Psychiatric disorders and general medical conditions: implications for the clinician. ... Patients with severe mental illness have higher than expected prevalence rates of co-morbid general medical conditions, particularly metabolic and cardiovascular disease. They are ... planning of treatment for either group of disorders.
Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre
Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…
This study aims to determine the pattern, prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among the residents of a juvenile justice facility in Nigeria and to speculate appropriate policy responses. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional comparative study design, 60 consecutive residents of the Ibadan juvenile Remand home ...
Background: Mental health problems can affect anybody including Doctors. It can be related to nature of our work and personal factors. Mental ill health includes a range of conditions like depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety and psychosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among Medical ...
Twelve-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and treatment-seeking among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in the United States: results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
Xu, Yang; Okuda, Mayumi; Hser, Yih-Ing; Hasin, Deborah; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos
To compare the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders in contrast to non-Hispanic whites; and further compare persistence and treatment-seeking rates for psychiatric disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and non-Hispanic whites, analyses from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 1 (n=43,093) were conducted for the subsample of 1332 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (596 men and 736 women) and 24,507 non-Hispanic whites (10,845 men and 13,662 women). The past 12-month prevalence for any psychiatric disorder was significantly lower in Asian American/Pacific Islander males and females than non-Hispanic white males and females. Asian American/Pacific Islander males were less likely than non-Hispanic white males to have any mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, whereas the prevalence of mood disorders among Asian American/Pacific Islander females did not differ from those of non-Hispanic white females. In some cases, such as drug use disorders, both male and female Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders were more likely to have more persistent disorders than non-Hispanic whites. Compared to non-Hispanic white females, Asian American/Pacific Islander females had lower rates of treatment-seeking for any mood/anxiety disorders. Although less prevalent than among non-Hispanic whites, psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. The lower treatment-seeking rates for mood/anxiety disorders in Asian American/Pacific Islander females underscore the unmet needs for psychiatric service among this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Duc, L.; Vree, M.; Cobelens, F. G.; Phuc, L. T.; Sy, D. N.
Little is known about tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in psychiatric hospitals in Vietnam, but prevalence may be higher than in the general population. We assessed the TB prevalence among in-patients of a psychiatric hospital in 2005 in Danang City, Vietnam. Of 300 in-patients, 70 had an abnormal X-ray
The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric patients: the case of federal psychiatric hospital, Calabar. ... called “Prevalence of HIV infection and Cannabis-Abused Questionnaire” (P.H.I.C.Q.), while data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using contingency chi-square (X2) technique.
Mangoulia, Polyxeni; Koukia, Evmorfia; Alevizopoulos, George; Fildissis, George; Katostaras, Theofanis
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress/compassion fatigue (STS/CF), burnout (BO) and compassion satisfaction (CS) in psychiatric nurses, and their risk factors. The Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL R-IV) and a demographic and work related characteristics questionnaire were distributed to 174 psychiatric nurses in 12 public hospitals in Greece. The majority of participants were at the high risk category for STS/CF (44.8%) and BO (49.4%), while only 8.1% of nurses expressed high potential for CS. Awareness of the factors associated with STS may help nurses to prevent or offset the development of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article explores the association of medical and psychiatric conditions with Asperger syndrome, based mainly on publications from the last two decades. It examines comorbidity of Asperger syndrome with mood disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, violence and aggression,…
Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Verma, Vijay; Sarkhel, Sujit
This study was done to measure psychiatric morbidity and associated sociodemographic variables among visually impaired children. 92 students of age range 6 to 20 years from four schools for the blind, in Ranchi, were screened with verbal Hindi translation of General Health Questionnaire 60. Diagnostic Interview Schedule Parent version was applied to establish psychiatric diagnosis on primary caretakers of those who scored above cutoff. Fourteen scored above cut off and psychiatric diagnoses of 8 children were established. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among visually impaired children was found to be 8.69% No sociodemographic variable was associated with the occurrence of psychiatric illness.
Objective: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of aggression and clinical factors associated with aggression among psychiatric in-patients at Jos University Teaching Hospital. This will help create a good knowledge base about management of these patients. Materials and Methods: All admitted psychiatric ...
Ritvo, Eva C; Melnick, Ilan; Marcus, Gina R; Glick, Ira D
Beauty is important. As psychiatrists, we see the interface of beauty with mental health, self-esteem, and mental illness. As physicians who enhance cosmetic appearance, you encounter a broad spectrum of patients ranging from those with a healthy pursuit of enhanced appearance to those whose behavior is extremely maladaptive. This article provides some examples of unhealthy pursuit and how to recognize patients who may be inappropriate for cosmetic procedures. Patients with body dysmorphic disorder and narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders are suffering from psychiatric illnesses that interfere with their judgment and can lead them to make poor choices when considering cosmetic procedures. Clinicians who acquire a basic understanding of these psychiatric conditions can properly screen their patients and enhance their understanding of their patients' goals, both realistic and unrealistic, thus saving them from performing inappropriate procedures that cause frustration to both the clinician and the patient.
S. Alireza Sajjadi
Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are important complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.Materials and method: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with diabetes type 2 referred to diabetes clinic of Zahedan in 2009. They were selected by simple randomized method, screened by General Health Questionnaire and assessed by psychiatric interview, if it was necessary.Results: Totally, 67.5% required an interview and 43.75% were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Major depression were more prevalent (13.5% than adjustment disorders (15%.Conclusion: High prevalence of depression and adjustment disorder in diabetic patients needs psychiatric assessment and treatment as the main part, in the diabetes clinics
Abdullah-Koolmees, H; Gardarsdottir, H; Stoker, L J; Vuyk, J; Egberts, T C G; Heerdink, E R
Psychiatric patients may use medications for their psychiatric condition as well as for treating concurrent somatic diseases or somatic side effects of psychiatric medicines. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of use of medication for somatic disease in institutionalized psychiatric patients and changes therein during 2006-2010. A cross-sectional study in institutionalized psychiatric patients was performed. Medication use for somatic disease on 10 time points between 2006 and 2010 was investigated and stratified by gender, age, psychiatric medication class and the number of different psychiatric medication classes used. The prevalence of use of medication for somatic disease increased from 67.5% in 2006 to 76.9% in 2010. The median number of medications used for somatic disease per patient was 3 between 2006 and 2010. Approximately one-third (34.1%) of the patients received ≥ 3 medications intended for treating somatic disease in 2006 which increased to 46.3% in 2010. In 2010, the prevalence of medication use for somatic disease was highest for analgesics and antirheumatics (34.0%), acid and bowel related medication (25.6%) and anticholinergic medication (24.2%). Medication use for somatic disease was highest in patients ≥ 60 years (95.3%), patients treated with more than one psychiatric medication class (87.5%) and patients treated with mood stabilizers (90.6%). Somatic medication use is high in institutionalized psychiatric patients. More attention is needed for co-use of psychiatric and somatic medications to prevent side effects, drug-disease or drug-drug interactions. More research is needed to investigate if somatic care is optimal in institutionalized psychiatric patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among 12 to 17 years old adolescents in urban areas of Tehran. "nMethod: In this study, 1105 adolescents (12 -17 years old were selected from 250 clusters of the entire 22 municipality areas of Tehran using a multistage sampling method. After responding to the Farsi version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report version, the Farsi version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL was administered to 273 adolescents and their families. The prevalence of adolescent psychiatric disorders was determined using the results of K-SADS-PL. "nResults: There were not any statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of psychiatric disorders except for ADHD which was observed more frequently in boys. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders and separation anxiety disorder. "nConclusion: The frequency of psychiatric disorders among the adolescents in Tehran's urban areas was comparable to the reports from other countries. However, using methods to deal with missing data makes these prevalence rates somehow higher.
Patients with severe mental illness have higher than expected prevalence rates of co-morbid general medical conditions, particularly metabolic ... We furthermore argue that the bidirectional relationship between mental and medical disorders should be considered in the planning of ..... Depress Anxiety 1996;4: 199-208.. 36.
This cross-sectional study seeks to find the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), its indi-vidual components and oxidative stress in psychiatric patients on antipsychotic medication com-pared to newly diagnosed patients attending ... Keywords: Diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, mental illness
Objectives: To investigate (1) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending a PHC clinic (2) the ability of PHC doctors to identify disorders (3) the performance of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3) Design: A cross-sectional study of a clinical population
ABSTRACT. Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually under- treated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric co- morbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia.
Buoli, Massimiliano; Caldiroli, Alice; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo
Psychiatric conditions often complicate the outcome of patients affected by Parkinson disease (PD), but they differ from classical psychiatric disorders in terms of underlying biological mechanisms, clinical presentation, and treatment response. The purpose of the present review is to illustrate the biological and clinical aspects of psychiatric conditions associated with PD, with particular reference to the differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. A careful search of articles on main databases was performed in order to obtain a comprehensive review about the main psychiatric conditions associated with PD. A manual selection of the articles was then performed in order to consider only those articles that concerned with the topic of the review. Psychiatric conditions in patients with PD present substantial differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. Their clinical presentation does not align with the symptom profiles represented by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases. Furthermore, psychiatry treatment guidelines are of poor help in managing psychiatric symptoms of patients with PD. Specific diagnostic tools and treatment guidelines are needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate treatment of psychiatric conditions in comorbidity with PD. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ostovar, Afshin; Haerinejad, Mohammad Javad; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Keshavarz, Mojtaba
Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported. Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants' information, including demographic characteristics, sports' status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported.Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ information, including demographic characteristics, sports’ status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests.Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders.Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.
The psychiatric conditions identi ed were mood disorders (depression and mania) and anxiety disorders (General anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post traumatic stress disorder). Conclusion: Findings suggest that there is need to consider mental and psychological care of clients ...
Jillian W Wong
Full Text Available Primary psychiatric conditions encountered in dermatology include dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania (TTM and neurotic excoriations. For these disorders, the primary pathologic condition involves the psyche; therefore, any cutaneous findings are self-induced. Herein, we review common primary psychiatric conditions in dermatology - dermatitis artefacta, neurotic excoriations and TTM - and examine their epidemiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment strategies. For all primary psychiatric disorders, the most effective underlying strategy is to first establish a strong therapeutic rapport with the patient. Various pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies can then be attempted afterwards to successfully manage these patients.
Rodrigo, A; Perera, D; Eranga, V P; Peris, M U; Pathmeswaran, A
Road traffic accidents are a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Aggressive and reckless driving is an important contributor to the high rate of road traffic accidents. We studied prevalence, nature, determinants and associated psychiatric morbidity of road rage among motorists in Sri Lanka. Methods Data were gathered from 238 randomly selected motorists in Sri Lanka using a modified questionnaire regarding road rage and the 6-item version of Kessler's psychological distress scale. While 98.7% participants reported being victims of road rage, 85.3% were involved in offending behaviour. However actual physical assault (0.8%) and damage to vehicles (2.5%) were rare. Male gender, young age, increased traffic density and driving a three-wheeler or bus were associated with daily road rage victimisation and perpetration. Psychiatric distress was associated with being a victim of road rage. High prevalence of road rage in Sri Lanka and significant psychiatric distress associated with it indicate the necessity of interventions at least for target groups.
Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten
obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD......PURPOSE: The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. METHODS: Data were......), and personality disorders since 1969. The prevalence of SUDs was examined for the following psychoactive substances: alcohol, opioids, cannabis, sedatives, cocaine, psycho-stimulants and hallucinogens. RESULTS: A total of 463,003 patients were included in the analysis. The prevalence of any lifetime SUD was: 37...
Sánchez-Román, Sofía; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Vargas-Martínez, Angeles; Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco; Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Arcila-Martínez, Denise; González-Barranco, Jorge; Herrera-Hernández, Miguel F; Salín-Pascual, Rafael J
Obesity is a chronic condition, in which different systems of the body are affected. There are some previous studies in which the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in extreme obese patients has been reported, but there are some methodological problems. As far as we know this is the first report of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in obese patients that need to have a surgical treatment for this disorder in Mexico. The main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of psychiatric disorders in extreme obese patients candidates to bariatric surgery. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) axis I disorders, were performed in 70 obese patients that will undergo for bariatric surgery. Also the medical files were reviewed in order to obtain the main medical conditions related to obesity. There were 25 men and 35 women in this study (average age +/- s.d = 39.0 +/- 10.4). The Body Mass Index (BMI) was 53.8 +/- 11.9. Sixty percent of the patients had some psychiatric disorder in the axis I of DSM-IV. The most frequent psychiatric problem that was observed was anxiety disorders. The main medical problems observed were: arterial hypertension (59%), diabetes mellitus type 2 (29%) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (29%). The BMI and diabetes mellitus were associated with a lower risk for presenting a psychiatric disorder (for a BMI of 65.5 +/- 10.3 kg/m2: OR 0.26, CI 0.05-1.15, p = 0.04; for diabetes mellitus: OR 0.20, CI 0.03-1.05, p = 0.02). More than half of the patients had at least one psychiatric disorder in axis 1 of DSM-IV, related mostly to anxiety and mood disorders. Our findings point out the importance of psychiatric and psychological intervention in this group of patients, in which a follow up and adherence of medical, nutritional and psychological problems could be the difference, between a good or bad prognosis. Follow-up studies with obese patients after bariatric surgery, will be important to support our findings.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of substance use among inpatients of a Psychiatric Hospital in Uyo, Nigeria, to determine the association with onset of psychiatric illness. A total of 124 inpatients admitted into a Psychiatric Unit of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital were assessed for substance ...
Kaur, Manvir; Himadi, Elaine; Chi, Donald L
Adolescents with psychiatric conditions may be at risk for xerostomia. In this preliminary study, we estimated xerostomia prevalence in adolescents ages 9 to 17 years from an inpatient psychiatric clinic (N = 25) and examined whether: (1) gender and age were associated with xerostomia and (2) xerostomia was associated with self-reported cavities. We used a modified 11-item Xerostomia Index to identify xerostomia (no/yes) and asked if adolescents ever had or currently have cavities (no/yes). The mean age was 14 years (SD = 2.3) and 72% were male. Sixty percent reported xerostomia (SD = 50). There were no significant associations between xerostomia and gender (p = 0.99) or age (p = 0.66), or between xerostomia and past (p = 0.26) or current cavities (p = 0.11). Larger proportions of adolescents with xerostomia reported previous and current cavities. Sixty percent of adolescents from an inpatient psychiatric clinic reported having xerostomia, which may lead to increased caries risk over time. Additional research should examine the prevalence and consequences of xerostomia in high-risk adolescents. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
About 70-90% of patients with IBS have psychiatric comorbidity, such as depression, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction and somatoform disorders. Many studies had been ... The most common psychiatric diagnosis in the subjects was schizophrenia, which was diagnosed in 51 (54.8%) subjects. Using the Rome III ...
Maria P Henning
Full Text Available Background. Syphilis research has neglected the prevalence of the disease among psychiatric patients, and traditional syphilis screening has been reported as inadequate. Objectives. (i To assess the syphilis prevalence among psychiatric patients; (ii to compare psychiatric diagnoses of syphilis-infected and -uninfected patients; (iii to assess self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour; (iv to establish syphilis/HIV co-morbidity; and (v to investigate the performance of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR test in syphilis screening, compared with the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA test. Methods. Psychiatric inpatients at Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria, who consented to participate in the study (N=195 were categorised according to gender and length of admission (long-term or recent. Non-treponemal RPR, confirmatory TPHA, HIV-rapid and HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests were performed. A reactive TPHA test was used to diagnose syphilis. Results. The estimated prevalence of syphilis was 11.7%. There was no significant association between TPHA sero-positivity and primary psychiatric diagnosis or self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour. Significant co-morbidity existed between syphilis and HIV (p=0.012. Compared with the TPHA test, the RPR test performed poorly, identifying only 2/23 patients who had a sero-positive TPHA test (8.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusions. The prevalence of syphilis was higher than anticipated, supporting the need for routine testing. The significant co-morbidity and alarming prevalence of HIV and syphilis warrant testing for both conditions in all psychiatric admissions. Current syphilis screening with a single RPR test is inadequate; both RPR and TPHA tests should be performed.
Brandl, Eva Janina; Lett, Tristram A.; Bakanidze, George; Heinz, Andreas; Bermpohl, Felix; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam
The specific impact of weather factors on psychiatric disorders has been investigated only in few studies with inconsistent results. We hypothesized that meteorological conditions influence the number of cases presenting in a psychiatric emergency room as a measure of mental health conditions. We analyzed the number of patients consulting the emergency room (ER) of a psychiatric hospital in Berlin, Germany, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014. A total of N = 22,672 cases were treated in the ER over the study period. Meteorological data were obtained from a publicly available data base. Due to collinearity among the meteorological variables, we performed a principal component (PC) analysis. Association of PCs with the daily number of patients was analyzed with autoregressive integrated moving average model. Delayed effects were investigated using Granger causal modeling. Daily number of patients in the ER was significantly higher in spring and summer compared to fall and winter (p < 0.001). Three PCs explained 76.8% percent of the variance with PC1 loading mostly on temperature, PC2 on cloudiness and low pressure, and PC3 on windiness. PC1 and PC2 showed strong association with number of patients in the emergency room (p < 0.010) indicating higher patient numbers on warmer and on cloudy days. Further, PC1, PC2, and PC3 predicted the number of patients presenting in the emergency room for up to 7 days (p < 0.050). A secondary analysis revealed that the effect of temperature on number of patients was mostly due to lower patient numbers on cold days. Although replication of our findings is required, our results suggest that weather influences the number of psychiatric patients consulting the emergency room. In particular, our data indicate lower patient numbers during very cold temperatures.
Peen, J.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Have, M. ten; Graaf, de R.; Beekman, A.T.F.
Objectives In many countries, the total rate of psychiatric disorders tends to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The relevance of this phenomenon is that it may help in identifying environmental factors that are important in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. Moreover, urban
Peen, J.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Schoevers, R.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.; Beekman, A.T.F.
Objectives: In many countries, the total rate of psychiatric disorders tends to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The relevance of this phenomenon is that it may help in identifying environmental factors that are important in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. Moreover, urban
Conclusion: Professionals dealing with treatment of psychiatric disorders should always be aware of substance use disorder comorbidity, and start treatment immediately without causing any delay in treatment. Obviously we need future large prospective studies to get more insight into these dual-diagnose disorders. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 37-48
Mohan Roy Gopalan
Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above, having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7% had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6% of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients.
Robbins, D B
This chapter has reviewed the specific techniques of measuring fitness for work in individuals with psychiatric impairment. The discussion also considered the estimate of risk associated with various specific conditions and diagnoses. The use of psychiatric measures in work-fitness estimation is warranted in the following situations: 1. applicants with known or suspect history of psychiatric disorder; 2. employees returning to work after an episode of emotional illness or substance abuse; 3. employees referred to the medical department by management for evaluation of performance decrement, absence, abrupt indebtedness, unusual behavior, etc.; and 4. individuals evaluated for high stress or high risk jobs. Applicants' evaluations begin with a thorough medical history, a physical examination, a mental status examination, and basic laboratory studies. The personal history must include a complete work history, with particular attention paid to job duration and reasons for leaving employment. The mental status may be extended by specialized scales, e.g., the Griffiths work behavior rating scale. Unless an applicant has evidence of cognitive dysfunction, the usual battery of psychometric tests will not be helpful. Instruments that measure self-concept and ego strength, e.g., the Stotsky-Weinberg Sentence Completion Test and Miskimins Self-Goal-Other Test, may assist in resolving difficult questions about work fitness, especially in people with a history of schizophrenia. When an employee returns to work after an episode of psychiatric illness, the major questions for the occupational physician are: Is this person capable of returning to his current job? If not, what type of work is he capable of performing? In this instance, the fitness evaluation must add management data about the job to medical data about the patient. The patient-job fit is the crucial issue. For example, a socially-isolated, withdrawn paranoid schizophrenic functioned adequately for years as a third
Schou, M; Sæther, S G; Borowski, K
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with anti-neuronal antibodies may be challenging to distinguish from primary psychiatric disorders. The significance of anti-neuronal antibodies in psychiatric patients without clear evidence of autoimmune encephalitis is unknown. We investigated...... the serum prevalence of six anti-neuronal autoantibodies in a cohort of unselected patients admitted to acute psychiatric care. METHOD: Serum was drawn from 925 patients admitted to acute psychiatric in-patient care. Psychiatric diagnoses were set according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD......)-10 criteria. Antibody analysis was performed with an indirect immunofluorescence test for N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies and five other anti-neuronal autoantibodies of the immunoglobulin (Ig) classes IgA, IgG and IgM isotype. RESULTS: Anti-neuronal autoantibodies were found in 11...
Hundscheid, T; van der Hulst, R R W J; Rutten, B P F; Leue, C
Patients suffering from body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) are preoccupied with a slight or imagined defect in appearance. First of all, to review the literature on the prevalence of bdd in cosmetic surgery and thereafter to review the literature on psychiatric comorbidity and the outcome of surgical interventions. We based our search strategy on Embase, Medline and PubMed, using the search terms 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', 'prevalence', 'comorbidity' and 'outcome'. Our search covered English and Dutch literature published after the introduction of bdd in dsm-iii-r and before 1 November, 2013. A study of the relevant articles enabled us to access additional articles mentioned in these texts. Our initial search strategy turned out to be too narrow. It was therefore broadened to include 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', and 'prevalence'. Eventually we included 23 original articles. In 11 of these the prevalence of bdd varied from 3.2 to 53.6%. Twelve articles on psychiatric comorbidity revealed predominantly mood and anxiety disorders on axis I and cluster C personality disorders on axis II. Only two studies reported on the outcome of cosmetic surgery performed on bdd patients; surgical interventions, however, seemed to result in new preoccupations with the prolongation of psychiatric comorbidity. bdd is a common psychiatric disorder that can sometimes lead to cosmetic surgery. However, pre-operative screening of bdd patients is vital so that efficient psychiatric treatment can be initiated and patients are not subjected to surgical interventions which may be ineffective or even harmful.
Gluyas, Cathy; Lum, Carmel; Chong, Sinn Yuin; Borg, Cynthia; Haines, Terry P
The objectives of this study were to characterize the psychiatric comorbidity of a group of older subacute inpatients and then determine whether their psychiatric comorbidity affected measures of rehabilitation outcomes. Eighty-eight older subacute inpatients were recruited for this prospective study. Psychiatric comorbidity was defined according to a participants' performance on four inventory scales: the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Health of the Nation Outcome Scale 65+. Rehabilitation outcome referred to the participants' length of stay and their performance at discharge on the EuroQol-5D health-related quality of life questionnaire and Barthel index. 68% of the participants scored in the clinical range on at least one of the four scales assessing psychiatric comorbidity at admission, with 51% in the clinical range for GDS and 32% for the GAI. The decrease in scores by the time of discharge was significant for all four scales. Linear regression analyses pointed to a trend for depressive symptoms at admission to be an influential but nonsignificant predictor of rehabilitation outcome. An interesting association was found between the length of the previous acute admission and the GDS score on admission to the subacute unit. A high prevalence of psychological symptoms was identified upon admission, with a significant decrease by the time of discharge. These factors did not significantly predict the selected measures of rehabilitation outcome. Opportunities for future longitudinal research on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities on patient outcomes are considered.
Kassam, Aliya; Williams, Jeanne; Patten, Scott
The prevalence of perceived discrimination among people reporting an emotional, psychological, or psychiatric condition in a population of people with a disability has not been studied. Our study evaluated a model that integrated having an emotional, psychological, or psychiatric condition while accounting for age, sex, education, employment, marital status, immigration status, and type of community to estimate the prevalence of perceived discrimination in the population of people with a disability. We hypothesized that higher levels of perceived discrimination would occur in people reporting an emotional, psychological, or psychiatric condition. The Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) by Statistics Canada is a postcensual survey of community residents reporting health-related impairments. PALS was used to evaluate the interaction between self-reported emotional, psychological, or psychiatric conditions and demographic variables and the odds of experiencing discrimination. In the overall sample, 14.5% perceived discrimination and 18.2% reported having an emotional, psychological, or psychiatric condition. Thirty-five per cent of people with such conditions perceived discrimination. When adjusting for covariates, people reporting an emotional, psychological, or psychiatric condition were 3 times more likely to perceive having been discriminated against than people without such conditions. Across medical conditions, perceived discrimination was higher in people who also reported an emotional, psychological, or psychiatric condition. The results demonstrate that perceived discrimination and the presence of an emotional, psychological, or psychiatric condition frequently co-occur in people with a disability and therefore programs aimed at reducing the discrimination of emotional, psychological, or psychiatric conditions should take this into account.
Silva, Luiz S; Barreto, Sandhi M
In most countries, the financial service sector has undergone great organizational changes in the past decades, with potential negative impact on bank workers' mental health. The aim of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among Brazilian bank workers and to investigate whether they are associated with an adverse psychosocial working environment. A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 2,500 workers in a Brazilian state bank in 2008. The presence of MPD was determined by the General Health Questionnaire.(GHQ). Psychosocial work conditions were assessed by means of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The presence and magnitude of the independent associations between MPD and adverse psychosocial working conditions were determined by Prevalence Ratios, obtained by Poisson regression. From 2,337 eligible workers, 88% participated. The prevalence of MPD was greater among women (45% vs. 41%; p > 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of MPD was twice as high among bank workers exposed to high psychological demand and low control at work and under high effort and low reward working conditions. The lack of social support at work and the presence of over-commitment were also associated with higher prevalence of MPD. A negative interaction effect was found between over-commitment and effort-reward imbalance. The prevalence of MPD is high among bank workers. The results reinforce the association between MPD and adverse psychosocial working conditions, assessed by the JCQ and ERI models. The direction of the interaction observed between over-commitment and ERI was contrary to what was expected.
Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually undertreated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric comorbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology: This ...
Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.
The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism
Smalley, Susan L.; McGough, James J.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Loo, Sandra K.; Taanila, Anja; Ebeling, Hanna; Hurtig, Tuula; Kaakinen, Marika; Humphrey, Lorie A.; McCracken, James T.; Varilo, Teppo; Yang, May H.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Peltonen, Leena; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
A study aims to examine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its clinical characteristics in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The results conclude that ADHD is common among Northern Finnish adolescents and is related with psychiatric comorbidity in adolescence.
Riahi; Izadi-Mazidi; Mohammadi Abdi
Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 o...
Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Objective: No longitudinal studies beginning in childhood have estimated the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric illness from childhood into young adulthood. The objective of this study was to estimate the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by young adulthood and to assess how inclusion of not otherwise specified diagnoses affects…
Townsend, Laura L; Esquivel, Micaela M; Uribe-Leitz, Tarsicio; Weiser, Thomas G; Maggio, Paul M; Spain, David A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Staudenmayer, Kristan
We hypothesized that psychiatric diagnoses would be common in hospitalized trauma patients in the United States and when present, would be associated with worse outcomes. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS, 2012) was used to determine national estimates for the number of patients admitted with an injury. Psychiatric diagnoses were identified using diagnosis codes according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A total of 36.5 million patients were admitted to hospitals in the United States in 2012. Of these, 1.3 million (4%) were due to trauma. Psychiatric conditions were more common in patients admitted for trauma versus those admitted for other reasons (44% versus 34%, P drug and alcohol abuse predominated (41%), whereas dementia and related disorders (48%) were the most common in adults ≥65 y. Mortality was lower for trauma patients with a psychiatric diagnosis compared to those who did not in both unadjusted and adjusted analysis (1.9% versus 2.8%; odds ratio: 0.56, P < 0.001). Psychiatric conditions are present in almost half of all hospitalized trauma patients in the United States; however, the types of conditions varied with age. The frequency of psychiatric conditions in the trauma population suggests efforts should be made to address this component of patient health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kamieniecki, G W
To review the prevalence literature on psychological distress and psychiatric disorders among homeless youth in Australia, and to compare these rates with Australian youth as a whole. Computerized databases were utilized to access all published Australian studies on psychological distress (as measured by standardized symptom scales and suicidal behaviour) and psychiatric disorders among homeless youth; in addition, unpublished Australian studies were utilized whenever accessible. A total of 14 separate studies were located, only three of which have included non-homeless control groups. In the current review, prevalence data from uncontrolled youth homelessness studies are compared with data from Australian community and student surveys. Homeless youth have usually scored significantly higher on standardized measures of psychological distress than all domiciled control groups. Youth homelessness studies have also reported very high rates of suicidal behaviour, but methodological limitations in these studies make comparisons with community surveys difficult. Furthermore, rates of various psychiatric disorders are usually at least twice as high among homeless youth than among youth from community surveys. Homeless youth in Australia have extremely high rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders. As homeless youth are at risk of developing psychiatric disorders and possibly self-injurious behaviour the longer they are homeless, early intervention in relevant health facilities is required.
