of manifest strabismus and strabismic amblyopia among pre-school children. Methods: A cros-sectional study was ...
Alcohol, khat and cigarettes were commonly used by both high school and college students in urban as well as rural areas. While the use patterns of the substances were related to the gender, education/age and religion of the users, no clear-cut patterns were observed in relation to several other factors including ...
Full Text Available Background Obesity has a permanent effect on childrens’ health and acts as a major risk factor for chronic diseases. Therefore considering children BMI is a vital parameter at each visit. Objectives This study was performed to assess the prevalence of obesity and its determinants in school children of Zahedan in Iran. Zahedan is the capital of Sistan-and-Balouchestan province known to have the highest prevalence of underweight in Iranian children. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 3582 school children, among which 1786 were girls and 1796 boys in 2012. The students aged 6 to 13 years old and selected based on a stratified random method. The body mass index (BMI was measured for each student and being overweight/obesity was determined based on CDC 2000 definitions. Prevalence proportions were estimated by weighing the sample. The study was performed at primary and guidance schools of Zahedan. Samples were stratified from two geographic regions of Zahedan (Zone 1 and 2. Results In the sample, 78.9% were under 85th percentile, 11.8% were overweight (85th - 95th percentile and 9.3% were obese (> 95th percentile. Weighted estimate for the prevalence of obesity/overweight in girls, boys and all 6 - 13 years old students were 16.2%, 18.4% and 17.4%, respectively. Presence of overweight/obesity was related to school type (private to public schools OR = 2.13, 1.80 - 2.52 and increasing age (OR = 1.12, 1.04 - 1.20. Conclusions A high prevalence of obesity was found in Zahedan students. Concurrent high prevalence of obesity/overweight and underweight demonstrates amplitude of weight problems in school children. There is an urgent need for special health programs to conduct proper diagnosis and management of obesity in Zahedan.
Takeda, Takashi; Koga, Shoko; Yaegashi, Nobuo
To determine the prevalence and the impact of premenstrual symptoms among Japanese adolescent girls, a total of 618 high school students were assessed. Of them, 64.6% were found to suffer from premenstrual symptoms, which is lower than that in adult women. On the other hand, the rates of prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD in girls were higher than those in adult women. Premenstrual symptoms could have significant consequences by interfering with the daily functioning of adolescent girls.
Bjordal, Sunniva Alsvik; Skumsnes, Toril; Ørland, Anette
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of video game addiction among high school students (N = 531) in Hordaland county, Norway. Video game addiction measured by the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents was estimated both by a monothetic and a polythetic format. The prevalence was found to be 2.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Regression analyses were conducted where video game addiction comprised the dependent variable. Demographic variables, depression, anxiety, lone...
Francisco Tiago Ricarte Gonçalves
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of chronic diseases and use of medicines among elders who practice supervised physical activity. Methods: The study was conducted from September to October 2011 with 148 individuals, aged over 60 years, women (N =109 and men (N = 39 who practiced supervised physical activity, divided into Group 1– water aerobics, Group 2 - weight training, and Group 3 - gymnastics / walking. It was used a questionnaire with general questions (gender, age, type of exercise and closedended questions about health problems and use of medicines. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, absolute and relative frequency, and Chi-Square test were used for data analysis with a significance level of p <0.05. Results: There was a high prevalence of diseases of the metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems among women in the three groups. There was a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among men in the three groups. Regarding the use of medicines, all groups presented a higher prevalence of antihypertensive medication use by both genders. Conclusion: There was no significant difference (for both genders in the prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases affecting organ systems among the groups of elders who practiced physical exercise. There was a high prevalence of elders affected by disorders relating to the musculoskeletalsystem and use of antihypertensive medication. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p372
Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ≥ 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.
Zayed, Ayman A; Beano, Abdallah M; Haddadin, Faris I; Radwan, Sohab S; Allauzy, Suhaib A; Alkhayyat, Motasem M; Al-Dahabrah, Zaid A; Al-Hasan, Yanal G; Yousef, Al-Motassem F
The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated. The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones. Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.
Hinton, Christina; Fischer, Kurt W.
Education lacks a strong infrastructure for connecting research with educational practice and policy. The need for this linkage grows as findings in cognitive science and biology become ever more relevant to education. Teachers often lack the background knowledge needed to interpret scientific results, whereas scientists often lack an…
Paul, Mohd Altaf; Khan, Waheeda
Prevalence of mental disorders among children is affected by armed conflict and same is true in protracted conflict of Kashmir, where the ongoing conflict has affected mental health of children badly. In order to understand mental health condition of school going children, the present study was designed to study the nature and prevalence of mental disorders among school children in Kashmir valley. The present study employed multi-stage sampling and multi-informant reporting of mental health problems in children. A sample of 1000 school children was taken from 12 schools of Shopian district through systematic random sampling method. Data was collected at different levels of screening by using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Teacher form) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI-Kid). Socio-demographic data sheet was included to gather relevant information. The prevalence rates of mental disorders among school children were presented at different levels of screening. It was found to be 27.1% based on SDQ and 22.2% when assessed by MINI-Kid at second level of screening. The most commonly found mental disorders were of anxiety (8.5%), followed by mood disorders (6.3%) and then behavioural disorders (4.3%). Percentage of schoolgoing children with mental disorders in Kashmir is much more than in other states of India. The political conflict in the state and lack of mental health facilities give rise to high prevalence rates of mental disorders and warrant our urgent attention.
Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.
Miranda, Lavinia Pimentel; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Torres, Rosália Morais; Meira, Zilda Maria Alves
Background: Previous studies indicate that compared with physical examination, Doppler echocardiography identifies a larger number of cases of rheumatic heart disease in apparently healthy individuals. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease among students in a public school of Belo Horizonte by clinical evaluation and Doppler echocardiography. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 267 randomly selected school students aged between 6 and ...
Ali Daryanavard; Abdoulhossain Madani; Mohammad S. Mahmoodi; Shafei Rahimi; Fatemeh Nourooziyan; Mahmood Hosseinpoor
Problem statement: Depression is common in adolescents and especially in high school students. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression among high school students and its relation to parental configurations. Approach: A cross-sectional study was conducted during first term of the academic year 2003-2004. Data was collected by Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI-21 test) and researcher made questionnaire for demographic characteristics, using census procedur...
Pereira, Adelino; Cardoso, Francisco
AbstractSuicidal ideation is often an indicator of mental health problems and a major risk factor for suicide. This study aims to present the prevalence of suicidal ideation and compare students of a Portuguese university by school and gender. A total of 366 individuals from four schools completed the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (cut-off point ≥ 41 is significant) and specific questions about lifetime and past week suicidal ideation. Frequency analysis and chi-square tests were performed....
Hashim R Fida; Ismail Abdelmoneim
Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions ...
Satyajit Bagudai; Pranati Nanda; Satyanath Reddy Kodidala
Background: In the prevailing era of adult hypertension, limited data are available regarding the profile of childhood obesity & hypertension from India. We examined & studied the prevalence of childhood obesity & hypertension in a representative sample of school children from Berhampur, Odisha & tried to find out if any relationship is there or not between obesity & hypertension in those study population. Methods: In a cross sectional study we select the children from different schools o...
Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Gonzalez, Jacqueline Bocachica
The phenomenon of school leadership in Puerto Rico is explored in this study, which was an examination of the perceptions and practices of 12 elementary school principals. Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory that functions within a unique political structure yet is held to the same standards as all U.S. districts. The primary method of data collection…
Kline, Emily R; Chokran, Cole; Rodenhiser-Hill, Janine; Seidman, Larry J; Woodberry, Kristen A
Many school districts in the United States employ mental health professionals to provide assessment, counselling and crisis interventions within the school setting; however, little is known about actual clinical practices of psychosis screening in schools. The aim of the present study is to examine attitudes and practices regarding psychosis screening among school mental health providers in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. School-based mental health clinicians (N = 100) completed an anonymous survey assessing familiarity, screening, and involvement with psychosis and psychosis risk prior to attending trainings on psychosis. Providers reported screening for psychosis less often than other mental health problems and rated themselves as less confident treating psychosis relative to other mental health concerns. Frequency of screening for psychosis was significantly associated with familiarity with psychosis assessment and case management, confidence providing treatment for individuals experiencing psychosis, and the number of students with or at risk for psychosis with whom providers had been involved. Frequency of screening for psychosis was not associated with years of practice, suggesting that both novice and experienced school-based providers may benefit from training on this issue. Community outreach via school-based provider training on assessment and management of psychosis may help to increase providers' understanding of psychosis and increase the practice of verbal or written screening for psychosis and psychosis risk within schools. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Evans, Michael; Fisher, Linda
The aim of this paper is to give an account of the response of secondary schools to the primary school foreign language teaching initiative recently introduced by the UK government. The paper also explores defining features of the process of cross-phase interaction and the role that knowledge and collaborative practice plays in generating change…
McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon
This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…
Huseyin, Aksu Hasan
The aim of this study is to determine elementary mathematics teachers' thoughts and feelings on the courses of school-experience and teacher-practice. In this study was used the qualitative research method. Those involved in the study were 20 mathematics teachers employed in formal/government primary schools in the Province of Giresun and in the…
Holt, Sheryl L; Kuperstein, Janice; Effgen, Susan K
Surveys have reported that most school-based physical therapists perceive ideal practices are not commonly implemented in their settings. Our aim was to obtain a more in-depth understanding of these perceptions through open-ended inquiry. Qualitative data were derived from voluntary open-ended responses provided upon completion of a survey regarding school-based physical therapy practice. Of the survey's 561 participants, 250 provided open-ended commentaries that were analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Six qualitative themes emerged from the open-ended responses, including: In quest: Meeting students' school-based needs via physical therapy; Seeking relatedness: Finding working teams in the school system; Building understanding: Developing a voice/identity in the school context; Stretched beyond limits: Managing workloads; Networking: Coordinating services outside school to meet student needs; Defying definition: What does working in an educational model mean? School-based physical therapists seek to meet educationally relevant physical therapy needs of students, ages 3 to 21 years. Successes appear woven of a multitude of factors such as therapist expertise, team dynamics, and district supports.
Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.
Stunting in primary school-aged children is a kind of health and nutrition problem in Indonesia which has an impact on the human quality resources degradation. This research aimed to determine the stunting prevalence and the risk factors associated with stunting in primary school children in North Sumatra Province. This research is an analysis of cross-sectional approach. The total sampleis 400 children aged 8-13 years old were in the study from the Medan city and Langkat regency in July - October 2017. Data collected by using questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Stunting (<-2 SD of height-for-age Z-score) were defined by using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used toassess the association between risk factors and stunting. The prevalence of stunting in primary school children was 38.87%. The factors associated with stunting school children were theeducation of mother (OR=1.53), income (OR=2.27), work of mother (OR=1.39), energy intake (OR=2.66) and protein intake (OR=2.02). The dominant factor that influences stunting in school children was energy intake. The conclusion of this study is stunting prevalence in school children in NorthSumatra higher.
Pawar, Sunil V; Choksey, Ajay S; Jain, Samit S; Surude, Ravindra G; Rathi, Pravin M
The paediatric obesity is on the rise so as the complications of obesity like cardiovascular diseases, liver diseases, dyslipidaemia are increasing. The changing dietary habits and less of outdoor activities are risk factors for obesity. The study was conducted to find out prevalence of overweight and obesity among students in four schools of the Mumbai and compare with studies from rest of the country. It is school based, cross-sectional study conducted in four Schools from class of 5(th) to 10(th). The anthropometric measurements of height, weight were taken of each student. The body mass index was calculated based on the age based Cole et al., criteria (International) as well as Khadilkar et al., criteria which are specially develop for Indian children. The data was analysed with chi-square test. Total 1828 students were screened from 4 schools. Out of which 590 were girls and 1238 were boys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity by Cole et al., criteria were 11.3% and 3.3% and by Khadilkar et al., criteria were 17.5% and 7.8 % respectively. It shows significant difference in obesity between boys and girls and also between government and private schools. There is overall decrease in prevalence of overweight and obesity as age increases. The overweight and obesity among these schools in Mumbai is comparable with the rest of the studies from India.
Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Fatigue is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance, we attempted to determine whether cognitive functions were associated with the prevalence of fatigue. Participants were 148 elementary school students from 4th- to 6th-grades and 152 junior high school students from 7th- to 9th-grades. Participants completed a questionnaire about fatigue (Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale) and paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests which could evaluate the abilities of motor processing, immediate, delayed and working memory, selective, divided and alternative attention, retrieve learned material, and spatial construction. We found that in multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, slow motor processing was positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the elementary school students and decreases in working memory and divided and alternative attention processing were positively correlated with the prevalence of fatigue in the junior high school students. The grade-dependent development of cognitive function influences the severity of fatigue in elementary and junior high school students. Copyright © 2010 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Phillippo, Kate L.; Blosser, Allison
This article analyzes school social work's history to provide perspective on current dilemmas in social work practice and research. The authors use interstitial emergence theory, which holds that practices from overlapping fields (like social work and K-12 education) can develop into new fields, as an analytic framework. This perspective extends…
Cramm, Heidi; Egan, Mary
Poor handwriting is a common reason for referral to school-based occupational therapy. A survey was used to explore the extent to which current practice patterns in Ontario, Canada, align with evidence on effective intervention for handwriting. Knowledge-to-practice gaps were identified related to focus on performance components versus…
Goossens, Nicole; Camp, Gino; Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Zwaan, Rolf
Distributed practice and retrieval practice are promising learning strategies to use in education. We examined the effects of these strategies in primary school vocabulary lessons. Grades 2, 3, 4, and 6 children performed exercises that were part of the regular curriculum. For the distributed
Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.
Most research on urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa has concentrated on farming by individual urban households, while farming by urban institutions has been largely overlooked. Probably the most prevalent and important type of institutional urban agriculture is school farming, the focus of this
Full Text Available Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5–15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Children needing further assessment were referred to a higher center. Interpretation and analysis of the data were done using Epi Info Software and t-test. Results: A total of 4838 students (2271 males and 2567 females were screened. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 29.35% (28.65% urban, 30.05% rural. Refractive error (17.36% was the major cause of ocular morbidity followed by convergence insufficiency (2.79%, blepharitis (2.11%, Vitamin A deficiency (2.09%, allergic conjunctivitis (1.92%, bacterial conjunctivitis (0.95%, amblyopia (0.41%, stye (0.31% and squint (0.27%. There was an increase in ocular morbidity with age, especially in refractive error and convergence insufficiency. On comparing urban and rural schools, Vitamin A deficiency showed a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05% in the rural (3.03% as compared to the urban sector (1.15%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 4.9/1000 children, and prevalence of blindness was 0.62/1000 children. Conclusion: This study was the first of its kind in West Uttar Pradesh, reporting a considerable high prevalence (29.35% of pediatric ocular morbidity, which was more in rural as compared to the urban sector. Since most of this morbidity is either preventable or treatable, school screening forms an effective method to reduce this load.
Singh, Veer; Malik, K P S; Malik, V K; Jain, Kirti
Aim of the Study: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and to make a comparison between the ocular morbidity pattern in school going children of urban and rural areas of West Uttar Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was adopted to examine children aged 5–15 years in randomly selected urban and rural schools of West Uttar Pradesh from June 2012 to August 2014. An optometrist did the vision and refraction, and a detailed ophthalmic examination was done by an ophthalmologist. Children needing further assessment were referred to a higher center. Interpretation and analysis of the data were done using Epi Info Software and t-test. Results: A total of 4838 students (2271 males and 2567 females) were screened. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 29.35% (28.65% urban, 30.05% rural). Refractive error (17.36%) was the major cause of ocular morbidity followed by convergence insufficiency (2.79%), blepharitis (2.11%), Vitamin A deficiency (2.09%), allergic conjunctivitis (1.92%), bacterial conjunctivitis (0.95%), amblyopia (0.41%), stye (0.31%) and squint (0.27%). There was an increase in ocular morbidity with age, especially in refractive error and convergence insufficiency. On comparing urban and rural schools, Vitamin A deficiency showed a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05%) in the rural (3.03%) as compared to the urban sector (1.15%). The prevalence of visual impairment was 4.9/1000 children, and prevalence of blindness was 0.62/1000 children. Conclusion: This study was the first of its kind in West Uttar Pradesh, reporting a considerable high prevalence (29.35%) of pediatric ocular morbidity, which was more in rural as compared to the urban sector. Since most of this morbidity is either preventable or treatable, school screening forms an effective method to reduce this load. PMID:28643716
Hannan Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743
Alfred Raymund C. Panopio
Full Text Available This scholarly work aimed to determine the child care practices that have the potential in honing a child with good school performance. The result of the study led to the formulation of a model that typifies the good child care practices. Since children are on the accepting side, it is the way parents raise a nd rear them that will influence what they will be in the near future. The participants were selected as they are included in the top performing public schools in Batangas City , Philippines . The parents and teachers of the said child were the respondents to assess the ability of the child. A total of 215 students from grades 4 to 6 were selected as the target sample. Descriptive correlational design was utilized to determine the relationship between the child care practices and school performance. A self - made questionnaire was formulated and used face validity and content reliability to come up with the most appropriate instrument. Frequency distribution, weighted mean and chi square were th e statistical tests utilized to aid the analysis of data. Based on the result of the study, breastfeeding, proper hygiene, allowing the child to participate in family conversation and providing monetary allowance were among the practices that lead to child ren’s good school performance. Having knowledge on these practices will guide parents in giving their child a better and assured future, and eventually benefit their children as they become parents themselves.
Alfred Raymund C. Panopio
This scholarly work aimed to determine the child care practices that have the potential in honing a child with good school performance. The result of the study led to the formulation of a model that typifies the good child care practices. Since children are on the accepting side, it is the way parents raise a nd rear them that will influence what they will be in the near future. The participants were selected as they are included in the top p...
Full Text Available A questionnaire study of 26,228 pupils of grades 3 through 8 in 50 primary schools across Serbia, conducted in spring 2006, indicated that in a three-month period, 65.3% of the pupils stated that they experienced some form of peer violence (the percentage varies by school, between 48% and 80%. An analysis of repeated violence cases identifies 20.7% of the pupils as victims, 3.8% as perpetrators of violence, and 3.6% as victims/perpetrators. Adult violence is reported by 35.7% of the pupils, while 42% have witnessed verbal aggression of pupils towards teachers. The most frequent forms of peer violence reported were insults (45.6% and plotting (32.6%. Boys declared themselves as perpetrators of violence somewhat more frequently than girls, and they were somewhat more often exposed to peer and adult violence. Older pupils were more frequently violent and more often reported adult violence, while age differences in exposure to violence were minimal. .
Ishikuro, Mami; Matsubara, Hiroko; Kikuya, Masahiro; Obara, Taku; Sato, Yuki; Metoki, Hirohito; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yokoya, Susumu; Kato, Noriko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Chida, Shoichi; Ono, Atsushi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kure, Shigeo; Kuriyama, Shinichi
To investigate the relationship between personal experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake and various disease types among nursery school children. We conducted a nationwide survey of nursery school children born between 2 April 2006 and 1 April 2007. Nursery school teachers completed questionnaires if they agreed to join the study. Questionnaire items for children consisted of their birth year and month, sex, any history of moving into or out of the current nursery school, presence of diseases diagnosed by a physician at the age of 66-78 months and type of disaster experience. The survey was conducted from September 2012 to December 2012. Japan, nationwide. A total of 60 270 nursery school children were included in the analysis, 840 of whom experienced the disaster on 11 March 2011. The health status of children 1.5 years after the disaster based on nursery school records. Experiencing the disaster significantly affected the prevalence of overall and individual diseases. Furthermore, there was a difference in disease prevalence between boys and girls. In boys, experiencing the tsunami (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.22 to 5.24) and living in an evacuation centre (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.46 to 5.83) were remarkably associated with a higher prevalence of atopic dermatitis, but these trends were not observed among girls. Instead, the home being destroyed (OR 3.50, 95% CI 2.02 to 6.07) and moving house (OR 4.19, 95% CI 2.01 to 8.71) were positively associated with a higher prevalence of asthma among girls. Our study indicates that experiencing the disaster may have affected the health status of nursery school children at least up to 1.5 years after the disaster. Continuous monitoring of the health status of children is necessary to develop strategic plans for child health.