Park, Jee Eun; Sohn, Ji Hoon; Seong, Su Jeong; Cho, Maeng Je
This study investigated the prevalence of sexual problems and associated factors, focusing particularly on comorbid psychiatric disorders, among older Korean women. A nationally representative sample of women aged 50-74 years (n=3828) responded to in-person interviews using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric disorders and four symptoms of sexual dysfunction: (1) lack of sexual interest/sexual aversion, (2) dyspareunia, (3) loss of pleasure, and (4) other organic dysfunction (e.g., inability of sexual arousal). We examined the likelihood of sexual dysfunction by sociodemographic and clinical variables, including specific psychiatric disorders, and compared the characteristics of sexual dysfunction among women with and without a comorbid psychiatric disorder. A total of 334 (8.7%) women reported one or more symptoms of sexual dysfunction during the year preceding the interview: lack of sexual interest/sexual aversion was most prevalent (7.7%), followed by loss of pleasure (4.2%), dyspareunia (2.4%), and other organic dysfunction (0.4%). Having a psychiatric disorder was associated with a 2.7-fold increase in the probability of sexual dysfunction. Among women with sexual dysfunction, having comorbid mental disorder was associated with being unmarried status, a symptom of loss of pleasure, and a history of sexual dysfunction before 50 years of age. The present study suggests a relatively lower prevalence of sexual dysfunction than previously reported, but supports its strong association with psychiatric disorders among postmenopausal women. We should evaluate comorbid mental disorder with sexual dysfunction, especially among those having some characteristics.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt,. Rivers State ... topic of conversation in many social circles and, among .... Fractures 2° RTA. 1. Depression opae and falls. 2. Anxiety disorders die . Pre and post. 3. Acute organic mental disorders operative conditions . Slipped disc.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Albeeeshi, Haneen
We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to Faith Healers (FHs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also studied the sociodemographic profiles for these visitors, in addition to their past psychiatric history, reason(s) for seeking FH help, and past and current treatment experience with FHs. We conducted a cross-sectional study among the visitors (n=321) to a number of faith healing settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using a specially designed questionnaire and validated Arabic version of The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Most of the participants were young adults (35.1±10.8 years) and males with intermediate and secondary levels of education who had not sought medical help prior to their visits. A high proportion of the FH visitors have diagnosable mental illnesses. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent among the study participants; few visitors were affected by psychotic or bipolar disorders. The present study provides insight for understanding the type of patients with psychiatric disorders who visit Faith Healers.(FHs). The study highlights the tendency of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia to visit FHs, which could reflect the importance of further studies to clarify the impact of FHs on the management of those patients.
Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J
We examined the prevalence of childhood (≤ 18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses.
Saraçlı, Özge; Atasoy, Nuray; Akdemir, Asena; Güriz, Olga; Konuk, Numan; Sevinçer, Güzin Mukaddes; Ankaralı, Handan; Atik, Levent
In this study we aimed to investigate the prevalance and clinical correlations of night eating syndrome (NES) in a sample of psychiatric outpatients. Four hundred thirthy three consecutive psychiatric out-patients older than 18years were evaluated in the outpatient clinics using clinical interview according to the DSM-IV with regard to psychiatric diagnosis. Participants were also screened for presence of NES utilizing both clinical interview and self report based on Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) instruments. Sociodemographic and clinical features such as age, gender, education level, socioeconomic level and body mass index (BMI) were also recorded. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90R) were administered. Based on the proposed diagnostic criteria of the NES via utilizing clinical interview method, 97 (32 male, 65 female) of the sample met diagnostic criteria for NES. The point prevalence of NES was 22.4%. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of age, gender, marital status, education and BMI. The patients with NES had higher NEQ, BSQ and SCL-90R subscale scores than patients without NES. Prevalance of depressive disorder, impulse control disorder, and nicotine dependency was higher among patients with NES. No differences were found with regard to the medication (antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers). Night eating syndrome is prevalent among psychiatric outpatients and associated with depression, impulse control disorder, and nicotine dependency. Body dissatisfaction and higher symptom severity are also other risk factors for the development of NES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of delinquent adolescents of both genders and to compare the prevalence between genders. A total of 116 adolescents (99 males and 17 females aged 12 to 19 on parole in the State of Rio de Janeiro were interviewed using the screening interview based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime (KSADS-PL. Data were collected between May 2002 and January 2003. Of 373 male and 58 female adolescents present in May 2002 in the largest institution that gives assistance to adolescents on parole in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 119 subjects were assessed (three of them refused to participate. Their average age was 16.5 years with no difference between genders. The screening interview was positive for psychopathology for most of the sample, with the frequencies of the suggested more prevalent psychiatric disorders being 54% for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 77% for conduct disorder, 41% for oppositional defiant disorder, 57% for anxiety disorder 57, 60% for depressive disorder 60, 63% for illicit drug abuse, and 58% for regular alcohol use. Internalizing disorders (depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and phobias were more prevalent in the female subsample. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of illicit drug abuse between genders. There were more male than female adolescents on parole and failure to comply with the sentence was significantly more frequent in females. The high prevalence of psychopathology suggested by this study indicates the need for psychiatric treatment as part of the prevention of juvenile delinquency or as part of the sentence. However, treatment had never been available for 93% of the sample in this study.
Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.
Cuellar, Norma G
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a movement disorder treated with dopamine agonists. RLS is often diagnosed as a comorbid condition with psychiatric disorders, which are treated with dopamine antagonists or antidepressants resulting in onset or exacerbation of RLS symptoms. The objectives of this article are to provide a review of the literature to (a) describe the comorbidity of psychiatric disorders associated with RLS, (b) identify the treatment of psychiatric disorders that cause or exacerbate symptoms of RLS, and (c) provide clinical recommendations for psychiatric health care providers. A review of the literature of English articles included the databases of Medline, Pubmed, PsychINFO, and CINAHL for "Restless Legs Syndrome" with major psychiatric disorders including mood disorders (depression and bipolar), schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders (anxiety, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder). The PRISMA guidelines were used to improve the reporting of the review of the literature. There were 61 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria identified for the review of the literature, including RLS with mood disorders (n = 36), schizophrenia (n = 9), and anxiety disorders (n = 16). Clinical trials are lacking on the best treatment for persons with RLS and psychiatric disorders; the most rigorous research found in the literature related to depression and anxiety. Studies lack evidence to document the best practice for persons with RLS and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric health care providers should be aware of RLS, which is influenced by psychiatric medications.
Ambrish Sanjay Dharmadhikari
Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. In children, it has long debilitating course and is associated with comorbidities including psychiatric comorbidity. To tackle this burden of comorbidities, we must know the extent of problem. Hence, there is a need for estimation of prevalence of psychiatry disorder in children with epilepsy. Aim: The present study was aimed at measuring the prevalence of various psychiatry disorders among children suffering from epilepsy. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional chart review. Methodology: We reviewed case record files of all patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy in the age group of 9–17 years. Chart review was done for 5 years, May 1, 2007, to April 30, 2012. A total of 718 patients record were included in the study after satisfying inclusion criteria and excluding nonepilepsy diagnosis. Statistical Analysis: Statistics was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the result, Chi-square and Mann–Whitney U-test used wherever applicable. Results: The prevalence of childhood psychiatric disorder among children with epilepsy found to be 31.2%. We also found that having a partial component (73.21%, n = 164 in seizure has more chances of psychopathology in comparison to generalized seizure (8.1%, n = 18. Among them, those having a partial component with generalization (66.96%, n = 150 had a greater prevalence of psychopathology. Mental retardation was most common psychiatric disorder among psychopathology followed by manic/depressive illness (unipolar followed by unspecified nonorganic psychosis. Conclusion: From our study, we demonstrate the significant mental health needs of children with epilepsy. The evident high prevalence of psychiatry disorder emphasizes the need for psychopathology assessment and treatment as a part of any comprehensive epilepsy clinic.
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often show problems in movement behaviour. Clinical motor features such as clumsiness, odd postures, hyperactivity and tics occur frequently in children with psychiatric conditions. Most dance/movement therapists recognize these, and consequently tailor
Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Brand, Rachel M; Korn, Sam; Creamer, Mark; McFarlane, Alexander C; Sim, Malcolm R; Forbes, Andrew B; Hawthorne, Graeme
The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health literature. To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments. In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis. Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%), generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs. Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity. Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised within military mental health initiatives. None. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence.
Koyama, Asuka; Miyake, Yuko; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Tachimori, Hisateru; Takeshima, Tadashi
The epidemiology of "hikikomori" (acute social withdrawal) in a community population is not clear, although it has been noted for the past decade in Japan. The objective of this study is to clarify the prevalence of "hikikomori" and to examine the relation between "hikikomori" and psychiatric disorders. A face-to-face household survey was conducted of community residents (n=4134). We defined "hikikomori" as a psychopathological phenomenon in which people become completely withdrawn from society for 6 months or longer. We asked all respondents whether they had any children currently experiencing "hikikomori". For respondents aged 20-49 years old (n=1660), we asked whether they had ever experienced "hikikomori". A total of 1.2% had experienced "hikikomori" in their lifetime. Among them, 54.5% had also experienced a psychiatric (mood, anxiety, impulse control, or substance-related) disorder in their lifetime. Respondents who experienced "hikikomori" had a 6.1 times higher risk of mood disorder. Among respondents, 0.5% currently had at least one child who had experienced "hikikomori". The study suggests that "hikikomori" is common in the community population in Japan. While psychiatric disorders were often comorbid with "hikikomori", half of the cases seem to be "primary hikikomori" without a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O’Donnell, Meaghan; Brand, Rachel M.; Korn, Sam; Creamer, Mark; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Forbes, Andrew B.; Hawthorne, Graeme
Background The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health literature. Aims To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments. Method In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis. Results Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%), generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs. Conclusions Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity. Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised within military mental health initiatives. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence. PMID:27703751
Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; Sutton, Chloe; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne
To examine the prevalence of bullying victimization among adolescents referred for urgent psychiatric consultation, to study the association between bullying victimization and suicidality, and to examine the relation between different types of bullying and suicidality. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all adolescents referred to a hospital-based urgent consultation clinic. Our study sample consisted of adolescents with a history of bullying victimization. The Research Ethics Board of Queen's University provided approval. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS (IBM SPSS Inc, Armonk, NY). Chi-square tests were used for sex, suicidal ideation, history of physical and sexual abuse, and time and type of bullying, and an independent sample t test was used for age. The prevalence of bullying victimization was 48.5% (182 of 375). There was a significant association between being bullied and suicidal ideation (P = 0.01), and between sex and suicidal ideation (P ≤ 0.001). Victims of cyberbullying reported more suicidal ideation than those who experienced physical or verbal bullying (P = 0.04). Bullying victimization, especially cyberbullying, is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among adolescents referred for psychiatric risk assessment. The detailed history of the type and duration of bullying experienced by the victims should be considered when conducting a psychiatric risk assessment.
Full Text Available Objectives: Given the paucity of research on adolescent ADHD, this study aimed to establish the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in childhood. It also aimed to establish the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and adjustment difficulties in this sample. Method: Data regarding age of diagnosis, current ADHD status, current ADHD-related pharmacological management, current psychopathology and current adjustment were gathered from 64 adolescents and their guardians via self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated with regard to current ADHD status, comorbid psychopathology and adjustment difficulties, as well as current ADHD-related medication. Results: According to parent reports, 59.38% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD Inattentive subtype, while 37.50% met the criteria for ADHD Hyperactive/Impulsive subtype. Approximately sixty-four percent (64.06% of the adolescents were still using stimulant medication. Based on the adolescent self-report, 43.75% of the sample reported clinically significant symptoms of psychopathology or maladjustment. Furthermore, 39.28% of the adolescents met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusion: ADHD did persist into adolescence in the current sample. A significant psychopathological and maladjustment load appears evident amongst adolescents previously diagnosed with ADHD despite continuous pharmacological management of the condition.
Bozkurt, Hasan; Coskun, Murat; Ayaydin, Hamza; Adak, Ibrahim; Zoroglu, S Salih
To investigate prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders in young subjects with Internet addiction (IA). Subjects were taken from a sample of patients, aged 10-18 years old, referred to Istanbul Medical Faculty, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department due to a variety of behavioral and emotional problems alongside problematic Internet use. Inclusion criteria included IQ ≥70 and score ≥80 on Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS). Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Subjects were 45 boys (75%) and 15 girls (25%) with an age range of 10-18 years old (mean age, 13.38 ± 1.79 years). A total of 60% (n = 36) had been using Internet for ≥5 years. Mean hours/week spent on the Internet was 53.7 (range, 30-105 h) and the average YIAS score was 85. All subjects (100%) had at least one and 88.3% (n = 53) had at least two comorbid psychiatric disorders. The frequency of diagnostic groups were as follows: behavioral disorder, n = 52 (86.7%); anxiety disorder, n = 43 (71.7%); mood disorder, n = 23 (38.3%); elimination disorder, n = 16 (26.7%); tic disorder, n = 10 (16.7%); and substance use disorder, n = 4 (6.7%). The most common psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 53; 83.3%), social phobia (n = 21; 35.0%) and major depressive disorder (n = 18; 30.0%). High rates of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly behavioral, anxiety and mood disorders were found in young subjects with IA. Because the presence of psychiatric disorders may affect the management /prognosis of IA, assessment should include that for other psychiatric disorders. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Arnaudo, Camila L; Andraka-Christou, Barbara; Allgood, Kacy
This review seeks to investigate three questions: What is the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD)? How do comorbid psychiatric illnesses impact pregnant women with OUD? And how do comorbid psychiatric illnesses affect the ability of pregnant women with OUD to adhere to and complete OUD treatment? Based on this literature review, 25-33% of pregnant women with OUD have a psychiatric comorbidity, with depression and anxiety being especially common. However, of the 17 studies reviewed only 5 have prevalence rates of dual diagnosis in pregnant women with OUD as their primary outcome measures, their N's were typically small, methods for determining psychiatric diagnosis were variable, and many of the studies were undertaken with women presenting for treatment which carries with its implicit selection bias. Of the women enrolled in treatment programs for SUD, those with psychiatric comorbidity were more likely to have impaired psychological and family/social functioning than those without psychiatric comorbidity. Greater severity of comorbid psychiatric illness appears to predict poorer adherence to treatment, but more research is needed to clarify this relationship with the psychiatric illness is less severe. While cooccurrence of psychiatric disorders in pregnant women with opioid use disorder appears to be common, large population-based studies with validated diagnostic tools and longitudinal assessments are needed to obtain definitive rates and characteristics of cooccurring illnesses. Integrated prenatal, addiction, and psychiatric treatment in a setting that provides social support to pregnant patients with OUD is most effective in maintaining women in treatment. More research is still needed to identify optimal treatment settings, therapy modalities, and medication management for dually diagnosed pregnant women with OUD.
Tulloch, Alex D; Fearon, Paul; David, Anthony S
To document the prevalence, timing, associations and short-term housing outcomes of homelessness among acute psychiatric inpatients. Cross-sectional study of 4,386 acute psychiatric admissions discharged from a single NHS Trust in 2008-2009. Homelessness occurred in 16%. Most homelessness (70%) was either recorded as present at admission or started within 1 week. It was associated with younger age; male gender; ethnicity other than White British or Black African/Caribbean; being single, divorced, separated or widowed; diagnosis of drug and alcohol disorder; detention under a forensic section of the Mental Health Act; having no previous admission or alternatively having a longer previous admission; having a low score on the depressed mood or hallucinations and delusions items of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS); and having a high score on the HoNOS relationship difficulties and occupation and activities items. Of those who were followed-up for 28 days after discharge, 53% had a new address recorded; of those who were not, only 22% did. Homelessness affects a substantial minority of psychiatric admissions in the UK. Housing outcomes are uncertain, and it is possible that more than half continue to be homeless or living in very transient situations. Demographic and diagnostic associations with homelessness were consistent with US studies; associations with HoNOS item scores and having had no admission in the preceding 2 years suggest that, in many cases, social adversity predominates over active psychopathology at the time of admission.
Full Text Available Suicide is the third cause of death at the age group 10–19 in the world. There are inter multiple risk factors of suicidal behaviours. In the case of children of alcoholics the increased number of suicide attempts is explained by genetic predisposition and accumulation of environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to check whether parental alcoholism is associated with the number and repetition of suicide attempts and the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred among hospitalized psychiatric adolescents. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis – based on medical documentation – of 119 patients aged 13–18, treated during 2013–2014 at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź for: schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. The exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnoses, incomplete family history and lack of information about intended self-harm behaviours. The patients were selected at random. The number and repetition of suicide attempts, the age at which the first suicide attempt occurred, parental alcoholism and family history of suicidal behaviours were examined. Analyses were carried out using Statistica 9.1. Results: Parental alcoholism did not statistically significantly affect (p > 0.05the prevalence or repetition of suicide attempts among psychiatrically treated adolescents. The first suicide attempts were not made by adolescents – also considering the gender, diagnosis, and familial suicidal behaviours. Conclusions: In almost half of the examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents at least one parent met the parental alcoholism criteria. Suicide attempts occurred in over 50% of the examined patients, with somewhat higher incidence in girls whose parents met the parental alcoholism criteria, as compared to those without parental alcoholism
Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Lee, Paul C.; Pauls, David L.; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A.; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A.; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M.; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.
Importance Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (disorders, their heritabilities, ages of maximal risk, and associations with symptom severity, age at onset, and parental psychiatric history. Results The lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with TS was 85.7%; 57.7% of the population had 2 or more psychiatric disorders. The mean (SD) number of lifetime comorbid diagnoses was 2.1 (1.6); the mean number was 0.9 (1.3) when obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were excluded, and 72.1% of the individuals met the criteria for OCD or ADHD. Other disorders, including mood, anxiety, and disruptive behavior, each occurred in approximately 30% of the participants. The age of greatest risk for the onset of most comorbid psychiatric disorders was between 4 and 10 years, with the exception of eating and substance use disorders, which began in adolescence (interquartile range, 15–19 years for both). Tourette syndrome was associated with increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–1.9; P = .04) and decreased risk of substance use disorders (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9; P = .02) independent from comorbid OCD and ADHD; however, high rates of mood disorders among participants with TS (29.8%) may be accounted for by comorbid OCD (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9–4.8; P disorders (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32–2.61; P Genetic correlations between TS and mood (RhoG, 0.47), anxiety (RhoG, 0.35), and disruptive behavior disorders (RhoG, 0.48), may be accounted for by ADHD and, for mood disorders, by OCD. Conclusions and Relevance This study is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive of its kind. It confirms the belief that psychiatric comorbidities are common among individuals with TS, demonstrates that most comorbidities
Yayla, Sinan; Bakım, Bahadır; Tankaya, Onur; Ozer, Omer Akil; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Ertekin, Hulya; Tekin, Atilla
The 1st objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and types of dissociative symptoms in patients with conversion disorder (CD). The 2nd objective of the current study was to determine psychiatric comorbidity in patients with and without dissociative symptoms. A total of 54 consecutive consenting patients primarily diagnosed with CD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria who were admitted to the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of Sisli Etfal Research and Teaching Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) were included in the study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. Study groups consisted of 20 patients with a dissociative disorder and 34 patients without a diagnosis of any dissociative disorder. A total of 37% of patients with CD had any dissociative diagnosis. The prevalence of dissociative disorders was as follows: 18.5% dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 14.8% dissociative amnesia, and 3.7% depersonalization disorder. Significant differences were found between the study groups with respect to comorbidity of bipolar disorder, past hypomania, and current and past posttraumatic stress disorder (ps = .001, .028, .015, and .028, respectively). Overall comorbidity of bipolar disorder was 27.8%. Psychiatric comorbidity was higher and age at onset was earlier among dissociative patients compared to patients without dissociative symptoms. The increased psychiatric comorbidity and early onset of conversion disorder found in patients with dissociative symptoms suggest that these patients may have had a more severe form of conversion disorder.
Sreejith S. Nair
Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly. A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and comorbidity in a large school-based sample of 6-17 year old children and adolescents in northeast China. METHODS: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted on 9,806 children. During the screening phase, 8848 children (90.23% and their mothers and teachers were interviewed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. During the diagnostic phase, 1129 children with a positive SDQ and 804 randomly selected children with a negative SDQ (11%, and their mothers and teachers, were interviewed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders was 9.49% (95% CI = 8.10-11.10%. Anxiety disorders were the most common (6.06%, 95% CI = 4.92-7.40, followed by depression (1.32%, 95% CI = 0.91-1.92%, oppositional defiant disorder (1.21%, 95%CI = 0.77-1.87 and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (0.84%, 95% CI = 0.52-1.36%. Of the 805 children with a psychiatric disorder, 15.2% had two or more comorbid disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one in ten Chinese school children has psychiatric disorders involving a level of distress or social impairment likely to warrant treatment. Prevention, early identification and treatment of these disorders are urgently needed and pose a serious challenge in China.
Adamis, D; Ball, C
This study examines the prevalence of physical morbidity in elderly psychiatric inpatients and the possible relationships between major psychiatric disorders (organic mental disorders, schizophrenic and mood disorders) and physical illnesses. The clinical implications of such relationships are discussed. Data were obtained from two old age psychiatry wards over a six month period. Seventy-nine subjects were studied and information was obtained from their medical files. Demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnosis, number of physical illnesses and number of body systems affected were collected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the psychiatric groups on continuous outcome data and chi(2) test to compare psychiatric groups on categorical data. Seventy-five per cent of subjects had at least one physical illness. The number of medical illnesses was independent from the psychiatric disorder. Subjects with mood disorders, and especially depression, were more likely to suffer from hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular illnesses than subjects with schizophrenic or organic disorders. Subjects with organic disorders had the lowest prevalence of endocrine disease and diabetes. It was concluded the link between mood disorders (depression), cardiovascular diseases and hypertension could be of a 'cause/effect' type or are the results of a survivor effect. The high prevalence of physical morbidity has implications for training and continuing professional development of those in Old Age Psychiatry Services. It should also be taken into consideration when the location of services is being decided.
Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Kung, Shou-Mei; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Wang, Jung-Der
Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an important concern in occupational health. This study determined the prevalence of workplace violence and its risk factors for employees at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. A questionnaire developed by ILO/ICN/WHO/PSI was first translated and validated. It was then used to survey the prevalence of workplace violence in the last 12 months experienced by all nursing aides, nurses, and clerks at the hospital. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to discover the determinants of violence. A total of 222 out of 231 surveyed workers completed a valid questionnaire. The one-year prevalence rates of physical violence (PV), verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 35.1, 50.9, 15.8, 9.5, and 4.5%, respectively. The prevalence of PV at this hospital was higher than that reported by other countries for the health sector. A high anxiety level was associated with the occurrence of PV. These results need to be corroborated by future investigation. A training program may be required for high risk groups to reduce workplace violence.
Sar, Vedat; Onder, Canan; Kilincaslan, Ayse; Zoroglu, Süleyman S; Alyanak, Behiye
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and other dissociative disorders among adolescent psychiatric outpatients. A total of 116 consecutive outpatients between 11 and 17 years of age who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university hospital for the 1st time were evaluated using the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, adolescent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and McMaster Family Assessment Device. All patients were invited for an interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) administered by 2 senior psychiatrists in a blind fashion. There was excellent interrater reliability between the 2 clinicians on SCID-D diagnoses and scores. Among 73 participants, 33 (45.2%) had a dissociative disorder: 12 (16.4%) had DID, and 21 (28.8%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. There was no difference in gender distribution, childhood trauma, or family dysfunction scores between the dissociative and nondissociative groups. Childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction correlated with self-reported dissociation. Of the dissociative adolescents, 93.9% had an additional psychiatric disorder. Among them, only separation anxiety disorder was significantly more prevalent than in controls. Although originally designed for adults, the SCID-D is promising for diagnosing dissociative disorders in adolescents, its modest congruence with self-rated dissociation and lack of relationship between diagnosis and childhood trauma and family dysfunction suggest that the prevalence rates obtained with this instrument originally designed for adults must be replicated. The introduction of diagnostic criteria for adolescent DID in revised versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, would refine the assessment of dissociative disorders in this age group.
Modestin, J; Stephan, P L; Erni, T; Umari, T
In 200 inpatients on regular neuroleptics, point prevalence of extrapyramidal syndromes, including Parkinson syndrome, akathisia and tardive dyskinesia (TD), was studied and found to be 20, 11 and 22%, respectively. A total of 46 patients have currently, and for a longer time, (average about 3years, median over 1year) been treated with clozapine, and 127 with typical neuroleptics (NLs). Comparing both groups, higher TD scores were found in the clozapine sample. Investigating the influence of a set of seven clinical variables on the TD score with the help of multiple regression analysis, the influence of the treatment modality disappeared, whereas the age proved to be the only significant variable. Studying the role of past clozapine therapy in patients currently on typical NLs and comparing 10 matched pairs of chronic patients with and without TD in whom a complete life-time cumulative dose of NLs was identified, a relationship between TD and length of current typical NL therapy and life-time typical NL dosage could be demonstrated. On the whole, long-term relatively extensive use of clozapine has not markedly reduced the prevalence of extrapyramidal syndromes in our psychiatric inpatient population. In particular, we failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of clozapine on prevalence of TD. There are certainly patients who suffer from TD in spite of a long-term intensive clozapine treatment.
Morikawa, Suimei; Uehara, Ritei; Okuda, Kouzhi; Shimizu, Hiroko; Nakamura, Yosikazu
This study is the first ever field survey in Japan of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless people in one area of Tokyo. The main aim of was to make accurate diagnoses by a psychiatrist to give an accurate picture. The survey period was from December 30, 2008 to January 4, 2009. The people covered by the survey were people living on the streets within a one-kilometer radius ofJR Ikebukuro Station in this period. The survey area was selected within Toshima City as a district where it would be possible to roughly grasp the total number of homeless people. The definition of homeless people in this study was the same as that which was stipulated in the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare national survey. A total of 115 people living on the streets received the written request to participate in the survey and 80 agreed to do so, beiung enrolled as the subjects of this study. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) questionnaires and a separately created questionnaire that asked about the subjects' living circumstances were used in the interviews and finally, a psychiatrist made diagnoses of psychiatric disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis standards. The average age of the subjects was 50.5 (standard deviation; 12.3) and there were 75 men (93.8%) and 5 women (6.3%). 50 people (62.5%) were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders which included 33 people (41.3%) who had depression, 12 (15%) who were dependent on alcohol and 12 (15%) who had psychotic disorders such as hallucinations or delusions. Using the degree of risk in the MINI classification, 45 (57.0%) were at risk of committing suicide and 25 people (31.6%) had already attempted suicide in the past. The representativeness of homeless people in Japan who have psychiatric disorders in this study is limited but that the finding of 62.5% of homeless people suffering from some symptoms and a high
Davidson, C K Dennisa; Cheung, Gary; Jansen, Karl
Hypersexual behavior is not uncommon in psychiatric presentations. Most available scales that measure hypersexual behavior are self-rated, often containing sexually explicit questions, unsuitable for use in mentally unwell people. Lack of a clinically suitable instrument may have resulted in underdetection and under-researching of hypersexuality in people with mental disorders, with potential to cause significant consequences for themselves and those around them, including family members, coclients, and clinicians. To address this need, we developed the Hypersexuality in Psychiatric Conditions Observer-Rated Scale (HIPCORS), a rater-rated, nonintrusive tool, designed for use in mentally unwell people. It has been shown to be a reliable and valid instrument.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The skin occupies a powerful position as an organ of communication and plays an important role in socialization throughout life. The interface between dermatology and psychiatry is complex and of clinical importance. AIMS: To document the incidence of cutaneous disorders in patients with primary psychiatric conditions. METHODS: Three hundred patients with a primary psychiatric condition who had cutaneous disease were entered into the study group. The patients were classified appropriately based on the classification of psychocutaneous disorders. The control group included 300 patients presenting with a skin disorder and without any known psychiatric complaint. RESULTS: The majority of the cases in the study group were in the 3rd-5th decade. In this study, the most common primary psychiatric conditions were manic depressive psychosis (53.33%, depression (36.33%, schizophrenia (8.33% and anxiety (2%. Of the study group, 68.66% patients had infective dermatoses and the rest had non-infective dermatoses. A high incidence of pityriasis versicolor and dermatophyte infections was noted in males from the study group. Among non-infective dermatoses, 8% had eczema, and psychogenic skin disorders were seen in 4.67% of the study group. Of these, delusions of parasitosis were the commonest (2% followed by venereophobia (1%. CONCLUSIONS: A statistically significant higher incidence of tinea versicolor and dermatophyte infections was seen in the study group. Delusion of parasitosis was the most common psychogenic skin disorder seen in the study group, followed by venereophobia.
Stephen Walker; André Venter; Adriana van der Walt; KGF Esterhuysen
Objectives: Given the paucity of research on adolescent ADHD, this study aimed to establish the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in childhood. It also aimed to establish the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities and adjustment difficulties in this sample. Method: Data regarding age of diagnosis, current ADHD status, current ADHD-related pharmacological management, current psychopathology and current adjustment w...
Slade, Eric P; Goldman, Howard H; Dixon, Lisa B; Gibbons, Brent; Stuart, Elizabeth A
Sampling and reporting biases in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) survey could render data on inpatient utilization that are not representative for individuals with severe psychiatric conditions. The authors assessed the representativeness of MEPS data on psychiatric inpatient utilization, by comparing MEPS estimates of total annual psychiatric and nonpsychiatric inpatient admissions and bed days, and mean length of stay, for nonelderly U.S. adults in calendar years 2005 to 2010 (N = 9,288) to estimates from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a nationally representative inpatient care database derived from hospitals' administrative records (N = 21,934,378). Compared with the NIS, the MEPS indicated 34% as many psychiatric admissions and 86% as many nonpsychiatric admissions, while mean psychiatric length of stay was greater in MEPS than in NIS. In MEPS data, underrepresentation of psychiatric inpatient utilization at community hospitals may result in measurement distortions for commonly used statistics on psychiatric inpatient utilization and costs. © The Author(s) 2015.
Shakir, Lana Nabeel; Sulaiman, Karwan Hawez
Background and objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the common psychiatric disorder in childhood and it affects on children socially and academically. The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among the studied population, describe its association with certain…
Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.
In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of
Hanrahan, Nancy P; Solomon, Phyllis; Hurford, Matthew O
People with multiple and persistent mental and physical health problems have high rates of transition failures when transferring from a hospital level of care to home. The transitional care model (TCM) is evidence-based and demonstrated to improve posthospital outcomes for elderly with physical health conditions, but it has not been studied in the population with serious mental illness. Using a randomized controlled design, 40 inpatients from two general hospital psychiatric units were recruited and randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 20) that received the TCM intervention that was delivered by a psychiatric nurse practitioner for 90 days posthospitalization, or a control group (n = 20) that received usual care. Outcomes were as follows: service utilization, health-related quality of life, and continuity of care. The intervention group showed higher medical and psychiatric rehospitalization than the control group (p = .054). Emergency room use was lower for intervention group but not statistically significant. Continuity of care with primary care appointments were significantly higher for the intervention group (p = .023). The intervention group's general health improved but was not statistically significant compared with controls. A transitional care intervention is recommended; however, the model needs to be modified from a single nurse to a multidisciplinary team with expertise from a psychiatric nurse practitioner, a social worker, and a peer support specialist. A team approach can best manage the complex physical/mental health conditions and complicated social needs of the population with serious mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.
Marconato, Cintia da Silva; Magnago, Ana Carolina de Souza; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Andolhe, Rafaela; Tavares, Juliana Petri
Investigating the prevalence and factors associated with minor psychiatric disorders (MPDs) in Hospital housekeeping workers. A cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 with workers from the cleaning service of a public university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected through a form containing sociodemographic, occupational, habits and health variables. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 was used in order to evaluate MPDs. The study population consisted of 161 workers. The overall prevalence of suspected MPD was 29.3%. The chances of suspected MPDs were higher in workers with Effort-Reward Imbalance, those who did not have time or who occasionally had time for leisure activities, and those taking medications. The prevalence of MPDs was similar to that found in the literature for health workers. Therefore, we consider it important to include these workers in institutional programs for continuing health education. Investigar a prevalência e os fatores associados aos Distúrbios Psíquicos Menores (DPMs) em trabalhadores do Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza. Estudo transversal, realizado em 2013, com trabalhadores do serviço de limpeza de um hospital universitário público do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um formulário contendo variáveis sociodemográficas, laborais, hábitos e saúde. Para avaliação dos DPMs utilizou-se do Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. A população do estudo foi composta pelos 161 trabalhadores. A prevalência global para suspeição de DPM foi de 29,3%. As chances de suspeição de DPMs foram maiores nos trabalhadores em Desequilíbrio Esforço-Recompensa, nos que não tinham ou às vezes tinham tempo para o lazer e naqueles que faziam uso de medicação. A prevalência de DPMs assemelhou-se à encontrada na literatura em trabalhadores da área saúde. Portanto, considera-se importante a inclusão desses trabalhadores em programas institucionais de educação permanente em saúde.
Stefanovics, Elina A; Potenza, Marc N; Pietrzak, Robert H
This study aimed to examine associations between gambling level and clinically relevant measures, including psychiatric disorders and suicidality, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans. Data on 3157 U.S. veterans were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Chi square tests and analyses of variance were used to assess associations between gambling level, and demographic, military, and personality characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions using stepwise selection were used to identify independent correlates of recreational gambling and at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG). A significant proportion of U.S. veterans engage in gambling activities, with 35.1% gambling recreationally and 2.2% screening positive for ARPG. ARPG was associated with greater prevalence of substance use, anxiety, and depressive disorders, as well as with a history of physical trauma or sexual trauma, having sought mental health treatment (particularly from the Veterans Administration), and minority group status. A similar pattern was found associated with recreational gambling, although the magnitudes of association were lower relative to ARPG. Younger age, self-identifying as black, being retired, and trauma burden were associated with increased odds of ARPG, whereas older age, being single, non-white Hispanic, being retired or not having a job, screening positive for alcohol- and drug-use disorders, and trauma burden were associated with increased odds of recreational gambling. More than a third of U.S. veterans gamble recreationally, with a significant minority (2.2%) screening positive for ARPG. Both recreational and ARPG were associated with elevated trauma burden and psychiatric comorbidities. These findings underscore the importance of routine screening and monitoring of gambling severity, and interventions for ARPG in this population.
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen
The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from...... a database containing 83% of all youth referred from 2004 to 2007 (N=13,241). A prevalence of 5.7% of anxiety disorder was found in the sample. Homotypic co-morbidity was found in only 2.8%, whereas heterotypic co-morbidity was found in 42.9% of the cohort. A total of 73.6% had a principal anxiety disorder...... as opposed to 26.4% who had other principal diagnoses and a secondary anxiety disorder. The national database not only provides a valuable prevalence estimate of anxiety disorders in every-day non-research psychiatric settings, but also highlights the importance of applying standardized screening instruments...
Nwaejike, Nnamdi; Archbold, Hap; Wilson, Darrin S
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy can result in severe disability with only one in five patients able to fully resume prior activities. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this condition early and begin appropriate treatment. Factitious lymphoedema can mimic reflex sympathetic dystrophy and is caused by self-inflicted tourniquets, blows to the arm or repeated skin irritation. Patients with factitious lymphoedema have an underlying psychiatric disorder but usually present to emergency or orthopaedics departments. Factitious lymphoedema can then be misdiagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. The treatment for factitious lymphoedema is dealing with the underlying psychiatric condition. We share our experience of treating a 33-year-old man, who presented with factitious lymphoedema, initially diagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Awareness of this very similar differential diagnosis allows early appropriate treatment to be administered.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reflex sympathetic dystrophy can result in severe disability with only one in five patients able to fully resume prior activities. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this condition early and begin appropriate treatment. Factitious lymphoedema can mimic reflex sympathetic dystrophy and is caused by self-inflicted tourniquets, blows to the arm or repeated skin irritation. Patients with factitious lymphoedema have an underlying psychiatric disorder but usually present to emergency or orthopaedics departments. Factitious lymphoedema can then be misdiagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. The treatment for factitious lymphoedema is dealing with the underlying psychiatric condition. Case presentation We share our experience of treating a 33-year-old man, who presented with factitious lymphoedema, initially diagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Conclusion Awareness of this very similar differential diagnosis allows early appropriate treatment to be administered.
Gustafsson, Niclas; Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
Nurses who exert coercive measures on patients within psychiatric care are emotionally affected. However, research on their working conditions and environment is limited. The purpose of the current study was to describe nurses' experiences and thoughts concerning the exertion of coercive measures in forensic psychiatric care. The investigation was a qualitative interview study using unstructured interviews; data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Results described participants' thoughts and experiences of coercive measures from four main categories: (a) acting against the patients' will, (b) reasoning about ethical justifications, (c) feelings of compassion, and (d) the need for debriefing. The current study illuminates the working conditions of nurses who exert coercive measures in clinical practice with patients who have a long-term relationship with severe symptomatology. The findings are important to further discuss how nurses and leaders can promote a healthier working environment. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 37-43.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available The present survey covers a number of 91 Iranian repatriated war prisoners who, six months after their freedom, approached three psychiatric clinics in Tehran during 1989 and spring 1990. Of these, 34 persons (37.4% who showed higher symptoms of disorders were hospitalized and 57 (62.6% who showed milder signs of disorders were carefully diagnosed mentally and psychologically as outpatients. The prevalent disorders revealed by this study were adjustment disorders (48.3%, mood disorders (22%, schizophrenia (11%, anxiety disorder (9.9% and organic mental disorders (7.7%. The survey showed statistically the existence of a meaningful relation between the disorder severity with such factors as negative opinion of the prisoner's family on his going to the war front, and observance of martyrdom of co-fighters by the patient. However, no significant relation was observed between the severity of disorders and such factors as being involuntarily dispatched to the front, duration of captivity, type of being captive (singular or in group, having a previous record of solitary imprisonment, observing the treason of co-fighters during his captivity.
Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Ibañez Pinilla, Edgar Antonio; Galeano España, Alejandra; Noguera Bravo, Ana María; Milena Pantoja, Sandra; Suárez Acosta, Ana María
Hypothyroidism results from inadequate production of thyroid hormone. It is known that there is a relationship between the major psychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism. To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients admitted due to major psychiatric disorders in Montserrat Hospital during the period from March to October 2010. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 patients admitted to Montserrat Hospital with a primary diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder (major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalised panic disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, and schizophrenia) in the aforementioned period. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was performed to assess the evidence of hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.5% (95% CI; 5%-16%). It was 12.5% in anxiety disorder, 11.1% in depressive disorder, with a lower prevalence of 10.3% for bipolar disorder, and 9.9% for schizophrenia. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be less than in the general population, which is between 4.64% and 18.5%, and hypothyroidism was found in disorders other than depression. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Faten N. AlZaben
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, subtypes of ADHD, and psychiatric, academic, and behavioral comorbidity in public primary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A simple random sample of 6 primary government schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was identified (3 male, 3 female, and a random sample of classes in each of grades 1-6 were selected. Between July and November 2016, teachers in these classes were asked to complete the Vanderbilt ADHD scale on all students in their classes. Results: A total of 929 students were screened. The overall prevalence of ADHD was 5% (5.3% in girls, 4.7% in boys. The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was combined type (2.7%, followed by hyperactive type (1.2%, and inattentive type (1.1%. The highest prevalence of ADHD overall was in grade 3 (7.1% and the lowest prevalence in grade 6 (3.4%. Among students with ADHD, prevalence of comorbid psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems was widespread (56.5% oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder, 54.4% impaired academic performance, 44.4% classroom behavioral problems, 41.3% depression/anxiety. Comorbid problems were especially prevalent in combined ADHD subtype and in boys. Conclusions: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is common in primary school children in Jeddah, and is associated with widespread psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems, especially in boys. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this serious neurobehavioral disorder.
AlZaben, Faten N; Sehlo, Mohammad G; Alghamdi, Waleed A; Tayeb, Haythum O; Khalifa, Doaa A; Mira, Abdulrahman T; Alshuaibi, Abdulaziz M; Alguthmi, Mosab A; Derham, Ahmad A; Koenig, Harold G
To determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), subtypes of ADHD, and psychiatric, academic, and behavioral comorbidity in public primary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A simple random sample of 6 primary government schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was identified (3 male, 3 female), and a random sample of classes in each of grades 1-6 were selected. Between July and November 2016, teachers in these classes were asked to complete the Vanderbilt ADHD scale on all students in their classes. Results: A total of 929 students were screened. The overall prevalence of ADHD was 5% (5.3% in girls, 4.7% in boys). The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was combined type (2.7%), followed by hyperactive type (1.2%), and inattentive type (1.1%). The highest prevalence of ADHD overall was in grade 3 (7.1%) and the lowest prevalence in grade 6 (3.4%). Among students with ADHD, prevalence of comorbid psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems was widespread (56.5% oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder, 54.4% impaired academic performance, 44.4% classroom behavioral problems, 41.3% depression/anxiety). Comorbid problems were especially prevalent in combined ADHD subtype and in boys. Conclusions: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is common in primary school children in Jeddah, and is associated with widespread psychiatric, academic, and behavioral problems, especially in boys. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this serious neurobehavioral disorder.
Ando, Yoshihito; Shimazaki, Haruo; Shiota, Katsutoshi; Tetsuka, Syuichi; Nakao, Koichi; Shimada, Tatsuhiro; Kurata, Kazumi; Kuroda, Jinichi; Yamashita, Akihiro; Sato, Hayato; Sato, Mamoru; Eto, Shinkichi; Onishi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Keiko; Kato, Satoshi
Increasing numbers of patients with elevated anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody titers presenting exclusively with psychiatric symptoms have been reported. The aim of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of elevated serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers in patients with new-onset or acute exacerbations of psychiatric symptoms. In addition, the present study aimed to investigate the association between elevated anti-NMDA receptor titers and psychiatric symptoms. The present collaborative study included 59 inpatients (23 male, 36 female) presenting with new-onset or exacerbations of schizophrenia-like symptoms at involved institutions from June 2012 to March 2014. Patient information was collected using questionnaires. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers were measured using NMDAR NR1 and NR2B co-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells as an antigen (cell-based assay). Statistical analyses were performed for each questionnaire item. The mean age of participants was 42.0 ± 13.7 years. Six cases had elevated serum anti-NMDA antibody titers (10.2 %), four cases were first onset, and two cases with disease duration >10 years presented with third and fifth recurrences. No statistically significant difference in vital signs or major symptoms was observed between antibody-positive and antibody-negative groups. However, a trend toward an increased frequency of schizophrenia-like symptoms was observed in the antibody-positive group. Serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titers may be associated with psychiatric conditions. However, an association with specific psychiatric symptoms was not observed in the present study. Further studies are required to validate the utility of serum anti-NMDA receptor antibody titer measurements at the time of symptom onset.
Eliana Aguiar Petri Nahas
Full Text Available A hiperprolactinemia é o distúrbio endócrino mais freqüente do eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, observado em mulheres na idade reprodutiva. Caracteriza-se pela elevação consistente dos valores plasmáticos de prolactina. A regulação da produção da prolactina dá-se por meio da ação inibitória de um neurotransmissor, a dopamina. As manifestações clínicas são distúrbios do ciclo menstrual, amenorréia, galactorréia, infertilidade e diminuição da libido. Entretanto, sintomas psicológicos, especialmente ansiedade e depressão, têm sido associados à hiperprolactinemia. Contudo, há poucos estudos clínicos publicados sobre o tema. O papel da prolactina na patogênese dos distúrbios psiquiátricos pode refletir ação direta sobre o sistema nervoso central, efeito indireto por meio dos hormônios gonadais ou constituir fatores independentes, resultantes da depleção de dopamina. Assim, detectada a prevalência de distúrbios psiquiátricos em pacientes com hiperprolactinemia, conclui-se pela necessidade de maior número de pesquisas que investiguem as bases da possível inter-relação entre os estados hiperprolactinêmicos e o psiquismo.Hyperprolactinemia is the most frequent endocrine disorder of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis observed in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by elevated serum prolactin levels. Prolactin production is regulated by the inhibitory action of a neurotransmitter, dopamine. Clinical manifestations include irregular menstrual cycle, amenorrhea, galactorrhea, infertility and libido decrease, but psychological symptoms, especially anxiety and depression, have also been associated with hyperprolactinemia. Nonetheless, few studies about this condition are available. In the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, prolactin may have either a direct action on the central nerve system or an indirect effect via gonadal hormones or function as independent factors as a result of dopamine depletion
Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille
In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the
Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Shams, Jamal; Faghihimohamadi, Mohamadmahdi; Zahiroddin, Hanieh; Hallgren, Mats; Kallmen, Hakan
Iran is a developing and Islamic country where the consumption of alcoholic beverages is banned. However, psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders are often co-occurring. We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and examined the psychometric properties of the test among psychiatric outpatients in Teheran, Iran. AUDIT was completed by 846 consecutive (sequential) patients. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the prevalence of alcohol use, reliability and construct validity. 12% of men and 1% of women were hazardous alcohol consumers. Internal reliability of the Iranian version of AUDIT was excellent. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the construct validity and the fit of previous factor structures (1, 2 and 3 factors) to data were not good and seemingly contradicted results from the explorative principal axis factoring, which showed that a 1-factor solution explained 77% of the co-variances. We could not reproduce the suggested factor structure of AUDIT, probably due to the skewed distribution of alcohol consumption. Only 19% of men and 3% of women scored above 0 on AUDIT. This could be explained by the fact that alcohol is illegal in Iran. In conclusion the AUDIT exhibited good internal reliability when used as a single scale. The prevalence estimates according to AUDIT were somewhat higher among psychiatric patients compared to what was reported by WHO regarding the general population.
Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Roumen Kirov21Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BulgariaThe authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients.Keywords: cognitive, psychological, neurobiology, growth, development, sleep physiology, rapid eye movement, non-REM sleep, behavioral disorders, adolescents
Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Rape is an established risk factor for mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episodes (MDE), and substance use disorders. The majority of studies have not differentiated substance-involved rape or examined comorbid diagnoses among victims. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of common trauma-related psychiatric disorders (and their comorbidity) in a national sample of women, with an emphasis on distinguishing between rape tactics. A secondary objective was to estimate the risk for psychiatric disorders among victims of variant rape tactics, in comparison to non-victims. A nationally representative population-based sample of 3,001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) participated in a structured telephone interview assessing rape history and DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, MDE, alcohol abuse (AA), and drug abuse (DA). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. Women with rape histories involving both substance facilitation and forcible tactics reported the highest current prevalence of PTSD (36%), MDE (36%), and AA (20%). Multivariate models demonstrated that this victim group was also at highest risk for psychiatric disorders, after controlling for demographics and childhood and multiple victimization history. Women with substance-facilitated rapes reported higher prevalence of substance abuse in comparison to women with forcible rape histories. Comorbidity between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was higher among rape victims in comparison to non-rape victims. Researchers and clinicians should assess substance-facilitated rape tactics and attend to comorbidity among rape victims. Empirically supported treatments are needed to address the complex presentations observed among women with variant rape histories.
Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Lee, Paul C; Pauls, David L; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M; Lyon, Gholson J; Cath, Danielle C; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Mathews, Carol A
IMPORTANCE: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (<200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each
Hirschtritt, M.E.; Lee, P.C.; Pauls, D.L.; Dion, Y.; Grados, M.A.; Illmann, C.; King, R.A.; Sandor, P.; McMahon, W.M.; Lyon, G.J.; Cath, D.C.; Kurlan, R.; Robertson, M.M.; Osiecki, L.; Scharf, J.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Posthuma, D.; Singer, H.S.; Yu, D.; Cox, N.J.; Freimer, N.B.; Budman, C.L.; Chouinard, S.; Rouleau, G.; Barr, C.L.
Importance: Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, fewstudies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively fewparticipants (< 200), and none has examined the ages of highest risk for each
Krane-Gartiser, Karoline; Breum, Leif; Glümrr, Charlotte
The incidence of the metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is increasing worldwide and is suggested to be higher among psychiatric patients, especially those on antipsychotic treatment.......The incidence of the metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is increasing worldwide and is suggested to be higher among psychiatric patients, especially those on antipsychotic treatment....
Nosè, Michela; Turrini, Giulia; Imoli, Maria; Ballette, Francesca; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Cucchi, Francesca; Padoan, Chiara; Ruggeri, Mirella; Barbui, Corrado
In recent years there has been a progressive rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugees displaced from their country of origin, with significant social, economic, humanitarian and public health implications. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and correlates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in asylum seekers and refugees resettled in an Italian catchment area. In the catchment area of Verona, all male asylum seekers and refugees aged 18 or above included in the Italian protection system for asylum seekers and refugees during a period of 1 year were screened for psychological distress and psychiatric disorders using validated questionnaires. During the study period, 109 asylum seekers or refugees were recruited. The frequency of traumatic events experienced was very high. More than one-third of the participants (36%) showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and one-fourth (25%), met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis, mainly PTSD and depressive disorders. In multivariate analyses, time after departure, length of stay in the host country and number of traumatic events were independent factors associated with psychological distress and psychiatric disorders. In an unselected sample of male asylum seekers and refugees, after around 1 year of resettlement in an Italian catchment area, the frequency of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders was substantial and clinically relevant. Health care systems should include a mental health component to recognise and effectively treat mental health conditions.
Full Text Available Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and absence of postural tone followed by spontaneous recovery. Neurally mediated syncope (vasovagal and idiopathic unexplained syncope (US are the most common causes of syncope. Syncope is a very limiting disease that, if recurrent, affects the patients’ physical and psychological health. Our objective from this study is to measure the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among patients with US. All patients (>12 years with vasovagal or US who were evaluated in King Khalid University Hospital were identified. Echocardiography and table tilt test reports were reviewed and patients who had cardiac syncope (due to arrhythmia or structural heart disease were excluded (N = 18. Ninety-four patients were included for further psychiatric assessment. The patients were contacted to fill the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, which is a self-reporting questionnaire used to evaluate traits of depression, anxiety, somatization disorder and phobia. SCL-90-R scale has been translated to Arabic and validated in previous studies. Of the included cohort, 43 responded to fill the assessment scale, and 51 were excluded due to failure of communication (N = 41 or refusal to participate (N = 10. A control group was recruited with a case: control ratio of 1:3 matching for age, gender, and chronic illnesses.There were 43 patients and 129 control subjects, with predominance of females (67.4% and an average age of 33.8 (SD = 16. There was no difference in average scores of depression (13 vs. 14.53, P = 0.31, anxiety (11.3 vs. 10.4, P = 0.51, or phobia (5.4 vs. 5.2, P = 0.88. However, the syncope group had a higher average score for somatization disorder (18.53 vs. 13.66, P = 0.002. Binary logistic regression model was measured after grouping the cohort into above and below median scores. After adjusting for age, gender, and chronic illnesses, the association between syncope and somatization
Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive compulsive, and bipolar disorders are recognized as causing the biggest burden of disease worldwide. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and burden of common mental disorders at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI in the Qatari population, aged 18-65 who attended Primary Health Care (PHC settings. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted during November 2011 to October 2012. Setting: Primary Health Care Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar. Subjects: A total of 2,000 Qatari subjects aged 18-65 years were approached; 1475 (73.3% agreed to participate. Methods: Prevalence and severity of International Classification of Disease-10 disorders were assessed with the WHO-CIDI (Version 3.0. Results: Of the 1475 participants, 830 (56.3% were females and 645 (43.7% was males. One-third were aged 35-49 years 558 (37.8%. The three most common disorders were major depression disorders (18.31%, any anxiety disorders (17.3%, any mood disorders (16.95%, followed by separation anxiety disorders (15.25%, personality disorder (14.1%. In the present study, prevalence in women was significantly higher than men for the most common psychiatric disorders, specifically generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorders, posttraumatic disorder, somatization, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, and oppositional defiant disorder. Of the total 20% had only one psychiatric diagnosis and 12% had two disorders, 9.7% respondents with three diagnoses, and finally 4.3% of respondents had four or more diagnoses. Conclusion: One-fifth of all adults who attended the PHCC (20% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The CIDI is a useful instrument for psychiatric diagnosis in community
Reker, T; Eikelmann, B; Folkerts, H
All 52 regular users of a shelter in a medium-sized German city underwent a baseline psychiatric examination in 1990. Mental disorders, especially alcohol addiction and schizophrenic disorders, were recorded among 40 (77%). After four years the residential situation and the number and duration of psychiatric hospitalisations was recorded for 42 of these men. 33 of them mentally ill and 9 with no mental disorders. The four-year follow-up revealed that half the mentally ill men were still living in a homeless environment or had died, whereas most users with no mental disorder had a home of their own again. Longer-term hospitalisation or guardianship was found to have a favourable impact on social integration of the homeless mentally ill. Although psychiatric help without the consent of those concerned cannot solve the social problem of homelessness, it can often improve the living situation of homeless mentally ill patients.
Brand, Serge; Kirov, Roumen
Restoring sleep is strongly associated with a better physical, cognitive, and psychological well-being. By contrast, poor or disordered sleep is related to impairment of cognitive and psychological functioning and worsened physical health. These associations are well documented not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. Importantly, adolescence is hallmarked by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its neurobiological regulation, hormonal status, and many psychosocial and physical processes. Thus, the role of sleep in mental and physical health during adolescence and in adolescent patients is complex. However, it has so far received little attention. This review first presents contemporary views about the complex neurobiology of sleep and its functions with important implications for adolescence. Second, existing complex relationships between common adolescent somatic/organic, sleep-related, and psychiatric disorders and certain sleep alterations are discussed. It is concluded that poor or altered sleep in adolescent patients may trigger and maintain many psychiatric and physical disorders or combinations of these conditions, which presumably hinder recovery and may cross into later stages of life. Therefore, timely diagnosis and management of sleep problems appear critical for growth and development in adolescent patients. PMID:21731894
Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders may mask or be masked by Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thereby confounding the clinical assessment ... awareness of these co-morbid disorders, which could become targets for interventions that may reduce the overall morbidity profile of children with ADHD.
Epaenetus A. Awuzu
Full Text Available Various studies have reported that abuse of cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of delta 9-tetrahydrocanabinol (Δ 9 -THC, a major metabolite of cannabis, in psychiatric patients in Uganda, and to assess the diagnostic capacity of two referral mental health hospitals to screen patients for exposure to cannabis in Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were collected through questionnaires and review of medical records. Urine samples were collected from 100 patients and analyzed using Δ 9 -THC immunochromatographic kit (Standard Diagnostics®, South Korea. Seventeen percent of the patients tested positive for Δ 9 -THC residues in their urine. There was strong association ( p < 0.05 between history of previous abuse of cannabis and presence of Δ 9 -THC residues in the urine. Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pethidine, tobacco, khat and kuber were the other substances abused in various combinations. Both referral hospitals lacked laboratory diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis in psychiatric patients. In conclusion, previous abuse of cannabis is associated with occurrence of the residues in psychiatric patients, yet referral mental health facilities in Uganda do not have the appropriate diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis residues as a basis for evidence-based psychotherapy.
Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne; Zanarini, Mary C
Existing research has demonstrated that both adolescents and adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) report higher rates of childhood adversity than their same-age peers; no studies have examined if adolescents and adults with BPD differ based on the extent of these experiences. In the present study, we compared the prevalence rates and severity of multiple forms of abuse and neglect in adolescents and adults with BPD and in psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Participants included 104 adolescent (aged 13-17 years) inpatients with BPD, 60 age-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents, and 290 adult inpatients with BPD. All participants completed an interview that assessed the presence and severity of multiple forms of childhood abuse and neglect. A significantly higher percentage of adolescents with BPD reported 5 of 12 pathological childhood experiences and described more severe abusive experiences than their psychiatrically healthy peers. In comparison with adolescents with BPD, a significantly higher percentage of adults with BPD reported nearly all forms of childhood adversity and rated these experiences as more severe. Taken together, these results suggest that adults with BPD report more severe profiles of abuse and neglect than adolescents with the disorder, even though adolescents with BPD differ from healthy peers. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
In the last few decades, the State of Israel has become a target for work migrants, refugees, asylum seekers and victims of human trafficking, as part of the trend of world immigration. Immigration is a process of loss and change with significant socio-psychological stress, with possible effects on the immigrants' mental health. The Physicians for Human Rights - Israel (PHR) Association operates a psychiatric clinic as part of the Open Clinic for Work Migrants and Refugees. This article will present major clinical issues regarding psychiatry and immigration in Israel according to the data collected at the clinic. Trauma and stress-related psychopathology was found to have a high prevalence in immigrant patients treated at the clinic; prevalence of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) in immigrants was high (23%) and even higher in refugees (33%). Female immigrants are at higher risk for psychiatric hospitalization. The relative rate of African patients at the clinic is significantly higher than patients from other continents. A significant association was found between psychiatric hospitalization and suicide attempts. Immigrant patients present a combination of psychiatric, socio-economic and general medical conditions, which demands a holistic view of the patient. The evaluation of an immigrant patient must take into account the stress related to immigration, gender, culture of origin and the risk for suicide and hospitalization. Treatment recommendations include awareness of cultural diversities, acquiring information regarding the pre-immigration history, preferably using cultural consultants with background in the immigrants' culture and community. Decision-making about medication and diagnostic evaluation should be as inexpensive as possible. Basic human needs (food, shelter) and family support should be included in the decisions about treatment.
Veale, David; Akyüz, Elvan U; Hodsoll, John
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) on an inpatient ward in the UK with a larger sample than previously studied and to investigate the value of a simple screening question during an assessment interview. Four hundred and thirty two consecutive admissions were screened for BDD on an adult psychiatric ward over a period of 13 months. Those who screened positive had a structured diagnostic interview for BDD. The prevalence of BDD was estimated to be 5.8% (C.I. 3.6-8.1%). Our screening question had a slightly low specificity (76.6%) for detecting BDD. The strength of this study was a larger sample size and narrower confidence interval than previous studies. The study adds to previous observations that BDD is poorly identified in psychiatric inpatients. BDD was identified predominantly in those presenting with depression, substance misuse or an anxiety disorder. The screening question could be improved by excluding those with weight or shape concerns. Missing the diagnosis is likely to lead to inappropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Sunday Times Discovery Healthiest Company Index Survey collected a dataset of 13 578 responses from corporate employees in 101 companies. This dataset has been used to assess the prevalence of self-reported modifiable health-risk factors and the association with chronic conditions. The analysis indicates that ...
Small animal orthopaedic case records of a 20-year period were surveyed to obtain the prevalence and pattern of orthopaedic conditions presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, with the objective of providing data for planning on small animal healthcare facilities, policy ...
Nkokone S Z Tema
Full Text Available Background. Psychiatrists are often called upon to evaluate patients with a medical condition and psychiatric symptoms, either as a complication thereof or initial presenting symptoms. There are often grey areas with regard to neuropsychiatric disorders in which psychiatrists and specialists from other clinical disciplines would need to co-manage or share ideas on the comprehensive treatment of a presenting patient. Objectives. This study was undertaken to provide a demographic and clinical profile of all patients consulted by the consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP service at the Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH in Johannesburg, and to describe the clinical management of patients admitted with a diagnosis of a mental disorder associated with a comorbid medical condition, including delirium, dementia and a mood or psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition. Methods. A retrospective record review of all patients referred to the HJH CLP team over a 6-month period. Results. A total of 884 routine and emergency consultations were done for 662 patients (males n=305; females n=357 between the ages of 13 and 90 years who were referred from various other clinical departments. The most common documented reason for referral was a request for assessment (n=182; 27.5%, which consisted of mental state assessment, reconsultation and assessing capacity. A total of 63 patients (10.0% of cases consulted were admitted to either the medical or psychiatric wards with a confirmed diagnosis of delirium, dementia and/or a mood or psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition (although admission wards were identified in 55 files only. The medical wards admitted the majority (n=37; 67.3% mostly for delirium (n=28; 50.9%. HIV was identified as the most common systemic aetiological factor (n=23; 67.7%. Conclusion. In this study, a female patient between 31 and 45 years of age was slightly more likely to be referred to the HJH CLP service for assessment, and
Nilesh Arjun Torwane
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric jail patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of prediagnosed psychiatric patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A matched control consisting of cross-section of the population, that is, jail inmates residing in the same Central Jail locality was also assessed to compare the psychiatric subjects. An 18 item questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among study subjects. Results: The total number of subjects examined was 244, which comprised of 122 psychiatric inmates and 122 nonpsychiatric inmates. Among all psychiatric inmates, about 57.4% of inmates had a diagnosis of depression, 14.8% had psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia, and 12.3% had anxiety disorder. A total of 77% study inmates, which comprised of 87.7% psychiatrics and 66.4% nonpsychiatrics had a habit of tobacco consumption (smokeless or smoking. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common tobacco related practices among psychiatric inmate population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the hazards of tobacco consumption and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of the prison population.
Pence, Brian Wells; Miller, William C.; Gaynes, Bradley N.
Prevalence and validation studies rely on imperfect reference standard (RS) diagnostic instruments that can bias prevalence and test characteristic estimates. The authors illustrate 2 methods to account for RS misclassification. Latent class analysis (LCA) combines information from multiple imperfect measures of an unmeasurable latent condition to…
... nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers to provide nursing care necessary under each... psychiatric nursing services must be a registered nurse who has a master's degree in psychiatric or mental... demonstrate competence to participate in interdisciplinary formulation of individual treatment plans; to give...
Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter
Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; pRio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; pRio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors might guide the implementation of interventions to improve mental health and quality of life in LMIC urban centers.
Muhammad B. Yunus
Full Text Available Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS. CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild.
Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne
The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Analysis of data collected from behavioral paradigms has provided important information for understanding the etiology and progression of diseases that involve neural regions mediating abnormal behavior. The trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC paradigm is particularly suited to examine cerebro-cerebellar interactions since the paradigm requires the cerebellum, forebrain, and awareness of the stimulus contingencies. Impairments in acquiring EBC have been noted in several neuropsychiatric conditions including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Although several species have been used to examine EBC, the rabbit is unique in its tolerance for restraint which facilitates imaging, its relatively large skull which facilitates chronic neuronal recordings, a genetic sequence for amyloid that is identical to humans which makes it a valuable model to study AD, and in contrast to rodents, it has a striatum that is differentiated into a caudate and a putamen which facilitates analysis of diseases involving the striatum. This review focuses on EBC during schizophrenia and AD since impairments in cerebro-cerebellar connections have been hypothesized to lead to a cognitive dysmetria. We also relate EBC to conditioned avoidance responses that are more often examined for effects of antipsychotic medications, and we propose that an analysis of novel object recognition (NOR may add to our understanding of how the underlying neural circuitry has changed during disease states. We propose that the EBC and NOR paradigms will help to determine which therapeutics are effective for treating the cognitive aspects of schizophrenia and AD, and that neuroimaging may reveal biomarkers of the diseases and help to evaluate potential therapeutics. The rabbit thus provides an important translational system for studying neural mechanisms mediating maladaptive behaviors that underlie some psychiatric
Valdes-Stauber, Juan; Kilian, Reinhold
This study examines whether psychiatric outpatient clinics fulfill their statutory role of providing psychiatric services for patients with severe mental disorders. A retrospective cross-sectional study on 1,672 patients of a psychiatric outpatient clinic for the year 2010, based on 30 variables. Associations between variables were explored by means of robust multivariate regression models and polynomial regression plots. The patients' average CGI value was found to be 5.98, the mean GAF-score 47.3, and the mean duration of illness 13.8 years. A third of the sample attempted suicide in the past. Metabolic comorbidity was found in 23.1 % of the sample. Results of regression analyses reveal positive effects of the disease severity and functional impairment on the use of psychiatric care. Patients with affective and schizophrenic disorders received more units of care and caused more costs. Patients living in nursing homes received less in- and outpatient care but caused more medication costs. Study results support the assumption that German psychiatric outpatient clinics fulfill their statutory duties by treating severely chronically mentally ill patients. The patients' use of care is positively related to the disease severity and their functional impairment. However, results of the regression analyses suggest that patients living in nursing homes received less psychiatric care than patients who live more independently. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tran, Tung; Kavuluru, Ramakanth
Applications of natural language processing to mental health notes are not common given the sensitive nature of the associated narratives. The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) changed this scenario by providing the first set of neuropsychiatric notes to participants. This study summarizes our efforts and results in proposing a novel data use case for this dataset as part of the third track in this shared task. We explore the feasibility and effectiveness of predicting a set of common mental conditions a patient has based on the short textual description of patient's history of present illness typically occurring in the beginning of a psychiatric initial evaluation note. We clean and process the 1000 records made available through the N-GRID clinical NLP task into a key-value dictionary and build a dataset of 986 examples for which there is a narrative for history of present illness as well as Yes/No responses with regards to presence of specific mental conditions. We propose two independent deep neural network models: one based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) and another based on recurrent neural networks with hierarchical attention (ReHAN), the latter of which allows for interpretation of model decisions. We conduct experiments to compare these methods to each other and to baselines based on linear models and named entity recognition (NER). Our CNN model with optimized thresholding of output probability estimates achieves best overall mean micro-F score of 63.144% for 11 common mental conditions with statistically significant gains (p<0.05) over all other models. The ReHAN model with interpretable attention mechanism scored 61.904% mean micro-F1 score. Both models' improvements over baseline models (support vector machines and NER) are statistically significant. The ReHAN model additionally aids in interpretation of the results by surfacing important words and sentences that lead to a particular prediction for each
Research has established that psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents within thejuvenile justice system. However, the bulk of these researches had been from the developed countries, with very limited data from sub-Sahara Africa. In a region like sub-Sahara Africa with acute shortage of mental healthcare resources, availability of data on mental health needs of children within the juvenile justice system is about the only way to ensure that they are not excluded from needed services. This study aims to determine the pattern, prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders among the residents of a juvenile justice facility in Nigeria and to speculate appropriate policy responses. Using a cross-sectional comparative study design, 60 consecutive residents of the Ibadan juvenile Remand home and 60 randomly selected age- and gender-matched school going adolescents were evaluated for the presence of current and lifetime psychiatric disorders. The Kiddies Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was used to assess psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression was done to determine sociodemographic variables that were independently associated with the presence of lifetime psychiatric disorders. Thirty eight (63%) of the Remand Home participants had at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder compared with 14 (23%) among the comparison group (p psychiatric disorders among the Remand Home residents. Indices of family disruption and inconsistency in caregivers were the key predictors of psychiatric disorders. Study has established further that psychiatric disorders are common among children within the juvenile justice system and that there is a need for appropriate policy response. Some policy directions were highlighted.
Kat, Martin G.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Kalisvaart, Kees J.; van Gool, Willem A.; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.
Objective To study psychiatric consultation referrals of nursing home patients with dementia and to compare referral reasons with normative data on prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods This is part of a cross-sectional study of 787 patients residing in 14 nursing homes in the
Kat, M.G.; Zuidema, S.U.; van der Ploeg, T.; Kalisvaart, K.J.; van Gool, W.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.
Objective: To study psychiatric consultation referrals of nursing home patients with dementia and to compare referral reasons with normative data on prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods: This is part of a cross-sectional study of 787 patients residing in 14 nursing homes in the
Hoedeman, R.; Krol, B.; Blankenstein, N.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.
Background: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the
Kat, M.G.; Zuidema, S.U.; Ploeg, T. van der; Kalisvaart, K.J.; Gool, W.A. van; Eikelenboom, P.; Jonghe, J.F. de
OBJECTIVE: To study psychiatric consultation referrals of nursing home patients with dementia and to compare referral reasons with normative data on prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. METHODS: This is part of a cross-sectional study of 787 patients residing in 14 nursing homes in the
van der Meer, Job; van Rood, Yanda R; van der Wee, Nic J; den Hollander-Gijsman, Margien; van Noorden, Martijn S; Giltay, Erik J; Zitman, Frans G
To describe the prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) compared with other psychiatric outpatients with a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Outpatients referred for treatment of a mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder were routinely assessed at intake. A structured interview (MINI-Plus), observer-based and self-rating instruments were administered by an independent assessor. Among our sample of 3798 referred patients, 2947 patients were diagnosed with at least one DSM-IV mood, anxiety or somatoform disorder. Of these patients 1.8% (n = 54) met the diagnostic criteria for BDD. In comparison with other outpatients, patients with BDD were on average younger, less often married and were more often living alone. Highly prevalent comorbid diagnoses were major depression (in 46.3% of cases), social anxiety disorder (in 35.2% of cases) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (in 16.7% of cases). Furthermore, patients with BDD had higher scores on the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) as well as lower scores on the Short Form 36 social role functioning. BDD is frequently associated with depression, social phobia and OCD. Patients with BDD have more distress and more impaired interpersonal functioning.
Goldstein, Risë B; Dawson, Deborah A; Chou, S Patricia; Grant, Bridget F
The present study examined sex differences in lifetime Axis I and II psychiatric comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs) among general population U.S. adults. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 lifetime prevalences of each disorder comorbid with alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and drug dependence were compared between men and women. Sex-specific associations of alcohol, any drug, and cannabis- and cocaine-specific abuse and dependence with each comorbid disorder were examined using logistic regression, first with adjustment for sociodemographic variables and then with additional adjustment for all other psychiatric disorders. Prevalences of most comorbid disorders differed significantly by sex among respondents with each AUD and DUD. However, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and additional co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, there were few sex differences in unique comorbid associations of specific AUDs and DUDs with specific psychiatric disorders. Rates of psychiatric disorders comorbid with AUDs and DUDs indicate large burdens of morbidity in both sexes, highlighting the need for careful assessment and appropriate treatment of both substance use and mental health disorders. The unique comorbid associations with AUDs and DUDs identified in this study further indicate the need for prospective etiological research to characterize these associations, their underlying mechanisms, and the possible sex specificity of those mechanisms.
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco
Cannabis use has been associated to a wide variety of mental disorders, the possible causal role of this use in the etiology of severe mental disorders as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder standing out. Moreover, the cannabinoid system is involved in emotional regulation, so cannabis use could disturb this process and provoke anxiety and mood disorders. The main objective of this study was to analyze the cannabis addict subgroup from Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients under treatment in the mental health network or drug network of the Community of Madrid (Spain). Of these, 353 subjects had a lifetime diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence and 357 subjects did not have cannabis substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. It was considered that 76.5% of the cannabis addicts had a current dual disorder. The most prevalent ones were mood and anxiety disorders. Of those addicted to cannabis, 51% had a personality disorder. Most of them had several substance use disorders. Cannabis abuse or dependence subjects had an earlier onset in consumption of other drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, and tobacco than addicts without cannabis abuse or dependence. The cannabis addicts also differed from the other addicts because of an association to antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, psychosis and agoraphobia. The presence of these mental disorders was significantly associated to a lower age at initiation of cannabis use. Dual pathology is very high in cannabis addicts under treatment. Said consumption of cannabis, probably within a polysubstance use pattern, is associated to severe mental disorders as psychosis and bipolar disorder. An earlier age of onset in cannabis use is associated to a greater risk of
Nazir, Muhammad Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Akhtar, Masood; Ayaz, Mazhar; Ahmad, Atif Nisar; Ashraf, Kamran; Ali, Asif; Alam, Muhammad Azhar; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Khalid, Abdur Rauf; Lindsay, David S
Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dogs are important in the epidemiology of N. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. Vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. A N. caninum competitive ELISA was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 different living conditions. Samples from 138 dogs living on 24 dairies with a prevalence (0-70%) of anti-N. caninum antibodies in the cattle, 294 pet dogs without neurological signs, 76 from pet dogs exhibiting neurological signs, and 92 stray dogs were examined. The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum was 23.5% (95% CI = ± 2.99) in the 600 dogs. Significant (P 0.05). The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was not significantly (P>0.05) different in dogs based on breed. These findings suggest a relationship between N. caninum infection of dogs from dairies and cattle on these dairies. However, further research is required to determine what is the most important way dogs acquire infection and how to prevent dogs from shedding oocysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Silverstone, Peter H; Salsali, Mahnaz
Background The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria...
Jennifer S McCall-Hosenfeld
Full Text Available Distinctions between rural and urban environments produce different frequencies of traumatic exposures and psychiatric disorders. We examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and frequency of trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum.The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R was used to evaluate psychiatric disorders among a nationally-representative sample of the U.S. population. Rurality was designated using the Department of Agriculture's 2003 rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC, which differentiate counties into levels of rurality by population density and adjacency to metropolitan areas. Lifetime psychiatric disorders included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse. Trauma exposures were classified as war-related, accident-related, disaster-related, interpersonal or other. Weighted logistic regression models examined the odds of psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum, adjusted for relevant covariates.75% of participants were metropolitan, 12.2% were suburban, and 12.8% were from rural counties. The most common disorder reported was any anxiety disorder (38.5%. Drug abuse was more common among metropolitan (8.7%, p = 0.018, compared to nonmetropolitan (5.1% suburban, 6.1% rural participants. A one-category increase in rurality was associated with decreased odds for war-related trauma (aOR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.95. Rurality was not associated with risk for any other lifetime psychiatric disorders or trauma exposure.Contrary to the expectation of some rural primary care providers, the frequencies of most psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures are similar across the rural-urban continuum, reinforcing calls to improve mental healthcare access in resource-poor rural communities.
Rosenblatt, Adam; Samus, Quincy M; Steele, Cynthia D; Baker, Alva S; Harper, Michael G; Brandt, Jason; Rabins, Peter V; Lyketsos, Constantine G
To obtain a direct estimate of the prevalence of dementia and other psychiatric disorders in residents of assisted living (AL) in Central Maryland, and their rates of recognition and treatment. Comprehensive review of history and cognitive and neuropsychiatric evaluations using widely accepted instruments in a randomized cohort of AL residents, stratified by facility size. An expert multidisciplinary consensus panel determined diagnoses and appropriateness of treatment. Twenty-two (10 large and 12 small) randomly selected AL facilities in the city of Baltimore and seven Maryland counties. One hundred ninety-eight volunteers who were residents of AL, 75% were aged 80 and older, and 78% were female. Potential participants were randomly chosen by room number. There was a 67% participation rate. Overall rate of dementia, noncognitive active psychiatric disorders, and recognition and adequate treatment of dementia and psychiatric disorders, as determined by consensus panel. Two-thirds (67.7%) of participants had dementia diagnosable according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (81% small facilities and 63% large). Family or caregivers recognized 78% to 80% of dementias. Seventy-three percent of dementias were adequately evaluated, and 52% were adequately treated. Of the 26.3% of participants who had an active noncognitive psychiatric disorder, 58% to 61% were recognized and 52% adequately treated. Dementia and psychiatric disorders are common in AL and have suboptimal rates of recognition and treatment. This may contribute to morbidity and interfere with the ability of residents to age in place.
Susana María Castro Pérez
Full Text Available The psychiatric consultation is broadly defined as an educational relationship between a psychiatrist, a general practitioner and other professionals working in the area of Mental Health. Currently it is a fundamental tool to optimize the treatment of psychiatric patients in primary care, given the high prevalence of these conditions and limited access to hours of specialty. Psychiatric Consulting is centrally positioned because patients are generally reluctant to consult with specialists, either because of the stigma associated with psychiatric illness or the cost effectiveness of the specialty. This leads patients to consult in primary care. Therefore we were interested in reviewing the evidence supporting this activity and what are the benefits it delivers. After reviewing the literature we conclude that the Psychiatric Consultation helps to improve the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of psychiatric disorders in primary care, particularly the management of depressive disorders and somatoform disorders, improving the resolution capabilities of general practitioners, thus lowering the associated healthcare costs of these conditions. There is no evidence to support the health benefits of training general practitioners.
Verger, Pierre; Guagliardo, Valérie; Gilbert, Fabien; Rouillon, Frédéric; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PD) among university students. This article aims to study 12-month prevalence of PD in university students, their socio-economic correlates, impairment in daily life and help-seeking behaviours. Cross-sectional study of randomly selected first-year students aged 18-24 years, enrolled in one of the six universities in south-eastern France in 2005-2006. We used the WHO CIDI-Short Form to derive DSM-IV diagnoses and the Sheehan disability scale to evaluate impairment. We studied their correlates with multiple logistic regressions. The 12-month prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD) and substance use disorders (SUD) were 8.9% (95% CI: 7.2-10.9), 15.7% (95% CI: 13.5-18.2) and 8.1% (95% CI: 6.7-9.8), respectively. MDD was associated with precarious economic situation (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.23), AD with a precarious job or unemployment of the father (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.04-4.14) and SUD with higher educational level of father (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.28-3.67) or having a paid job (OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.06-3.13). "Marked" or "extreme" impairment (score > or =7 for at least one of the domains in the Sheehan scale) was noted for 51.7% of students presenting a PD and was even more frequent in the presence of MDD/AD comorbidity. Only 30.5% of the students with a PD had sought professional help in the past 12 months. This study provides new results regarding university students suggesting a link between precarious economic situations and MDD. The frequent impairment arising from PD alongside low rates of help-seeking suggests that PD could be one of the factors in academic failure in first year of university. These results should be used to improve prevention and care of PD in university students in France.
Farhood, Laila; Dimassi, Hani; Lehtinen, Tuija
The South of Lebanon has experienced prolonged armed conflict. The current study aims to investigate the degree of exposure to traumatic events and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and nonspecific general psychiatric morbidity in a civilian population from the South of Lebanon. The design was cross-sectional with random sampling. War-related traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD were assessed by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and general psychiatric morbidity by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Almost all participants, 97.7%, had experienced, witnessed, or heard of a war-related traumatic event. Current PTSD prevalence was 29.3%. PTSD symptoms correlated highly with GHQ-28 symptoms, r = .73 (p psychological interventions in the population and studies to assess such interventions.
Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC are much more common in males, a bias that may offer clues to the etiology of this condition. Although the cause of this bias remains a mystery, we argue that it occurs because ASC is an extreme manifestation of the male brain. The extreme male brain (EMB theory, first proposed in 1997, is an extension of the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S theory of typical sex differences that proposes that females on average have a stronger drive to empathize while males on average have a stronger drive to systemize. In this first major update since 2005, we describe some of the evidence relating to the EMB theory of ASC and consider how typical sex differences in brain structure may be relevant to ASC. One possible biological mechanism to account for the male bias is the effect of fetal testosterone (fT. We also consider alternative biological theories, the X and Y chromosome theories, and the reduced autosomal penetrance theory. None of these theories has yet been fully confirmed or refuted, though the weight of evidence in favor of the fT theory is growing from converging sources (longitudinal amniocentesis studies from pregnancy to age 10 years old, current hormone studies, and genetic association studies of SNPs in the sex steroid pathways. Ultimately, as these theories are not mutually exclusive and ASC is multi-factorial, they may help explain the male prevalence of ASC.
Mak, K Y; Gow, L
This paper reports on a study of the living environment of 64 psychiatric patients discharged from half-way houses in Hong Kong. The majority were living in a deprived situation compared to that of their neighbours. They were leading a very monotonous life throughout the year; the walls of their homes were dirty and very plain; and some even ate scraps from a neighbouring bakery. Many did not have any social life at all, and their hobbies were smoking, watching television and gambling. Their neighbours, by comparison, had hobbies such as floriculture, birds and goldfish; decorated their walls with pictures and had newspapers and periodicals in their houses; more often had telephone facilities, wardrobes and sofas; used town gas rather than kerosene stoves; and were more likely to have electrical appliances, especially an iron, refrigerator and shaver. Judged by their income from employment or from public assistance, the 'quality of life' (QOL) of these patients should not have been in such a desperate state. They lacked guidance and instruction in their management of money, and the care of their homes. It is proposed that an aftercare worker might improve the QOL of these discharged psychiatric patients.
Self- and other-directed forms of violence and their relationship with lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).
Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Kerridge, Bradley T; Grant, Bridget F
A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Violent behavior was defined by suicide attempts; recurrent suicidal behavior; gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior (self-directed); and multiple items of violence toward others (other-directed) in four categories: none, self-directed only, other-directed only, and combined self-/other-directed. Multinomial logistic regression examined these violence categories in association with sociodemographics and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders. Results show that approximately 18.1% of adults reported violent behavior, including self-directed only (4.4%), other-directed only (10.9%), and combined self- and other-directed violence (2.8%). DSM-5 psychiatric disorders significantly associated with the violence typology include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drug use disorders; mood disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Findings extend the clinical literature regarding the co-occurrence of self- and other-directed violent behaviors to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
However, the severity of malocclusion varied between age groups and districts. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 3% and 4% for children and adults, respectively. All subjects in Arua district were fluorosis-free. Tetracycline enamel staining was less than 1% in both age groups. Enamel attrition was more prevalent in ...
Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin
The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…
Papelbaum,Marcelo; Appolinário,José Carlos; Moreira,Rodrigo de Oliveira; Ellinger,Vivian Carola Moema; Kupfer,Rosane; Coutinho,Walmir Ferreira
BACKGROUND: A few studies have shown high rates of eating disorders and psychiatric morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: disturbed eating behavior and psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of T2DM patients. METHODS: Seventy type 2 diabetes mellitus patients between 40 and 65 years of age (mean, 52.9 ± 6.8) from a diabetes outpatient clinic were sequentially evaluated. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Binge Eating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were u...
The prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in psychiatric patients with sleep disorders and its relationship with altered hypothalamopituitary-adrenal and hypothalamopituitary-thyroid axis activity.