Hallam, Susan; Parsons, Samantha
The adoption of streaming in the primary school (where children are placed in a class on the basis of measures of attainment and remain in that class all of the time) was commonplace when the 11 plus examination was used to select children for grammar school places. During the 1950s and 1960s the practice died out with most children being taught…
Nyala, Joseph; Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham; Tse, Newel
Stakeholders of mathematics education decry the rate at which students' performance are falling below expectation; they call for a shift to practical methods of teaching the subject in Ghanaian basic schools. The study explores the extent to which Ghanaian basic school mathematics teachers use problem-solving approach in their lessons. The…
Full Text Available School gardens have beneficial effects on children’s dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10–13 years old in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium. We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden, but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves. In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children’s health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.
Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi
Full Text Available Communication disorder is a widespread disabling problems and associated with adverse, long term outcome that impact on individuals, families and academic achievement of children in the school years and affect vocational choices later in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of speech disorders specifically stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders in primary school students in Iran-Yazd. In a descriptive study, 7881 primary school students in Yazd evaluated in view from of speech disorders with use of direct and face to face assessment technique in 2005. The prevalence of total speech disorders was 14.8% among whom 13.8% had speech-sound disorder, 1.2% stuttering and 0.47% voice disorder. The prevalence of speech disorders was higher than in males (16.7% as compared to females (12.7%. Pattern of prevalence of the three speech disorders was significantly different according to gender, parental education and by number of family member. There was no significant difference across speech disorders and birth order, religion and paternal consanguinity. These prevalence figures are higher than more studies that using parent or teacher reports.
Pham, Hoai Danh; Nguyen, Huu Bao Han; Tran, Diep Tuan
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children. It affects not only the subjects but also their families and society. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in South Vietnam, especially Vinh Long province. Children were chosen randomly from primary schools in Vinh Long from February to March in 2009 in a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of ADHD using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV for parents/caregivers and teachers. ADHD Rating Scale-IV was based on DSM-IV for diagnosis of ADHD. A total of 600 children were chosen and 1200 reports were collected from parents/caregivers and teachers. The prevalence rate of ADHD was 7.7%. The rates of the predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive type and combined type were 1.7%, 5% and 1%, respectively. The difference in sex was not significant across all subtypes. The prevalence of ADHD in urban children was 2.2-fold that in rural children. The prevalence of ADHD in primary school children in Vinh Long, southern Vietnam, is in the same range as other regions in the world. Therefore, awareness of ADHD needs to be raised, to ensure suitable psychiatric care for children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
DePaolis, Kathryn; Williford, Anne
Background: Despite growing concern about the impact of cyberbullying on youth, few studies to date have investigated this phenomenon among elementary school samples. Consequently, little is known about cyber victimization exposure among younger children. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and nature of cyber…
Kirigwi, Lucy Wambui; Maithya, Redempta
Private tuition refers to tutoring offered outside mainstream teaching. The study sought to establish the difference in prevalence for private tuition among parents, teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Machakos County. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target populations were all teachers, parents and pupils of public…
Conclusion: Regarding the high prevalence of MS in elementary school children in our region, screening for obesity is recommended to prevent adulthood complications. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are the most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity.
Popovic-Citic, Branislava; Djuric, Sladjana; Cvetkovic, Vladimir
Cyberbullying has become widespread, and is generating growing concerns as it affects students and school climates in general. The objective of this article is to investigate the prevalence of cyberbullying among Serbian adolescents. Special emphasis was placed on gender differences regarding different forms of cyberbullying and victimization. In…
Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Majumdar, Antara; Evans, Steven W.; Manos, Michael J.; Caserta, Donald; Girio-Herrera, Erin L.; Pisecco, Stewart; Hannah, Jane N.; Carter, Randy L.
Background: Estimates of ADHD diagnosis and stimulant medication use vary across studies. Few studies ascertain the teacher perspective on these rates. Objective: To ascertain teachers' perceptions of ADHD prevalence and medication treatment within their classrooms. Method: The present school survey collected teacher report of identified children…
Simovska, Venka; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Madsen, Katrine Dahl
This article discusses the findings from a study mapping out the priorities, policies and practices of local authorities concerning health promotion (HP) and health education (HE) in primary and lower secondary schools in Denmark. The aim of the study was to identify the gaps, tensions and possibilities associated with the demand to increase the quality and effectiveness of HP in schools. The recent national school reform, which emphasizes the importance of health and well-being while simultaneously increasing the focus on performance and accountability in terms of subject proficiency and narrowly defined academic attainment, provides the broader political context for the study. Data were generated through a structured online survey administered to all 98 Danish municipalities. Respondents were educational consultants or others representing the administrative units responsible for the municipality's schools. The findings were discussed within the conceptual framework of Health Promoting Schools. The study points to a potential tension between the health and education sectors, despite evidence of intersectoral collaboration. While there is a strong policy focus on health and well-being in schools, it is disconnected from the utilization of the HE curriculum by the municipal consultants. The study also points to a lack of professional development opportunities for teachers in the field of HP in schools. On the basis of these findings and theoretical perspectives used, we argue that HP in schools needs to (re)connect with the core task of the school, education, and to integrate both health and education goals in local priorities, policies and practices. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Weinstock, Phyllis; Yumoto, Futoshi; Abe, Yasuyo; Meyers, Coby; Wan, Yinmei
This report describes and explains how to use the School Survey of Practices Associated with High Performance, which measures the degree to which schools are engaging in practices associated with high performance. State education departments and school districts can use the survey results to identify and describe school practices associated with…
Diarrhoea remains one of the major public health problems in developing countries. The objective of this study was to investigate potential factors of food hygiene practices of mothers in the home on the prevalence of diarrhoea among under five children in Edjemuonyavwe community, Oghara, Delta State. This descriptive ...
This study was undertaken to investigate leadership practices for Inclusive Education (IE) reform in primary schools in Bangladesh. Specifically, the study investigated leadership practice structures, views of school leaders about the accountability approach in primary schools, school leaders’ opinions on challenges to implementing IE and possible strategies to address the identified challenges. The study also explored the relationships between school variables, teachers’ demographic variabl...
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the prevalence and features of ocular allergy (OA and comorbidities among school children in Shanghai, China. Methods. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Each participant completed an ISAAC-based questionnaire. The prevalence of OA symptoms, allergic rhinitis (AR asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD, and sensitization to mites, pollen, and food was analyzed. Results. A total of 724 and 942 completed questionnaires from the 7–9-year-old (young group and the 12–14-year-old (teen group groups were analyzed, respectively. The overall prevalence of OA symptoms was 28%. However, more young students (10.6% reported mild to severe daily life interference caused by OA than the teens (5.7%. The young group had higher prevalence of diagnosed allergic conjunctivitis (10.2%. The overall prevalence of AR symptom, diagnosed asthma, and diagnosed AD was 40.4%, 11.6%, and 16.7%, respectively. Young children had higher prevalence of diagnosed AR and AD than the teens. There were gender associated differences in the prevalence of AR and asthma among young children, but not among the teens. The comorbidities associated with OA was also analyzed. Sensitization to mites, food, and pollen was associated with higher prevalence of allergic conditions. Conclusions. OA together with other allergic conditions affected a significant number of children in Shanghai.
Bibliotherapy is an old concept in library which has been used by many other professionals on different scenario to bring about a positive change or an improvement. This study investigated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of bibliotherapy concept by school counselors for challenging students in some selected ...
Hospitality Business Alliance, Chicago, IL.
This booklet highlights the efforts of four hospitality employers and one "intermediary" organization connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning for secondary school students. The introduction presents a series overview and lists the names, locations, and featured practice of the employers and organizations. The next sections…
Toremen, Fatih; Karakus, Mehmet; Yasan, Tezcan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of total quality management (TQM) practices in primary schools based on teachers' perceptions, and how their perceptions are related to different variables. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a survey based descriptive scanning model was used. This study was carried out in…
schools in developing countries was such poor value for money that it would be ... So what are the desired outcomes of practical work in science education? ... teach as best they can towards the success of their learners in those exams and think that .... thinking, thinking of logical extensions, planning a new experiment, etc.
This article describes the practical ways of bringing innovations and creativity into the school library media programme in Nigeria. Discussion focused on areas on creativity and innovations such as environmental design, staffing, outreach activities, library cooperation, and introduction of ICT system. Keywords: Innovations ...
Human resource (HR) management is defined as the sum of activities employed by an organization to attract, develop, and retain people with the appropriate knowledge and skills for effectively and efficiently achieving organizational goals. An understanding of the HR practices in schools is important, as the assembly of a team of qualified and…
Goossens, Nicole; Camp, Gino; Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib
The testing effect refers to the finding that retrieval practice leads to better long-term retention than additional study of course material. In the present study, we examined whether this finding generalizes to primary school vocabulary learning. We also manipulated the word learning context.
Averill, Robin; Harvey, Roger
Here is the only reference book you will ever need for teaching primary school mathematics and statistics. It is full of exciting and engaging snapshots of excellent classroom practice relevant to "The New Zealand Curriculum" and national mathematics standards. There are many fascinating examples of investigative learning experiences,…
Spielhofer, Thomas; Kerr, David; Gardiner, Clare
This document provides guidance on effective practice in delivering personal finance education in secondary schools. It is based on the findings from research carried out by NFER (the National Foundation for Educational Research) on behalf of pfeg (Personal Finance Education Group) as part of an evaluation of Learning Money Matters (LMM). This…
Esbrandt, Philip; Hayes, Bruce
"Cure Student Underachievement" is the culmination of the authors' research, practice, and experience as principals, superintendents, graduate professors, and consultants in efforts to improve school performance and increase student achievement. Searching for the real causes of underperformance, the authors explored problem-solving strategies in…
The purpose of this updated manual is to define and describe standardized nursing languages, highlight how nursing languages are a part of the nursing process, and illustrate through case examples how nursing languages are used in school nursing practice. This manual also summarizes the history and development of three nursing classifications, the…
This study examined the knowledge and practices of 209 public secondary school teachers in Onitsha metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria towards HIV/AIDS in order to assess their level of preparedness to deliver qualitative HIV/AIDS education within the context of a comprehensive sexuality education program. This has ...
Boccio, Dana E.; Weisz, Gaston; Lefkowitz, Rebecca
In their role as child advocates, school psychologists strive to promote policies and practices that increase the availability of necessary academic and mental health services and enhance the well-being of children. However, administrative pressure to disregard ethical and legal mandates in favor of decisions that would prioritize the needs of the…
Miller, Glenn A.; Lutz, Rafer; Fredenburg, Karen
The goal of this study was to examine the coaching philosophies, views, and practices of outstanding high school coaches of various male and female sports across the United States. The intention was to determine whether these coaches used unique or innovative techniques or strategies that contributed to their success and, if so, whether these…
The research problem addressed in this quantitative correlational study was the inadequacy of sound information security management (ISM) practices in K-12 school districts, despite their increasing ownership of information assets. Researchers have linked organizational and sociotechnical factors to the implementation of information security…
Gan, Sophie S; Zhong, Connie; Das, Shreya; Gan, Julia S; Willis, Stephanie; Tully, Eileen
Bullying is common among young students, and cyberbullying has increased due to the use of technology. This study investigates the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying among high school students and the emotional effects of bullying on students. Students at East Chapel Hill High School, Chapel Hill, North Carolina completed the Gatehouse Bullying Scale and the Peer Relations Questionnaire. They answered questions regarding how often they had experienced certain types of bullying in school and the emotional effects the bullying had on them. The combined results from both surveys indicated that the prevalence of bullying was 55% with 18% of respondents reporting cyberbullying. Teasing and name-calling were the most common types of bullying, as 40% of students reported having been teased or called names. The most serious type of bullying, being threatened with harm, hit, or kicked, occurred in 20% of boys and 8% of girls, with 25% of respondents reported "quite upset" by the experience. The majority (79%) of students who had been bullied did not share with anyone about being bullied, and of those who did, only 50% were taken seriously. Bullying is still prevalent among high school students, and cyberbullying is becoming more widespread. Most victims do not share their bullying experience, and if they did, only half believe they are taken seriously. Both bullying among students in school and cyberbullying deserve attention due to their potentially devastating effects on victims.
Jagadesan, Sonya; Harish, Ranjani; Miranda, Priya; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan
To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Chennai, India, using national and international age- and sex- specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Non communicable diseases through Group Education in Children and Adolescents (ORANGE) project is a cross-sectional study carried out on 18,955 children (age 6-11 years) and adolescents (age 12-17 years) across 51 schools (31 private and 20 government) of Chennai. Overweight and obesity was classified by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF 2000) and Khadilkars criteria (2012), and Hypertension by the IDF criteria (in children ≥10 years and adolescents). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in private compared to government schools both by the IOTF criteria [private schools: 21.4%, government schools: 3.6%, (OR: 7.4, 95% CI:6.3-8.6; POverweight/obesity was higher among girls (IOTF: 18%, Khadilkar: 21.3%) compared to boys (IOTF: 16.2%, Khadilkar: 20.7%) and higher among adolescents (IOTF: 18.1%, Khadilkar: 21.2%) compared to children (IOTF: 15.5%, Khadilkar: 20.7%). Prevalence of hypertension was 20.4% among obese/overweight and 5.2% among non-obese (OR 4.7, 95%CI: 4.2-5.3, Poverweight and obesity is high among private schools in Chennai, and hypertension is also common.
María Nieves García-Casal
Full Text Available The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females. A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%, folates (75% and vitamin A (43% deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%, and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children.
Ofovwe, Gabriel E; Ofili, Antoinette N
A cross-sectional descriptive study to determine the overall, age and gender specific prevalence, trigger factors and impact of headache and migraine on quality of life of students attending secondary schools in Benin City, Nigeria. Six secondary schools were randomly selected from which students were randomly selected. A self-administered questionnaire was used to screen those with frequent headache, defined as at least 2 episodes of headache unrelated to fever or any underlying disease within the last 12 months or at least 1 episode in the last 6 months preceding the date questionnaire was administered. Another questionnaire based on the ICHD-2 criteria for diagnosis of migraine was then administered to those with frequent headaches. Data analysis was with SPSS 13.0 for Windows. One thousand six hundred and seventy-nine students aged 11-18 years were recruited. The overall prevalence of headache was 19.5%. The prevalence of migraine was 13.5%. Migraine was more common in girls than in boys at all ages. The most common trigger factors included emotional stress, sunlight or bright light, sleep deprivation, and hunger. Inability to participate in outdoor activities, household chores, and school absenteeism were the common impacts on the quality of life of among 76.8% of the migraineurs. Migraine is common and underdiagnosed among secondary school students in Benin City, Nigeria, and negatively impacts on the quality of life including school absenteeism. © 2010 American Headache Society.
Farsi, Deema J; Elkhodary, Heba M; Merdad, Leena A; Farsi, Najat M A; Alaki, Sumer M; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Bakhaidar, Haneen A; Alolayyan, Mohammed A
To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child's caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results: Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p less than 0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p less than 0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC.
This article presents the findings of an audit on venous leg ulceration prevalence in a community area as a framework for discussing the concept and importance of audit as a tool to inform practice and as a means to benchmark care against national or international standards. It is hoped that the discussed audit will practically demonstrate how such procedures can be implemented in practice for those who have not yet undertaken it, as well as highlighting the unexpected extra benefits of this type of qualitative data collection that can often unexpectedly inform practice and influence change. Audit can be used to measure, monitor and disseminate evidence-based practice across community localities, facilitating the identification of learning needs and the instigation of clinical change, thereby prioritising patient needs by ensuring safety through the benchmarking of clinical practice.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral disorder among of primary school students in Abhar. Materials & Methods: 600 primary school students (300 boys and 300 girls of public primary schools in Abhar, Iran were used as the sample for this study. Their behavioral disorder scores were obtained by means of Rutter's teachers' questionnaire. Results: Using a cutpoint of 9, the prevalence rate of behavioral disorder was 43.3% among subjects, with boys showing higher rates of behavioral disorder (44.7% than girls (42% but no significant differences were found by gender on rates of behavioral disorders. 6.3 percent of the subjects had severe behavioral disorder. Conclusion: Academic achievement was negatively related to behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by mothers' education on children’s rates of behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by fathers' occupation on children’s rates of behavioral disorder.
Basañez, Irving; Nakku, Doreen; Stangl, Susan; Wanna, George B
Hearing loss in children is a common entity worldwide. We examined the prevalence and etiology of hearing loss among primary school children in Mbarara, Uganda. Cross-sectional study in primary school children aged 5-14 was performed to determine the prevalence of hearing loss. Ugandan primary school children were screened for disabling hearing loss (threshold >30dB) and confirmatory audiometry was performed on those who failed the screening. There were 639 children screened. Thirty-five (5.5%) of children screened failed and were referred for further testing. Two children were lost to follow-up. The percentage of children with true hearing loss was 3.1%. The incidence of failed hearing screening and hearing loss in Mbarara, Uganda is similar to other populations. Hearing loss is a significant problem in Uganda and efforts should be made for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ajaiyeoba, A I; Isawumi, M A; Adeoye, A O; Oluleye, T S
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment. A total of 17 (1.48%) children were blind or visually impaired. These comprised of 11 (0.96%) children who were visually impaired and 4 (0.3%) who were severely visually impaired. Only 2 (0.15%) school children were blind. The causes of visual impairment were refractive error 10 (0.87%) and immature cataract 1 (0.08%), causes of severe visual impairment included corneal opacities 2 (0.2%), amblyopia leading to squint 1 (0.08%) and 1 cataract 1 (0.08%). The causes of blindness in school children were corneal scars presumed to be due to vitamin A deficiency 1 (0.08%) and keratoconus 1 (0.08%). Causes of blindness and visual impairment in children attending regular schools in Nigeria were treatable. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of these diseases by regular screening of school children would definitely reduce unnecessary visual handicap in Nigerian school children so that they can attain their full potential in the course of their education. Also, information from this study is relevant for the purpose of planning eye care programmes for the prevention of blindness in Nigerian school children. This will go a long way in the prevention of unnecessary blindness and visual impairment in school children.
Aldebasi, Yousef H
The worldwide prevalence of refractive errors (RE), which is a common cause of treatable visual impairment among children, varies widely. We assessed the prevalence of correctable visual impairment (uncorrected RE) in primary school children in Qassim, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 21 primary schools. A total of 5176 children (mean age 9.5±1.8 years), 2573 boys (49.7%) and 2603 girls (50.3%), underwent a comprehensive eye examination. The examinations consisted of visual acuity, autorefraction, cover test, ocular motility, pupillary evaluation, anterior segment examination, cycloplegic auto-refraction and dilated fundus examination with direct ophthalmoscopy. The children were divided into groups based on their age and gender. The overall prevalence of RE in the better eye was 18.6% (n=963), and the prevalence of uncorrected RE 16.3% (n=846), with only 2.3% (n=127) of children wearing spectacles during examination. The prevalence of uncorrected myopia (5.8%) and myopic astigmatism (5.4%) was higher compared to that of hyperopic astigmatism (2.7%), mixed astigmatism (1.7%) and hyperopia (0.7%). The anisometropia prevalence was 3.6%. Risks for astigmatism, myopia and anisometropia were positively associated with age. In addition, myopia and anisometropia risks were also associated with female gender, while risk of astigmatism was correlated with male gender. Few children with vision reducing RE wore spectacles; an additional 16.3% of children could benefit from spectacle prescription. The prevalence of uncorrected RE in children is relatively high and represents an important public health problem in school-aged children in Qassim province. Performance of routine periodical vision screening throughout childhood may reverse this situation. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Beatriz Franck Tavares
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência do uso de drogas entre adolescentes de escolas com segundo grau. MÉTODOS: Com base em um delineamento transversal, foi realizado estudo em 1998 , em Pelotas, RS. Um questionário anônimo, auto-aplicado em sala de aula, foi respondido por uma amostra proporcional de estudantes com idade entre 10 e 19 anos, matriculados no primeiro grau (a partir da 5ª série e no segundo grau, em todas as escolas públicas e particulares na zona urbana do município que tinham segundo grau. Realizou-se até três revisitas para aplicação aos alunos ausentes. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 2.410 estudantes e o índice de perdas foi de 8%. As substâncias mais consumidas, alguma vez na vida, foram álcool (86,8%, tabaco (41,0%, maconha (13,9%, solventes (11,6%, ansiolíticos (8,0%, anfetamínicos (4,3% e cocaína (3,2%. Os meninos usaram mais do que as meninas maconha, solventes e cocaína, enquanto elas usaram mais ansiolíticos e anfetamínicos. Uso no mês, uso freqüente, uso pesado e intoxicações por álcool foram mais prevalentes entre os meninos. Após controle para fatores de confusão, permaneceu positiva a associação entre uso de drogas (exceto álcool e tabaco e turno escolar noturno, maior número de faltas à escola no mês anterior e maior número de reprovações escolares. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de experimentação de drogas em adolescentes escolares é alta, sendo importante detectar precocemente grupos de risco e desenvolver políticas de prevenção do abuso e dependência dessas substâncias.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of drug use among teenagers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1998 . An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was answered by a sample of 2,410 students with ages ranging from 10 to 19 years old, registered in all public and private high schools of the area. The schools were visited up to three times to reach absent
Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu
The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Segel-Karpas, Dikla; Bamberger, Peter A; Bacharach, Samuel B
The aging of the workforce in the developed world has prompted organizations to implement human resource (HR) policies and practices encouraging older workers to defer retirement. However, little is known about the prevalence of such practices, and the organizational factors associated with their adoption. In this study, we used data collected from 2008 to 2009 from a national probability sample of retirement eligible workers in the United States (N = 407) to assess the prevalence of aging-friendly human resource practices (AFHRP), and their organizational predictors. Results indicate that employee wellness programs, unpaid leave, and reassignment based on physical needs are among the most prevalent AFHRP. However, in the vast majority of enterprises, AFHRP are limited. Results also indicate that projected organizational growth and a focus on internal labor market practices are positively associated with the adoption of AFHRP. Organizational size and the degree of unionization, while positively associated with aging-friendly benefits, were inversely associated with flexibility practices. © The Author(s) 2015.
Calderara, P C; Gerthoux, P M; Mocarelli, P; Lukinmaa, P L; Tramacere, P L; Alaluusua, S
This epidemiological study in a group of Italian children was undertaken in order to increase our knowledge of the prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in different European countries. A population of school children aged 7.3 - 8.3 years, living in Lissone, Northern Italy, was examined for the presence and severity of MIH. Of a total of 227 children (113 females), 31 (13.7%) had MIH, the tooth prevalence in the permanent first molars being 5.8%. Fifteen children (6.6%) had demarcated opacities in the incisors with a tooth prevalence of 2.1%. The defects in the molars were mild with the exception of one child who had severe defects. MIH was quite common in this Italian town, and the prevalence figures were near those reported in Scandinavian countries but clearly higher than those from Dresden, Germany.
James Rufus John
Full Text Available Aim. To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results. In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5±2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1±2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8±1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5±1.3. Conclusion. Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.
John, James Rufus; Daniel, Breena; Paneerselvam, Dakshaini; Rajendran, Ganesh
Aim . To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods . A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results . In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5 ± 2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1 ± 2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8 ± 1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5 ± 1.3. Conclusion . Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.
Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera
Soil transmitted helminths are wide spread in developing countries and in Ethiopia the prevalence of STHs varies in different parts of the country. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 29 and April 9, 2010 to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among elementary school children. The study participants were randomly selected from class enrollment list after proportional allocation of the total sample size to each grade. Data about the background characteristics were collected using structured questionnaire. The stool samples were examined by McMaster method for the egg count which was used to determine intensity of infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 and p-value less than 5% was considered as statistically significant. Of the total 715 stool specimens examined, 346 were positive for at least one intestinal parasite making the prevalence 48.4%. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 169 (23.6%) and Trichuris trichiura 165 (23.1%). The prevalence of soil transmitted helminth in this study was 45.6% (326/715). There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of Trichuriasis between those who use latrine always and who use sometimes (p = 0.010). Females are two times more likely to be positive for Ascaris than males (p = 0.039). Majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths and none of them had heavy intensity of infection of Trichuriasis and hookworms. Nearly half of the school children were infected with at least one STHs and majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths. Students who did not wash their hands after defecation were three times more likely to be positive for Ascaris infection than those who washed their hands
Kuponiyi, Olugbenga Temitope; Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Kuponiyi, Opeyemi Temitola
Globally the number of children reaching school age is estimated to be 1.2 billion children (18% of the world's population) and rising. This study was therefore designed to determine the school health services available and its practices in primary schools in Ogun state, Western Nigeria. The study was a comparative cross-sectional survey of private and public primary schools in Ogun state using a multi-stage sampling technique. Participants were interviewed using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire and a checklist. Data collected was analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0. A total of 360 head teachers served as respondents for the study with the overall mean age of 45.7 ± 9.9 years. More than three quarters of the respondents in both groups could not correctly define the school health programme. There were no health personnel or a trained first aider in 86 (47.8%) public and 110 (61.1%) private schools but a nurse/midwife was present in 57 (31.7%) and 27 (15.0%) public and private schools. (χ(2) = 17.122, P = 0.002). In about 95% of the schools, the teacher carried out routine inspection of the pupils while periodic medical examination for staff and pupils was carried out in only 13 (7.2%) public and 31 (17.2%) private schools (χ(2) = 8.398, P = 0.004). A sick bay/clinic was present in 26 (14.4%) and 67 (37.2%) public and private schools respectively (χ(2) = 24.371, P = 0.001). The practice of school health programme was dependent on the age (χ(2) = 12.53, P = 0.006) and the ethnicity of the respondents (χ(2) = 6.330, P = 0.042). Using multivariate analysis only one variable (type of school) was found to be a predictor of school health programme. (OR 4.55, CI 1.918-10.79). The study concludes that the practice of the various components of school health services was poor but better in private primary schools in Nigeria. Routine inspection by teachers was the commonest form of health appraisal. This may suggest that more health personnel need to
Bell, David R; Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison
The prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes is unknown. This information is needed to determine the scope of this issue in an active population. To determine the prevalence of sport specialization in high school athletes and to determine if specialization is influenced by classification method, year in school, sex, and school size. A secondary purpose was to determine if highly specialized athletes would be more likely to report a history of lower extremity injuries. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. High school athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years from 2 local high schools completed both a sport specialization survey and an injury history survey. Athletes were classified into low, moderate, or high specialization groups using a recently developed 3-point system and were also classified using a self-classification method. A total of 302 athletes completed the surveys and were classified as low specialization (n = 105, 34.8%), moderate specialization (n = 87, 28.8%), or high specialization (n = 110, 36.4%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to be classified in the low specialization group (low, 43%; moderate, 32%; high, 25%) compared with those from the large school (low, 26%; moderate, 26%; high, 48%) (P single sport (n = 89, 29.5%). Athletes from the small school were more likely to classify themselves as multisport (n = 128, 86%) (P school (n = 85, 56%). There were no differences in the history of hip, knee, or ankle injuries between athletes who self-classified as single sport (hip: n = 10, 3%; knee: n = 19, 6%; ankle: n = 35, 12%) versus those who self-classified as multisport (hip: n = 45, 8%; knee: n = 23, 15%; ankle: n = 98, 33%) (P > .370). Classification method and school size influenced the prevalence of specialization in high school athletes. Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a history of overuse knee or hip injuries. Participating in a single sport for more than 8 months per year
Muche, Achenef Asmamaw; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Berhe, Abadi Kidanemariam; Fekadu, Gedefaw Abeje
Risky sexual practice is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. There are various studies on the prevalence and determinants of risky sexual practice in different regions of the country but there is no study which shows the national estimate of risky sexual practices in Ethiopia. Therefore, this review was conducted to estimate the national pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice and its risk factors in Ethiopia. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline was followed to review published and unpublished studies in Ethiopia. The databases used were; PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL and African Journals Online. Search terms were; risky sexual behavior, risky sexual practice, unprotected sex, multiple sexual partner, early sexual initiation, and/or Ethiopia. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument was used for critical appraisal. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager software. Descriptive information of studies was presented in narrative form and quantitative results were presented in forest plots. The Cochran Q test and I 2 test statistics were used to test heterogeneity across studies. The pooled estimate prevalence and the odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed by a random effect model. A total of 31 studies with 43,695 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of risky sexual practice was 42.80% (95% CI: 35.64%, 49.96%). Being male (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.37), substance use (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.41, 8.31), peer pressure (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.69, 6.87) and watching pornography (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.21, 5.86) were factors associated with an increase in risky sexual practices. The prevalence of risky sexual practices is high in Ethiopia. Being male, substance use, peer pressure and viewing pornographic materials were found to be associated with risky sexual practices. Therefore, life skills training is recommended to
Sanz, Jacqueline H.; Berl, Madison M.; Armour, Anna C.; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I.; Donofrio, Mary T.
Objective Executive Function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Design 91 school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age and gender matched control sample was drawn from a normativedatabase. Results CHD patients had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR=4.37, p0.05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. Conclusions School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27863079
Full Text Available Hearing impairment substantially affects child’s ability to normally acquire the spoken language. Such negative effects create problems for the child not only in terms of communication but also in terms of achievement in school as well as social and emotional growth. The aim of this research is to study the prevalence of hearing disorders and its relationship to age and gender among primary school students of Zahedan, Iran. In this cross-sectional and descriptive analytical study, 1500 students from elementary schools were screened for hearing loss. The selection of samples was performed using multistage sampling method. Primary information was obtained through direct observation, otoscopy, and audiometric and tympanometric screenings. Data was obtained and analyzed via ANOVA test. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the age and the prevalence of middle ear abnormal function. Conductive hearing loss in males and females was 8.8% and 7.1%, respectively. In addition, 1% and 0.7% of male and female students, respectively, suffered from sensorineural hearing loss. Results indicated that 20.2% of students of elementary schools in Zahedan needed medical treatment for their problems. Therefore, it is recommended that the hearing screening of school-age children should be included in annual school health programs in this region.
Diouf, M; Cisse, D; Faye, A; Niang, P; Seck, I; Faye, D; Lo, C M M
Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is the most common clinical syndrome preceding noma. It is found in developing countries and in malnourished children and especially in deprived groups such as children at Koranic boarding schools. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and factors associated with its occurrence in a boarding school population. This was a cross-sectional study of children in Koranic boarding schools in the city of Touba, Senegal. A multistage sampling strategy was used and 8 out of 17 schools were selected. The variables collected were gender, age, oral hygiene habits, duration of residence, presence of ulcerative gingivitis and plaque, and gingival bleeding index. A logistic regression analysis with R software using the manual procedure down was used to identify factors associated with the dependent variables. There were 501 participants and boys made up 92% of the study group. The mean age was 9.3 (sd 4.0) years. The mean of duration residence was 3.4 (sd 1.5) years. The prevalence of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis was 37% and 81% of children did not use a toothbrush or a chewing-stick. The length of residence, school size, hygiene habits and plaque and bleeding indices were significantly associated with necrotizing gingivitis after adjustment for other variables. It is necessary to develop oral hygiene programs, to establish policies to manage the oral health of children and to improve health and nutrition at Koranic boarding-schools.
Sanz, Jacqueline H; Berl, Madison M; Armour, Anna C; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; Donofrio, Mary T
Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age- and gender- matched control sample was drawn from a normative database. Children with CHD had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR = 4.37, P .05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Saxvig, Ingvild W; Pallesen, Ståle; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Molde, Helge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn
To investigate prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase, characterized by problems falling asleep in the evening and rising at adequate times in the morning, in a large sample of Norwegian high school students. A randomized sample of 1285 high school students (aged 16-19 years) participated in an internet based study answering questions about sleep habits, height, weight, smoking, alcohol use, school grades, and anxiety and depression symptoms. Delayed sleep phase was operationalized as difficulties falling asleep before 2 a.m. at least three nights per week together with much or very much difficulty waking up in the morning. The results show a prevalence of delayed sleep phase of 8.4%. In all, 68% of these students (5.7% of the total sample) also reported problems advancing their sleep period as well as one daytime consequence (oversleeping at least two days a week or experiencing much/very much sleepiness at school). Delayed sleep phase was associated with lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Delayed sleep phase appears to be common amongst Norwegian adolescents and is associated with negative outcomes such as lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Protein-Energy-Malnulrition is an important Public Hea Ith Problem among infants and young children. Though poverty is known to be the major factor but faulty feeding habits arising out of ignorance often lead to inadequate intake of essential nutrients by the infant. In order to find out the actual prevailing feeding practices and its impact on the nutritional status of infants this study conducted in one urban andtivo rural units of Varanasi district by adopting appropriate sampling procedure. In a II mothers of360 infants (120 in each study un it were interviewed regarding breastfeeding practices, dilution and nature of top milk, age of introducing supplementaryfeeding etc. It was observed that the o verall prevalence of PEM was significantly higher in bottle fed group (72.73% than spoonfed group (40.11%. Similarly the prevalence of PEM was 67.86% in late weaned group as compared to 48.38% in optimum weaned group.
Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Jawad, Ammar A; Bobryshev, Yuri V
The smoking prevalence in Malaysia is high, especially among men and adolescents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors towards cigarette smoking among school teachers in Malaysia. This study was a school-based cross-sectional study conducted among 495 secondary school teachers. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of 29 questions categorized into two sections: socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behaviour. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program 13.0. ANOVA; t-tests were used in univariate analysis; multiple linear regression was applied for multivariate analysis. The majority of the participants were female (81.6%), in the age group ranged between 30-39 years (44%), Malay (90.1%), married (89.7%), degree holders (85.1%), with monthly income ranged between 3000-3999 Ringgit Malaysia (33.5%), from urban areas (94.7%), their specialty is social studies (33.9%) and with no family history of cancer (83.6%). The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Malaysia was found to be 7.8%. Regarding reasons to start smoking among school teachers: the major reason was found to be relaxation (33.3%), followed by stress-relief (28.2%). Univariate analysis showed that sex, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers (pMalaysia was found to be relatively low. Sex, marital status, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers.
Kumar, Manoj Therayil; Kumar, Sebind; Singh, Surendra P; Kar, Nilamadhab
Very few studies focus on childhood abuse in developing countries and only a small fraction of such studies explicitly deal with abuse in a school environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in a school environment in a developing country. Abuse history was collected using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool - Children's Institutional Version (ICAST-CI). Demographic variables were also collected. Student supportive measures were provided both during and after the survey. 6682 school attending adolescents in Thrissur, Kerala participated in this cross sectional self report study. One year and lifetime prevalence of physical (75.5%, 78.5%), emotional (84.5%, 85.7%) and sexual (21.0%, 23.8%) abuse was high. Abuse was considered to be present even if an individual item from these three categories was reported. Most abuse was reported as occurring 'sometimes' rather than 'many times'. More males than females reported being victims of abuse; figures for one-year prevalence were: physical abuse (83.4% vs. 61.7%), emotional abuse (89.5% vs. 75.7%), and sexual abuse (29.5% vs. 6.2%). Various factors significantly increase the likelihood of abuse-male gender, low socioeconomic status, regular use of alcohol and drugs by family member at home, and having other difficulties at school. Children tended to report abuse less frequently if they liked attending school and if they always felt safe at school. The results highlight the urgent need to address the issue of abuse in the school environment and minimize its impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alice Cristina Medeiros Melo
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence, as well as other behaviors, is often intensified during adolescence and early adulthood. The objective of this study is estimate the prevalence of Brazilian school students involvement in fights with weapons and to analyze the associated factors. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using data from the National School Student Health Survey conducted in 2012 with 9th grade elementary school students attending 2842 schools in all 27 Brazilian Federative Units. The outcome studied was involvement in fights with firearms and/or cold weapons in the 30 days prior to the interview. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. The analyses were stratified by sex. Results Fifty seven thousand and eighty nine female students and 52,015 male students were included; the prevalence of their involvement in fights with weapons was 7.2 (95 % CI 6.9–7.5 and 13.8 (95 % CI 13.4–14.3, respectively. In the adjusted analysis the factors associated with male student involvement in fights with weapons were: being older, working, having smoked a cigarette, consumed alcoholic beverages and illicit drugs recently, insomnia, not having any close friends, skipping classes without parental supervision, having suffered aggression from a family member, reporting feeling unsafe on the way to or from school and/or at school. The same associated factors were found among female students in addition to not living with their father and/or mother and having suffered bullying. There was no association with type of school in either sex. Conclusion Involvement in fights with weapons was greater among older male students. Health-risk behaviors, mental health characteristics, parental supervision and context of violence also showed association with the outcomes.
Jourdan, Didier; Pommier, Jeanine; Quidu, Frédérique
School is one of the key settings for health education (HE). The objectives of this study are to assess primary school teachers' self-reported teaching practices in HE and to describe their representation concerning their role in HE. A quantitative study was conducted on a sample of primary school teachers (n = 626) in two French regions in order to analyze their practices and representations in HE. A hierarchical clustering dendogram was performed on questions exploring representations of HE. Multiple linear regression analysis helped explain the motivation and self-perceived competency score. Three quarters of the teachers declare they work in HE. Only one third of them declare they work in a comprehensive HE perspective. The HE approach is often considered in terms of specific unique curriculum intervention. Two thirds of the teachers say they work alone in HE, the other third associate other partners and choose mainly school health services. Parents are rarely (12%) involved in HE initiatives. It is essentially the practice of HE, teacher training and teachers' representation of HE that condition their motivation to develop HE. Teachers can take different approaches to HE. Teachers' representation of HE plays an important role in the development of HE activities: some teachers consider that HE is the mission of the health professionals and the parents. Our expectations of teacher involvement should be realistic, should take into account the representations of their role, the difficulties they encounter, and should be sustained by specific training.
Verrills, Paul; Nowesenitz, Gillian; Barnard, Adele
Between 26% and 42% of chronic low back pain is attributed to internal disc disruption of lumbar intervertebral discs. These prevalence estimates and data characterizing discogenic pain originate largely from research at elite practices, conducted 20 years ago. With few studies since, their concordance with rates in community practice has rarely been addressed. To assess the prevalence and key features of discogenic pain within community-based tertiary practice, and to evaluate the accuracy and clinical utility of discography. This prospective, three-year study of 223 consecutive cases of chronic low back pain used image-guided lumbar discography to identify symptomatic and flanking asymptomatic discs. A subset of patients (n = 195) had previously undergone posterior column blocks to investigate spinal facet and/or sacroiliac joints as contributing pain sources. A total of 644 discs were tested without infection or complication. Positive discograms were recorded in 74% of patients, with 22.9% negative and 3.1% assessed as indeterminate. Among patients receiving both discography and diagnostic blocks, 63% had proven discogenic pain, 18% had pain of mixed etiology and 14% remained undiagnosed. Taking into account all low back pain cases during this study (n = 756), discogenic pain prevalence was 21.8% (95% CI: 17-26%). The prevalence of discogenic pain in this community practice is below the range, but within confidence intervals, previously reported. Prevalence is considerably elevated, however, among well-selected patients and discography enabled a firm diagnosis in most such cases. These findings are broadly in keeping with those reached in key publications and support the clinical utility of discography. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
AlGelban, Khalid S.
Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)
Al Gelban, Khalid S.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. RESULTS: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. PMID:19584586
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Studies have shown the high prevalence rate of behavioral disorders in primary school students, which may underlie many complications and problems for the students and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of behav-ioral disorders among primary school students. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional-descriptive study which have been done on 352 primary school students in Hamadan. Samples have been selected based on a multistage ran-dom sampling and Rutter behavioral disorder questionnaire (teacher form was used for data collection. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using chi-square. Results: Our result showed that 16.1% of the participants suffered from behavioral disorders. The prevalence was more among the boys. Father's education and occupation, history of mental illness, parental divorce, and death of parents had significant relationships with the prevalence of behavioral disorders in these students. Conclusion: According to the results, designing and implementing educational programs for the prevention and treatment of student's behavioral disorders appear to be essential.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:62-68
Xiao, Rong; Wu, Wel-li; Hu, Jun-mei; Qiu, Chang-jian; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Geng; Sun, Jin-hua; Yang, Chuang; Song, Ping; Ye, An-hong; Zhang, Wei
To explore the prevalence and risk factors of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in high schools and universities in Chengdu. 2279 students in Chengdu sampled by optimum distributing delaminating grouping method were interviewed one-to-one by the trained psychiatrists according to SCID. Both the cooperated SAD patients (n=156) and the normal counterparts (NC, n=156) in the 2279 students completed Egma Minnen av Bardndosnauppforstran (EMBU), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Form Y), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). There were 179 SAD patients, 88 female ones and 91 male ones, in the 2279 students of the high schools and universities in Chengdu. Statistical analysis reveals that the SAD patients differ from the NC in seven aspects, i.e. growing circumstances (P = 0.049), family economical status(P = 0.000), family history of psychiatric disorder, scales of EMBU,STAI, FNE and DSQ. The total prevalence of SAD in the students of high schools and universities in Chengdu was 8.15%, the female prevalence 8.35%, and the male prevalence 7.62%. The possible risk factors were: growing up in the countryside, low family economic state, parental rearing pattern being deficient in emotional warmth, understanding, trust and encouragement but excessive in refuse, denial and overprotection, having anxiety trait, feeling fear of negative evaluation, more likely to use neurotic and immature defense mechanism while less likely to use mature defense mechanism, having positive family mental disorder history.
Petrilson Alan Pinheiro
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to carry out a theoretical discussion about collaborative text production (including the concepts of collaboration and coordination in the current socio-historical context. Such theoretical discussion is also based upon analyses of empirical data generated with a group of students of a public High School in the text production for a digital school newspaper, whose intention is to show how writing practices are constituted along a collaborative writing practices process and to present a conceptualization proposal of what I am calling ‘collaborative writing practices’
Lopes, Ana Carolina de Carvalho; Pinto, Helen Ramalho Farias; Costa, Deborah Camila Ismael de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, Robson de Jesus; Aquino, Jailane de Souza
The occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks is increasing in schools, and due to the number of children who consume school meals as the only daily meal, this factor becomes even more worrisome. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic-health aspects of Food and Nutrition Units (SFNU) of public schools of Bayeux / PB in relation to the adoption of best practices in school food and nutrition. Data were collected through SFNU checklist during visits to units in 29 schools. The health risk of units evaluated was from regular to very high regarding structure and facilities, hygiene of food handlers, environment and food preparation. It was found that 10.3% of handlers used clean and adequate uniforms, and environment and equipment showed poor conservation status in 75.9% and 89.7% of Units, respectively; control of urban pests and vectors was not effective and cleaning of fresh produce was incorrectly conducted in 51.7% of SFNU of schools evaluated. It could be concluded that the production of meals in SFNU of schools evaluated does not meet the requirements established by the best practices in school food and nutrition.
Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina K; Jimerson, Shane R
Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying and other aggressive behavior requires consideration of the broader social ecology of the school community. However, studies to date have predominantly been cross-sectional in nature, or have failed to reflect the social-ecological framework in their measurement or analytic approach. Thus, there have been limited efforts to parse out the relative contribution of student, classroom, and organizational-level factors. This special topic section emphasizes a departure from a focus on student attitudes and behaviors, to a social-contextual approach that appreciates how much features of the school environment can mitigate or perpetuate aggression. This collection of articles reflects innovative and rigorous approaches to further our understanding of climate, and has implications for theory, measurement, prevention, and practice. These studies highlight the influence of school climate on mental health, academic achievement, and problem behavior, and will hopefully stimulate interest in and further scholarship on this important topic. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S
The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors
Nqcobo, C B; Yengopal, V; Rudolph, M J; Thekiso, M; Joosab, Z
Anecdotal evidence from clinical data in Johannesburg suggests that there is a high burden of dental caries among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Johannesburg. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and Unmet Treatment Needs in children with cerebral palsy, hearing, learning and mental disabilities attending special needs schools in Johannesburg and to compare these with data from the National Children's Oral Health Survey (NCOHS) METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study comprised of 882 children attending five special needs schools in Johannesburg. Stratified randomised sampling of the participating schools was done and the schools were stratified by disability. Caries status was recorded via the dmft/DMFT index using WHO criteria and guidelines. The mean age of the participants was 10.5 years; with a caries prevalence of 27.55% and 33.56% in the primary and permanent dentition respectively. The highest unmet treatment need of 100% was found in the permanent dentition of the hearing impaired group followed by 90.77% in the primary dentition of the cerebral palsy group. In general no significant difference was found when the dmft/DMFT for CSHCN and NCOHS were compared except in the hearing impaired age groups four to five and six (both primary dentition) where significantly higher dmft scores (3.58 vs. 2.4; 3.85 vs. 2.9; p special health care needs had lower caries prevalence compared with the general population and higher unmet treatment needs regardless of the type of disability.
Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Mereerat Manwong; Hanprathet, Nitt; Phanasathit, Muthita
To determine the prevalence ofFacebook (FB) addiction and its related factors among Thai high school students. This cross-sectional study was performed among 972 high school students in four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administrative questionnaire was produced composing of three parts; demographic data, a Thai version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) and the Thai version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 items. Multivariate analysis was employed to analyze thefactors associated with FB addiction. The prevalence ofFB addiction amongst Thai adolescents was 41.8% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2). Related factors included gender school location, sufficiency ofpersonalfinance, devices ofFB access, duration ofstaying online via FB, andFB usage during holidays. In addition, every 1-hour increase in usage enhanced the risk for FB addiction (OR = 1.12, 95% CI; 1.05, 1.19). The prevalence of FB addiction in Thai high school students was found to be higher than in many other countries. Relatedfactors should be controlled in order to reduce FB addiction and its detrimental impacts, such as behavior modification and the promotion of healthier free-time activities. Further studies are recommended to understand why FB addiction is so high in Thailand.
Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors.
Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors.
Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is one of the major health concerns worldwide and World Health Organization has laid emphasis on correctly investigating and controlling it. There is much public and professional concern regarding self-medication practices, which has dramatically increased in the last few decades, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study was designed to study the prevalence and practice of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 and data were collected by personal interviews using pretested questionnaires. An urban colony in the south district of Delhi was chosen and the eldest member of the family, present at the time of the visit was interviewed. Data were collected from 236 persons and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 92.8% (95 confidence interval: 66.5-79.4. 74.9% preferred allopathic medicines. Self-medication was found to be practiced more among younger persons than older age group persons (P = 0.000. Graduates and postgraduates practiced self-medication more than others (P = 0.002. Common cold (61.6% and fever (51.8% were the most common ailments for which self-medication were practiced. Paracetamol and cough syrups were the most commonly used class of drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication in this study was high. Drugs especially antimicrobials were not taken for the proper length of time. Awareness regarding self-medication practices to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication is required.
Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K
Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene
Hassine, Fahima; Sriha, Asma; Kobaa, Afifa
tobacco Is the first cause of preventable death, the prevalence of it'sconsumption in adolescents varies between 10 and 30%. Initiation is the cause of psychological then physical dependence. study the prevalence of smoking among high school students, assess their knowledge on the subject of smoking addiction and attitudes and practice towards tobacco. This is a descriptive study, transversal, using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire during 2013. The response rate was 70 % (n = 505). The average age was 16.7 years, girls accounted 40.4 % of the study population. The prevalence of smoking was 15.2%, it was 26 % for boys and 8% for girls. The nicotine dependence was present in 35% of smokers and 53.2% of them reported having previously attempted to quit at least once. More than half of respondents (58.8%) were unaware of the effect of nicotine, 43.3 % of students did not know the origins of addiction and 11.7% of smokers reported smoking in the school. All smokers, had not reported any obstacle to the purchase of cigarettes. The exhibition of smoke in public places was described by 66.5 % of students. The results of this study support the need to develop a completeprogram that integrates education for students but also for teachers which affects ample smoking behavior of students.
Arslan, Sevda; Savaser, Sevim; Hallett, Victoria; Balci, Serap
The current study examined the self-reported prevalence and nature of cyberbullying and victimization among second, third, and fourth grade students (N=372) and explored associated features of home and school life. Of the children in the current sample, 27 percent had been victims of cyberbullying, 18 percent had been aggressors, and 15 percent had been both cyberbullies and victims. Boys were significantly more likely to carry out cyberbullying than girls. Cyberbullying exposure (as both a bully and a victim) was significantly associated with low levels of self-reported school satisfaction (bullies odds ratio [OR]: 2.45; victims OR: 2.10; p<0.05) and achievement (bullies OR: 3.85; victims OR: 3.47, p<0.05). Paternal unemployment was also associated with a three-fold increase in the likelihood of being a cyberbully. Increased awareness and regulation is now required within schools and within the home to tackle this escalating problem.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess asthma prevalence in children between 13-14 years of age in East Jakarta. This study is a cross sectional study which surveyed 2234 high school students between the ages of 13 and 14 years in East Jakarta in 2001 using the ISAAC questionnaire. Bronchial challenge test was applied by using methacholine substance to 186 students. Reports based on the ISAAC questionnaire indicate that 7.2% of teenage have had wheezing experience, 4.1% have wheezing within the last 12 months, 1.8% have ever suffered severe asthma attack within the last 12 months, 3.3% have suffered wheezing after exercise, and 6.3% have got night cough while they were not suffering from cold. Prevalence of atopy diseases such as rhinitis and eczema were 14.2% and 3.9%, meanwhile rhinitis and eczema prevalence within the last 12 months according to this study were 10.6% and 2.9% respectively. Statistically, there is a significant correlation between wheezing symptom and atopy (p < 0.05. From indepth questionnaire, a significant value of kappa 0.84 related with wheezing within the last 12 months was found. Bronchial challenge test results indicate that sensitivity was 90%, specificity 83.58%, positive predictive value 68.12% and negative predictive value was 95.73%. Asthma prevalence in East Jakarta at 2001 based on ISAAC questionnaire was 8.9%, and cumulative prevalence 11.5%. The ISAAC questionnaire can be used to study asthma prevalence in children at multicenter in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 178-86Keywords: bronchial challenge, high school student, ISAAC questionnaire, East Jakarta, asthma prevalence
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity (abnormal condition and various factors affecting it among school attending adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study abnormal ocular conditions like refractive errors, vitamin A deficiency, conjunctivitis, trachoma, ocular trauma, blephritis, stye, color blindness and pterygium among school adolescents of 10-19 years age in rural and urban areas of Gandhinagar district from January to July, 2009. Systematic sampling was done to select 20 schools having 6th to 12th standard education including 12 schools from rural and 8 from urban areas. Six adolescents from each age year (10-19 were selected randomly to achieve sample size of 60 from each school. In total, 1206 adolescents including 691 boys and 515 girls were selected. Information was collected from selected adolescents by using proforma. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen’s chart and all participants underwent an ophthalmic examination carried out by a trained doctor. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity among school adolescents was reported 13% (7.8% in boys, 5.6% in girls; with 5.2% have moderate visual impairment. Refractive error was most common ocular morbidity (40% both among boys and girls. Almost 30% of boys and girls reported vitamin A deficiency in various forms of xerophthalmia. Prevalence of night blindness was 0.91% and of Bitot`s spot 1.74%. Various factors like, illiterate or lower parents’ education, lower socio-economic class and malnutrition were significantly associated with ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Ocular morbidity in adolescents is mainly due to refractive error, moderate visual impairment and xerophthalmia.
Purpose: An appreciative inquiry (AI) collaborative study with 11 school administrators in a highly diverse suburban school district sought to understand if observing and sharing successful school practices/events in a whole group setting led to change in their perceptions, attitudes, and administrative practice. The paper aims to discuss these…
Munar, Ana Maria; Villeseche, Florence
. First, it examines the following aspects in relation to gender: 1) Management practices in recruitment and promotion (with a special focus on scouting and nudging); 2) Management practices in establishing and maintaining good work cultures and attractive research environments; 3) Best practices......This report examines the relationship between gender and the Heads of Department group’s leadership practices at Copenhagen Business School. This research project is one of the initiatives of the action plan developed by the Diversity and Inclusion Council at this university. Its aim is two fold...... and guidelines for the promotion of diversity and equality, including suggestions for avoiding unconscious bias. Second, this initiative aims to stimulate self-reflexivity and open dialogue on the topic of gender and talent development among CBS’s management groups and between these groups and the Diversity...
Lenk, Kathleen M; Erickson, Darin J; Nelson, Toben F; Winters, Ken C; Toomey, Traci L
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of college alcohol policies and practices and to identify patterns of policies/practices across colleges. An online survey of administrators at a random sample of 351 4-year U.S. colleges was conducted in 2008. The prevalence of 31 alcohol policies and practices was assessed as well as differences across size and type of colleges. Latent class analyses identified classes of colleges based on their alcohol policies/practices. The majority of colleges prohibit alcohol use at sporting events, whereas less than half prohibit alcohol use at fraternity and sorority events. Less than half of the colleges also prohibit alcohol advertising in/on campus newspapers and radio stations. Small colleges are more likely than large colleges to prohibit alcohol use at tailgating events and to prohibit newspaper alcohol advertising. Public colleges are more likely than private colleges to prohibit alcohol use in dorms but less likely to prohibit alcohol advertising. We identified four classes of colleges-the largest class (38%) was characterized by having many alcohol policies/practices, the smallest class (13%) had none or few alcohol policies/practices, and the remainder fit into two middle classes that had certain policies/practices in place but lacked others. Most colleges report implementing some alcohol policies/ practices but are lacking others. Only two of every five colleges fit into a class that has many alcohol policies. More studies are needed to validate our findings and assess whether certain policies/practices and patterns of policies are associated with reducing student alcohol consumption and related problems.
Objective: To investigate vitamin A status of pre-school and school aged children in the study area. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Arssi, Ethiopia Subjects: Four hundred and two children. Results: Night blindness, Bitots spot, corneal xerosis, corneal ulceration and corneal scar were observed in 7.2%, 2.2 %, 0.2%, 0.5%, ...
Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar
Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.
Simovska, Venka; Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Madsen, Katrine Dahl
are translated into national and local practices? What gets “lost in translation”, and what is added? The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the body of knowledge and dialogue concerning these translation processes. The study sought to identify the gaps, tensions, challenges and possibilities associated......Health and wellbeing are repeatedly identified among the greatest global challenges facing societies. As such, schools have a responsibility to support and develop children’s competences and their commitment to dealing with these challenges in socially responsible and imaginative ways. The field...... with the drive to increase the quality and effectiveness of health promotion in schools while remaining loyal to the main principles of the critical, socio-ecological paradigm of the Health Promoting Schools initiative (Green and Tones, 2010). In the following, we first present the conceptual framework, context...
Pihl, Patricia; Grytnes, Regine; Andersen, Lars Peter S
Research has shown that employees in special education settings are at high risk for work-related threats and violence. Previous research has not yet been able to identify the essential components of training programs that offer protection from work-related threats and violence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how employees in special education schools deal with prevention of work-related threats and violence. Group interviews were conducted with 14 employees working at 5 special education schools. Results show that employees use a wide range of prevention strategies drawing on specific violence prevention techniques as well as professional pedagogical approaches. We propose that the prevention of threats and violence in special education schools can be understood as an integrated pedagogical practice operating on three interrelated levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The paper will present and discuss our field study of everyday life in a Danish fifth grade classroom. Our aim has been to observe, describe and analyze those everyday practices in the classroom that ultimately result in offering students different positions, identities and opportunities...... for participation. Our goal is to create knowledge about the way difference is constructed and managed in schools. How is the concept of ‘difference’ conceived of, produced and reproduced through everyday practices and how is the management of difference embedded in school culture. Further our goal is to create...... knowledge about the consequences that occur for different students as a result of specific ways of managing differences by teachers....
Littler, Nadine; Mullen, Margaret; Beckett, Helen; Freshney, Alice; Pinder, Lynn
It is essential that the quality of care is reviewed regularly through robust processes such as benchmarking to ensure all outcomes and resources are evidence-based so that children and young people’s needs are met effectively. This article provides an example of the use of benchmarking in school nursing practice. Benchmarking has been defined as a process for finding, adapting and applying best practices (Camp, 1994). This concept was first adopted in the 1970s ‘from industry where it was us...
Wells, Caryn M.
This paper advances the conceptual notion of mindfulness for educational leaders. The findings presented acknowledge the current levels of stress that school leaders face and posits that the practice of mindfulness may reduce these stressors while improving the effectiveness of leadership. The author also presents a synthesis of the literature…
Borick, Timothy J.
This study examined school psychologists' assessment and intervention practices regarding ADHD. Five hundred school psychologists who practiced in a school setting and were regular members of the National Association of School Psychologists were randomly selected to complete and return a questionnaire titled Assessment and Intervention Practices…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is becoming an equally challenging, yet under-recognized, problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Children and adolescents are worst affected with an estimated 10% of the world's school-going children being overweight and one quarter of these being obese. The study aimed to assess prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, and trend in prevalence statistics, among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> + 1SD and obesity (> + 2SD were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors for overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P Results Seventeen percent (95% CI 15.4-18.8 children were overweight and 7.5% (95% CI 6.5-8.7 were obese. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among boys than girls (P = 0.028, however, there was no gender disparity in overweight prevalence. Prevalence of overweight showed a significantly increasing trend with grade (P Conclusion Alarmingly rapid rise in overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children was observed, especially among the affluent urban population. The findings support the urgent need for National preventive strategy for childhood obesity and targeted interventions tailored to local circumstances with meaningful involvement of communities.
Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald
This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.
Kazama, Mie; Maruyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi
Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual disorder experienced by adolescents, and its major symptoms, including pain, adversely affect daily life and school performance. However, little epidemiologic evidence on dysmenorrhea in Japanese adolescents exists. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with dysmenorrhea in Japanese female junior high school students. Among 1,167 girls aged between 12 and 15 years, 1,018 participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on age at menarche, menstruation, and lifestyle, as well as demographic characteristics. Dysmenorrhea was defined based on menstrual pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with moderate or severe (moderate-severe) dysmenorrhea, which adversely affects daily life, defined as VAS ≥ 4, and severe dysmenorrhea defined as VAS ≥ 7. The prevalence of moderate-severe dysmenorrhea was 476/1,018 (46.8%), and that of severe dysmenorrhea was 180/1,018 (17.7%). Higher chronological and gynecological ages (years after menarche) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea regardless of severity (P for trend dysmenorrhea (OR = 3.05, 95%CI: 1.06-8.77), and sports activity levels were associated with severe dysmenorrhea (P for trend = 0.045). Our findings suggest that dysmenorrhea that adversely affects daily activities is highly prevalent, and may be associated with certain lifestyle factors in junior high school students. Health education teachers should be made aware of these facts, and appropriately care for those suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms, absentees, and those experiencing difficulties in school life due to dysmenorrhea symptoms.
Titus Josef Brinker
Our research has the potential to pave the way for a new form of low-cost and broadly available school-based tobacco prevention in the form of poster campaigns promoting a free app. Our baseline analysis shows good comparability between the groups at baseline after randomisation and provides new insights into the prevalence of smoking and the use of e-cigarettes among pupils in the 6th and 7th grades in Germany.