Li, Jiaqi; Sun, Xueli; Yu, Yerong
Sleep restriction, an important symptom of psychiatric diseases, is associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation, but few studies have examined its association with impaired glucose regulation and altered hypothalamic activity. Our study was designed to evaluate the sleep duration, fasting glucose, tolerance glucose, and concentration of plasma insulin; to assess the function of both the hypothalamopituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamopituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; and to investigate the relationship of altered hypothalamic function with glucose metabolism in psychiatric patients with a sleep disorders. From January 2010 to December 2011, 324 women (64.7%) and 177 men (35.32%) with a diagnosis of a sleep disorder participated in our cross-sectional study in the psychiatric outpatient department of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Results from 75-g glucose tolerance tests, insulin-releasing tests, morning (8:00 am) serum cortisol, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4) were collected, as well as body mass index and waist-hip ratio to assess the prevalence of impaired glucose regulation and function of the HPA and HPT axis. Sleep quality was assessed through self-reported questionnaires. There were 301 patients previously diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (78%), and 200 patients previously diagnosed with depression and other psychiatric diseases (22%). Crude prevalence rates were 15.0% for diabetes mellitus (DM), 11.6% for impaired glucose tolerance, 15.8% for impaired fasting glucose, and 11.6% for impaired glucose regulation (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]+impaired fasting glucose [IFG]). Total prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in patients with a sleep disorder was 48.8%. Mean cortisol level was 463.5±178.8 nmol/L, and the cortisol concentration at 8:00 am was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of impaired glucose regulation and insulin resistance. TSH values above 2.5 mU/L accounted for over 58
Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D
The onset of psychiatric symptoms and disorders is relatively common in childhood, occurring among youths across the weight spectrum. However, available research suggests that certain psychiatric comorbidities are more prevalent in obese children and adolescents than in healthy weight youths. First, we review research on disordered eating, including evidence to suggest that loss of control eating is associated with weight gain and obesity in youths, as well as poor outcome in family-based treatment of paediatric obesity. Second, we highlight evidence on the relationship between depression and obesity, especially in girls. Third, we present data on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly the symptoms of impulsivity and inattention, and childhood obesity. We also consider that some medical conditions and psychotropic medications contribute to weight gain and obesity in children and adolescents. Throughout the review, we emphasize that psychiatric comorbidity may be a cause or consequence of childhood obesity, or they may share common aetiological factors.
McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (revictimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients.
Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S
In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common
Morphea. Pityriasis rosea. Papular urticaria. Nappy dermatitis. Albinism. Infantile haemangioma. Impetigo. Acne vulgaris. Dermatophytosis. Molluscum contagiosum. Vitiligo. Seborrhoeic dermatitis. Viral warts. Fig. 1. Most prevalent skin disorders seen among the study population. Table 2. Distribution of most common skin ...
Papelbaum, Marcelo; Appolinário, José Carlos; Moreira, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Ellinger, Vivian Carola Moema; Kupfer, Rosane; Coutinho, Walmir Ferreira
A few studies have shown high rates of eating disorders and psychiatric morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disturbed eating behavior and psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of T2DM patients. Seventy type 2 diabetes mellitus patients between 40 and 65 years of age (mean, 52.9 +/- 6.8) from a diabetes outpatient clinic were sequentially evaluated. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Binge Eating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess eating disorders and other psychiatric comorbidity. In addition to the descriptive analysis of the data, we compared groups divided based on the presence of obesity (evaluated by the body mass index) or an eating disorder. Twenty percent of the sample displayed an eating disorder. Binge eating disorder was the predominant eating disorder diagnosis (10%). Overall, the group of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented rates of psychiatric comorbidity comparable to those seen in their nonobese counterparts. However, the presence of an eating disorder was associated with a significant increase in the frequency of anxiety disorders (57.1% x 28.6%; p = 0.044). In our study sample, the occurrence of eating disorders was increased compared to rates observed in the general population, with the predominance of binge eating disorder. The presence of an eating disorder in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was associated with higher rates of anxiety disorders.
Dekker, J.J.M.; Theunissen, J.; Van, R.; Duurkoop, P.; Kikkert, M.
Background. Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a
Agyapong, Vincent I O; Juhás, Michal; Ritchie, Amanda; Ogunsina, Olurotimi; Ambrosano, Lorella; Corbett, Sandra
The prevalence rate for child sexual abuse among new psychiatric outpatients in Fort McMurray was 20.7%. With an odds ratio for sex of 3.30, female patients are about 3 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared with male patients when controlling for other factors. Similarly, patients with at most high school education and those with previous contact with psychiatric services were about 2 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared to the patients with college or university education or no previous contact with psychiatric services, respectively. Similarly, patients with histories of substance abuse and patients with family histories of mental illness had higher likelihoods of reporting histories of child sexual abuse compared to patients without histories of substance abuse or family histories of mental illness, respectively. Our findings suggest that victims of child sexual abuse are an at-risk population in need of ongoing mental health and educational support.
Psychiatric Comorbidity of Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Older Adults in the United States: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.
Objectives To present findings on the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and partial PTSD in a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants Face-to-face interviews with 9,463 adults aged 60 years and older in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Measurements Sociodemographic correlates, worst stressful experiences, comorbid lifetime mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, psychosocial functioning, and suicide attempts. Results Lifetime prevalences±standard errors of PTSD and partial PTSD were 4.5%±0.25 and 5.5%±0.27, respectively. Rates were higher in women (5.7%±0.37 and 6.5%±0.39) than men (3.1%±0.31 and 4.3%±0.37). Older adults with PTSD most frequently identified unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and own serious or life-threatening illness as their worst stressful events. Older adults exposed to trauma but without full or partial PTSD and respondents with partial PTSD most often identified unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and indirect experience of 9/11 as their worst events. PTSD was associated with elevated odds of lifetime mood, anxiety, drug use, and borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, and decreased psychosocial functioning. Partial PTSD was associated with elevated odds of mood, anxiety, and narcissistic and schizotypal personality disorders, and poorer psychosocial functioning relative to older adults exposed to trauma but without full or partial PTSD. Conclusions PTSD among older adults in the United States is slightly more prevalent than previously reported and associated with considerable psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. Partial PTSD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly with mood and other anxiety disorders. PMID:22522959
Benjet, Corina; González-Herrera, Irene; Castro-Silva, Everardo; Méndez, Enrique; Borges, Guilherme; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) may lead to scarring, infection, accidental death and psychological distress. Little is known about NSSI in the general population of young adults in developing countries like Mexico. The current study examined the prevalence of any NSSI and each type of NSSI, the prevalence of meeting DSM-5 proposed criteria, and finally the association of NSSI with socio-demographic variables, suicidal behavior and psychiatric disorders. This study was conducted in a community sample of 1071 young adults between 19 and 26 years of age residents of Mexico City. The lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 18.56% with females having 87% greater odds. The 12-month prevalence was 3.19%. Only 0.22% of the total sample and 6.96% of those that self-injured in the past 12 months met full criteria proposed by DSM-5, in part due to the lack of reported impairment; 39.99% of those that self-injured reported impairment. Suicidal behavior commonly co-occurred with NSSI. All lifetime anxiety, mood, disruptive behavior and substance use disorders were associated with greater risk for lifetime NSSI whereas only 12-month depression and substance use disorder was associated with greater risk of 12-month NSSI. The cross-sectional nature of the study precludes conclusions of causality and directionality and the study excluded institutionalized and homeless young adults. NSSI is a concerning problem in young adults from Mexico City due to the important associations with all types of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. Because many who self-injure do not perceive impairment, they are unlikely to seek treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schroeder, Katrin; Schätzle, Anja; Kowohl, Pauline; Leske, Lisa; Huber, Christian G; Schäfer, Ingo
Psychotic-like symptoms are found in a subgroup of borderline patients (BPD). Reported prevalence is heterogeneous (up to 50% affected). Investigations in Germany have not been conducted so far. Furthermore, the precise phenomenology of the psychotic symptoms and the effects on suicidal behavior and the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence rates and phenomenology of psychotic-like symptoms. Associations between the latter and suicidality as well as the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment were examined. Further influencing factors were taking into account. Psychotic-like symptoms were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview-I in 95 BPD patients. To investigate the associations between psychotic-like symptoms and suicidality as well as the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment, correlation and regression analyzes were calculated, considering severity of PTSD, BPD and depression. 36% of the patients reported alterations of perception and 21% delusions, both multiform and long lasting. The number of suicide attempts was associated with delusions, alterations of perception and severity of PTSD, BPS, and depression. Only delusions and severity of PTSD explained together 25.8% of the variance for the prediction of the number of suicide attempts. Age of initial hospitalization showed fewer and number of hospitalizations no associations at all. Psychotic-like symptoms should not be trivialized, which may happen by using terms such as pseudo-hallucinations or transient paranoid ideas, and may be particularly associated with suicidal tendencies complicating the clinical course. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?
Brooks, Larry; Hadi, Joseph; Amber, Kyle T; Weiner, Michelle; La Riche, Christopher L; Ference, Tamar
This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM) (n=219) and a control group women with chronic pain (CP) without FM (n=116). The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort. This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009-2010. Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (Pgynecologic surgery (Pgynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group. This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic surgery. A larger prospective study of the relationship between gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM is warranted.
Borkum, Dana B; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne; Zanarini, Mary C
Existing literature on the aetiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has primarily focused on pathological childhood experiences, while little to no research has been conducted on protective factors that may serve to ameliorate these symptoms. The current study attempts to fill this gap in the literature by comparing the rates of childhood protective factors among adolescents with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adults with BPD. One hundred and four subjects were adolescent inpatients between the ages of 13 and 17 who met Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition criteria for BPD. Sixty were age-matched psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects. Two hundred and ninety subjects were adult inpatients between the ages of 18 and 35 who met Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and Revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Edition criteria for BPD. All three groups were interviewed by using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, a semi-structured interview that assesses pathological and protective childhood experiences. Psychiatrically healthy adolescents reported significantly higher rates of 4 out of 18 protective factors than adolescents with BPD. Adolescents with BPD reported significantly higher rates of 5 of these 18 protective factors than adults with BPD. Adults with BPD were significantly more likely to endorse having a steady after school or weekend work record than adolescents with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents meeting criteria for BPD report lower rates of some protective factors than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. They also suggest that they have higher rates of some protective factors than adults with BPD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders among veterans: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).
Smith, Sharon M; Goldstein, Rise B; Grant, Bridget F
This study examined the prevalence, correlates and psychiatric comorbidity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (n = 3119 veteran respondents). The overall prevalence of lifetime PTSD was 6.9%. Lifetime PTSD prevalence was higher among veterans who were female (13.2%), aged 18-29 years (15.3%), Native American (24.1%) or Black (11.0%), previously or never married (9.6% and 11.2, respectively), had incomes less than $70,000 (7.2%-10.1%) and had >2 traumatic events (5.2%-14.7%). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity between lifetime PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was highest for any personality disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7, 21.5), any mood disorder (AOR = 9.7, 95% CI, 4.6, 20.4) and any anxiety disorder (AOR = 9.6, 95% CI, 5.1, 17.7), followed by nicotine, drug, and alcohol use disorders (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.8, 6.5; AOR = 3.1, 95% CI, 2.0, 5.9; 2.1, 95% CI, 1.5, 3.1, respectively). Associations remained with any mood, anxiety, and personality disorders after controlling for other psychiatric disorders (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.2, 10.9; AOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.6, 7.4; AOR = 4.5, 95% CI, 2.3, 8.7, respectively). Veterans who sought treatment for PTSD had more comorbid conditions, although treatment was only associated with comorbid drug use disorder (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.0, 5.7). In U.S. veterans, PTSD is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Although many veterans remain untreated, comorbidity may influence treatment seeking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Investigating the relative severity of emotion recognition deficit across different clinical and high-risk populations has potential implications not only for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, but also for our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of emotion perception itself. We reanalyzed data from 4 studies in which we examined facial expression and gender recognition using the same tasks and stimuli. We used a standardized and bias-corrected measure of effect size (Cohen’s D to assess the extent of impairments in frontotemporal dementia (FTD, Parkinson’s disease treated by L-DOPA (PD-ON or not (PD-OFF, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI, Alzheimer’s disease at mild dementia stage (AD, major depressive disorder (MDD, remitted schizophrenia (SCZ-rem, first-episode schizophrenia before (SCZ-OFF and after (SCZ-ON medication, as well as unaffected siblings of partients with schizophrenia (SIB. Analyses revealed a pattern of differential impairment of emotion (but not gender recognition, consistent with the extent of impairment of the fronto-temporal neural networks involved in the processing of faces and facial expressions. Our transnosographic approach combining clinical and high-risk populations with the impact of medication brings new information on the trajectory of impaired emotion perception in neuropsychiatric conditions, and on the neural networks and neurotransmitter systems subserving emotion perception.
Harper, D; Babigian, H M; Parris, R; Mills, B
Two migrant farm labor camps were observed during two summer harvesting seasons. A part of the observations consisted of interviews with 104 farm laborers, with 16 of them being interviewed intensively. Migrant farm workers were exploited by the crew boss and the farm owner, and they in turn exploited each other. Consequently, many workers left farm work. Those who remained in the camps adapted their attitudes and their views to the conditions. Though they had a begrudging respect for the crew boss, they showed an overriding concern with exploitation. They conveyed a numbness about life, themselves, and their place in society; this numbness was combined with self criticism and an attempt to maintain some self-respect. They expressed distrust for and suspicion of others, and though they could not articulate it very well, they felt great fear and anxiety. In order to diagnose and treat disorder in migrant farm workers, psychiatrists must understand the exploitive social setting of migrant farm work and the adaptations of workers to that setting.
Host condition had effect on therate of infection and greater effect on intestinal parasite load in Malapterurus electricus . These vary among sex, sizes and weights of conspecific individuals. This was investigated over a period of two years.A total of 340 fishes from the lagoon were caught and dissected for intestinal helminth ...
Background. Skin conditions are common in children, and studying their spectrum in a tertiary dermatology clinic will assist in quantifying skin diseases associated with greatest burden. Objective. To investigate the spectrum and characteristics of paediatric skin disorders referred to a tertiary dermatology clinic in Durban, ...
Stanciu, Cornel N; Glass, Magdalena; Muzyka, Brian C; Glass, Oliver M
Chronic methamphetamine (MA) users experience many dental problems, a condition characterized as "meth mouth." These devastating effects on dentition is the main reason why many seek professional help. Here, we discuss the effects of MA on oral health and advocate for improved collaboration between dentists and mental health providers. We also introduce a dental evaluation tool with the goal of improving the quality of care for this often-marginalized patient population. A Medline literature search (1985-2016) was conducted with keywords "meth mouth," "methamphetamine AND oral health"; "methamphetamine AND dental"; "methamphetamine AND dentist." Results were supplemented by references gleaned from recent reviews, credible online sources, and citations of search returns. MA predisposes users to tooth decay. They are also more likely to have missing dentition with a linear relationship correlating the number of years of use. A constellation of dental symptoms resulting from chronic MA use has been described in literature: gingival inflammation, excessive tooth wear, decreased salivary output, and severe dental caries. With continued use, mucosal lesions may appear on the lips and the gingival tissue may recede. MA can trigger bruxism, resulting in severe wear patterns and even cracked teeth. Users of MA have many unmet medical and mental health needs. An interdisciplinary approach between dentists and mental health providers can improve outcomes. The dental evaluation tool described here can improve the bidirectional collaboration between mental health and dentistry. Dental professionals are in a unique position to identify users and can facilitate referral to substance abuse treatment. Likewise, mental health providers can identify, assess severity, and prompt users for medical and dental attention.
So, Ryuhei; Makino, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Masaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Ohcho, Kozo; Ikeda, Shin; Tsubouchi, Shouko; Inagaki, Masatoshi
Extant literature suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are risk factors for internet addiction (IA). The present cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of IA among 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a Japanese psychiatric clinic using Young's Internet Addiction Test. The prevalence of IA among adolescents with ASD alone, with ADHD alone and with comorbid ASD and ADHD were 10.8, 12.5, and 20.0%, respectively. Our results emphasize the clinical importance of screening and intervention for IA when mental health professionals see adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in psychiatric services.
Koopmans Petra C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with
Seyyed Gholamreza Nourazar
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of child abuse in a child and adolescent psychiatric clinical population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a clinical population of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. 80 out-patients and 94 in-patients were selected according to probability proportional to size sampling. Kiddie schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire, and child abuse self-report scale were filled for each subject. Data were analyzed by using Stata software. Results: Among the out-patient subjects, 50 were male (62.5% and 30 were female (37.5%; for in-patient these subjects numbers were 76 (80.9% and 18 (19.1%, respectively. The mean age of subjects was 15.2 years in the in-patient group and 11.7 years in the out-patient group. In 66.1% of abuse cases the perpetrators were parents, 5.2% siblings, and 28.7% someone else. Among in-patient subjects, summed up prevalence rates of severe and very severe psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 11.7, 33.0, 2.1, and 0.0%, respectively; for out-patient subjects these values were 3.8, 11.2, 3.8, and 0.0%, respectively. Moreover, among in-patient subjects, prevalence rates of moderate psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 27.7, 27.7, 24.5, and 4.3%, respectively; and for out-patient subjects these values were 30.0, 27.5, 11.2, and 0.0%, respectively. Subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD suffered a higher rate of physical abuse, whereas, subjects with bipolar mood disorder (BMD suffered a higher rate of sexual abuse. Conclusion: The prevalence of child abuse is highly prevalent in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. It is recommended that this population be screened routinely for child abuse.
Nikola M. Stojanović
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the usage prevalence of herbal products (HP and to ascertain the identity, mode and adverse effects of plant taxa used in self-medication practice for anxiety, depression and insomnia in patients with non-psychotic disorders originating from southeastern Serbia. Also, we compared HP users and non-users on the variables of socio-demographic characteristics, information source and origin of HP. The study was done by a face-to-face interview with a trained psychiatrist using a structured questionnaire administered to 136 adult patients suffering from non-psychotic mental disorders. A typical herbal-product user among non-psychotic psychiatric patients from southeastern Serbia is a middle-aged married woman, with a secondary level of education, unemployed and living in an urban area. Non-psychotic psychiatric patients, although not living predominantly in rural areas, were familiar with a variety of ethno-medicines and were often using HP primarily without the consultation of their psychiatrists/physicians. HP stated to be most frequently used for psychiatry-related symptoms included: Melissa officinalis, Mentha × piperita, Hypericum perforatum and Valeriana officinalis. The interviewees rarely stated adverse reactions related to the HP usage; however, this should not be generalized, since HP are known to vary in the content of their adverse reaction-causing constituents.
Su, Tung-Ping; Lien, Te-Cheng; Yang, Chih-Yi; Su, Yiet Ling; Wang, Jia-Horng; Tsai, Sing-Ling; Yin, Jeo-Chen
To assess the rapidly changing psychological status of nurses during the acute phase of the 2003 SARS outbreak, we conducted a prospective and periodic evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation among nurses in SARS units and non-SARS units. Nurse participants were from two SARS units (regular SARS [N=44] and SARS ICU [N=26]) and two non-SARS units (Neurology [N=15] and CCU [N=17]). Participants periodically self-evaluated their depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep disturbance, attitude towards SARS and family support. Results showed that depression (38.5% vs. 3.1%) and insomnia (37% vs. 9.7%) were, respectively, greater in the SARS unit nurses than the non-SARS unit nurses. No difference between these two groups was found in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (33% vs. 18.7%), yet, three unit subjects (SARS ICU, SARS regular and Neurology) had significantly higher rate than those in CCU (29.7% vs. 11.8%, respectively) (pregular SARS unit. Occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was linked to direct exposure to SARS patient care, previous mood disorder history, younger age and perceived negative feelings. Positive coping attitude and strong social and family support may have protected against acute stress. In conclusion, the psychological impact on the caring staffs facing future bio-disaster will be minimized with lowered risk factors and a safer and more structured work environment.
Full Text Available Introduction. The risk of metabolic abnormalities is greatly increased in schizophrenic patients started on an atypical antipsychotic medication. Patients with psychiatric disorders exceed mortality ranges resulting from, among others, increased risk of cardiovascular events. Other factors contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome include prolonged duration of illness, increasing age, female sex and lifestyle factors. Objective. This cross-sectional study was taken up to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in schizophrenic patients receiving olanzapine monotherapy for at least six months and to determine the most important risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome presence in these patients. Methods. A total of 93 long term hospitalized schizophrenic patients (71 men, 22 women, had a screening of the following: case-history data, psychiatric scales, anthropometric measures, blood (fasting glucose, lipid status, C-reactive protein - CRP and urine samples (microalbuminuria. Results. Prevalence of MetS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria in our study was 34.4%. The multivariate analysis distinguished the following significant predictors of MetS presence (in order of appearance: data about diabetes mellitus in family history (p=0.002, body mass index >25 kg/m2 (p=0.002, hyperlipidemia in family history (p=0.008, and elevated CRP value (p=0.042. Conclusion. High rate of MetS in patients treated with olanzapine in this study exceeds MetS prevalence in general population. Among observed parameters, our study pointed to several “high risk” predictors associated with MetS presence. Regular monitoring of cardiometabolic risk factors is highly recommended. Positive heredity distress mentioned above may direct a psychiatrist to prescribe some other drug than olanzapine in the long term treatment of schizophrenia.
Lemoine, Patrick; Stahl, Stephen M
Between 1940 and 1944, an estimated 48,588 patients resident in French psychiatric hospitals died of starvation. Standard prisons, while facing similar problems, did not experience the same number of deaths by starvation, partly due to their ability to develop a black market for food and rations. Patients in psychiatric hospitals, on the other hand, were completely at the mercy of their doctors and the personnel in charge. At Hôpital du Vinatier, a psychiatric facility in Lyon, the mortality rate increased sharply from 1940 to 1944. In 1942, the worst year, 42% of patients died of hunger and exposure. In the end, more than 2,000 patients died at Vinatier. Was this due to a supposed lack of rations, or was it something more sinister? In Germany at the same time, tens of thousands of psychiatric patients died of purposeful starvation in psychiatric hospitals as part of the Nazi program of psychiatric euthanasia. Was the same thing occurring in Lyon?
Grover, Sandeep; Nebhinani, Naresh; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit
This study aimed to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among inpatients with depressive disorders and matched healthy controls. One hundred fifty eight patients with depressive disorders and 52 age and gender matched healthy controls were assessed for the prevalence of MS using Common Criteria for MS. Prevalence of Metabolic syndrome among inpatients with depressive disorders was 44.3%, which was significantly higher than the healthy control group (17.3%). Increased waist circumference was the most common abnormality in both the groups. Prevalence of MS among patients with recurrent depression disorder (60.3%) was almost double that seen among those with first episode depression (32.6%). Compared to healthy controls, significantly greater proportion of patients with depressive disorders had increased blood pressure, abnormal fasting blood sugar, and HDL levels. Besides the prevalence of MS in 44.3% of patients with depressive disorders, another 46% of patients fulfilled one or two criteria of MS. Significant predictors of MS were being married, obese, greater age, higher weight, higher body mass index, and multiple episodes of depression. Nearly two-fifth of depressed patients have MS and another two-fifth of patients had one or two abnormalities in the MS criteria. The prevalence of MS among patients with depressive disorders is significantly higher than the healthy controls. Hence, patients with depressive disorders should be regularly evaluated for the presence of MS and other cardiovascular risk factors and appropriate management strategies must be instituted at the earliest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bai, Jennifer R.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Lowy, Franklin D.; Larson, Elaine L.
This study estimated the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and risk predictors of 759 newly admitted inmates in two New York State maximum-security prisons. The most prevalent conditions were respiratory (34.1%), cardiovascular (17.4%), and sexually transmitted diseases (STD; 16.1%); least prevalent were HIV (3.6%), cancer (1.7%), and kidney disease (1.7%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that females had higher risk for all conditions except cardiovascular and liver disease; individuals aged 40 years and older had significantly higher risk for all conditions except asthma and STD; non-Hispanic Black inmates had higher risk for respiratory disease and STD; cigarette smoking was associated with asthma; and obesity was significantly associated with diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular conditions. These findings highlight the heavy burden of chronic illnesses among newly admitted inmates and the need to address adequate screening, prevention, and treatment services. PMID:26084947
Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.
Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…
Heiervang, Einar; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J
OBJECTIVE: The Bergen Child Study is a longitudinal study of child mental health from the city of Bergen, Norway. We present methods and results from the first wave of the study, focusing on prevalence of disorders, associations with risk factors, and the use of services. METHOD: The target popul...
Canuto, Alessandra; Weber, Kerstin; Baertschi, Marc; Andreas, Sylke; Volkert, Jana; Dehoust, Maria Christina; Sehner, Susanne; Suling, Anna; Wegscheider, Karl; Ausín, Berta; Crawford, Mike J; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin
Previous estimates of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in late life vary greatly due to the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. This MentDis_ICF65+ study assessed 12-month prevalence rates of anxiety disorders and age- and gender-related differences in comorbidities, as well as impact on quality of life. The study used a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The study sample comprised 3,142 men and women aged 65 to 84 years, living in five European countries and Israel. Anxiety disorders were assessed using computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with an age-appropriate diagnostic interview (CIDI65+). The prevalence of anxiety disorders was 17.2%. Agoraphobia was the most frequent disorder (4.9%), followed by panic disorder (3.8%), animal phobia (3.5%), general anxiety disorder (3.1%), post-traumatic stress disorder (1.4%), social phobia (1.3%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (0.8%). The prevalence rate of any anxiety disorder dropped by 40% to 47% in adults aged 75-84 years compared with those aged 65-74 years. Women were twice as likely to present with agoraphobia or general anxiety disorder as men. Only panic disorder and phobia were associated with comorbid major depression. The negative relationship with quality of life was limited to agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder. The age-appropriate CIDI65+ led to higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in the elderly, yet to weaker associations with comorbidities and impaired quality of life compared with previous studies. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mookhoek, E. J.; van de Kerkhof, P. C. M.; Hovens, J. E. J. M.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; Loonen, A. J. M.
Background Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. Objective To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. Methods Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the
So, Ryuhei; Makino, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Masaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Ohcho, Kozo; Ikeda, Shin; Tsubouchi, Shouko; Inagaki, Masatoshi
Extant literature suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are risk factors for internet addiction (IA). The present cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of IA among 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a Japanese psychiatric clinic using Young's Internet Addiction Test. The…
Sandro Sendin Mitsuhiro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders during pregnancy, the prevalence of cocaine and marijuana use during the third trimester of gestation and the socio-demographic characteristics of a population of low-income teenagers. METHOD: One thousand pregnant teenagers were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and a socio-demographic and socio-economic questionnaire at the obstetric center of a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Hair sample was collected for analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1000 pregnant teenagers interviewed, 53.6% were poor, 90.4% were unemployed, 92.5% were financially dependant and 60.2% dropped out of school. Those using drugs during the third trimester of pregnancy were equal to 6% (marijuana: 4%, cocaine: 1.7%, both: 0.3%. Those having at least one psychiatric disorder equaled 27.6%. The most frequent diagnoses were depression (12.9%, posttraumatic stress disorder (10.0% and anxiety disorders (5.6%. DISCUSSION: Unstructured families, dropping out of school, unemployment and a low level of professional training are all contributing factors to the maintenance of an unfavorable socio-economic environment in which there is a high prevalence of cocaine and marijuana use during the third trimester of pregnancy and an abnormally high incidence of psychiatric disorders.OBJETIVO: Determinar, em adolescentes de baixa renda, a prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos durante a gravidez, a prevalência de uso de cocaína e maconha no terceiro trimestre de gestação e descrever suas características sociodemográficas. MÉTODO: Mil adolescentes grávidas foram avaliadas por meio do Composite International Diagnostic Interview e de um questionário sociodemográfico e socioeconômico no centro obstétrico de um hospital público de São Paulo. Dessas, foi colhida amostra para análise de fios de cabelo. RESULTADOS: Das mil pacientes entrevistadas, 53,6% têm baixa renda, 60,2% abandonaram
Hasin, Deborah S; Kerridge, Bradley T; Saha, Tulshi D; Huang, Boji; Pickering, Roger; Smith, Sharon M; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Grant, Bridget F
Attitudes toward marijuana are changing, the prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis use disorder has increased, and DSM-5 modified the cannabis use disorder criteria. Therefore, updated information is needed on the prevalence, demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment for DSM-5 cannabis use disorder. In 2012-2013, 36,309 participants ≥18 years old were interviewed in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Psychiatric and substance use disorders were assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. The prevalences of 12-month and lifetime cannabis use disorder were 2.5% and 6.3%. Among those with 12-month and lifetime diagnoses, the mean days of marijuana use per year were 225.3 (SE=5.7) and 274.2 (SE=3.8). The odds of 12-month and lifetime cannabis use disorder were higher for men, Native Americans, unmarried individuals, those with low incomes, and young adults (e.g., among those age 18-24 years versus ≥45: odds ratio for 12-month disorder, 7.2; 95% confidence interval, 5.5-9.5). Cannabis use disorder was associated with other substance use disorders, affective disorders, anxiety, and personality disorders. Twelve-month cannabis use disorder was associated with disability. As disorder severity increased, virtually all associations became stronger. Only 13.2% with lifetime cannabis use disorder participated in 12-step programs or professional treatment. DSM-5 cannabis use disorder is prevalent, associated with comorbidity and disability, and largely untreated. Findings suggest the need to improve prevention and educate the public, professionals, and policy makers about possible harms associated with cannabis use disorders and available interventions.