Full Text Available "nBackground: Pediculus capitis or head louse infestation affects millions of children worldwide, especially those in the 5-11 years age group. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head pediculosis among school children in urban and rural areas of Fars Province, southern Iran."nMethods: All school children of age 6-11 yr from both genders in all urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head louse infestation by examination of their hair and scalps. Parents of all infested children were also examined. The study was repeated in different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, infested children were treated with 5% permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse."nResults: The general prevalence of head louse infestation in primary school students was 0.49% in autumn, 0.37% in winter and 0.20% in spring. In the mentioned seasons, the prevalence of P. capitis was higher among females and in rural areas (P=0.001. Although treatment with permethrin shampoo failed in females, it was successful in all infected males from both regions in autumn and spring and in males from urban areas in winter."nConclusion: Head louse infestation is uncommon among Fars Province school children in rural and urban areas and should not be considered a public health priority. However, due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in low socioeconomic group and rural area in our region, it seems that health promotion, particularly early detection and effective management strategies should target this group in the province.
Dan G O Neill
Full Text Available Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3, periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3 and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1. Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9, the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6 and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3. Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001, obesity (P = 0.006 and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033, and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002, overgrown nails (P = 0.004, degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005, obesity (P = 0.001 and lipoma (P = 0.003. These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information
O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C
Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported
Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S
This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.
Hazama, Gen-i; Inoue, Yuichi; Kojima, Kazushige; Ueta, Toshiyuki; Nakagome, Kazuyuki
Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder with a typical onset in the second decade of life. DSPS is characterized by the sleep-onset insomnia and the difficulty in waking at the desired time in the morning. Although DSPS is associated with inability to attend school, the prevalence has been controversial. To elucidate a change in the prevalence of DSPS among young population, epidemiological survey was conducted on Japanese students. A total of 4,971 students of junior high school, senior high school, and university were enrolled in this cross sectional study in Tottori Prefecture. They answered anonymous screening questionnaire regarding school schedule, sleep hygiene and symptomatic items of sleep disorders. The prevalence of probable DSPS was estimated at 0.48% among the total subject students without gender difference. In university, the prevalence of the last year students showed the highest value (1.66%), while that of the first year students showed the lowest value (0.09%) among all school years from junior high school to university. The prevalence increased with advancing university school years. Thus, a considerable number of Japanese students are affected with DSPS. Senior students of university are more vulnerable to the disorder than younger students. Appropriate school schedule may decrease the mismatch between the individual's sleep-wake cycle and the school schedule. Promotion of a regular sleep habit is necessary to prevent DSPS among this population.
Nalugya-Sserunjogi, Joyce; Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Ovuga, Emilio; Kiwuwa, Steven M; Musisi, Seggane; Nakimuli-Mpungu, Etheldreda
Depression in adolescents constitutes a global public health concern. However, data on its prevalence and associated factors are limited in low income countries like Uganda. Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, 519 adolescent students in 4 secondary schools in Mukono district, Uganda, were randomly selected after meeting study criteria. The 4 school types were: boarding mixed (boys and girls) school; day mixed school; girls' only boarding school; and, boys' only boarding school. The 519 participants filled out standardized questionnaires regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and health history. They were then screened for depression using the Children Depression Inventory (CDI) and those with a cut-off of 19 were administered the Mini International Neuro-Psychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents 2.0 (MINI-KID), to ascertain the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic types of depression and any co morbidity. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with significant depression symptoms (a score of 19 or more on the CDI). There were 301 (58 %) boys and 218 (42 %) girls with age range 14-16 years and a mean age of 16 years (SD 2.18). Of 519 participants screened with the CDI, 109 (21 %) had significant depression symptoms. Of the 109 participants with significant depression symptoms, only 74 were evaluated with the MINI-KID and of these, 8 (11 %) met criteria for major depression and 6 (8 %) met criteria for dysthymia. Therefore, among participants that were assessed with both the CDI and the MINI-KID (n = 484), the prevalence of depressive disorders was 2.9 %. In this sample, 15 (3.1 %) reported current suicidal ideation. In the logistic regression analyses, significant depression symptoms were associated with single-sex schools, loss of parents and alcohol consumption. This is a cross-sectional study therefore, causal relationships are difficult to
Odeyemi, K A; Osibogun, A; Akinsete, A O; Sadiq, L
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of smoking among secondary school students and identify factors that influence smoking amongst them. This descriptive and explorative study was conducted among 1,183 secondary school students, selected by multistage sampling from each of the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data was collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. This study recorded a lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% and current smoking prevalence of 17.1% among secondary school students in Nigeria. Most (82%) of the students had seen warnings against smoking and most of them were aware that it is possible for cigarette smoking to damage body organs. Unfortunately, however, seeing such warnings had no significant effect on their decision to smoke or not. The students who smoke were introduced to smoking mainly by their friends (67.4 %), and the television (13.4%). Smoking habits of the respondents were influenced by parents' educational status (psmoke (psmoked. Peer pressure was the main reason cited by respondents for initiating smoking. It is suggested that our smoking prevention programmes be reviewed and appropriate health education and smoking cessation programmes be developed and implemented in order to prevent and control smoking among Nigerian students.
Moto, Jedidah Ndunge; Maingi, John Muthini; Nyamache, Anthony Kebira
Tinea capitis is a common infection especially in poor resource settings. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence Tinea capitis in children from selected schools from an urban slum in Nairobi city of Kenya. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 150 school going children during the period between May and September 2013. A questionnaire was administered and cultures of scalps, skin scrapping/hair stubs samples were performed and the etiological agents identified and confirmed. In a total of one hundred and fifty (150) children recruited 89 (59.3%) were males and 61 (40.7%) females aged between 3 and 14 years. The overall prevalence rates in dermatophytes infection was 81.3% (122/150) with etiological agents consisting Trichophyton spp. (61.3%), Microsporum spp. (13.3%) and Epidermophyton spp. (7.3%) infections with infections occurring either singly (56%), duo (38%) or tipple co-infections (6%). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of Tinea infections with Trichophyton tonsurans as the predominant etiological agent in school going children of the urban slums of Nairobi.
Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Brambilla, Romeo; Priotto, Bruna; Angelino, Remo; Cuomo, GianLuca; Diecidue, Roberto
This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Problematic Internet Use (PIU) among high school students and to identify factors associated with PIU underlining gender differences. The students filled a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire collecting information on demographic characteristics and patterns of Internet use. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with PIU in the overall sample and by gender. Twenty-five schools and 2022 students participated in the survey. Prevalence of PIU was 14.2% among males and 10.1% among females. Males 15-year-olds and females 14-year-olds had the highest PIU prevalence that progressively lowered with age among females. Only 13.5% of pupils declared parents controlled their Internet use. The sensation of feeling lonely, the frequency of use, the number of hours of connection, and visiting pornographic websites were associated with the risk of PIU in both genders. Attending vocational schools, the activities of chatting and file downloading, and the location of use at Internet point among males, and younger age among females were associated with PIU, whilst information searching was protective among females. PIU could become a public health problem in the next years. The physical and mental health consequences should be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Musa, Nor Asma; Moy, Foong Ming; Wong, Li Ping
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality among secondary school teachers in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. This was a cross sectional study, conducted in two phases. Phase I tested the reliability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in the Malay language (M-PSQI), whereas Phase II determined the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality where a total of 1871 secondary school teachers were studied. Participants were recruited using multistage sampling. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and teaching characteristics, comorbidities and characteristics of sleep. The M-PSQI was used to measure sleep quality. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 was used to measure mental health status. Results showed that the M-PSQI had a good internal consistency and moderate reliability. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61 (95% CI: 54-67) %. Total teaching hours/day, depression and stress were significantly associated with poor sleep quality in the univariate analysis, while only stress (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.05%) remained significant in the multivariate analyses. In conclusion, stress level of the secondary school teachers should be reduced to improve sleep quality.
Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Behzad, Mahdiyeh Hamed; Ghassabpour, Saeideh; Ayat, Arezoo
Overweight and obesity are among the most prevalent nutritional problems in developed and developing countries. In this descriptive study, we attempted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Iranian adolescent girls attending high school in Tabriz. A sample of 1,650 (final study group, 1,518) high-school girls aged 14 to 20 years was selected by stepwise random sampling from five districts of Tabriz. Overweight and obesity were defined according to body mass index (BMI) percentiles from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) BMI cutoffs. According to the NHANES I criteria, 14.6% of the study subjects were overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity was seen in 11. 1% and 3.6% of the students, respectively. By the IOTF cutoffs, 14% of the subjects were overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity were seen in 10.1% and 3.9% of the students, respectively. Of the study subjects, 8% had a BMI below the 15th percentile of NHANES I, an indicator of underweight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tabriz high-school girls is higher than in many, but not all, parts of Iran, but lower than in some neighboring countries such as Saudi Arabia. In this age group, in addition to overweight and obesity, underweight (BMI < or = 15th percentile) is also present.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.
Leung, Phil W S; Wong, William C W; Chen, W Q; Tang, Catherine S K
Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.
Delahunty, Sinéad E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine
Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N = 69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union cohort. An anonymous cross-sectional survey of youth rugby players was conducted. Diagnosed concussion was defined as an incident where diagnosis was confirmed by a health professional or coach. Demographics, prevalence, and attitudes to concussion were collated. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and logistic regression. Overall, 304 youth (aged 12-18 years) responded. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed concussion was 19.4%, with annual (2010) prevalence 6.6%. Approximately 25.4% of players with diagnosed concussions returned to play without medical advice. Internal motivation (11.8%) was the predominant factor in feeling pressure to play while concussed. A desire for further concussion education was expressed by 89.5% of participants. Reform is required to prevent and manage concussion injuries among youth players in the rugby union, including mandatory education specific to concussion and implementation of return-to-play protocols. These findings have relevance for governing bodies, coaches, clinicians, schools, parents, and rugby union players. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of sociodemographic variables (of the students and their parents with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385 randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage.
Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Patil, Vishwanath D; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Mogasale, Vittal
To measure the prevalence of specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia among primary school children in a South Indian city. A cross-sectional multi-staged stratified randomized cluster sampling study was conducted among children aged 8-11 years from third and fourth standard. A six level screening approach that commenced with identification of scholastic backwardness followed by stepwise exclusion of impaired vision and hearing, chronic medical conditions and subnormal intelligence was carried out among these children. In the final step, the remaining children were subjected to specific tests for reading, comprehension, writing and mathematical calculation. The prevalence of specific learning disabilities was 15.17% in sampled children, whereas 12.5%, 11.2% and 10.5% had dysgraphia, dyslexia and dyscalculia respectively. This study suggests that the prevalence of SpLDs is at the higher side of previous estimations in India. The study is unique due to its large geographically representative design and identification of the problem using simplified screening approach and tools, which minimizes the number and time of specialist requirement and spares the expensive investigation. This approach and tools are suitable for field situations and resource scarce settings. Based on the authors' experience, they express the need for more prevalence studies, remedial education and policy interventions to manage SpLDs at main stream educational system to improve the school performance in Indian children.
Full Text Available Gizachew Tilahun Belete,1 Dereje Hayilu Anbesse,1 Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye,2 Mohammed Seid Hussen1 1Department of Optometry, 2Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Myopia is an important cause of correctable visual impairment and preventable blindness worldwide. Prevalence rates are approximately 20%–35% among the older teenage population globally. It has a medical burden of pathologic complications such as maculopathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. High school students experience high-performance and study pressures in the preparation for the final national examination. As a result they are exposed to excessive near work and indoor activities. They are also ignored for regular screening. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 498 high school students with systematic random sampling method from April 18 to April 29, 2016, in three full-cycle high schools (9th–12th grades. A standardized structured questionnaire, Snellen acuity chart, pinhole, retinoscope, trial case lenses, pen torch, and direct ophthalmoscope were used to collect data. Results: A total of 495 study participants were included, and they had a mean age of 17.48±1.59 years. The prevalence of myopia was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2, 17.9. Family history of myopia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=8.08 [95% CI: 4.30, 15.16], school being private (AOR=2.88 [95% CI: 1.02, 8.11], longer time spent for near work (AOR=2.89 [95% CI: 1.12, 7.43], longer time spent partaking in indoor activities (AOR=4.32 [95% CI: 1.69, 10.99], shorter near working distance (AOR=3.06 [95% CI: 1.33, 7.06], lack of outdoor sport activities (AOR=2.27 [95% CI: 1.05, 4.90], use of visual display units (AOR=2.81 [95% CI
Prabakar, Jayashri; John, Joseph; Srisakthi, D
Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood that interferes with normal nutrition intake, speech, and daily routine activities. Dental caries is a lifetime disease, and the highest priority risk group is school children. To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh. A cross-sectional study was done among school going children of Chandigarh in the age group of 3-17 years. The subjects were selected from four randomly selected schools. All the children from the selected schools were examined. A total of 4493 subjects formed the sample size. Dentition status was assessed using dft index by Gruebbel for primary dentition and DMFT index by Klein, Palmer, Knutson for permanent dentition, respectively. Chi-square test was used to find an association between the study variables. Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the mean difference. Among the 4493 study subjects, caries prevalence was found to be 47.3%. Mean dft and DMFT score of the population was 1.06 ± 1.995 and 0.41 ± 1.022, respectively. When analyzing the treatment needs among various age groups 42.6% of the study subjects required oral prophylaxis and 45% required restorative procedures. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that high prevalence of caries was found in primary dentition than permanent dentition and most of the decayed teeth were untreated. This study emphasize the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage and parents should be made aware of caries preventive measures for their children.
Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Bullying is a frequent form of violence among adolescent students, leading to serious physical and psychological damages. This study's objective is to identify the prevalence and factors associated with bullying among adolescents in public high schools. Methods: This is an observational, transversal study, with the participation of 47 14 - to 17-year old male and female adolescents from a public high school. Subjects answered a standardized questionnaire to assess the behavioral characteristics of victims, perpetrators and witnesses of bullying. Victimization was classified as either verbal or physical. This study was authorized by the local Ethics Committee, and both parents and adolescents signed a consent form. Results: 47 adolescents with an average age of 15,6 ± 0,9 years old participated in the study. The average age of girls was 15.5 ± 0.7 and boys 15.6 ± 0.9 years (p > 0.05. Approximately 13% of respondents reported having been verbally bullied, with no difference between genders. About 28% of the total reported having witnessed some form of verbal abuse at school. With regard to offenders, 19.1% of respondents,all of the male, reported having been verbal bullies. All of the attackers said that there was no penalty for their act of bullying. Conclusion: two in every ten adolescents reported having verbally bullied someone at high school, whereas about 28% of respondents reported at some point having been witnesses of physical or psychological bullying at school.
Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza
Background The most important process in childhood and adolescence is learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslexia among primary male school students and the relationship between dyslexia, obesity and overweight. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 1000 male students (first to fifth grade) in primary schools (20 schools) by using the multi-stage random sampling (50 students were selected randomly from each school). Data collection instrument...
Gebeyehu, Minaleshewa Biruk; Andarge, Dagmawi Abate; Debay, Yabsira Belayneh; Bejiga, Geremew Sokile
Background Dysmenorrhea is an important health problem of adolescents in school, as well as health practitioners, that badly affects the daily activities and quality of life. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and assess its management practice among University of Gondar students. Methods A cross-sectional study was done from April 06 to May 08, 2016, on female students of University of Gondar. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used to describe and assess the association between different variables. Results More than two-thirds (75.3%) of the respondents were nonmedical students and the prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 77.6%. About half (50.6%) of the participants reported that they have a family history of dysmenorrhea and experienced continuous type of pain (53%) which lasts 1-2 days (47.8%). Abdominal spasm (70.4%), back pain (69.7%) fatigue, and weakness (63.5%) were the most commonly experienced dysmenorrhea symptoms. More than half (63%) of the respondents had encountered social withdrawal and decrease in academic performance (51.4%). More than two-thirds (63.8%) of the respondents use home remedies as a primary management option. Ibuprofen and diclofenac were the most commonly used medications to manage dysmenorrhea. Conclusions The present study revealed that high proportion of University of Gondar female students had dysmenorrhea. Findings suggest the need for educating adolescent girls on appropriate and effective management of dysmenorrhea. PMID:28589173
This study employed an ethnographic perspective to generate a grounded theory that contributes to the understanding of financial leadership practice in four elementary school contexts: Non Title I School, Title I School, Empowerment School and Charter School. The literature, interviews, observations, document analysis, and review of relevant…
Jansen Pauline W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.
Al-Asadi, Jasim; Khalaf, Shukrya; Al-Waaly, Aqeel; Abed, Alaa; Shami, Sabah
Studies from various parts of the world have shown that teachers are likely to suffer from burnout. So far, there has been no research on burnout among primary school teachers in Basrah, Iraq. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predisposing factors of self-reported burnout among primary school teachers in Basrah. This was a cross-sectional study in 32 governmental primary schools during November 2014-February 2015. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and work-related data using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Of 800 questionnaires distributed, 706 (88.3%) were completed; 58.4% were from women. The prevalence of burnout was 24.5% (95% CI: 21.5-27.8). A statistically significant association was found between burnout and age, sex and marital status. Work-related factors that showed significant association with burnout were: work overload, problems related to career advancement, high number of students per class and student misbehaviour. Burnout is an important health problem among primary school teachers in Basrah. A number of risk factors, particularly those related to work, are amenable to modification since they are related to the education policy. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.
Bhaya, Maneesha; Panwar, Sadik; Beniwal, Rajesh; Panwar, Raja Babu
It is fairly easy to detect advanced valve lesions of established rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography in the clinically identified cases of rheumatic heart disease. However, to diagnose a subclinical case of rheumatic heart disease, no uniform set of echocardiographic criteria exist. Moderate thickening of valve leaflets is considered an indicator of established rheumatic heart disease. World Health Organization criteria for diagnosing probable rheumatic heart disease are more sensitive and are based on the detection of significant regurgitation of mitral and/or aortic valves by color Doppler. We attempted diagnosing RHD in school children in Bikaner city by cardiac ultrasound. The stratified cluster sampling technique was employed to identify 31 random clusters in the coeducational schools of Bikaner city. We selected 1059 school children aged 6-15 years from these schools. An experienced operator did careful cardiac auscultation and echocardiographic study. A second expert confirmed the echocardiographic findings. The prevalence of lesions suggestive of rheumatic heart disease by echocardiography was 51 per 1,000 (denominator = 1059; 95% CI: 38-64 per 1,000). We were able to clinically diagnose RHD in one child. None of these children or their parents having echocardiographic evidence of RHD could provide a positive history of acute rheumatic fever. By echocardiographic screening, we found a high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in the surveyed population. Clinical auscultation had much lower diagnostic efficacy.
Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A
Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, Phistory compatible with anaphylaxis. Of 13 children who sought medical attention, 70% were diagnosed with FA; none were advised to acquire an epinephrine autoinjector. Up to 5.5% of school-aged Chilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Hopkins, Megan; Woulfin, Sarah L.
A central challenge for local education agencies (i.e., school districts in the United States) undergoing reform is to design systems that facilitate instructional improvement. At the core of these systems are educational infrastructures that bolster capacity building efforts and support teaching and leadership practices. Our goal for this special…
Buckley, B S
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of its diagnosis. Methods: The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices and barriers to screening. Results: Prevalence is most often reported as 2-6% of pregnancies. Prevalence may be lower towards the Northern Atlantic seaboard of Europe and higher in the Southern Mediterranean seaboard. Screening practice and policy is inconsistent across Europe, hampered by lack of consensus on testing methods, diagnostic glycaemic thresholds and the value of routine screening. Poor clinician awareness of gestational diabetes, its diagnosis and local clinical guidelines further undermine detection of gestational diabetes. Conclusions: Europe-wide agreement on screening approaches and diagnostic standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.