Hasin, Deborah S.; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Huang, Boji; Pickering, Roger; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Grant, Bridget F.
Objective Attitudes towards marijuana are changing, the prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis use disorder has increased, and DSM-5 modified the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorders. Therefore, updated information is needed on the prevalence, demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, disability and treatment for DSM-5 cannabis use disorders in the US adult population. Method In 2012–2013, a nationally representative sample of 36,309 participants ≥18 years were interviewed in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III). Psychiatric and substance use disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. Results Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder was 2.5% and 6.3%. Among those with 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder, marijuana use was frequent; mean days used per year was 225.3 (SE=5.69) and 274.2 (SE=3.76). Odds of 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder were higher for men, Native Americans, those unmarried, with low incomes, and young adults, (e.g., OR=7.2, 95% CI 5.5–9.5 for 12-month disorder among those 18–24 years compared to those ≥45 years). Marijuana use disorder was associated with other substance disorders, affective, anxiety and personality disorders. Twelve-month marijuana use disorder was associated with disability. As disorder severity increased, virtually all associations became stronger. Only 24.3% with lifetime marijuana use disorder participated in 12-step programs or professional treatment. Conclusions DSM-5 marijuana use disorder is prevalent, associated with comorbidity and disability, and often untreated. Findings suggest the need to improve prevention methods, and educate the public, professionals and policy makers about the harms associated with marijuana use disorders and available interventions. PMID:26940807
Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?
Full Text Available Larry Brooks,1 Joseph Hadi,2 Kyle T Amber,1 Michelle Weiner,3 Christopher L La Riche,4 Tamar Ference1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, 2Anesco Interventional Pain Institute, Margate, 3Miami Pain and Diagnostics, Miami, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Florida International University Wertheim College of Medicine, University Park, FL, USABackground: This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM (n=219 and a control group women with chronic pain (CP without FM (n=116. The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort.Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010.Results: Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (P<0.01 and gynecologic surgery (P<0.05 were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic
García-Palmieri, Mario R; Pérez-Perdomo, Rosa; Colón, Samira Rosa
OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization in Puerto Rico, 2001. METHODS All medical claims for coronary heart disease (ICD-9 410-414), hypertension (ICD-9 401-405), congestive heart failure (ICD-9 428) and cerebrovascular accidents and transient ischemia (ICD-9:430-438.9) submitted for reimbursement purposes to an insurance company (private and public sector) in Puerto Rico in 2001 were identified. Prevalence and medical care utilization concerning cardiovascular conditions was estimated with 95% confidence. RESULTS Overall prevalence of cardiovascular conditions was 13.5% (95% CI: 11.68%-15.44%), being larger in the private sector (16.0%; 95% CI: 15.98%-16.08% vs. 11.7%; 95% CI: 11.62%-11.77%). Although in both sectors prevalence increased with age, at same age groups was two times higher in the private sector. Hypertension was the most prevalent condition (9.7; 95% CI: 8.14%-11.41%) being higher in females (10.4; 95% CI: 10.37%-10.51%) than in males (8.9; 95% CI: 8.81%-8.96%). The health service utilization (physician's office visits, emergency room visits, and hospital admissions) was higher in males. However, it varies by sectors. CONCLUSIONS Significant difference exists in the prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization among private and public sectors in Puerto Rico. The observed differences among the private and public populations imply that there are factors such as socioeconomic status, education, lifestyles, environmental hazards in neighborhoods, and health habits that could be involved in the differences.
Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.
The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…
Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Geke J.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.
A systematic review of the prevalence rates of chronic health conditions in populations of children with intellectual disability was provided. We identified 2,994 relevant studies by searching Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO databases from 1996 to 2008. We included the 31 studies that had sufficient methodological quality. The 6 most prevalent…
B Hari Vinay
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions and to determine the potential risk factors associated among general population aged 20-70 years of Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: An oral screening campaign was organized with the help of local general dental practitioners in each district. All the relevant information regarding the subject was documented and clinical examination of the oral soft tissues was carried out. Clinically diagnosed as precancerous lesion or condition were subjected to punch (incisional biopsy biopsy and evaluated histopathologically to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Among 1200 screened, 150 subjects were chewers and 136 subjects were smokers with 29 chewers and 16 smokers had precancerous lesions and conditions. An overall prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions were found to be 4.2% (males 5.5%; females 2.5%. Leukoplakia was seen in 0.8%, Oral submucous fibrosis in 1.3% and lichen planus in 2% of the study population. Conclusions: The prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in our study is higher when compared with the reports from different parts of the country and in South East Asia. These lesions can be prevented from malignant transformation by mass screening, close monitoring, early detection, appropriate treatment plan and prognosis.
Mendes, Pedro V; Rodrigues, Bruno N; Miranda, Leandro C; Zampieri, Fernando G; Queiroz, Eduardo L; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano C; Park, Marcelo; Taniguchi, Leandro U
Dynamic parameters for fluid responsiveness obtained from heart-lung interaction during invasive mechanical ventilation require specific conditions not always present in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of these conditions in critically ill patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in 2 medical-surgical ICUs. We evaluated whether it would be possible to measure dynamic indices of fluid responsiveness when fluid expansion was administered. We recorded whether the patients were in controlled invasive mechanical ventilation with tidal volume >8 mL/kg and without arrhythmias. The proportion of patients who fulfilled these conditions was recorded. A post hoc subgroup analyses by terciles of Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS3) were performed. A total of 826 fluid challenges were undertaken in 424 patients during the study. The use of controlled mechanical ventilation with tidal volume > 8 mL/kg and without arrhythmias occurred in only 2.9% of the patients at the time of fluid challenge episodes. There was an increase in the prevalence of these conditions as the severity of the patients also increased: lower tercile of SAPS3 (0%), intermediate tercile (2%), and higher tercile (6.9%; P predicting fluid responsiveness in ICU may have restricted applicability in daily practice, even in more severe patients, due to low prevalence of required conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ayirolimeethal, Anithakumari; Ragesh, G.; Ramanujam, Jayanthi M.; George, Biju
Background: There is a considerable lack of scientific estimate of psychiatric morbidity among Indian prisoners. Objective: The objective of the following study is to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among prisoners. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study at District Jail, Kozhikode, Kerala. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 prisoners who were inmates during the period from mid-April to mid-July 2011 participated in the study. The study subjects included both male and female remand or convict prisoners. Socio-demographic data, clinical history and criminological history were collected from each individual. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed using MINI-Plus. Statistical Analysis: Done by using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). Results: A total of 175 subjects (68.6%) had a current mental illness. Substance use disorder was the most common diagnosis (47.1%). Antisocial personality disorder was diagnosed in 19.2%, adjustment disorder in 13.7%, mood disorder in 4.3% and psychosis in another 6.3% of prisoners. A high rate of a current psychiatric disorder was seen in male (69.7%) prisoners. A significant association was noticed for the different nature of crimes with psychiatric diagnoses and previous imprisonment. Nearly 4% of prisoners reported a moderate to high suicide risk. Conclusion: Mental health problems among prisoners were quite high. Mentally ill prisoners are at high risk for repeated incarceration. The increased rate of psychiatric disorders should be a concern for mental health professionals and the policy makers. PMID:24891702
Kondo, Naoji; Sakai, Motohiro; Kuroda, Yasukazu; Kiyota, Yoshikazu; Kitabata, Yuji; Kurosawa, Mie
The issue of hikikomori (prolonged social withdrawal) among Japanese youth has attracted attention from international experts. In previous research, the unique cultural and social factors of Japanese society have been the focus; however, in order to resolve the problem of hikikomori, individual mental health problems must be included. We examined the psychiatric background of individuals with hikikomori. We recruited 337 individuals with hikikomori; 183 subjects who utilized the centres were designated as the help-seeking group. We examined the multi-axial psychiatric diagnosis based on the DSM-IV-TR, treatment policies and treatment outcomes. We also examined 154 subjects who did not utilize the centers (non-help-seeking group). Most of the subjects in the utilization group were classified into one of the diagnostic categories. Forty-nine (33.3%) subjects were diagnosed with schizophrenia, mood disorders or anxiety disorders, and this group needed pharmacotherapy. Other subjects were diagnosed with personality disorders or pervasive developmental disorders, and they mainly needed psycho-social support. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores of the non-help-seeking group were significantly lower than the GAF scores of those who used treatments. Most hikikomori cases can be diagnosed using current diagnostic criteria. Individuals with hikikomori are much worse if they do not seek help.
Fischer Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conducted as part of the Urologic Diseases in America project whose aim was to quantify the burden of urologic diseases on the American public, this study focuses on Veterans Health Administration (VHA users as a special population to supplement data on overall prevalence rates and trends in the United States. Veterans comprise 25% of the male population 18 years or older and contribute substantially to the overall burden of urologic conditions. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence rates and trends of urologic cancers and selected benign conditions from 1999 to 2002 for VHA users. Methods VHA administrative files for 1999 – 2002 and Medicare claims files for the same years were used to identify those who had a diagnosis of qualifying urologic conditions. Results Among the conditions evaluated, prostate cancer was listed as a primary diagnosis for 5.4% of VHA users in 2002, followed in decreasing prevalence by erectile dysfunction (2.9%, renal mass (1.5%, interstitial cystitis (1.4%, and prostatitis (1.1%. Age-adjusted rates showed significant increases for renal mass (31%, interstitial cystitis (14%, and erectile dysfunction (8% between 1999 and 2002. Systematic variations in prevalence rates and trends were observed by age, race/ethnicity, and region. Those in the Western region generally had lower age-adjusted prevalence rates and their increases were also slower than other regions. Addition of Medicare data resulted in large increases (21 to 489% in prevalence among VHA users, suggesting substantial amount of non-VA urological care provided to VHA users. Conclusion Prevalence rates for many urologic diseases increased between 1999 and 2002, which were not entirely attributable to the aging of veterans. This changing urologic disease burden has substantial implications for access to urologic care and treatment capacity, especially in light of the level of urologic care delivered to veterans by
Tighe, Connie B; Oakley, Ward S
Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by a progressive and painful loss of shoulder motion of unknown etiology. Previous studies have found the prevalence of adhesive capsulitis to be slightly greater than 2% in the general population. However, the relationship between adhesive capsulitis and diabetes mellitus (DM) is well documented, with the incidence of adhesive capsulitis being two to four times higher in diabetics than in the general population. It affects about 20% of people with diabetes and has been described as the most disabling of the common musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes. Consented patients presenting with adhesive capsulitis reporting no history of DM had blood testing for diabetes and prediabetes. An anonymous database was analyzed for a diabetic condition. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with adhesive capsulitis was 38.6% (34 of 88). The prevalence of prediabetes was 32.95% (29 of 88). The total prevalence of a diabetic condition in patients with adhesive capsulitis was 71.5% (63 of 88). Previous literature fails to reveal the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes, 2 of 88 (2%), and prediabetes, 25 of 88 (28.4%) in patients presenting with adhesive capsulitis. Early diagnosis and effective management of DM reduces the risk of microvascular complications. DM is believed to play a role in the development of musculoskeletal complications. Awareness of these findings alerts the practitioner to the risk of diabetes and prediabetes in patients presenting with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.
Ketola, Sirpa; Havia, Mari; Appelberg, Björn; Kentala, Erna
Psychiatric comorbidity is common in vertiginous patients. The risk of psychiatric disorder is increased in patients with previous mental problems, but earlier mentally healthy may develop symptoms as well. Especially in chronic phase of vertigo, psychological factors have a significant role in the morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric problems in vertiginous patients in a community sample. A prospective evaluation of psychiatric symptoms based on self-rating scales [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Zung Anxiety Scale (SAS), DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q)] in a community sample of 100 vertiginous subjects in the Academic Tertiary Otolaryngology Department at the Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. The prevalence of any psychiatric problem was 68% (68 patients); 19% had depressiveness and 12% symptoms of anxiety. Altogether 63 (63%) patients met the criteria of personality disorder. The most prevalent personality disorder was obsessive-compulsive (46 patients). Personality disorder alone seems not to affect functional capacity and is of importance only when comorbid with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms did not correlate with severity of vertigo symptoms or other co-occurring diseases. The prevalence of any psychiatric symptoms was high among vertiginous patients. In the chronic phase of vertigo, it seems that vertigo symptoms themselves do not influence on subjective feelings of debilitation. Psychiatric disorders worsen the clinical picture of vertigo along a more debilitating and disabling course. Psychiatric differential diagnoses should accompany the neuro-otology diagnostic procedure in patients with a chronic state of vertigo and greater disability.
Morton, W Alexander
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is an addictive drug that produces numerous psychiatric symptoms, syndromes, and disorders. The symptoms include agitation, paranoia, hallucinations, delusions, violence, as well as suicidal and homicidal thinking. They can be primary to the drug's effect or secondary to exacerbation of comorbid psychiatric disorders. DATA SOURCES: A computerized literature search was conducted using MEDLINE to identify reports of psychiatric symptoms secondary to cocaine use. Additional reports were found via bibliographies of various published reports. DATA SYNTHESIS: The use of cocaine in the "crack" form is often associated with more frequent and intense symptoms. Paranoia occurs in 68% to 84% of patients using cocaine. Cocaine-related violent behaviors occur in as many as 55% of patients with cocaine-induced psychiatric symptoms. Homicide has also been associated with cocaine use in as many as 31% of homicide victims. In suicide, cocaine has been found to be present in as high as 18% to 22% of cases. Many patients with cocaine dependence have also been found to have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSION: Cocaine can produce a spectrum of psychiatric symptoms with which primary care practitioners need to be familiar. Comorbid psychiatric disorders are frequent in patients with cocaine use disorders and can worsen with cocaine use. Nonaddictive medication may be necessary to treat comorbid conditions such as anxiety and depressive disorders. Primary care practitioners need to be familiar with the treatment programs for patients with cocaine use disorders so appropriate referral can easily take place and follow-up care can be understood and maintained.
Todd M. Jenkins, MPH
Introduction Obesity rates for adults in Kentucky are regularly among the highest in the nation. Since 1991, adult obesity in Kentucky and the United States has nearly doubled. This trend is of great concern because excess weight has been associated with several chronic diseases and conditions. This paper reports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in Kentucky between 2000 and 2002. The estimates produced by this study will provide baseline figures for developing Kentuck...
St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Warner, David O.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Jacobson, Debra J.; Mc Gree, Michaela E.; Pankratz, Joshua J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Roger, Véronique L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Rocca, Walter A.
Objective To describe the prevalence of non-acute conditions among patients seeking healthcare in a defined US population, emphasizing age, sex, and ethnic differences. Methods The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system was used to identify all residents of Olmsted County, MN on April 1, 2009 (n=142,377). We then electronically extracted all International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes received by these subjects from any health care provider between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. We grouped ICD-9 codes into Clinical Classification Codes (CCCs), and then into 47 broader disease groups associated with health-related quality of life. Age- and sex-specific prevalence was estimated by dividing the number of individuals within each group by the corresponding age- and sex-specific population. People with multiple codes within a group were counted only once. Results We included a total of 142,377 subjects (53% women). Skin disorders (42.7%), osteoarthritis and joint disorders (33.6%), back problems (23.9%), disorders of lipid metabolism (22.4%), and upper respiratory disease (22.1%; excluding asthma) were the most prevalent disease groups in this population. Eight of the 10 most prevalent disease groups were more common in women; however, disorders of lipid metabolism and hypertension were more common in men. Additionally, the prevalence of seven of these 10 groups increased with advancing age. Prevalence varied also across whites, blacks, and Asians. Conclusion Our findings suggest areas for focused research that may lead to better care delivery and improved population health. PMID:23274019
Tong, Yongsheng; Phillips, Michael R; Yin, Yi
Many individuals who die by suicide or attempt suicide have no pre-existing psychiatric record. In these cases determination of the presence of mental illness at the time of the suicidal act depends on diagnostic interviews with different informants, but the reliability of such interviews is unknown. To address this issue, the current study from northern China conducted independent diagnostic interviews (by different psychiatrists) with a co-resident family member and another associate of 151 suicide decedents, with 120 individuals who attempted suicide, and with two proxy informants for each suicide attempter. In the suicide decedent group, 56% of interviews with family members and 50% with other associates resulted in one or more psychiatric diagnosis; the concordance (kappa) of these two respondents for the presence of any current psychiatric disorder, any mood disorder and any other psychiatric disorder were 0.35, 0.32 and 0.41, respectively. In the suicide attempt group, 47% of interviewers with suicide attempters, 31% with family members, and 15% with other associates resulted in a psychiatric diagnosis; the concordance for any current psychiatric disorder, any mood disorder and any other psychiatric disorder between the interview with the suicide attempter and the combined result of the two separate proxy informant interviews were 0.31, 0.34 and 0.39, respectively. We conclude that the concordance of the presence and type of psychiatric diagnosis of individuals with suicidal behavior based on independent structured interviews by psychiatrists with different informants is low to fair and that using multiple informants will increase the identification of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which administers the Medicare program in the United States, launched the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW. The CCW contains all Medicare fee-for-service (FFS institutional and non-institutional claims, nursing home and home health assessment data, and enrollment/eligibility information from January 1, 1999 forward for a random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries (and 100% of the Medicare population from 2000 forward. Twenty-one predefined chronic condition indicator variables are coded within the CCW, to facilitate research on chronic conditions. The current article describes this new data source, and the authors demonstrate the utility of the CCW in describing the extent of chronic disease among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare claims were analyzed to determine the prevalence, utilization, and Medicare program costs for some common and high cost chronic conditions in the Medicare FFS population in 2005. Chronic conditions explored include diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, heart failure, cancer, chronic kidney disease (CKD, and depression. Fifty percent of Medicare FFS beneficiaries were receiving care for one or more of these chronic conditions. The highest prevalence is observed for diabetes, with nearly one-fourth of the Medicare FFS study cohort receiving treatment for this condition (24.3 percent. The annual number of inpatient days during 2005 is highest for CKD (9.51 days and COPD (8.18 days. As the number of chronic conditions increases, the average per beneficiary Medicare payment amount increases dramatically. The annual Medicare payment amounts for a beneficiary with only one of the chronic conditions is $7,172. For those with two conditions, payment jumps to $14,931, and for those with three or more conditions, the annual Medicare payments per beneficiary is $32,498. The CCW data files have tremendous value for health services research. The
Grant, Jon E; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
Nicotine dependence frequently co-occurs with subsyndromal and pathological levels of gambling. The relationship of nicotine dependence, levels of gambling pathology, and other psychiatric disorders, however, is incompletely understood. To use nationally representative data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions to examine the influence of DSM-IV nicotine dependence on the association between pathological gambling severities and other psychiatric disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 43,093 adults living in households and group-quarters in the United States. The main outcome measure was the co-occurrence of current nicotine dependence and Axis I and II disorders and severity of gambling based on the 10 inclusionary diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. The study was conducted from 2001 to 2002. Among non-nicotine-dependent respondents, increasing gambling severity was associated with greater psychopathology for the majority of Axis I and II disorders. This pattern was not uniformly observed among nicotine-dependent subjects. Significant nicotine-by-gambling-group interactions were observed for multiple Axis I and II disorders. All significant interactions involved stronger associations between gambling and psychopathology in the non-nicotine-dependent group. In a large national sample, nicotine dependence influences the associations between gambling and multiple psychiatric disorders. Subsyndromal levels of gambling are associated with significant psychopathology. Nicotine dependence accounts for some of the elevated risks for psychopathology associated with subsyndromal and problem/pathological levels of gambling. Additional research is needed to examine specific prevention and treatment for individuals with problem/pathological gambling with and without nicotine dependence. ©Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction. In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods. In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results. The mean age of study participants was 38 years (range, 18 to 58 years and 42 (70.0% were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0% participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7% and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%. Six (10.0% participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3% were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%, followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%, osteoporosis (18, 30.0% and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%. Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ≥40 years. Conclusions. Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment.
Chan, Brian T; Pradeep, Amrose; Prasad, Lakshmi; Murugesan, Vinothini; Chandrasekaran, Ezhilarasi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H
Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India. Thirteen questions were added to the standard voluntary counseling and testing questionnaire, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (a depression scale) and questions assessing for CSA and IPV. We fitted logistic regression models, stratified by gender, with psychosocial condition as the outcome of interest and substance use variables and socio-demographic variables as the correlates of interest. Three hundred and eighty-three persons were enrolled into the study; of these, 253 (66%) tested positive for HIV, including 149 men and 104 women, and were included in the models. More than one-quarter (28%) of the men and 19% of the women reported at least one psychosocial condition (probable depression, CSA, or IPV). In adjusted analysis, current alcohol use was associated with greater than two times higher odds of a psychosocial condition (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.04-4.85) among men. In conclusion, we estimated the prevalence of probable depression, CSA, and IPV among PLHIV presenting for HIV care in southern India and found that, among male PLHIV, alcohol use was associated with a markedly higher odds of reporting a psychosocial condition. Further study is needed to characterize alcohol use among male PLHIV and the possible deleterious impact of psychosocial conditions and alcohol use on HIV-related outcomes in India.
Doupnik, Stephanie K; Henry, M Katherine; Bae, Hanah; Litman, Jessica; Turner, Shanarra; Scharko, Alexander M; Feudtner, Chris
Children and adolescents necessitating hospitalization for physical health conditions are at high risk for mental health conditions; however, the prevalence of mental health conditions and symptoms among hospitalized children and adolescents is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of hospitalized children and adolescents who have diagnosed mental health disorders or undiagnosed mental health problems. In this single-center point prevalence study of hospitalized children between the ages of 4 and 21 years, patients or their parents reported known mental health diagnoses and use of services using the Services Assessment for Children and Adolescent, and they reported patient mental health symptoms using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 17-item form (PSC-17). Of 229 eligible patients, 119 agreed to participate. Demographic characteristics of patients who enrolled were not statistically significantly different from those of patients who declined to participate. Among participants, 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-35%) reported a known mental health diagnosis. On the PSC-17, 29% (95% CI, 21%-38%) of participants had a positive screen for mental health symptoms. Of those with a positive screen, 38% (95% CI, 21%-55%) had no known mental health diagnosis, and 26% (95% CI, 12%-43%) had not received ambulatory mental health services in the 12 months before hospitalization. Mental health conditions and symptoms are common among patients hospitalized in a tertiary children's hospital, and many affected patients are not receiving ambulatory mental health services. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allison, Carrie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Zhang, Zhixiang; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron‐Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol
Previous studies reported that the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) in mainland China is much lower than estimates from developed countries (around 1%). The aim of the study is to apply current screening and standardized diagnostic instruments to a Chinese population to establish a prevalence estimate of ASC in an undiagnosed population in mainland China. We followed the design development used previously in the UK published in 2009 by Baron‐Cohen and colleagues. The Mandarin Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) was validated by screening primary school pupils (n = 737 children age 6–10 years old) in Beijing and by conducting diagnostic assessments using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview‐Revised. The prevalence estimate was generated after adjusting and imputing for missing values using the inverse probability weighting. Response was high (97%). Using the UK cutoff (≥15), CAST performance has 84% sensitivity and 96% specificity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46, 98, and 96, 97, respectively). Six out of 103 children, not previously diagnosed, were found to the meet diagnostic criteria (8.5 after adjustment, 95% CI: 1.6, 15.4). The preliminary prevalence in an undiagnosed primary school population in mainland China was 119 per 10,000 (95% CI: 53, 265). The utility of CAST is acceptable as a screening instrument for ASC in large epidemiological studies in China. Using a comparable method, the preliminary prevalence estimate of ASC in mainland China is similar to that of those from developed countries. Autism Res 2015, 8: 250–260. © 2015 The Authors. Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:25952676
Ahmed E. Mansour
Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.
Ishmael Festus Jaja
Full Text Available Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease that is responsible for a significant loss in food resource and animal productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the seasonal prevalence and risk factors associated with Fasciola infection in cattle. The results were obtained by coprology, antemortem and post-mortem survey of three abattoirs (HTPA1, n = 500, HTPA2, n = 400, and LTPA, n = 220. The seasonal prevalence of Fasciola infection was 10.4%, 12.8% and 10.9%, during summer, 11.2%, 10.8% and 8.6%, during autumn, 9.8%, 6.5% and 5.9% during winter and 8.2%, 7.8% and 5.9%, during spring in the three abattoirs HTPA1, HTPA and LTPA respectively. There was a significant association (p < 0.05 between the intensity of infection and body condition score (BCS of cattle at each abattoir. Factors such as age [HTPA1 (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.2, 10.2, and LTPA (OR = 3.8, CI= 2.4, 6.1], sex [LTPA (OR = 4.2, CI= 2.5, 7.0], breed [HTPA2 (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.3, 4.1 and LTPA (OR = 2.5, CI= 1.3, 5.0] and BCS had significant (p < 0.01–0.001 influence on the prevalence of fasciolosis. In conclusion, the infection with Fasciola spp was higher in the summer than in the winter; a positive association was established between the prevalence of fasciolosis and poor body condition in study animals. This study, therefore, suggests that fasciolosis could be causing substantial production losses, mainly due to cattle weight loss and liver condemnation.
Wuthijaree, K; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M
1. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to July 2016 in South Tyrol, Northern Italy to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions. 2. A total of 280 laying hens from 14 free-range mountain farms (4 organic, 10 conventional) were randomly collected at the end of the laying period. Faecal samples were taken to analyse faecal egg counts (FEC) and faecal oocyst counts (FOC). The gastrointestinal tracts were removed post mortem and examined for the presence of helminths. 3. In faeces, FEC values averaged 258 eggs per g of faeces, which were dominated by Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Mean FOC was 80 oocysts/g. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least one nematode species was found in 99.3% of the examined hens. H. gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (95.7%), followed by Capillaria spp. (66.8%) and A. galli (63.6%). Thirty per cent of the chickens were infected with cestodes (tapeworms). Correlation coefficients between worm counts of H. gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and A. galli ranged from 0.41 to 0.51. 5. The helminth prevalence did not differ between conventional and organic farms, whereas total worm burden was higher in organic compared with conventional farms (318.9 vs. 112.0). Prevalence and infection intensity did not differ between farms that used anthelmintic treatments and those that did not. 6. In conclusion, free-range laying hens under the studied mountain farming conditions are at high risk of nematode infection, especially in organic systems. The vast majority of hens are subclinical infected with at least one helminth species.
Roselló Peñaloza, Miguel; Gómez Fuentealba, Pablo; Castillo Gallardo, Patricia
The epidemiological literature has reported differences by sex in the prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses. However, we know little about how other socio-demographic factors participate in these differences. To identify the socio-demographic factors that correlate with prevalent psychiatric diagnoses in women and men in a Chilean urban psychiatric hospital population. Socio-demographic information (age, educational level, marital status, family group and work status), psychiatric diagnoses and sex of the population were collected for 3,920 patients of a tertiary care hospital during a period of 8 years (2007-2014). The data were subjected to bivariate and multivariate analyses comparing the results by sex. Among the most prevalent psychiatric diagnoses, those significantly correlated with sex were eating disorders and major depression (women) and schizophrenia (men). Socio-demographic factors behave differently in men and women regarding those diagnoses. Among the differences, working and being married correlated directly with the diagnosis of depression only among women. Living alone correlated directly with the diagnosis of schizophrenia among men, but correlated inversely among women. Dissimilar associations between sex, psychiatric diagnosis and socio-demographic factors found in this Latin American sample invite us to reflect on how social conditions crosscut the relation between sex and psychopathology and to include gender perspectives in psychiatric practices.