Erick, Patience N; Smith, Derek R
Although low back pain (LBP) represents a common occupational problem, few epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LBP among school teachers, particularly in Africa. School teachers are known to represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of LBP. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct one of the first epidemiological investigations of LBP among teachers in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers in Botswana using self-administered questionnaires which were distributed to 3100 randomly selected school teachers and collected over a five-month period between July and November 2012. The questionnaire included low back pain information, demographic data, lifestyle, work-related characteristics and psychosocial factors. Data were analysed using Chi-squared and logistic regression models. The 12 month prevalence and LBP disability and associated risk factors were also analysed. A total of 1747 teachers returned completed questionnaires, yielding a response rate of 56.3%. The 12-month prevalence of LBP was 55.7%, with 67.1% of them reporting minimal disability. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender [OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14-2.00] and previous back injury [OR: 9.67, 95% CI: 4.94-18.93] were positively correlated to LBP. Awkward arm position [OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.24-2.62] and high psychological job demands [OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.93] were also significantly associated with LBP. Regular physical exercise was negatively associated with LBP [OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43-0.93]. Female gender [OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99] and previous back injury [OR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.92-4.74] were also positively associated with LBP disability. The prevalence of LBP appears to be high among school teachers in Botswana. A wide variety of LBP risk factors were identified in this study. Female gender and previous injury were both associated with LBP presence
Amatya, B; Shrestha, N
Under-nutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Nepal still faces high chronic as well as acute under-nutrition in children. The following study was conducted a Sanskrit school in rural Baglung to find the prevalence of malnutrition among the children which could reflect the nutritional status of the community. Out of 60 students admitted to the school, only 43 were present at the time when we collected our data. Weight was measured with a standard weighing scale and standing height with a measuring tape attached to the wall. Data were filled up in proforma, entered in Microsoft Excel 2013 and were analyzed and indicators calculated with SPSS version 20 using WHO Child Growth Reference data for 5-19 years and macros. Stunting (Z score Sanskrit school where the study was conducted.
Achouri, I; Aboussaleh, Y; Sbaibi, R; Ahami, A; El Hioui, M
Iron deficiency anaemia is an important health problem in Morocco. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anaemia among school children in Kenitra. The sample represents school children of all educational levels and age ranged between 6-15 years. The level of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was measured in a group of 271 school children. The seric iron was assessed and anaemia was defined when hemoglobin education of the mother and anaemia in children (p = 0.004) but not with the family income. It is concluded that improving the economic status of the family, women education and health education about balanced animal and plant food consumption are recommended strategies to reduce the burden of anaemia.
Lapidot-Lefler, Noam; Dolev-Cohen, Michal
Recent technological developments have added cyberspace as part of adolescents' social milieu. Bullying, which is prevalent in adolescents' social environment, also takes place in cyberspace, although it is believed to have a more potent and harmful effect. A study of cyberbullying and FtF bullying could elucidate critical implications for…
Ez-Elarab, Hanan S; Sabbour, Sahar M; Gadallah, Mohsen A; Asaad, Tarek A
School violence is a growing problem that has received widespread attention. Violent behavior for elementary school children is primarily expressed as physical or verbal aggression. Various factors contribute to violent and aggression by children at homes, schools or individual risk factors. The aim of the present study is to measure the prevalence of violence, risk factors, and different forms among elementary school children, to identify consequence of violent exposure and children with abnormal behavior score. A cross-sectional study was done enrolling a total of 500 elementary students from two mixed schools (private and public) 250 from each in North Cairo Educational Zone. Data collected from students, parents and teachers were: violence behavior, home and family atmosphere, peer relation, exposure to violence at school; being victimized, witness, or initiator, and other risk factors. Standardized questionnaires were used as Achenback Child Behavior checklist, parent and teacher forms of Strength and Difficulty questionnaires (SDQ), and developmental history of child. Monthly grades of students, IQ assessment, physical examination of students were recorded. Prevalence of different forms of violence was higher in public school than private; physical violence 76%, 62% respectively. All forms of violence were higher among boys. Living with a single parent (OR = 2.3), absence of an attachment figure (OR = 13.6), instrumental delivery or cesarean section (OR = 1.9), corporal punishment (OR = 3), violent video games preference (OR = 2.5), exposure to verbal aggression (OR = 3), relations with aggressive peers (OR = 3) were risk factors for violence. Teacher's report of SDQ revealed abnormal score of student's behavior in (32.4%) and (22%) students of public and private schools respectively. The most frequent problems revealed by SDQ among victimized students of both schools was conduct problems (64.7%) in teacher's report and peer relation problems 93.6% in parent
Oshodi, O Y; Aina, O F; Onajole, A T
Substance use continues to be major risk behaviour among youth, with consequent physical and/or mental health complications. The current study aimed to establish the prevalence and associated factors of substance use among selected secondary school students in Lagos. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study among selected secondary school students in Lagos. Permission was obtained from appropriate school authorities; as well as consent from each participant. The WHO Students' Drug Use Questionnaire which had been previously validated in the country was used to obtain the drug use information from the subjects. Analysis of the data was conducted using Epi-info version 5. A total of 402 students were studied - of whom 43.5% (n=175) were males and 56.5% (n=227) females. The mean age was 15.9 years. 83.1% (n=334) lived with their parents, 7.6% (n=31) with their relatives and 7.2% (n=29) with friends. The commonest substances used by the subjects were caffeine (kolanut and coffee), mild analgesics (paracetamol and aspirin) and the antimalarials, most especially chloroquine with lifetime use prevalence rates of 85.7%, 73.8% and 65.7% respectively. Generally, the prevalence rates for lifetime use of the substances varied from 3.8% (n=14) for Heroin and Cocaine to 85.7% (n=344) for psychostimulants; and for current use varying from 2% (n=8) to 56.5% (n=213). For the so called "gateway drugs": alcohol and tobacco, their lifetime use prevalence rates were 9.2% (n=34) and 5.2% (n=19) while the lifetime use prevalence rate for cannabis was 4.4% (n=16). In terms of gender, the prevalence rates for males were generally higher than for their female counterparts except for antibiotics, analgesics, heroin and cocaine. Reasons for using substances included relief from stress, 43.5% (n=175), self medication to treat illness, 23.8% (n=96), and to stay awake at night to study, 14.9% (n=60). Substance use was found to be prevalent among students in this study involving over
Lim, K H; Amal, N M; Hanjeet, K; Mashod, M Y; Wan Rozita, W M; Sumarni, M G; Hadzrik, N O
Smoking among adolescent is a public health concern in Malaysia. Multiple studies on smoking prevalence and its related factors have been conducted in Malaysia, however, they were specific to either urban or rural areas alone. Studies in mixed settlement areas (urban, rural, land development area) had not been intensively investigated. This study reports the prevalence, demographic and factors related to smoking amongst form four students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor. A cross-sectional study of 16-year old secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district was conducted using two-stage stratified, proportionate sampling in July 2005. The study instrument used was a validated structured questionnaire on smoking and its related factors. Smoking prevalence was found to be 29.7%. More than 50% of male students were smokers. Prevalence was highest in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) settlement areas. Smoking was associated with having a brother or friend who smokes and poor academic performance. The study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, especially among male students in land development schemes. This situation will contribute to high smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.
Ray, Ranjan; Sinha, Kompal
This paper makes methodological and empirical contributions to the study of HIV in the context of Botswana, a country with high HIV prevalence. Comparable evidence is presented from India to put the Botswana results in perspective. The results point to the strong role played by affluence and education in increasing HIV knowledge, promoting safe sex and reducing HIV prevalence. The study presents African evidence on the role played by the empowerment of women in promoting safe sex practices such as condom use. The lack of significant association between HIV prevalence and safe sex practice points to the danger of HIV-infected individuals spreading the disease through multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. This danger is underlined by the finding that females with multiple sex partners are at higher risk of being infected with HIV. These results take on special policy significance in the context of Botswana, where the issue of multiple sex partners has not been adequately addressed in the programme to contain the spread of HIV.
Full Text Available Background: Contact dermatitis (CD is a significant problem among nurses. Although there are reports about the prevalence of CD from different parts of the world, data about its frequency in Turkey and about allergic contact sensitization among nurses is insufficient. Objective: To define the frequency and patterns of allergic contact sensitization and related symptoms in practicing and student nurses. Methods: There were 123 nurses in our hospital practicing in the in-patient clinics. All were invited to participate in the study. 69 working-in nurses and 79 student nurses participated in the study. The main reason for refusal of nurses was that they were usually having a shower daily after a hard working day and they had to postpone having a bath for 3 days if they had a patch test on their back. A ready-to-use patch test system (TRUE test® with 29 standardized test substances was applied to all of the participants. History about symptoms of CD and allergic diseases was investigated by questionnaire. Results: While 34.8% (24/69 of practicing nurses had symptoms of CD, 19% (15/79 of student nurses reported the symptoms (p=0.039. The most prevalent positive reaction was to nickel sulfate followed by thimerosal. There was no difference for positive reaction rates between practicing and student nurses. Nurses who had symptoms of CD were older than those without symptoms (p=0.003. The participants with symptoms of CD were more frequently from practicing nurses (p=0.047. Conclusion: CD is more frequent in practicing nurses than student nurses; allergic contact sensitization is not. This may be attributed to the length of occupation that is also correlated well with the length of exposure to the occupational irritants.
Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.
Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.
Paula Almeida de Castro
Full Text Available The stigmatization observed at the interaction between teachers and students at Class Council meetings is the thematic of this paper. In this paper are presented the results from the ethnographic investigation at a basic public school at Rio de Janeiro. The scenario of Class Council under observation and analysis produced clues for comprehension about the pedagogical practices planned by stigmatization, medical treatment and pathologizing the students and sometimes their families as a justification for their failures at school. It was possible to observe that students that do not fit the normal standards imposed by school received a mark, a stigma, starting to be recognized for these assignments. At the teachers speech was present the control that made visible that mark to everyone who lives together with them. The results of this study provide clues to rethink the situation of vulnerability and exclusion that some students are exposed in the evaluation of the class councils, due to difficulties in their educational processes. It also offers the possibility of thinking about the difference by the difference in an inclusive school effectively.
Gelaw, Aschalew; Anagaw, Belay; Nigussie, Bethel; Silesh, Betrearon; Yirga, Atnad; Alem, Meseret; Endris, Mengistu; Gelaw, Baye
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and limited access to clean water. Indeed, epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren. This school-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at the University of Gondar Community School from April 2012 to June 2012. Study subjects were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested questionnaire. The collected stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites using direct saline smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Out of 304 study subjects, 104 (34.2%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate was 43 (32.1%) for male and 61 (35.9%) for female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in age group of 10-12 years compared to other age groups. The predominant intestinal parasite was Hymenolepis nana, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Ascaris lumbricoides with 42 (13.8%), 28 (9.2%), 18 (5.9%), respectively. Hand washing practice and ways of transportation were statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Children in grades 1 to 3 had a higher prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection than those in grades 4 to 8 (p = 0.031). Intestinal parasites were prevalent in varying magnitude among the schoolchildren. The prevalence of infections were higher for helminths compared to protozoa. Measures including education on personal
Mohamed, Inaam N; Elseed, Maha A; Hamed, Ahlam A; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E; El-Sadig, Sarah M; Omer, Ilham M; Osman, Abdelgadir H; Ahmed, Ammar E; Karrar, Zein A; Salih, Mustafa A
Data on childhood epilepsy in Sudan are scarce and the only published study on its prevalence was published in 1983. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of epilepsy in school children in Khartoum State. This is an analytical population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan. The study included students in the basic (primary) schools aged 6-14 years. Simple random sampling was used to draw a cluster of four of the seven localities comprising Khartoum State. The sample frame consisted of 1609 public schools (808,624 pupils) and 787 private schools (194,613 pupils), a total of 2396 schools (1,003,237 pupils). A sample size of 75 940 pupils was estimated and 250 schools were drawn from a sample frame of 2396 schools using a stratified random sampling technique. Consent was obtained from the headmaster/head teacher of the selected schools who arranged a meeting with the tutor/teacher responsible for each class. The study team asked whether any of the pupils was ever noticed or known to have had any kind of seizures, and a confidential letter was sent to the parents of each identified pupil. The letter included an explanation of the aims of the study, information on the research group and the kind of help the research group could offer; contact numbers and email addresses were made available if they wished to participate in this study. Those who consented to participate were then given an appointment at the Epilepsy Outpatient Department, Gaafar Ibnauf Children's Hospital, Khartoum where they were evaluated by the paediatric neurologist. Altogether, 74,949 pupils were enrolled for the study, 398 of whom were identified initially as having seizures and 332 of whom (83.4%) were identified by a paediatric neurologist. Of the 332, 303 (91.3%) proved to have epileptic seizures, 250 (82.5%) were known to have epilepsy, and 53 (17.5%) were newly diagnosed during the survey. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The total prevalence of
Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Moullec, Grégory; Aimé, Annie
The true extent of school bullying among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remains an underexplored area. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to: (a) assess the proportion of school-aged youth with ASD involved in school bullying as perpetrators, victims or both; (b) examine whether the observed prevalence estimates vary when different sources of heterogeneity related to the participants' characteristics and to the assessment methods are considered; and (c) compare the risk of school bullying between youth with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. The resulting pooled prevalence estimate for general school bullying perpetration, victimization and both was 10%, 44%, and 16%, respectively. Pooled prevalence was also estimated for physical, verbal, and relational school victimization and was 33%, 50%, and 31%, respectively. Moreover, subgroup analyses showed significant variations in the pooled prevalence by geographic location, school setting, information source, type of measures, assessment time frame, and bullying frequency criterion. Finally, school-aged youth with ASD were found to be at greater risk of school victimization in general, as well as verbal bullying, than their TD peers. Autism Res 2016, 9: 601-615. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Fluorosis is one of the common but major emerging areas of research in the tropics. It is considered endemic in 17 states of India. However, the Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is categorised as a fluorosis non-endemic area. But clinical cases of dental fluorosis were reported in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. Since dental fluorosis has been described as a biomarker of exposure to fluoride, we assessed the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among primary school children in the service area. Materials and Methods: Children studying in six primary schools of six villages in the field practice area of Rural Health Centre of Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Every child was clinically examined at the school by calibrated examiners with Dean′s fluorosis index recommended by WHO (1997. Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test and Spearman′s rank correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five 5- to 12-year-old school children (255 boys and 270 girls were surveyed. The overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 31.4% in our study sample. Dental fluorosis increased with age P < 0.001, whereas gender difference was not statistically significant. Aesthetically objectionable dental fluorosis was found in 2.1% of the sample. Villages Senjicherry, Keezhaperambai and Kanagarapattu revealed a community fluorosis index (CFI score of 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54 with 5.6%, 4.8% and 1.4% of objectionable dental fluorosis, respectively. Correlation between water fluoride content and CFI values in four villages was noted to be positively significant. Conclusion: Three out of six villages studied were in ′borderline′ public health significance (CFI score 0.4-0.6. A well-designed epidemiological investigation can be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors
Milanović-Dobrota Biljana Z.
Full Text Available The current interest in introducing the dual education system into Serbian secondary education has drawn our attention to the question of students' self-perception in the process of practical teaching. The idea that underpins this paper is the supposition that students are affectively engaged with the work activities they perform. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES (Schaufeli et al., 2002 has been used for assessing students' work engagement in practical teaching. A study was conducted to examine the differences between high school students with mild intellectual disabilities and those with typical development with regard to aspects of work engagement defined as Energy, Commitment and Absorption. The sample was comprised of 248 students of vocational high schools in Serbia of both genders, of whom 111 with intellectual disabilities and 137 with typical development. The findings indicate that students with mild intellectual disabilities tend to rate their engagement in practical teaching more positively (t=7,457; p=0,001 than students with typical development. The paper provides a detailed analysis of the pedagogical implications of these findings and also outlines the limitations of the study, thus pointing the way for future research on this or related issues.
Gabriela V. KELEMEN
Full Text Available The training of future preschool and primary school teachers at a high quality level is a main goal of our institution and all our efforts are channelled towards fulfilling it. Being a teacher is a science, a science based on competences acquired while attending well-structured lectures that mingle theoretical knowledge with practical assignments. Students acquire knowledge, abilities and develop field related competences during initial training but three years of study are not enough. The Law of Education regulates the following amendment: in order for a teacher to be well trained to meet the requirements of the third millennium it is necessary for him/her to continue the training in level II i.e. master degree, which provides additional competences. In this article we discuss a master programme developed within an European project that offers educational training according to the requirements of a high quality training both practical and theoretical. The components of the Master programme entitled Psychopedagogy of early education and young schooling containa curriculum adjusted to the requirements of a competitive higher education, the courses and seminars are the result of a thorough analysis of different educational models that have been implemented in other European countries. Currently, we are at the end of the first year and we want to share the good practices obtained so far.
Bremholm, Jesper; Brok, Lene Storgaard
methodology, and the interventions will be carried out at 20 schools in Denmark and will consist of 4 specially designed game-based units in each of the subjects Danish (as L1), mathematics, and science in both 5th and 7th grade. Games include digital as well as analogue games, and we understand game...... in the 21st Century (GBL21), a five years large-scale intervention project launched in December 2017. The overall aim is to explore how and to what degree students develop 21st century skills through a game-based pedagogy in different school subjects. The GBL21 project is based on a mixed methods......-based learning as relating to the process of designing games, exploring game worlds, and reflecting on game activities in an educational context. The purpose of the qualitative strand is to explore how the game-based learning activities influence the literacy practices in the different classrooms. This includes...
To study medical practice in the management of hypertension as a factor in renal risk in general medical practice and primary prevention in children at school, and pregnant women under prenatal monitoring. The longitudinal study, observational over a year, focused on medical practice in schools, maternal health and medical practice among 100 physicians (general practitioner and specialist practitioner) in Annaba (Algeria). In children in schools, measurement of blood pressure is never done on the grounds because this gesture is considered unnecessary in 100% of cases. In pregnant women, the measurement of blood pressure is not performed in more than 26% of pregnant women because it is deemed unnecessary by the midwife in 89% of pregnant women and default material in 11% of they. In current medical practice, 69% of doctors routinely take blood pressure. For the rest, represented mainly by specialists, it is the patient who does not justify. Sixty-two percent of physicians, that is hypertension, above 140/90mmHg, and 15% of physicians that is hypertension, above 145/95mmHg. Among the physicians, 58.7% did not use urinary strip, either, because they think that this review should be done in a laboratory (64.8%), or because the urinary strip are not available at even consulting (35.2%). Inadequacies in the coverage (care) of the HTA are real. Their effects on the progress of prevalence of the renal insufficiency chronic terminal treated are possibly important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Buckley, B S; Harreiter, J; Damm, P
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects...... of its diagnosis. Methods: The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide...... an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices...
Carter, Alice S.; Wagmiller, Robert J.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.
Objective: The aims of this paper are as follows: to present past-year prevalence data for DSM-IV disorders in the early elementary school years; to examine the impact of impairment criteria on prevalence estimates; to examine the relation of sociodemographic and psychosocial risk factors to disorders; and to explore associations between…
Full Text Available High prevalence of dental diseases has been recorded in Rajasthan, however, not much work has been done to ascertain the prevalence of dental diseases in Udaipur district. This study was conducted among 1,587 government school children of Udaipur district in the age group of 5-14 years for recording the prevalence of gingival diseases, fluorosis and malocclusion. Gingivitis was found in 84.37% of children, malocclusion in 36.42% and fluorosis in 36.36%.
Scouller, Dianne L.
Recent research in two New Zealand Christian schools found that despite biblical vision and mission statements and declarations of pedagogy built on biblical foundations, actual classroom practice frequently differed little from that in secular schools. Teachers could clearly articulate their respective school's vision and goals but all except one…
Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Font, Sarah A
School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools and by assessing the extent to which schools disproportionately apply corporal punishment to children who are Black, to boys, and to children with disabilities. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.
Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie; Obu, Herbert A; Odetunde, Odutola I; Chinawa, Awoere T
Malnutrition can be defined as a state of nutrition where the weight for age, height for age and weight for height indices are below -2 Z-score of the NCHS reference. It has posed a great economic burden to the developing world. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in Abakiliki in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional studies that assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 1-5 years attending nursery and primary schools. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometry and clinical examination. A total of 616 children aged one to 5 years were enrolled into this study. Three hundred and sixty-seven (59.6%) were males while 249 (40.4%) were females. Sixty of the 616 children (9.7%) had acute malnutrition based on WHZ-score. Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was present in 33 children (5.3%) while 27 (4.4%) had severe acute malnutrition. The prevalence of global and severe acute malnutrition using z-score is 9.7% and 4.4% respectively while that of stunting is 9.9% with a male preponderance.
Crookes, Annie; Wolff, Kim
Dokha is a mixed tobacco product, smoked through a pipe, traditional in Arabic culture and popular in the UAE. User forums suggest this product may contain higher levels of nicotine and potentially psychoactive properties. However, there have been few published studies on dokha prevalence and health effects. The present study provides initial data on prevalence of use among high school students resident in Dubai, UAE. 416 students were recruited from five English curriculum schools. Respondents completed a questionnaire measuring current and lifetime use of tobacco in the form of cigarettes, water-pipes and dokha. Current tobacco users completed the 'Hooked on Nicotine Checklist for signs of dependency. Data from 394 subjects were analyzed with mean age 16.9 years. Regular use (weekly or daily) of tobacco had relatively high prevalence (23.4%) compared to international data and was driven by use of the local tobacco, dokha. Dokha forms a commonly used tobacco product among young people in the UAE from both Arab and Western national groups. Little is currently known about the health and dependence risks of this product. The paper adds to the few studies calling for timely research into this and other emerging tobacco products.
Maria das Neves Figueiroa
Full Text Available Objective: Survey the prevalence of arbovirus infections among pregnant women provided with care at a maternity hospital school in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, and quantitative study, carried out with data collected from the notification forms filled in during obstetric screening between August 2015 and July 2016. Results: Positive serology was found for arboviruses in 40.2% of the 103 suspected cases. Serology was not performed or it showed inconclusive results in 59.8% of the cases. Dengue fever occurred in 44% of the cases, chikungunya in 34%, and zika fever in 22%. Infections were more frequent among pregnant women over 20 years old, with low income and low schooling levels, living in Recife (48.5% and Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil (24.3%. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were arthralgia (94%, exanthema (82%, and fever (78%. Infections occurred within the first trimester of pregnancy (54.5%, 63.3% of the pregnant women had to be hospitalized, and 45.4% of them did not undergo morphological ultrasonography. Most babies were born full-term and they had adequate weight. The prevalence of microcephaly was 9.7% when considering cases of arbovirose and 62.5% when considering specific cases of zika fever. Conclusion: The prevalence and repercussions of arboviruses justify the consolidation of actions to fight Aedes aegypti, as well as the effective deployment of clinical protocols and recommendations aimed at the mother and child care.
Full Text Available Background: People in Iraq have been more or less continually exposed to war for more than three decades. Studies with Iraqi participants report high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and related problems. Methods: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of traumatic events and to screen the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among Iraqi secondary school students. Four self-report scales were administered to 403 secondary school students, aged 16–19 (61% male and 31% female. These scales were Baghdad Trauma History Screen, the Scale of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS, Social Support Scale, and Scale of Religious Coping. Results: The results showed that 84% of participants experienced at least one traumatic event. Of these, 61% fully met the criteria for PTSD; 65% of the females and 58% of the males. PTSD symptoms were correlated with 20 positive religious coping but not with social support. Conclusions: It’s clear that traumatic events were speared widely among the participants and the result showed that the vast majority of participants were exposed to different types of traumatic events. In addition, many of the participants have met full PTSD criteria and others had partial PTSD.
Caglar, E; Sandalli, N; Panagiotou, N; Tonguc, K; Kuscu, O O
To evaluate the prevalence and aetiology of dental erosion in Greek minority school children living in Istanbul (Turkey). The present study was initiated in four Greek minority elementary schools in Istanbul where a total of 83 children (46 girls, 37 boys) between ages 7-14 years old were examined. Children were categorised into 7-11 and 12-14 ages groups. Data were obtained by clinical examination, questionnaire and standard data records. All tooth surfaces were examined, dental erosion was recorded per tooth and classified according to the index of Lussi et al.  In the 7-11 yrs old group, 47.4% (n:18) of the children exhibited dental erosion while in 12-14 yrs old group, 52.6% (n:20) of the children exhibited dental erosion. There were no statitistical differences between age, gender groups and findings of dental erosion (p>0.05). However prevalence of dental erosion in 12-14 yrs old was twice that of the 7-11 years old children. In general, an unusual drinking pattern of slow swallowing of beverages significantly affected the prevalence of dental erosion (p=0.03). Multiple regression analysis revealed no relationship between dental erosion and related erosive sources such as medical conditions, brushing habits, swimming, and the consumption of acidic fruit juices and beverages (p>0.05). However it should be noted that the sample size in the current study was small.
Stojković Branislava B.
Full Text Available Introduction. The data on the health-condition of the first permanent molars among children in our region is scarce. Therefore, the need for more thorough analysis of the state of health of these teeth in the children from our region imposes itself, along with the need to determine the most critical period in which a significant increase in caries prevalence of these teeth takes place. Aim. The aim of the research was to perform a comparative analysis of the prevalence, average rate and structure of decay, missed and filled first permanent molars in the children of the younger school age in relation to those of the older school age. Material and methods. The research included 1.119 examinees, aged from 7 to 14 years. Examinees were divided into two groups according to their age: examinees of the younger school age and older school age. Dental check-up of the students was performed by means of a dental probe and mirror and the health condition of the examined teeth was registered by means of Klein-Palmer's DMF system. Results. The research determined high values of the examined parameters of the first permanent molars caries prevalence which increases with the age of the examinees. In the examinees of the age of 8, 9, and 10, statistically more significant values of the examined teeth caries prevalence parameters were registered, in relation to the examinees of seven years of age. In the examinees of the older school age, statistically significantly higher values were registered only for TCI and ACI and only in the examinees aged 14 in relation to the examinees aged 11. With the age, the percent of decay is decreases, while the percent of filled and extracted first permanent molars increases. Conclusion. Results show that the period between 7 and 10 years of age is the most critical and the most important period for the implementation of preventive-prophylactic measures aimed to preserve the health of the first permanent molars.
Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Unfortunately there are not exact epidemiologic data concerning the prevalence of this disorder in Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma or respiratory symptoms in Isfahan Junior high school children. Methods. From 1998 Oct. to 1999 May. 3986 children from urban junior high schools children were selected by a proportional random cluster sampling. A self administered questionnaire prepared by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC modified by several supplementary questions was distributed among the selected children. The response rate was 98.5 percent (N=3924. Of these children, 2588 pupils who had at least one positive answer referring to respiratory symptoms were invited to AL-Zahra medical center for further evaluation, but 1710 pupils (66 percent of the invited attended the clinic and underwent complete medical interview, physical examination and post-exercise pulmonary function testing. Those children who failed to attend the clinic were examined at their schools (774 cases and 104 absent pupils were not examined. Our criterion for the diagnosis of asthma was the positive history of wheezing and dyspnea. Results. The overall prevalence of asthma was 19.6 percent with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 (P<0.0001. The frequencies of wheezing ever in life and sleep disturbed by wheeze were 31.7 percent and 9.5 percent, respectively. Wheeze and rhoncus on chest auscultation while the children were examined in clinic or school was recorded in 4.2 percent and 3.5 percent of the population, respectively. Pulmonary function tests revealed FEV1:5,80 percent of predicted value (prd in 5.9 percent, FEF 25-75£70 Percent prd in 9.6 percent and FEF75£70 percent prd in 20.5 percent of tested children. The three later findings correlated to history of wheezing and dyspnea (P < 0.0001. Discussion. The prevalence of
Versluis, R G; de Waal, M W; Opmeer, C; Petri, H; Springer, M P
To determine the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in general practice. Descriptive. General practice and primary health care centres in Leyden region, the Netherlands. RNUH-LEO is a computerized database which contains the anonymous patient information of one general practice (with two practitioners) and four primary health care centres. The fourteen participating general practitioners were asked what International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) code they used to indicate a patient with chronic fatigue or with CFS. With these codes and with the code for depression patients were selected from the database. It then was determined whether these patients met the criteria of CFS by Holmes et al. The general practitioners used 10 codes. Including the code for depression a total of 601 patients were preselected from a total of 23,000 patients in the database. Based on the information from the patients' records in the database, 42 of the preselected patients were selected who might fulfill the Holmes' criteria of CFS. According to the patients' own general practitioner, 25 of the 42 patients would fulfil the Holmes' criteria. The men:women ratio was 1:5. The prevalence of CFS in the population surveyed was estimated to be at least 1.1 per 1,000 patients.
Full Text Available Aim: The goal of the study was to determine external genital anomaly types in children attending primary school (6-15 years old in Sakarya. Material and Method: 1573, 6-15 years old student randomly selected from 8 schools inside the province. The students were examined in an appropriate room in the school, and external genital anomalies were identified and noted. Results: In this study, a total of 106 (6,7 % anomalies were identified in 1573 students. The most common anomalies were phimosis 3,6 % (56 and undescended testis 2,6 % (41. Discussion: This study shows that the ratio of the external genital anomaly that needs to be cured before primary school is high. Socioeconomic differences and environmental factors can affect anomaly prevalence. Health care workers all over the country should be trained regarding the issue. In addition to these, to identify genital anomalies before children start primary school, specific training programs should be prepared for parents.
Sharma, Bimala; Chavez, Rosemary Cosme; Nam, Eun Woo
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and correlates of insufficient physical activity in adolescents in Peru. METHODS We used a self-administered questionnaire developed from Global school-based Student Health Survey to collect information from secondary school students in North Lima and Callao in 2015. We carried out Poisson regression with robust variance using generalized linear models to estimate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of insufficient physical activity for its correlates. RESULTS We have found that 78% of the adolescents did not meet the global recommendation of the World Health Organization on physical activity in the last week before the survey. Female respondents (APR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.21), respondents who perceived themselves as overweight (APR = 1.10, 95%CI 1.03-1.18), and respondents who consumed insufficient vegetables and fruits [no vegetables (APR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.06-1.59), no fruits (APR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.00-1.31) as compared to those who consumed ≥ 2 servings every day in the last seven days] were more likely to report insufficient physical activity. Adolescents who worked after school (APR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.84-0.99), had physical education classes five times per week (APR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.88-0.99), and had parental supervision (APR = 0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.98) were less likely to report insufficient physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Sex, work after school, perceived body weight, physical education class, parental support, and healthy dietary behaviors were associated with insufficient physical activity. Attempts to improve physical activity should look for ways to enhance leisure-time physical activity, parental support, physical education classes, healthy dietary behaviors, and normal body weight maintenance in adolescents with integrated efforts from the family and school.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Short stature (SS is a common pediatric problem and it might be the first sign of underlying illness. Studies documenting the burden and etiological profile of SS are scarce from India and are mostly limited to data obtained from referral centers. Due to the lack of large-scale, community-based studies utilizing a standard protocol, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and etiological profile of SS in school children of a South Indian district. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 4–16 years from 23 schools in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, underwent anthropometric measurements and height was plotted in Khadilkar et al. growth chart. The cause of SS was assessed using clinical and laboratory evaluations in assigned children with a height less than third centile. Results: A total of 15644 children belonging to 23 schools were evaluated, and 448 (2.86% children had SS. Etiological evaluation was further performed in 87 randomly assigned children, and it is identified that familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS in the study population (66.67%. Hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency were the two most common pathological causes of SS seen in 12 (13.79% and 8 (9.20% children, respectively. Malnutrition was the cause of SS in 6 (6.9% children and cardiac disorders, psychogenic SS, and skeletal dysplasia were other identified causes of SS in the study. Interpretation and Conclusions: The overall prevalence of SS in school children was 2.86% and familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS. As a significant percentage of children with SS had correctable causes, monitoring growth with a standard growth chart should be mandatory in all schools.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rumination syndrome (RS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGD increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. The epidemiology of this condition in school aged children is poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of rumination and other related associations in a cohort of Sri Lankan children. Methods Children aged 10-16 years were randomly selected from 8 schools in 4 provinces in Sri Lanka. RS was diagnosed using Rome III criteria. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire distributed in an examination setting. It was translated into Sinhala, the native language and pretested before distribution. Results A total of 2163 children were included in the study (55% boys, mean age 13.4 years, SD 1.8 years. Prevalence of RS was 5.1% (n = 110; boys 5.1% and girls 5.0%. When symptoms were analyzed, 73.6% reported re-swallowing of regurgitated food, while the rest spat it out. In 94.5% regurgitation occurred during the first hour after the meal. Only 8.2% had daily symptoms while 62.7% had symptoms weekly. Abdominal pain, bloating and weight loss were the commonest symptoms associated with RS (19.1%, 17.3% and 11.8% respectively. No significant association was observed between exposure to stressful events and rumination (p > 0.05. Twenty (18.2% with RS fulfilled Rome III criteria for at least one other FGD. School absenteeism was seen in 11.8% of affected children. Conclusion RS was reasonably common in this cohort of school-aged children and adolescents in Sri Lanka. However, symptoms were severe enough to affect schooling only in 12% of affected children. Around one fifth with RS had at least one other overlapping FGD.
Nahás Pires Corrêa, Maria Salete; Nahás Pires Corrêa, Fernanda; Nahás Pires Corrêa, José Paulo; Murakami, Christiana; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros
BaCKGROUND. The prevalence of dental erosion seems to be rising in young populations, particularly among individuals of higher socioeconomic status. AIM. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental erosion in children and adolescents of a private dental practice. DESIGN. A total of 232 participants, aged 2-20 years, were examined. Dietary habits, oral hygiene, and medical data were collected from dental records. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS. Dental erosion prevalence was of 25.43% and was highest on the occlusal surfaces (76%). Associated factors were: frequent consumption of soft drinks (OR = 2.33; 95% CI = 1.01-5.38) and candies (OR = 3.23; 95% CI = 1.25-8.32); and interaction between these two factors (OR = 3.95; 95% CI = 1.60-9.75). On anterior teeth, associated factors were: frequent consumption of fruits (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.09-5.91); and age (OR = 1.07 95% CI = 1.01-1.14). Milk consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of dental erosion (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.17-0.94). CONCLUSIONS. A relatively high prevalence of erosion was found in association with frequent intake of soft drinks, candies, and fruits. The consumption of milk seemed to protect against dental erosion on anterior teeth. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Watson, Hunna J.; Hamer, Robert M.; Thornton, Laura M.; Peat, Christine M.; Kleiman, Susan C.; Du, Shufa; Wang, Huijin; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective China is undergoing dramatic Westernization, hence may be able to provide unique insights into the role of sociocultural factors in disease. The purpose of this exploratory study was two-fold: to describe the prevalence of screening-detected eating disorders and disordered eating in China at the first occasion of assessment in the large-scale China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and to explore the associations between dietary practices and disordered eating. Regarding the first objective, participants are provincially representative and in subsequent waves will be followed longitudinally. Method CHNS participants were recruited using multistage, cluster random sampling, beginning in 1989. In this study, participants comprised 259 female adolescents (12–17 years) and 979 women (18–35 years) who participated in the CHNS 2009 survey, which is the first CHNS survey to assess disordered eating. Dietary practice-disordered eating associations were investigated with logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and urbanization. Results Of the participants, 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8, 8.2) of adults and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 12.0) of adolescents had a screening-detected eating disorder. Dietary practices had non-significant associations with disordered eating at the general population level, except for protein consumption among women. There was evidence that skipping meals and a high-fat diet may confer risk. Discussion Screening-detected eating disorders in China are lower in prevalence than in developed countries. Dietary practices had fairly limited associations with disordered eating at the general population level; protein consumption, skipping meals, and a high-fat diet are candidate dietary practice exposures for disordered eating. PMID:25407415
Watson, Hunna J; Hamer, Robert M; Thornton, Laura M; Peat, Christine M; Kleiman, Susan C; Du, Shufa; Wang, Huijin; Bulik, Cynthia M
China is undergoing dramatic Westernization, hence may be able to provide unique insights into the role of sociocultural factors in disease. The purpose of this exploratory study was two-fold: to describe the prevalence of screening-detected eating disorders and disordered eating in China at the first occasion of assessment in the large-scale China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and to explore the associations between dietary practices and disordered eating. Regarding the first objective, participants are provincially representative and in subsequent waves will be followed longitudinally. CHNS participants were recruited using multistage, cluster random sampling, beginning in 1989. In this study, participants comprised 259 female adolescents (12-17 years) and 979 women (18-35 years) who participated in the CHNS 2009 survey, which is the first CHNS survey to assess disordered eating. Dietary practice-disordered eating associations were investigated with logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and urbanization. Of the participants, 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8, 8.2) of adults and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 12.0) of adolescents had a screening-detected eating disorder. Dietary practices had non-significant associations with disordered eating at the general population level, except for protein consumption among women. There was evidence that skipping meals and a high-fat diet may confer risk. Screening-detected eating disorders in China are lower in prevalence than in developed countries. Dietary practices had fairly limited associations with disordered eating at the general population level; protein consumption, skipping meals, and a high-fat diet are candidate dietary practice exposures for disordered eating. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B
Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents. © 2014 APJPH.
Golbasi, Zehra; Kaya, Didem; Cetindag, Arzuhan; Capik, Emine; Aydogan, Semra
This is a descriptive study to determine the smoking prevalence and attitudes with smoking among high school students in Sivas, Turkey. This study was carried out in 6 high schools located in Sivas, Turkey. The sample was constituted by 1050 students. The data of the study was obtained by a questionnaire which is developed by researchers. The x2 test was used in the statistical analyses. In this study, the rate of students who did not smoke or stopped smoking was found to be 79.6%, while the rate of occasionaly or daily smokers was 20.4%. Students with male gender, those whose fathers and mothers had a low educational level, and a smoking mother, father or sibling, had a higher frequency of smoking (pattitudes to cigarette in general and rates of agreed to some attitude expressions were found to be higher in non-smoking students. The results demonstrated that the smoking prevalence among high school students was high and students with a smoking family member in particular, those with parents having low educational levels and of male gender should be regarded as a risk group for smoking.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School and to analyze the affecting factors. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out among 192 students who educated at Meram Apprenticeship School during 2004-2005 academic years. Of 192 students whom participated in this study, 95.8 % ( n= 184 were male, and 4.2 % (n= 8 were female, minimum age was 15, maximum age was 20 (median value= 17 years. When the smoking status was evaluated, 50.5 % (n= 97 were ever-smokers, 7.3 % (n= 14 were ex-smokers, 42.2 % (n=81 were never smokers. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7 years, the highest age was 18 years and the median value was 13 years. When the reasons to start smoking were analysed, 41 students of 97 current smokers stated that they had started smoking because of affecting of social environment and friend groups (40.6 %, n=41, affectation and enthusiasm (27.7 %, n=28, stress and anxiety (21.8 % n=22. According to Fagerstrom criterion, 43 students (42.2 % were assessed very low addictive level, 23 students (n=22.5% were high addictive level. Our results showed that the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School was an important matter. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 424-433
Eklund, Katie; Rossen, Eric; Charvat, Jeff; Meyer, Lauren; Tanner, Nick
The National Association of School Psychologists' Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (2010a), often referred to as the National Association of School Psychologists' Practice Model, describes the comprehensive range of professional skills and competencies available from school psychologists across 10 domains. The…
van Hek, Margriet; Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Pelzer, Ben
Few studies on male-female inequalities in education have elaborated on whether school characteristics affect girls' and boys' educational performance differently. This study investigated how school resources, being schools' socioeconomic composition, proportion of girls, and proportion of highly educated teachers, and school practices, being…
Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M
To trial the collection of measurements to provide population-based prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in western Sydney and examine the association between healthy weight and ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES) in a socio-economically and culturally diverse population. A cross-sectional population-based survey of 2341 children in Years 4 and 7 (mean ages 9 and 12 years, respectively) in 2007. Nineteen percent of children were overweight and a further 6% were obese. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was similar for boys and girls (26% vs. 24%, P= 0.35). SES was significantly associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight: the odds of being overweight or obese were 1.79 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 2.36) higher for children from the lowest quartile than for children from the highest quartile. Compared to children from an English speaking background, children from a non-English speaking background were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese (21% vs. 31%, P overweight and obesity was significantly higher for children from a Pacific Island (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% CI 1.63 to 4.33), Middle Eastern (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.17) or European (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.49) background than for English speaking background children. Large jumps in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children observed from the 1980s appear to be diminishing, with comparable prevalence reports in 2004 and 2007. Ethnicity and SES are each independently associated with the prevalence of unhealthy weight in children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R
Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population.