Benjamin Rix Brooks
Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic
Vicente P, Benjamín; Kohn, Robert; Saldivia B, Sandra; Rioseco S, Pedro
Chile has one of the highest disease burdens caused by neuropsychiatric illnesses in the world, according to WHO, reaching to 31%. Major depression and alcohol use disorders are ranked first and second in attributed disability among adults. Nearly one-third of the population has had a psychiatric disorder in their lifetime, and 22.2% in the past year. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent conditions, followed by major depression and alcohol abuse. Currently, mental health accounts for 2.3%) of the health care budget, which is less than some neighboring countries. The availability of 1.3 psychiatric beds per 10,000 inhabitants, is less than the mean of lower-income countries. Moreover, 81% are for chronic rather than acute care. Chile has 4.0 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants, which is lower than other countries in Latin America. Only 38.5% of those patients with a psychiatric diagnosis receive any kind of mental health care, whether from a specialist or primary care. There is a perception among lay persons, that psychiatric treatments lack efficacy, despite evidence demonstrating the contrary. Not addressing the treatment gap in mental health has serious public health implications.
Silverstone, Peter H; Salsali, Mahnaz
Background The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, individuals completed two questionnaires to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. Statistical analyses were performed on the scores of the two self-esteem scales. Results The results of the present study demonstrate that all psychiatric patients suffer some degree of lowered self-esteem. Furthermore, the degree to which self-esteem was lowered differed among various diagnostic groups. Self-esteem was lowest in patients with major depressive disorder, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Also, there is evidence of cumulative effects of psychiatric disorders on self-esteem. Patients who had comorbid diagnoses, particularly when one of the diagnoses was depressive disorders, tended to show lower self-esteem. Conclusions Based on both the previous literature, and the results from the current study, we propose that there is a vicious cycle between low self-esteem and onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, low self-esteem increases the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders, and the presence of a psychiatric disorder, in turn, lowers self-esteem. Our findings suggest that this effect is more pronounced with certain psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and eating disorders. PMID:12620127
Psychiatric conditions and general practitioner attendance prior to HPV vaccination and the risk of referral to a specialized hospital setting because of suspected adverse events following HPV vaccination
Lützen, Tina Hovgaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Mehlsen, Jesper
AIM: No association between human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and numerous diseases has been found. Still, a large number of Danish women are reporting suspected adverse events. Other factors may play a role, and the aim of this study is to examine the association between psychiatric...... conditions, general practitioner (GP) attendance and indicators of psychological symptoms prior to HPV vaccination and the risk of referral to an HPV center following vaccination. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Register-based, matched case-control study. Cases were identified from five Danish, regional HPV...... centers, and health data for cases and controls were obtained from national registries. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were defined as women referred to an HPV center between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 (n=1,496). Each case was matched with five controls on age, region and time of first vaccine...
Prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en pacientes ingresados por el Servicio de Psiquiatría en el Módulo Penitenciario del H.U.M.S. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders on patients admissed by the psychiatric service in the security area of H.U.M.S. (University Hospital "Miguel Servet"
P. Calvo Estopiñán
Full Text Available Introducción: Estudios epidemiológicos recientes destacan el aumento de prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos en presos. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar los trastornos psiquiátricos principales y secundarios más prevalentes, datos sociodemográficos y estancia media, de los pacientes ingresados en el Módulo Penitenciario de un hospital general a cargo del Servicio de Psiquiatría. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo. La muestra está compuesta por los pacientes ingresados en el Módulo Penitenciario a cargo de Psiquiatría durante 5 años, siendo n=136. Resultados: El 90,4% fueron hombres y el 9,6% mujeres. La edad media fue de 34,18 años. Los diagnósticos psiquiátricos principales más prevalentes fueron: Tr. Personalidad 22%, Tr. Esquizofrénicos 16,3%. Como diagnósticos psiquiátricos secundarios más prevalentes encontramos: Tr. Personalidad 11,9%, Abuso de drogas 10,7%. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico psiquiátrico principal y secundario más prevalente fue el trastorno de personalidad. Se documentó la existencia de una alta comorbilidad con el abuso-dependencia de tóxicos. Actualmente las prisiones carecen de equipos multidisciplinares en Salud Mental, con lo que en muchas ocasiones se hace necesario el traslado del preso al hospital con la carga asistencial y el incremento de costes que esto supone.Introduction: recent epidemiological studies highlight an increase in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders amongst prison inmates. The objective of this study to determine the most prevalent primary and secondary psychiatric disorders, socio-demographic data and average stay period amongst patients admitted to the Prison Unit of a general hospital as charges of the Psychiatric Service. Materials and Methods: retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample group consisted of a number of patients admitted into the Prison Unit as charges of the Psychiatric Service during a
Banerjee, Souvik; Roland, Carl L; Willke, Richard; Mardekian, Jack; Garrison, Louis P
Prescription opioids are among the most effective analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain; however, little is known about the use of prescription opioids in children, particularly those receiving an extended-release formulation for the treatment of chronic pain. In this retrospective study, the authors determined the prevalence of prescription opioid use among 7-17-year-old children and associated comorbid health conditions from 2010 to 2013 using Truven Health MarketScan (MarketScan) and Optum Clinformatics DataMart (Optum). The primary end points were prevalence of using any prescription opioids, using only prescription short-acting opioids (SAOs), and at least one prescription of a long-acting opioid (LAO). The prevalence of prescription opioid use among children is non-negligible and has been trending downwards: 6.90% in 2010 and 5.93% in 2013 using MarketScan and a similar trend using Optum: 5.47% in 2010 and 4.51% in 2013. Very few children had claims for LAOs, with only 0.04% (4979 children) in MarketScan and 0.03% (1117 children) in Optum. Given the very small number of children, primarily in the 12-17 age group, who are prescribed LAOs, there is a need to focus on a better understanding of the patterns of SAO use in children.
van Fenema, Esther; Julsing, Jolien E; Carlier, Ingrid V; van Noorden, Martijn S; Giltay, Erik J; van Wee, Nic J; Zitman, Frans G
Musicians are at increased risk for mental disorders, in particular performance anxiety. Likely causes are high levels of occupational stress, special personality traits, and coping skills. In this cross-sectional study, routine outcome monitoring (ROM) data on clinical and psychosocial characteristics were collected from the first 50 musicians visiting our outpatient psychiatric clinic for performing artists and were compared to those of a large sample of psychiatric outpatients (n=1,498) and subjects from the general population. Of the musician outpatients, 82% (n=41) met the criteria of an Axis I psychiatric disorder. Performance anxiety could not be accurately diagnosed with the MINI-plus, and in a few cases it masked different psychiatric disorders. Musician outpatients scored significantly better on functional scales despite their Axis I disorder, with equal scores on scales measuring distress compared to general outpatients. Musicians displayed significantly higher mean scores on the DAPP-sf subscale measuring narcissistic personality traits than general outpatients and non-patient controls (p=0.001). Diagnostic challenges, in particular regarding performance anxiety, of musicians seeking psychiatric care are thoroughly discussed. Musicians with psychiatric disorders may constitute a group of patients with specific characteristics who may benefit from specialized psychiatric care, and health professionals should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in musicians.
Orueta Juan F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are an increasing threat to people’s health and to the sustainability of health organisations. Despite the need for routine monitoring systems to assess the impact of chronicity in the population and its evolution over time, currently no single source of information has been identified as suitable for this purpose. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of various chronic conditions estimated using routine data recorded by health professionals: diagnoses on hospital discharge abstracts, and primary care prescriptions and diagnoses. Methods The ICD-9-CM codes for diagnoses and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC codes for prescriptions were collected for all patients in the Basque Country over 14 years of age (n=1,964,337 for a 12-month period. We employed a range of different inputs: hospital diagnoses, primary care diagnoses, primary care prescriptions and combinations thereof. Data were collapsed into the morbidity groups specified by the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs Case-Mix System. We estimated the prevalence of 12 chronic conditions, comparing the results obtained using the different data sources with each other and also with those of the Basque Health Interview Survey (ESCAV. Using the different combinations of inputs, Standardized Morbidity Ratios (SMRs for the considered diseases were calculated for the list of patients of each general practitioner. The variances of the SMRs were used as a measure of the dispersion of the data and were compared using the Brown-Forsythe test. Results The prevalences calculated using prescription data were higher than those obtained from diagnoses and those from the ESCAV, with two exceptions: malignant neoplasm and migraine. The variances of the SMRs obtained from the combination of all the data sources (hospital diagnoses, and primary care prescriptions and diagnoses were significantly lower than those using only diagnoses. Conclusions The
Mariana Inés Ybarra
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.
Singh, Delar K.
This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
A Cross-sectional Cohort Study of Prevalence, Co-Morbidities, and Correlates of Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Adult Patients Admitted to the Li Ka Shing Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic, Hong Kong.
Leung, V Mc; Chan, L F
To examine the prevalence, co-morbidities, and correlates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among adult patients who attended the Li Ka Shing psychiatric outpatient clinic (LKSPC), Hong Kong. This study was a cross-sectional cohort study of patients consecutively referred to LKSPC over a 3-month period for evaluation of adult ADHD in 2 phases. In the screening phase, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1 (ASRS-v1.1) Screener and Symptom Checklist and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were used in the evaluation. In the interview phase, ADHD diagnosis was ascertained using the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults, version 2.0 (DIVA 2.0), with the DSM-5 criteria, in patients who exceeded the cut-off point of either the ASRS-v1.1 Screener or Symptom Checklist. The study included 254 patients of whom 49 were diagnosed with ADHD. Patients with ADHD were aged 18 to 60 (mean, 40.1) years, and 63.3% were women. The estimated prevalence of ADHD in adult psychiatric patients, by sensitivity analysis, was 13% to 19.3% with a higher prevalence in men than women (24.7% vs. 17.1%). Adult ADHD was highly co-morbid with substance / alcohol use disorders and forensic record, and associated with functional impairment. In the ADHD combined presentation group, there was additional co-morbidities of bipolar disorder, active substance use and chronic alcohol use, and a higher associated risk of suicidal attempt. Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD that affects a relevant proportion of our adult psychiatric outpatient population, and was associated with adverse social outcomes and functional impairment.
Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures . However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to
Pramod Mohan Shyangwa
Conclusions: Community prevalence rate of some common psychiatric disorders is high which calls for special attention to address depressive and alcohol related disorder from all quarters of society particularly from government. Keywords: community survey; mental illness; psychiatric morbidity.
Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.
Miller, Kimberly A; Piombo, Sarah E; Cho, Junhan; Higgins, Shauna; Wysong, Ashley; Sussman, Steve; Cockburn, Myles G; Leventhal, Adam M
Evidence indicates that tanning may be addictive and is associated with other behavioral health conditions. Few studies have examined tanning addiction among adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between tanning addiction, substance use, and psychological conditions among ethnoracially diverse 16-17 year-olds. Tanning addiction was assessed using the modified (m) CAGE measure among 11 th grade students in Los Angeles (N=2,637; response rate 78%). Overall, 7.02% of the sample met tanning addiction criteria. Tanning addiction was significantly associated with past 30-day smoking and marijuana use, problem substance use, depression, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and bipolar disorder in regression models. After controlling for all significant substance use and psychological variables, problem marijuana use and OCD remained significantly associated with tanning addiction (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03-4.09; and 2.54, 1.73-3.72, respectively.) Tanning addiction was also significantly associated with multiple problem substance use and behavioral health conditions. Our findings indicate an appreciable prevalence of tanning addiction among multiethnic adolescents, and suggest the importance of addressing tanning addiction in the context of comorbid behavioral conditions to reduce this high-risk behavior among diverse youth. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Workers in the cotton processing industries risk developing obstructive respiratory conditions due to prolonged exposure to cotton dust. We noted a tenfold increase in asthma among workers in a Textile Manufacturing Company. We determined the prevalence of respiratory obstructive conditions among workers in various sections. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional analytic study. Workers were randomly sampled and data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Respiratory function was assessed using spirometry and chest auscultation. A walk through survey was conducted and a checklist was used to capture hazards and control measures in the work place. RESULTS: A total of 194 workers participated. The prevalence of severe respiratory obstruction was 27.8%. It was 50.0% among the blowers, 35.3% in waste recovery, 32.5% in carders, 15.0% in spinners and 7.5% among weavers. The mean years of exposure between the affected and the non-affected were significantly different (T =2.20; p less than 0.05. Working in the blowing department was significantly associated with developing respiratory obstruction (OR=3.53; 95% CI= 1.61- 7.79 but working in the weaving department was significantly protective (OR 0.16; CI 0.04-0.59.Working in a department for less than 10 years was protective (OR =0.94; 95% CI= 0.48- 1.85, but not significant. CONCLUSION: Obstructive respiratory conditions are common among textile workers, with those in blowing and waste recovery sections being the most affected. We recommended worker rotation every six months, regular spirometric screening employment of a medical officer.
Grimmer, K; King, E; Larsen, T; Farquharson, T; Potter, A; Sharpe, P; de Wit, H
There is scant guidance in the literature on the most appropriate Australian measures of, and thresholds for, extreme heat regarding giving advice on safe sports participation in hot weather. The purpose of this paper is to present a process for investigating two common measures of heat (air temperature, wet bulb globe temperature (WGBT)) in one state in Australia (South Australia), regarding their usefulness in making decisions regarding sports participation in the heat. Commonly reported measures and thresholds of extreme heat were identified from a systematic review of guidelines regarding sports participation in hot weather. Dry air temperature (threshold of 35 degrees C), and WBGT index (threshold of 28 degrees C) were highlighted. Repeated daily measures of dry air temperature by the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and WBGT index from 12 meteorological recording sites in South Australia (SA) for four consecutive summer periods (2000-2004) were analysed using these thresholds to investigate the prevalence of extremely hot temperatures in SA during these periods. The extremely hot hours-per-day data were standardised using a denominator of per-day-month across the 12 SA recording regions. Across the four summer seasons of data in SA, there were similar standardised numbers of hours-per-day of extremely hot dry air temperature and WBGT index. There was a high correlation between these hours of hot weather measures, highlighting the congruence between hot air and humidity measures. Three distinct regional site groupings were identified, in which there was a different prevalence of extremely hot weather conditions. In SA, dry air temperature is an appropriate and robust measure of extreme heat related to sports participation, this measure providing as much information as WBGT in identifying extremely hot periods of weather. Dry air temperature can be readily measured by sports participants or officials irrespective of the geographical location in SA. Three SA regions
Rodriguez, Neisha M; Romero, Angel F
To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>-0.50D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50 D, and emmetropia as a SE between -0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0-55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5-37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1-17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8-73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Lima-Silva, Joana; Cavaco-Gomes, João; Beires, Jorge
To investigate the prevalence of vulvodynia in Portugal and factors associated with this condition. In a cross-sectional study, an online survey was distributed by email and posted on a website and social networks. Women aged at least 18 years who were living in Portugal were eligible to complete the survey between June 1 and November 30, 2013. Participants had to have had symptoms for at least 6 months to be deemed to have vulvodynia. Overall, 1229 questionnaires were included in analyses. A total of 80 (6.5%) women had vulvodynia at the time of the survey, and 117 (9.5%) had had it previously; lifetime prevalence was 16.0%. Pregnancy and type of delivery were not associated with vulvodynia. Women who had ever taken oral contraceptives were significantly more likely to have ever had vulvodynia (PPortugal is similar to that elsewhere. Three main groups of factors might lead to vulvodynia: local inflammatory factors, general pain susceptibility, and pelvic nerve interference. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faller, Sibele; Webster, J Matthew; Leukefeld, Carl G; Bumaguin, Daniela Benzano; Duarte, Paulina do Carmo Arruda Vieira; De Boni, Raquel; Pechansky, Flavio
This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among drivers , as well as the association between recent alcohol and drug use and psychiatric diagnoses using telephone interviews. Drivers (n = 1,134) included in a roadside survey from 25 Brazilian state capitals were given a breathalyzer test, and their saliva was tested for psychoactive drugs. A telephone interview was conducted to perform psychiatric disorder evaluations using the MINI. This association was analyzed with a Poisson regression model. The prevalence of any psychiatric disorder was 40.5% among drivers with recent alcohol or drug use, compared with 12.9% among the other drivers. Alcohol/drug-positive drivers reported a higher prevalence of depression (19.4%), mania (6.5%), hypomania (5.4%), post-traumatic stress disorder (8.6%), antisocial personality (7.8%), and substance/alcohol abuse or dependence (48.1%) compared with other drivers (3.5, 2.5, 2.1, 0.5, 1.3 and 18.3% [p < 0.001], respectively). Drivers with recent alcohol or drug use were 2.5 times more likely to have a psychiatric diagnosis (CI: 1.8-3.6, p < 0.001). This is the first study in a low-/middle-income country to evaluate psychiatric disorders in drivers with recent alcohol or drug using telephone interviews. Psychiatric disorders were found to be associated with drug and alcohol use. This type of epidemiological information for curtailing related driving problems, as these psychiatric conditions are diagnosable. The results of this study can aid in the design of interventions, treatment programs and focused psychiatric evaluations, both in Brazil and abroad.
Mura, Gioia; Zimbrean, Paula C; Demelia, Luigi; Carta, Mauro G
Wilson's disease (WD) is a relatively rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder causing copper accumulation in different organs, mainly the liver and brain. Psychiatric disturbances represent a diagnostic and therapeutic issue in WD. A search for relevant articles was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar, for papers focused on psychiatric disorders in WD published between 1985-2016. Ninety-two articles were included in this review, showing the findings from 35 observational and case-control studies and 57 case reports. This study discussed the findings on the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in WD, their impact on the life of those diagnosed, and the efficacy of available treatments on the psychiatric outcomes of WD. Psychiatric disorders are confirmed frequent in WD, with a high prevalence of mood disorders, and contribute to worse Quality-of-Life and psychosocial outcomes. Because specific therapies for WD lead to a good life expectancy, adherence to medicaments and clinical monitoring should be warranted by a multidisciplinary approach, including a hepathologic, neurologic, and psychiatric careful evaluation and education of those affected and their relatives.
Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben
INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...... and severity of crime into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using data from Statistics Denmark's national crime statistics, we have compared time-trends of SPT with time-trends of suspended and custodial sentences stratified by type of crime. RESULTS: We found that the rise in SPT is primarily attributable...... to more confrontations and changes in practices, e.g., for reporting violence against staff. However, if a civil person is the victim of a violent offence, the probability of the perpetrator being a psychiatric patient is small and has remained virtually unchanged since 1990. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug-30...
Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Garcez, Anderson; Henn, Ruth Liane; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal
The aim of this study was to explore the association between sleep-related problems with the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders in shift workers of southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 1202 workers (785 females) aged 18-50 years was carried out. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and four sleep problems were collected and analyzed: sleep deprivation (≤ 5h), difficulty falling asleep, waking up during sleep, and sleep medication use. Results show that the overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 26.8%, but it was more prevalent among females than males (30.2% vs. 20.4%). Nightshift work was significantly associated with the occurrence of sleep-related problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of sleep-related problems showed a positive linear trend with psychiatric disorders in both sexes. Having two or more sleep-related problems was associated with increased probability of psychiatric disorders approximately three-fold among males and two-fold among females, when compared with those without sleep problems. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that sleep-related problems have a strong and independent association with psychiatric disorders among shift workers. Furthermore, the prevalence of both conditions was higher among females than males; however, the strength of these associations was higher in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fong, G; Frost, D; Stansfeld, S
Road rage is a concept recently popularised by the press. An association with psychiatric illness is implied from reports of such drivers being "mad". Previous literature has demonstrated a link between road traffic accidents and mental illness. This study examines the relationship between road rage and psychiatric morbidity. It aims to estimate the prevalence of road rage by self-report and elucidate demographic and psychiatric factors associated with road rage. This is a cross-sectional study of attendees at general practice clinics that examines self-reported road rage and psychiatric morbidity. Assessment was based on the total score on the Clinical Interview Schedule (revised version; CIS-R), Aggression Questionnaire, Screening Test for Comorbid Personality Disorders, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Life Events Schedule. Fifty-three percent of 131 subjects reported a recent incident of road rage. Perpetrator and victim groups differed from controls. Perpetrators had increased aggression scores and psychiatric morbidity. There was a strong association with male sex and illicit drug use, and a strong negative association with driving experience. A weaker association was found with youth. Victims showed increased psychiatric morbidity and were more likely than perpetrators to seek help for emotional problems. Life events stress, social class, alcohol use and personality disorder had no significant effect. There is an association between road rage and psychiatric morbidity.
Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise
To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients.......To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients....
Full Text Available Hideki Okamoto,1,2 Masaomi Iyo,2 Keigo Ueda,1 Cheolsun Han,1 Yoshiro Hirasaki,1 Takao Namiki1 1Department of Japanese-Oriental (Kampo Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Japan Abstract: Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan’s original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract, and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM, a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san’s efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. Keywords: Yokukan-san-ka-chimpi-hange, Japanese traditional medicine, Asian medicine, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, Alzheimer’s disease, BPSD, Parkinson’s disease
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.
Lin, Hung-Yen; Huang, Chih-Kun; Tai, Chi-Ming; Lin, Hung-Yu; Kao, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Ching-Chung; Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Lee, Su-Long; Chi, Shu-Ching; Yen, Yung-Chieh
Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.
Kwon, Oh Jun
Background and Objectives The hearing loss of workers can occur when they are affected by age, otologic disease, and work-related risks such as noise and chemicals. Based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) in 2010, this research aimed to estimate the prevalence rate of hearing loss and to identify the risk factors affecting its occurrence. Subjects and Methods The subjects were 10019 employees who completed an interview conducted as part of KWCS in 2010. The prevalence rate of hearing loss according to sex, age, education, income, smoking, drinking, hypertension, industrial type, occupations, employment status, working period, and hazards at the workplace were assessed. The factors that could affect the occurrence of hearing loss were investigated based on a logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence rate of hearing loss was 2.7%. In a logistic multivariate analysis, sex, age, occupations, working period, noise, and exposure to chemicals showed statistically significant correlations to the occurrence of hearing loss. The adjusted odd ratios were as follows: 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.96] for males, 2.11 (95% CI, 1.14-3.89) for those in their 40s, 2.24 (95% CI, 1.19-4.20) for those in their 50s, 2.21 (95% CI, 1.18-4.15) for manage/professional works, 2.73 (95% CI, 1.69-4.41) for manufacturing, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.36-3.15) for those who have worked for more than 20 years, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.14-2.58) for noise exposure, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02-2.30) for vibration exposure and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.11-2.24) for chemical exposure. Conclusions The overall occupational and non-occupational risk factors related to employees' hearing loss were reviewed. In addition to the exposure to noise, occupational risks of hearing loss, such as isolated exposure to vibration and chemicals, and combined exposure to noise and these hazards, were identified. Multiple exposure to hazards, along with prolonged noise exposure increased the risk of hearing loss. PMID
Pfeffer, C R; Plutchik, R
This study of 106 preadolescent psychiatric inpatients, 101 preadolescent psychiatric outpatients, and 101 preadolescent nonpatients examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and co-occurrence of psychiatric diagnoses. The inpatients and outpatients had significantly more co-occurring diagnoses than the nonpatients. For a given diagnosis there are varying frequencies of co-occurring disorders. The similar structure and prevalence among co-occurring diagnoses in this sample of children fit a circumplex model in which variation among disorders appears to be continuous in the form of a closed circle.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimate of the prevalence of the most common chronic conditions (CCs is calculated using direct methods such as prevalence surveys but also indirect methods using health administrative databases. The aim of this study is to provide estimates prevalence of CCs in Lazio region of Italy (including Rome, using the drug prescription's database and to compare these estimates with those obtained using other health administrative databases. Methods Prevalence of CCs was estimated using pharmacy data (PD using the Anathomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC. Prevalences estimate were compared with those estimated by hospital information system (HIS using list of ICD9-CM diagnosis coding, registry of exempt patients from health care cost for pathology (REP and national health survey performed by the Italian bureau of census (ISTAT. Results From the PD we identified 20 CCs. About one fourth of the population received a drug for treating a cardiovascular disease, 9% for treating a rheumatologic conditions. The estimated prevalences using the PD were usually higher that those obtained with one of the other sources. Regarding the comparison with the ISTAT survey there was a good agreement for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and thyroid disorder whereas for rheumatologic conditions, chronic respiratory illnesses, migraine and Alzheimer's disease, the prevalence estimates were lower than those estimated by ISTAT survey. Estimates of prevalences derived by the HIS and by the REP were usually lower than those of the PD (but malignancies, chronic renal diseases. Conclusion Our study showed that PD can be used to provide reliable prevalence estimates of several CCs in the general population.
Jung, Jeesun; Goldstein, Risë B; Grant, Bridget F
Substance use disorders and major psychiatric disorders are common, highly comorbid with each other, and familial. However, the extent to which comorbidity is itself familial remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between comorbidity among respondents with family history of comorbidity. We analyzed data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III to study the associations of family history (FH) of comorbidity among alcoholism, drug problems, depression, antisocial behavior, and anxiety disorders in parents and maternal and paternal grandparents with corresponding DSM-5 diagnostic comorbidity among respondents. We utilized multivariable multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, race, education, family income, marital status, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). All comorbid associations of any two disorders with FH were statistically significant; almost all adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for respondent comorbidity in the presence of FH of the parallel comorbidity exceeded 10. ORs involving antisocial behavior in relatives and antisocial personality disorder in respondents were consistently larger than those for any other pairs of disorders. After further adjustment for ACEs, most patterns of association were similar but the ORs were reduced twofold to threefold. ACEs may be mediators in relationships between familial and respondent comorbidities. Further investigations of relationships among familial comorbidity, ACEs, and respondents' diagnoses may improve understanding of comorbidity. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zimbrean, Paula C; Schilsky, Michael L
To review the current evidence about psychiatric symptoms in Wilson's disease (WD). We searched Ovid, PsychInfo, CINHAL and PubMed databases from May 1946 to May 2012 using the key words Wilson('s) disease in combination with psychiatry, psychiatric, psychosis, schizophrenia, depression, mania, bipolar, mood, anxiety, personality and behavior. Psychiatric symptoms occur before, concurrent with or after the diagnosis and treatment for WD. Thirty to forty percent of patients have psychiatric manifestations at the time of diagnosis, and 20% had seen a psychiatrist prior to their WD diagnosis. When psychiatric symptoms preceded neurological or hepatic involvement, the average time between the psychiatric symptoms and the diagnosis of WD was 864.3 days. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in WD patients varies wildly (major depressive disorder, 4-47%; psychosis, 1.4-11.3%). Certain gene mutations of ATP7B may correlate with specific personality traits. Psychiatric manifestations represent a significant part of the clinical presentation of WD and can present at any point in the course of the illness. Psychiatric manifestations occurring without overt hepatic or neurologic involvement may lead to misdiagnosis. A better understanding of the psychiatric presentations in WD may provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. © 2014.
Mitchell, Lori A.; Hirdes, John; Poss, Jeff W.; Slegers-Boyd, Caroline; Caldarelli, Hilary; Martin, Lynn
Background Individuals living in the community with neurological conditions receive the majority of their care from informal caregivers. The purpose of this project was to provide a profile of caregivers of home care clients with neurological conditions. The study also examined prevalence of caregiver distress and the association between neurological conditions and other client and caregiver characteristics with distress. Methods The study population included Canadian home care clients in the...