Arias, Graciela; Friberg, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to identify current practices of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States for bilingual language assessment and compare them to American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) best practice guidelines and mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The study was modeled to replicate portions of Caesar and Kohler's (2007) study and expanded to include a nationally representative sample. A total of 166 respondents completed an electronic survey. Results indicated that the majority of respondents have performed bilingual language assessments. Furthermore, the most frequently used informal and standardized assessments were identified. SLPs identified supports, and barriers to assessment, as well as their perceptions of graduate preparation. The findings of this study demonstrated that although SLPs have become more compliant to ASHA and IDEA guidelines, there is room for improvement in terms of adequate training in bilingual language assessment.
Chang, Elaine; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence; Coverdale, John
Objective: The authors determined the prevalence of stress, depression, and burnout in medical students and the resources used by students in one school to alleviate psychological distress. Methods: A survey was administered to 526 students in the first 3 years of medical school (336 responders; response rate: 70%) at one institution, using a…
Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 7-12 year old students and to investigate the relationship between flat foot and age and sex. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 945 students (460 girls and 485 boys were examined. The presence of flatfoot and the degree of its severity according to Tachdjian's system of grading for flatfoot was assessed. Results: The data showed that the overall prevalence of flat foot was 74% out of which 23% were mild, 34% were moderate and 17% were severe. The prevalence of flat foot in girl and boy students were 75.2% and 72.6% respectively, but this difference was not significant. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of flat foot and age. Discussion: This study showed that flat foot is a common problem among primary school students and should be addressed by responsible organizations.
Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi
Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408
Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi
Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.
Fan, Chung-Hau; Denner, Peter R.; Bocanegra, Joel O.; Ding, Yi
After the change in IDEIA, different models of response to intervention (RtI) have been practiced widely in American school systems. School psychologists are in an important position to facilitate RtI practice and provide professional development in order to help their school systems successfully undergo this transformation. However, there is a…
Benson, Jeryl DiSanti
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupation in school-based occupational therapy practice. The research questions were (1) How do school-based occupational therapists describe the role of occupation during intervention? (2) Which theories of occupation do school-based occupational therapists associate with their own practice?…
Todd, Ross J.
This author states that a professional focus on evidence based practice (EBP) for school libraries emerged from the International Association of School Librarianship conference when he presented the concept. He challenged the school library profession to actively engage in professional and reflective practices that chart, measure, document, and…
Waheed, Zarina; Hussin, Sufean; Bin Megat Daud, Megat Ahmad Kamaluddin
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the best practices of school leaders, teachers, pupils, parents and the community in selected transformed schools in Selangor, Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative multiple-case study explores the best practices in two selected transformed schools through in-depth interviews,…
Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Wamukuru, David Kuria; Odebero, Stephen Onyango
Purpose: To investigate the extent to which secondary schools practiced aspects of total quality management (TQM). Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. A sample of 300 teachers in a residential session during a school holiday provided their perceptions on the practice of TQM in their schools. Data…
Davis-Elenis, Sharon V.
This study examined the impact of servant leadership practices as perceived by faculty and staff in an urban Focus elementary school. A mixed-methods design was used to explore the impact of the school leader's servant leadership practices on the behavior and perceptions of the faculty and staff, and the challenges a school leader faces as a…
Schatt, Matthew D.
The purpose of this study was to explore high school band students' perspectives of instrumental music practice from within the attribution theory paradigm and to attempt to elucidate the secondary student's attitudes toward practice. High school band students from three Midwestern school districts (N = 218) completed a survey that was used to…
Perera-Diltz, Dilani M.; Mason, Kimberly L.
Supervision is vital for personal and professional development of counselors. Practicing school counselors (n = 1557) across the nation were surveyed to explore current supervision practices. Results indicated that 41.1% of school counselors provide supervision. Although 89% receive some type of supervision, only 10.3% of school counselors receive…
Khader, Yousef; Irshaidat, Omama; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Amarin, Zouhair; Alomari, Mousa; Batieha, Anwar
To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and determine their associated factors among school children aged 6-12 years in the north of Jordan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among school children in the north of Jordan in the period between March 2006 and May 2006. A total of 2,131 children (1,052 boys and 1,079 girls) were selected at random using multistage cluster sampling method. The first part of the questionnaire was completed by pupils in schools and the second part was completed by their parents at home. The researchers measured height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and mid upper arm circumference of each student in the class. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the international cut-off points of body mass index for boys and girls between 2 and 18 years of age. Of the total 2,131 children, 19.4% were overweight (18.8% of boys and 19.9% of girls) and 5.6% were obese (5.6% of boys and 5.5% of girls). Watching television >2 h/day, daily pocket money >20 piasters (1 piaster = 1.42 cents), having overweight or obese mother/father were significantly associated with increased odds of both overweight and obesity. Age > or = 10 years, female gender, and family size of 300 Jordanian Dinars (JDs), (1 JD = $1.42) was associated with obesity. While the prevalence of overweight was high among Jordanian children compared with that in the neighboring countries, the prevalence of obesity was lower.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Several studies have been conducted in India to determine the prevalence of learning disabilities in school children which has been reported to be 3-10 per cent among students population. The present study was conducted to find out prevalence of specific developmental disorder of scholastic skills in students of classes VII to XII and to find out feasibility of screening tool in Chandigarh, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study on school students was carried out in two phases. The students were drawn from classes VII to XII from 10 schools of Chandigarh, India. Details of academic performance of all the students was taken, subjectively from class teachers and objectively from the marks obtained in the last academic session. In phase I, 2402 students were assessed. In phase II, 108 students were randomly selected for evaluation for assessing sensitivity and specificity of screening proforma for teachers. A total of 124 students from phase I and all students in phase II were assessed in detail. Tests of intelligence (Malin′s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children and Standard Progressive Matrices, and NIMHANS Index for specific learning disability (SLD battery were administered. Results: A total of 38 students were found to be having specific developmental disorder of scholastic skills in phase I, that gave a prevalence of 1.58 per cent. Majority had mixed type of errors on SLD battery. There were more boys diagnosed with specific learning disability. Teacher′s screening instrument had high sensitivity (90.385 and specificity (94.68. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study conducted in community, showed that specific learning disability was not identified even till later age. The screening instrument thus could be used by teachers to suspect students with specific learning disability.
Njokama Fidelis O
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. Results The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%, selling in kiosks and shops (25.4% and farming (23.6%. No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048: this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004. Most of the children (82.2% involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively. Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002. A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. Conclusion It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.
Sultana, Niru; Afroz, Sadya; Tomalika, Nehlin; Momtaz, Hasina; Kabir, Md Humayun
SummaryDespite the ongoing problems of undernutrition and infectious disease, obesity and overweight have become a major problem in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among school children aged 6-12 years in Bangladesh. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 and the study sample comprised 1768 children (980 boys; 788 girls) from eight purposively selected schools in different areas of Dhaka city. Students were interviewed about their diet and physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were made, including height, weight, mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference, hip circumference and body mass index (BMI). Undernutrition, overweight and obesity were defined using internationally accepted BMI cut-off points. Mean height, weight, BMI, MUAC, waist circumference and hip circumference values were found to be higher in boys than in girls, except at age 12 when these were found to be significantly higher in girls than in boys (p<0.05). The mean prevalence of overweight was 10.0% (boys 10.2%; girls 9.8%), and that of obesity 5.0% (boys 4.3%; girls 5.8%). The prevalence of underweight was 16.3% in boys and 12.7% in girls. The prevalence of underweight was significantly higher in poor than in rich children (22.1% vs 11.2%) and that of obesity was higher in rich than in poor children (9.9% vs 1.3%; p<0.001). A family history of obesity and hypertension emerged as a significant predictor of developing overweight and obesity (p<0.001). The data suggest that underweight and obesity co-exist in urban areas of Bangladesh, posing a challenge for the nutritional health of Bangladeshi children.
Full Text Available Background Due to their weak immune systems, contact with soil, and failure to comply with hygiene principles, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high among children. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and the effects of various factors among elementary school children in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Following coordination with the education office, schools were randomly selected from different areas, and fecal samples were collected from 203 males and females students at different education levels. The samples were examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The data were collected via questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and the Chi-squared test. Results Approximately 25.1% of the children were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite, and 5.9% of them were infected with more than one species. The highest prevalence was apparent in children at education levels 4 and 5. There was no significant relationship between infection and parents’ education and some clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea, but there was a significant relationship with the number of family members. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was relatively high among the schoolchildren in this study. Since these parasites can cause anemia and dysfunctional nutrient absorption, growth, and learning among children, it is suggested that training courses be held for parents and that basic steps be taken to improve the level of hygiene in the region to prevent the transmission of these parasites.
Full Text Available Namdari P1, Nazari H2 1. Instructor, Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Abstract Background: Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders starting from childhood and is considered an important mental health problem of the society. DBDs may have distractive effects on the social, educational, personality, and behavioral relationships of people in their childhood and adulthood. The present research was done to determine the prevalence of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in elementary school students of Khorramabad in 2005. Materials and methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. Its statistical community includes all the students studying in grades one to five at elementary schools in Khorramabad (N = 943. Sixteen state and private schools (8 for girls and 8 for boys were selected in a cluster and multi–stage sampling method. The standardized questionnaire of Child Symptoms Inventories (CSI-4 was used to collect data on the prevalence of children’s psychiatric disorders. The results ware analyzed using descriptive statistic and Chi-square test. Results: The total sample included 943 children. There was 21.4% DBD behavior (17.7% oppositional defiant disorder and, 3.7% conduct disorder. The number of the boys was twice as that of the girls (28.7% vs. 14.4%. The students in grade 2 showed the lowest, and those in grade 3, 4 and 5 the highest prevalence rate of DBD. There was also a significant relationship between children’s grade (P= 0.02, parent’s education (P=0.005, P=0.006, Mother’s job (P= 0.03, income (P = 0.005 and DBD. However no significant relationship between father’s job, educational level of the students and parent’s mental problems and Disruptive Behavior Disorders was found. Conclusion: Due to the high
Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani
This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kataoka, Chie; Nozu, Yuji; Kudo, Masako; Sato, Yuki; Kubo, Motoyoshi; Nakayama, Naoko; Iwata, Hideki; Watanabe, Motoi
This study aimed to clarify relationships between prevalence of risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students. Data from a national survey, the Japan Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011 (the subjects were 9,778 students: 5,027 males, 4,751 females, in the first grade to the third grade of 102 schools randomly selected among high schools throughout Japan) was used for this analysis. We focused on nine items of risk behavior in JYRBS: "lack of vigorous physical activity," "skipping breakfast," "current cigarette use," "current alcohol use," "lifetime thinner use," "ever had sexual intercourse," "rarely or never wore seatbelts," "in a physical fight," and "seriously considered attempting suicide." Students with less than six hours of sleep duration accounted for approximately 40% of males and females. The odds ratios of prevalence of each of the nine risk behaviors were calculated on the basis of the group "six hours or more and less than eight hours" of sleep, whose prevalence of risk behaviors was the lowest. In the group with "four hours or more and less than six hours," the odds ratios of "lack of vigorous physical activity" and "skipping breakfast" for both males and females were significantly high. Furthermore, in the group with shorter sleep duration of "less than four hours," the odds ratios of all nine risk behaviors for males (odds ratios: 1.47-3.28) and eight risk behaviors (except for "rarely or never wore seatbelts") for females (1.54-4.68) were significantly high. On the other hand, in the group with long sleep duration of "10 hours or more," the odds ratios of "current cigarette use" and "lifetime thinner use" for both males and females were significantly high. It was shown that short sleep duration of less than six hours and long sleep duration of 10 hours or more related to the prevalence of youth risk behaviors among Japanese high school students. It was suggested that sleep duration should be considered as an important category
Robbins, Jessica M.; Mallya, Giridhar; Polansky, Marcia; Schwarz, Donald F.
Introduction Epidemic increases in obesity negatively affect the health of US children, individually and at the population level. Although surveillance of childhood obesity at the local level is challenging, height and weight data routinely collected by school districts are valuable and often underused public health resources. Methods We analyzed data from the School District of Philadelphia for 4 school years (2006–2007 through 2009–2010) to assess the prevalence of and trends in obesity and...
Camila Borges Rufino
Full Text Available This descriptive study was performed with 29 teachers from three public state schools in Goiânia, Goiás state. The teachers answered a semi-structured questionnaire that aimed at verifying the pedagogical practice in sex education, difficulties related to the theme, and the need for training. Most teachers were male (69% and aged between 25 and 35 years (74%. Half held a graduate degree (54% in human sciences (49%. Nearly all teachers find difficulties in working the topic (89% and need training (93%. Contents on sexuality were not addressed in the Political Pedagogical Projects (76% and the biology program aimed at teaching the theme (55%, a reality that disagrees with the National Curricular Standards, which is based on transversality. Partnerships between health and education must be established, particularly between the Family Health Strategy the higher education institutions, providing public school teachers with the necessary didactic-pedagogical support to address sexuality in the classroom. Descriptors: Sexuality; Schools; Nursing; Public Health.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline how physical education taught at special schools intended primarily for children with mild intellectual disability has evolved. The institutions in question are special schools (officially referred to as "practical elementary schools", which have existed since 1948. Research of both historical and contemporary legislation and other sources related to the education of children with specific educational needs indicates that there has essentially been no change in the weekly allotment of physical education. With the exception of periods 1953-1960 and 1978-1993, three hours a week have always been and continue to be set aside for physical education in every class. Any changes observed apply instead to the content of these lessons and organisational matters related to teaching. This fact is undoubtedly linked to the social changes that have taken place in all fields of human activity and the gradual formation and improvement of the legal conditions for the education of people with various disabilities. Given the quantity of legislation enacted it is fair to say that since the turning-point year of 1989 the legislation has paid considerably more attention to individuals with special educational needs, such as mild intellectual disability, than in previous periods - not only is there more legislation, it is also more detailed and thorough.
Full Text Available Introduction: Education for Entrepreneurship can be seen as one of the contemporary themes of current school and out-of-school education and has also become one of the priority topics of the European Union’s education policy. In this article, we focus on the definition of entrepreneurial education and the context of the terms liminality and in-betweenness that are closely related to entrepreneurship. In the theoretical part, we focus on broader context and complexity of entrepreneurial education and characterize the competence as a sense of initiative and entrepreneurship (Malach, 2008. All defined terms are related to the implementation of entrepreneurial education in the process of school education. Purpose: The aim of the article is to analyse the ways and methods of applying the main ideas of entrepreneurial education in school education. We concentrated on finding the context and characteristics of innovative methods and strategies through which the objectives of entrepreneurial education are achieved. Methods: To describe and understand the phenomenon of entrepreneurial education, the qualitative content analysis of the examples of good practices was used in this article. We developed codes in relation to the causes, conditions, opportunities and environment of entrepreneurial education. Conclusions: The aim was to determine the degree of implementation of entrepreneurial education/skills in the learning process in schools. By using the Content Analysis method, we determined the following questions: 1. What is entrepreneurial education? 2. What are the aims of education for entrepreneurship? 3. Why do we learn entrepreneurship? 4. Who and where teaches entrepreneurship? 5. How to learn entrepreneurship? Four main categories have been identified for the analysis of the complex concept of entrepreneurial education: Category 1: The roles of teachers and pupils in entrepreneurial education Category 2: Teaching methods and activities of
Chang, Wei-wei; Yao, Ying-shui; Yuan, Hui; Chen, Bai-feng; Liang, Ya-li; Chen, Yan; Song, Jian-gen; Li, Jie; Zhu, Yu
To analyze the prevalence and differences between gender and grades of suicide ideation among middle school students in China from 2000 to 2012 so as to provide basis for suicide prevention among middle school students. Electronic search strategy was carried out, using PubMed, Wanfang Database, VIP Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and CBM to collect data on suicide ideation among middle school students. Fixed effects model or random effects model was employed according to statistical tests for the homogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by rank correlation test. 40 papers were included for meta-analysis, with a total sample size of 320 375. The combined prevalence of suicide ideation was 17.99% (95%CI: 16.59% - 19.49%). Prevalence rates of suicide ideation were stratified by factors as gender and grade at school. Pooled prevalence rates on suicide ideation were as follows: 14.71% (95%CI: 13.42% - 16.11%) and 19.92% (95%CI: 19.30% - 21.64%), P junior high school students, respectively. There were differences in the prevalence of suicide ideation among middle school students between genders and grades in China.
Full Text Available School remains an important setting offering an effective and efficient ways to reach over to children and through them, families and community members.(1 Dental caries is very common disease in childhood, interfering with food intake affecting physical development in the form of malnutrition, child’s school attendance and academic performance. Tooth decay or cavities caused by dental caries is an infectious disease and is diet and oral hygiene dependent. If left untreated result in toothache, permanent cavitations and children with active disease become adult with tooth decay. Also poor dentition and malocclusion decreases the masticatory performance effecting oral health and quality of life. Fortunately dental caries is both preventable and treatable with effective home care and regular access to preventive dental services. The present study was carried out in the rural area of Konkan region to assess the awareness regarding oral hygiene, prevalence of dental caries, to assess the masticatory performance.
Lunstead, Julie; Weitzman, Elissa R; Kaye, Dylan; Levy, Sharon
Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is recommended as a strategy to prevent or reduce adolescent substance use. Offering SBIRT in schools may provide an opportunity to reach adolescents not accessing primary care. The objective is to assess school nurses' attitudes and practices regarding adolescent SBIRT. The authors administered electronically and in person a questionnaire including 29 items on SBIRT attitudes and practices to school nurses registered for the Northeastern University's School Health Institute Summer Program in Massachusetts (N = 168). Survey questions were adapted from a questionnaire originally developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. One hundred and forty-four nurses completed the survey for a response rate of 85.7%. More than three quarters of the respondents (77.0%) were in favor of universal alcohol screening in schools. None of the respondents reported screening their students on a regular basis. More than half (64.4%) of nurses reported screening students; however, they did so only when they suspected alcohol use. During these instances, only 17.9% used a validated screening tool and almost all (98.2%) used face-to-face clinical interviews. When addressing alcohol use by a student, the large majority of respondents reported including the following recommended clinical strategies: asking about problems related to alcohol use (56.3%), explaining the harms of alcohol use (70.1%), and advising abstinence (73.6%). On average, respondents spend 5 to 10 minutes discussing alcohol use with their students. Survey respondents were supportive of universal alcohol screening in school, although few were doing so at the time. When respondents identified students using alcohol, their interventions were closely aligned with clinical recommendations for brief intervention. Implementation of SBIRT that focuses on standardized, annual screening has the potential to deliver high-quality care in this setting.
Anderson, Eleanor Robinson
Mounting public concern about a school-to-prison pipeline has put schools and districts under increasing pressure to reduce their use of suspensions, expulsions and arrests. Many are turning to restorative justice practices (RJP) as a promising alternative for addressing school discipline and improving school climate. However, implementing RJP in…
Mau, Wei-Cheng J.; Li, Jiaqi; Hoetmer, Kimberly
This study examined the current roles and practices of American high school counselors in relation to the ASCA [American School Counselor Association] National Model. Expectations for student success by high school counselors were also examined and compared to those of teachers' and school administrators'. A nationally representative sample of 852…
Qin, Jin; Holman, Dawn M; Jones, Sherry Everett; Berkowitz, Zahava; Guy, Gery P
To examine the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning behavior using nationally representative samples of US high school students younger than 18 years. We combined data from the 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 41 313) to analyze the association between 2 types of state indoor tanning laws (age restriction and parental permission) and the prevalence of indoor tanning during the 12 months before the survey, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and survey year, and stratified by gender. Age restriction laws were associated with a 47% (P tanning prevalence among female high school students. Parental permission laws were not found to be associated with indoor tanning prevalence among either female or male high school students. Age restriction laws could contribute to less indoor tanning, particularly among female high school students. Such reductions may reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer.
Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali
Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.