Sarcopenia, the age associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy on November 18, 2009 to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. While cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the two conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1.0 m·s−1. Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s−1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg: appendicular mass relative to ht2 that is ≤ 7.23 kg/ m2 in men ≤ 5.67 kg/ m2 in men). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization and death. PMID:21527165
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Ramirez, Sandra; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rodriguez, Maria Nelcy; Rodríguez, Andrea; Rengifo, Henrey
The prevalence of chronic conditions is increasing globally and this phenomenon covers pediatric populations. There is a relationship between chronic conditions and mental health problems, which has been insufficiently studied in the case of children. To measure the frequency of problems and mental disorders in the Colombian population between 7 and 11 years, depending on the presence or absence of chronic conditions. The information pertains to the National Survey of Mental Health of Colombia 2015, an observational cross-sectional nationally representative for the group between 7 and 11 years old. Mental problems where measure with the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (RQC), the 12 month prevalence of seven mental disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version parents (DISC-P) and a list of chronic conditions. Univariate and stratification analysis of the data were performed. 41.6% of the children with no chronic conditions, 56.7% of the children with 1 chronic condition and 70.8% in those with 2 or more have at least one RQC symptom; the highest prevalence of mental health symptoms are those with chronic inflammatory lung disease, followed by diabetes mellitus and allergies. The prevalence of one or more mental disorders in children without chronic conditions is 3.1% while those with at least 1 is 13.8%. A higher prevalence of mental disorders in children and its association with chronic conditions justifies further studies that address this issue and develop strategies with multidisciplinary interventions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Norquist, G S; Hough, R L; Golding, J M; Escobar, J I
Prevalences of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III psychiatric disorders for male veterans and nonveterans from four war eras were estimated using data from over 7500 male community respondents interviewed by the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program at five geographic areas across the country. Veterans serving after Vietnam (Post-Vietnam era) had greater lifetime and 6-month prevalences of psychiatric disorder than their nonveteran counterparts, whereas the reverse tended to be the case for the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II war eras. Comparisons across war eras revealed a trend for more psychiatric disorder, especially substance abuse, in younger veterans and nonveterans than in older respondents.
Full Text Available Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy. We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null, single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation and specific mineral composition. To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene, as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress.
Wei-Cheng Yang1, Wei-Lung Chang2, Ka-Hei Kwong1, Yi-Ting Yao1 and Lien-Siang Chou2*
Full Text Available The prevalence of epidermal conditions in a small critically endangered population (<100 individuals of coastal Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis from the waters of western Taiwan was assessed during a photo-identification study conducted between 2006 and 2010. Of 97 individuals photographically examined, 37% were affected by one or multiple conditions. Besides, mature individuals had significantly higher prevalence than immature ones. Five different skin condition categories were considered, including pox-like lesion, pale lesion, orange film, prolonged ulcer lesion, and nodule on body. This first study to investigate epidermal conditions on S. chinensis in the world offers data for comparison with other studies in the future and new ground for discussion on the health of these animals and the potential impact of anthropogenic activities.
Spiers, Nicola; Bebbington, Paul; McManus, Sally; Brugha, Traolach S; Jenkins, Rachel; Meltzer, Howard
There are concerns that the prevalence of mental disorder is increasing. To determine whether the prevalence of common adult mental disorders has increased over time, using age-period-cohort analysis. The study consisted of a pseudocohort analysis of a sequence of three cross-sectional surveys of the English household population. The main outcome was common mental disorder, indicated by a score of 12 or above on the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). Secondary outcomes were neurotic symptoms likely to require treatment, indicated by a CIS-R score of 18 or over, and individual subscale scores for fatigue, sleep problems, irritability and worry. There were 8670 participants in the 1993 survey, 6977 in the 2000 survey and 6815 in the 2007 survey. In men a significant increase in common mental disorder occurred between the cohort born in 1943-9 and that born in 1950-6 (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) but prevalence in subsequent cohorts remained largely stable. More extended increases in prevalence of sleep problems and mental disorders were observed in women, but not consistently across cohorts or measures. We found little evidence that the prevalence of common mental disorder is increasing.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: According to significance of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in children and the increasing rate of its prevalence in referred patients to clinic in recent years and due to absence of any report about the rate of PPD in our country, this study was carried out. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PPD in a sample of Iranian children who referred to medical and rehabilitation centers.Materials & Methods: 248 children who referred to three medical-rehabilitation centers were participated in the research. Accessible sampling with diagnosis of PDD based on DSM-IV criteria was chosen. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods such as percent and frequency distribution. Results: Autistics disorder was most prevalent among pervasive developmental disorders. In this research Autistic disorder (proportion 4/1 to 1, Asperger disorder (proportion 3 to 1 and childhood disintegrative disease were more prevalent in boys than girls. Ret disorders was observed only in girls and pervasive developmental disease (NOS was seen in both sexes. Conclusion: The results showed that pervasive developmental disorders are 4 times more prevalent in boys than girls and the findings of this research were consistent with those of previous studies.
Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S
We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Binder, D K; Iskandar, B J
The evolution, rationale, and results of modern functional neurosurgery to treat psychiatric disorders are documented. The potential benefits of neurosurgical treatment for selected, critically ill, psychiatric patients are considered. The history, anatomic features, and evolution of and contemporary indications for the four currently used procedures (cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, limbic leukotomy, and capsulotomy) are reviewed. Available outcome, neuropsychological assessment, and functional imaging data are presented. Recently, there has been a renaissance of interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disease. Modern psychiatric neurosurgical procedures are quite safe, with extremely low surgical mortality rates and transient postoperative morbidity. In selected cases, patients with conditions that had previously been completely refractory to comprehensive medical and behavioral intervention demonstrated significant improvement. This improvement was usually observed in the absence of long-term adverse neuropsychological consequences. Recent outcome studies, together with advances in neurobiology, psychiatry, functional imaging, and stereotaxy, support the further investigation of modern functional neurosurgical procedures to treat psychiatric disorders and their application for a subset of psychiatric patients with conditions refractory to all other therapies.
Background: Gender is a predictor of prevalence of psychiatric morbidity. The present study was to examine gender difference, prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity among attendees of a general outpatient clinic in a tertiary hospital in sokoto, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 267,000 patients attended the general ...
Wekking, E. M.
Twenty-one studies on the prevalence and type of psychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are reviewed and evaluated. Substantial differences in prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in SLE-patients (from 17%-71%) have been reported. Of the investigated methodological aspects,
Cheng, Ching-Yu; Li, Qing
Postpartum mothers experience certain physical health conditions that may affect their quality of life, future health, and health of their children. Yet, the physical health of postpartum mothers is relatively neglected in both research and practice. The purpose of this review is to describe the general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. The review followed standard procedures for integrative literature reviews. Twenty-two articles were reviewed from searches in scientific databases, reference lists, and an up-to-date survey. Three tables were designed to answer review questions. In general, postpartum mothers self-rate their health as good. They experience certain physical conditions such as fatigue/physical exhaustion, sleep-related problems, pain, sex-related concerns, hemorrhoids/constipation, and breast problems. Despite a limited number of studies, the findings provide a glimpse of the presence of a number of physical health conditions experienced by women in the 2 years postpartum. In the articles reviewed, physical health conditions and postpartum period were poorly defined, no standard scales existed, and the administration of surveys varied widely in time. Those disparities prevented systematic comparisons of results and made it difficult to gain a coherent understanding of the physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. More longitudinal research is needed that focuses on the etiology, predictors, and management of the health conditions most prevalent among postpartum mothers. Instruments are needed that target a broader range of physical conditions in respect to type and severity.
Ta, K; Westermeyer, J; Neider, J
The study assessed the prevalence and duration of axis III physical disorders and the resulting level of disability among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with axis I psychiatric disorders. A total of 266 consecutive patients who were evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic were assessed for the presence of axis III conditions through questions about physical symptoms, a medical history and review of records, physical examination, and laboratory screening. The sample included 158 Hmong, 58 Laotian, 43 Vietnamese, and seven Cambodian patients. Fifty-five percent of the patients had one or more axis III disorders, most of which were chronic and were not associated with extreme disability. Neurological conditions were most common, and the sequelae of war-related trauma were prominent. No associations were found between the presence of axis III conditions and age, gender, marital status, or ethnic group. In 48 cases, the axis III condition may have caused or exacerbated the axis I condition. Routine medical history and a physical examination, including a neurological examination, are recommended for all psychiatric patients, including outpatients.
Bergink, V.; Pop, V.J.M.; Nielsen, P.R.; Agerbo, E.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Liu, X.
The postpartum period is well-known risk period for the first onset of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) as well as first onset of psychiatric disorders. These two disorders are some of the most prevalent medical conditions postpartum, often misdiagnosed and disabling if left untreated. Our study
Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth
Euthanasia for people who are not terminally ill, such as those suffering from psychiatric disorders or dementia, is legal in Belgium under strict conditions but remains a controversial practice. As yet, the prevalence of euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia has not been studied and little is known about the characteristics of the practice. This study aims to report on the trends in prevalence and number of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis in Belgium and demographic, clinical and decision-making characteristics of these cases. We analysed the anonymous databases of euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee Euthanasia from the implementation of the euthanasia law in Belgium in 2002 until the end of 2013. The databases we received provided the information on all euthanasia cases as registered by the Committee from the official registration forms. Only those with one or more psychiatric disorders or dementia and no physical disease were included in the analysis. We identified 179 reported euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia as the sole diagnosis. These consisted of mood disorders (N = 83), dementia (N = 62), other psychiatric disorders (N = 22) and mood disorders accompanied by another psychiatric disorder (N = 12). The proportion of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis was 0.5% of all cases reported in the period 2002-2007, increasing from 2008 onwards to 3.0% of all cases reported in 2013. The increase in the absolute number of cases is particularly evident in cases with a mood disorder diagnosis. The majority of cases concerned women (58.1% in dementia to 77.1% in mood disorders). All cases were judged to have met the legal requirements by the Committee. While euthanasia on the grounds of unbearable suffering caused by a psychiatric disorder or dementia remains a comparatively limited practice in Belgium, its
Mitchell, Lori A; Hirdes, John; Poss, Jeff W; Slegers-Boyd, Caroline; Caldarelli, Hilary; Martin, Lynn
Individuals living in the community with neurological conditions receive the majority of their care from informal caregivers. The purpose of this project was to provide a profile of caregivers of home care clients with neurological conditions. The study also examined prevalence of caregiver distress and the association between neurological conditions and other client and caregiver characteristics with distress. The study population included Canadian home care clients in the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority in Manitoba and in the province of Ontario. Clients with RAI-Home Care (RAI-HC) assessment data from 2003 to 2010 were examined. Neurological conditions of interest included Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and stroke. Descriptive statistics were analyzed to describe home care client characteristics and caregiver characteristics for each neurological condition. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with caregiver distress. A substantial proportion of home care clients were found to have one or more of the neurological conditions (38.8% to 41.9%). Caregiver distress was twice as prevalent among caregivers of clients with neurological conditions (28.0%). The largest associations with caregiver distress were the amount of informal care hours provided in a week and the MAPLe algorithm, an indicator of a client's level of priority for care. After adjustment for client characteristics, Huntington disease was the neurological condition most strongly associated with caregiver distress. However, clients' clinical characteristics and informal care hours had a stronger association with caregiver distress than the presence of a neurological condition. Provision of formal home care services provided a protective effect from caregiver distress
Neisha M. Rodriguez
Conclusion: Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.
Yin, H; Xu, G; Tian, H; Yang, G; Wardenaar, K J; Schoevers, R A
To effectively shape mental healthcare policy in modern-day China, up-to-date epidemiological data on mental disorders is needed. The objective was to estimate the prevalence, age-of-onset (AOO) and sociodemographic correlates of mental disorders in a representative household sample of the general population (age ⩾ 18) in the Tianjin Municipality in China. Data came from the Tianjin Mental health Survey (TJMHS), which was conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 using a two-phase design. 11 748 individuals were screened with an expanded version of the General Health Questionnaire and 4438 subjects were selected for a diagnostic interview by a psychiatrist, using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - fourth edition (SCID). The lifetime and 1-month prevalence of any mental disorder were 23.6% and 12.8%, respectively. Mood disorders (lifetime: 9.3%; 1-month: 3.9%), anxiety disorders (lifetime: 4.5% 1-month: 3.1%) and substance-use disorders (lifetime: 8.8%; 1-month: 3.5%) were most prevalent. The median AOO ranged from 25 years [interquartile range (IQR): 23-32] for substance-use disorders to 36 years (IQR: 24-50) for mood disorders. Not being married, non-immigrant status (i.e. local 'Hukou'), being a farmer, having mental disorder. Results from the current survey indicate that mental disorders are steadily reported more commonly in rapidly-developing urban China. Several interesting sociodemographic correlates were observed (e.g. male gender and non-immigrant status) that warrant further investigation and could be used to profile persons in need of preventive intervention.
Differences in the Associations between Gambling Problem Severity and Psychiatric Disorders among Black and White Adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Barry, Declan T.; Stefanovics, Elina A.; Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.
We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal le...
Jenkins, Todd M
Introduction Obesity rates for adults in Kentucky are regularly among the highest in the nation. Since 1991, adult obesity in Kentucky and the United States has nearly doubled. This trend is of great concern because excess weight has been associated with several chronic diseases and conditions. This paper reports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults in Kentucky between 2000 and 2002. The estimates produced by this study will provide baseline figures for developing Kentucky...
Butler, Elissa K; Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Kisakye, Sheila; Haglund, Michael M; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses
Noncommunicable diseases, including those requiring surgical care, are increasingly straining low- and middle-income countries. Globally, 11% of all disability-adjusted life-years lost result from conditions requiring surgery; however, little is known about country-specific burden. We piloted a household-based survey in a periurban district of Uganda to estimate the prevalence of surgical conditions and to identify logistical challenges. Our sample comprised 57 households in 5 enumeration areas in the Wakiso District, in central Uganda. Our survey tool was the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical need. A household representative completed demographic and household death information, and 2 randomly selected household members completed questions on surgical conditions. Of 96 participants, 6 (6.3%; 95% CI, 2.3-13.1) had an existing, untreated surgical condition. The lifetime prevalence of surgical conditions was 26% (25/96). The most common barrier to access to care was lack of financial resources. Of the 3 deaths reported, 2 were associated with surgery. The mean household interview time was 36 minutes. The greatest challenge was efficient coordination with local team members and government officials. In this setting, the current prevalence of surgical conditions was nearly 1 in 10 persons, and lifetime occurrence was high, at 1 in 4 persons. Addressable challenges led to question revisions and a change in the data collection platform. A full-country study is both feasible and necessary to characterize the met and unmet need for surgical care in Uganda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iskandar, Shelly; Kamal, Rama; De Jong, Cor A
The prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Western countries is high and is associated with lower quality of life and reduces the effectiveness of treatment programs. The aim of this study is to provide a review about psychiatric comorbidity in IDUs in Asia and Africa, where HIV prevalence is high and still increasing. Studies focusing on psychiatric comorbidity in Asia and Africa are scarce. The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity is comparable with the prevalence in western countries. Psychiatric disorders can occur before or during drug abuse and are also associated with substance abuse and physical comorbidity and its treatments. Childhood trauma followed by post-traumatic disorders is a significant risk factor for substance abuse. Psychiatric co-occurring disorders influence the adherence to the physical and drug use treatment. Evidence-based treatment for psychiatric comorbidity in IDUs is still limited. A better understanding of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in IDUs and its impact on the overall treatments is growing. However, more studies focusing on the treatment for psychiatric comorbidity in IDUs in Asia and Africa are needed.
Roelfsema, Martine T.; Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon
We tested for differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in school-aged children in three geographical regions in the Netherlands. Schools were asked to provide the number of children enrolled, the number having a clinical diagnosis of ASC and/or two control neurodevelopmental conditions. Prevalence was evaluated by negative…
Prevalence of psychiatric disorders is on the rise and causing massive global health burden which myths and misconceptions about psychiatric disorders and their available treatment abound in our society. Stigma attached with these disorders is phenomenal. This leads to avoidance of the patients in seeking prompt and appropriate treatment. This demands an instant realization of the gravity of the problems related with mental health and adoption of appropriate measures to increase awareness, in both masses and the health professionals of psychiatric disorders and their scientific treatment. (author)
Quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among regular users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis: An analysis of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).
Cougle, Jesse R; Hakes, Jahn K; Macatee, Richard J; Chavarria, Jesus; Zvolensky, Michael J
Research is limited on the effects of regular substance use on mental health-related outcomes. We used a large nationally representative survey to examine current and future quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among past-year regular (weekly) users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Data on psychiatric disorders and quality of life from two waves (Wave 1 N = 43,093, Wave 2 N = 34,653) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to test study aims. In cross-sectional analyses, regular nicotine and cannabis use were associated with higher rates of psychiatric disorder, though regular alcohol use was associated with lower rates of disorders. Prospective analyses found that regular nicotine use predicted onset of anxiety, depressive, and bipolar disorders. Regular alcohol use predicted lower risk of these disorders. Regular cannabis use uniquely predicted the development of bipolar disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and social phobia. Lastly, regular alcohol use predicted improvements in physical and mental health-related quality of life, whereas nicotine predicted deterioration in these outcomes. Regular cannabis use predicted declines in mental, but not physical health. These data add to the literature on the relations between substance use and mental and physical health and suggest increased risk of mental health problems among regular nicotine and cannabis users and better mental and physical health among regular alcohol users. Examination of mechanisms underlying these relationships is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buck, Tara R; Viskochil, Joseph; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M; Morgan, Jubel; Bilder, Deborah A
The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained as children during a 1980's statewide Utah autism prevalence study (n = 129). Seventy-three individuals (56.6 %) met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder; 89 participants (69.0 %) met lifetime criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Caregivers reported a psychiatric diagnosis in 44 participants (34.1 %). Anxiety disorder had the highest current and lifetime prevalence (39.5 and 52.7 %, respectively). Participants with intellectual disability (n = 94, 72.8 %) were significantly less likely to have community-based diagnoses of anxiety (χ(2) = 5.37, p = 0.02) or depression (χ(2) = 13.18, p caregivers. Seventy-six participants (58.9 %) were taking ≥1 psychotropic medication. Comorbid psychiatric disorders occur frequently in adults with ASD, though identifying these disorders poses a challenge in community settings. A greater understanding of the presentation of these conditions within this population will increase assessment validity and the potential for efficacious intervention.
Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O; McAllister, Samantha J; Aleman, Katherine M; St Sauver, Jennifer L
The objective of this study was to evaluate the problem of multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy in patients with fibromyalgia. Retrospective medical record review. Olmsted County, Minnesota. 1111 adults with fibromyalgia. Number and type of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions, medication use. Medical record review demonstrated that greater than 50% of the sample had seven or more chronic conditions. Chronic joint pain/degenerative arthritis was the most frequent comorbidity (88.7%), followed by depression (75.1%), migraines/chronic headaches (62.4%) and anxiety (56.5%). Approximately, 40% of patients were taking three or more medications for symptoms of fibromyalgia. Sleep aids were the most commonly prescribed medications in our sample (33.3%) followed by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (28.7%), opioids (22.4%) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (21.0%). The results of our study highlight the problem of multiple chronic conditions and high prevalence of polypharmacy in fibromyalgia. Clinicians who care for patients with fibromyalgia should take into consideration the presence of multiple chronic conditions when recommending medications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M.; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.
Fire-setting is a serious and costly form of antisocial behavior. Our objective in this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of intentional fire-setting behavior in the U. S. Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents 18 years and older. Structured psychiatric interviews (N = 43,093) were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001-2002. Fire-setting and DSM-IV mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorders were assessed with the A...
Hurd, H S; Gailey, J K; McKean, J D; Griffith, R W
Research suggests that abattoir holding pens pose significant Salmonella enterica risk to swine immediately preharvest. The goal of this study was to evaluate those factors related to holding that increased the prevalence of S. enterica in swine at slaughter. To accomplish this goal, we focused on holding time and flooring. Our objectives were to (1) compare Salmonella enterica prevalence among pigs held for short (15-45 min) versus long (up to 4 h) periods before slaughter; and (2) determine the impact of flooring (slatted vs. concrete) as it relates to the prevalence of S. enterica. The study consisted of seven repetitions at a large volume (11,000 head/day) Midwest abattoir. Each repetition consisted of one truck load of pigs (n = 170) sorted into one of three groups: (1) animals held for a short time (15-45 min) on solid floors (short-hold); (2) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on slatted floors; and (3) animals held for 4 +/- 0.5 h on solid concrete floors. At slaughter, samples were collected from 30 pigs in each group. Cecal contents (20 mL), feces (20 g), and the ileocecal lymph node were cultured for S. enterica. Additionally, the effect of holding time on meat quality parameters (loin pH at 35 min and 6 h, color, drip loss) was evaluated for the first four replicates. The proportion of S. enterica-positive samples was highest (p Meat quality, as measured by multiple parameters, was adversely affected by lack of a rest period. The mean 24-h pH was significantly lower for the short-hold group compared to the other two groups. The mean Minolta L and the drip loss were significantly higher in the short-hold group. From this and other studies, it appears that elimination of the holding process is not feasible S. enterica control option, given current U.S. harvesting systems.
Conclusions: Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging.
Differences in the associations between gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among black and white adults: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
Barry, Declan T; Stefanovics, Elina A; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N
We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of 32,316 black and white adults. Black respondents were more likely than white ones to exhibit problem or pathological gambling (PPG) and a stronger relationship between subsyndromal gambling and any mood disorder, hypomania, and any substance use disorder. Differences in the patterns of co-occurring disorders between syndromal and particularly subsyndromal levels of gambling in black and white respondents indicate the importance of considering race-related factors in mental health prevention and treatment strategies. American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Full Text Available Carola A Huber,1 Peter Diem,2 Matthias Schwenkglenks,3 Roland Rapold,1 Oliver Reich1 1Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zürich, Switzerland; 2Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland Background: Estimating the prevalence of comorbidities and their associated costs in patients with diabetes is fundamental to optimizing health care management. This study assesses the prevalence and health care costs of comorbid conditions among patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. Distinguishing potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients with diabetes, we also determined the most frequent chronic conditions and estimated their effect on costs across different health care settings in Switzerland. Methods: Using health care claims data from 2011, we calculated the prevalence and average health care costs of comorbidities among patients with and without diabetes in inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients with diabetes and comorbid conditions were identified using pharmacy-based cost groups. Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were used to analyze the effect of comorbidities on health care costs. Results: A total of 932,612 persons, including 50,751 patients with diabetes, were enrolled. The most frequent potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients older than 64 years were cardiovascular diseases (91%, rheumatologic conditions (55%, and hyperlipidemia (53%. The mean total health care costs for diabetes patients varied substantially by comorbidity status (US$3,203–$14,223. Patients with diabetes and more than two comorbidities incurred US$10,584 higher total costs than patients without comorbidity. Costs were significantly higher in patients with
Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto
Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.
Marsh, Patrick J; Odlaug, Brian L; Thomarios, Nick; Davis, Andrew A; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Meyer, Craig S; Grant, Jon E
The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of paraphilias in an adult inpatient psychiatric population. One hundred twelve consecutive, voluntarily admitted, adult male psychiatric inpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Sexual Disorders Module, Male Version, to assess the rates of DSM-IV paraphilias. Fifteen patients (13.4%) reported symptoms consistent with at least one lifetime DSM-IV paraphilia. The most common paraphilias were voyeurism (n = 9 [8.0%]), exhibitionism (n = 6 [5.4%]), and sexual masochism (n = 3 [2.7%]). Patients who screened positive for a paraphilia had significantly more psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .006) and, on a trend level, were more likely to have attempted suicide. In addition, patients with paraphilias were significantly more likely to report having been sexually abused than patients without a paraphilia (P = paraphilia. Paraphilias appear to be more common in adult male psychiatric inpatients than previously estimated. The study also demonstrated that these disorders were not screened for by the treating physician and thus may go untreated. Further, larger-scale studies are necessary in order to further examine the rates of these disorders in the general population.
Transtornos de ansiedade: um estudo de prevalência e comorbidade com tabagismo em um ambulatório de psiquiatria Anxiety disorders: a study of the prevalence and comorbidity with smoking in a psychiatric outpatient clinic
Cristina Lunardi Munaretti
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo tem por objetivo investigar a presença de transtornos de ansiedade e tabagismo entre pacientes atendidos em um ambulatório de psiquiatria. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal em um ambulatório de psiquiatria em Porto Alegre, no qual se aplicou SCID-I em 84 pacientes, para examinar a ocorrência de transtornos de ansiedade e dependência à nicotina; também se utilizou o Teste de Fagerström para identificar o grau de dependência nicotínica. Excluíram-se pacientes com esquizofrenia, outros transtornos psicóticos e retardo mental. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se freqüência de 75% para os transtornos de ansiedade, sendo mais freqüentes fobia específica e transtorno de ansiedade generalizada (TAG com 26,2% cada um. Tabagistas representaram 21,43% da amostra, e a maior parte destes obteve escore leve para o grau de dependência. Constatou-se associação entre ter TAG e ser tabagista, e a chance dos pacientes com TAG fumarem é 5,2 vezes em relação aos que não têm esse transtorno de ansiedade. CONCLUSÕES: Os transtornos de ansiedade têm uma freqüência elevada entre pacientes ambulatoriais, sendo importante sua identificação. A freqüência de tabagismo entre pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade é alta, apresentando importante associação com TAG, e por isso deve também ser foco de atenção no tratamento desses pacientes.OBJETIVES: This study was aimed at investigating the presence of anxiety disorders and tobacco use among psychiatric outpatients. METHODS: A transversal study was carried out in which SCID-I was administered to 84 psychiatric outpatients in Porto Alegre, in order to determine the occurrence of anxiety disorders and nicotine dependence; in addition, Fagerström's test was used to identify the degree of nicotine dependence. Exclusion criteria were having a diagnosis of schizophrenia or presenting other psychotic disorders and mental retardation. RESULTS: Anxiety disorders were found in
Rosen-Reynoso, Myra; Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-nan; Laderman, Mara; Roberts, Robert
Epidemiologic studies of obesity have not examined the prevalence and relationship of mental health conditions with obesity for diverse ethnic and racial populations in the United States. (1) To assess whether obesity was associated with diverse psychiatric diagnoses across a representative sample of non-Latino whites, Latinos, Asians, African-Americans, and Afro-Caribbeans; and (2) to test whether physical health status, smoking, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidities mediate any of the observed associations. Our analyses used pooled data from the NIMH Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Analyses tested the association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in a diverse sample of Americans (N=13,837), while adjusting for factors such as other disorders, age, gender, socioeconomic status, smoking and physical health status (as measured by chronic conditions and WHO-DAS scores) in different models. The relationship between obesity and last-year psychiatric disorders varied by ethnicity/race. The likelihood of having mood or anxiety disorder was positively associated with obesity for certain racial/ethnic groups, but was moderated by differences in physical health status. Substance-use disorders were associated with decreased odds for obesity in African-Americans. The role of physical health status (as measured by chronic conditions and WHO-DAS scores) dramatically changes the pattern of associations between obesity and psychiatric disorders, suggesting the important role it plays in explaining differential patterns of association across racial and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
San, Luis; Marksteiner, Josef; Zwanzger, Peter; Figuero, María Aragüés; Romero, Francisco Toledo; Kyropoulos, Grigorios; Peixoto, Alberto Bessa; Chirita, Roxana; Boldeanu, Anca
Agitation is an array of syndromes and types of behaviors that are common in patients with psychiatric disorders. In Europe, the estimation of prevalence of agitation has been difficult due to the lack of standard studies or systematic data collection done on this syndrome. An observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study aimed to assess the prevalence of agitation episodes in psychiatric emergencies in different European countries. For 1 week, all episodes of acute agitation that were attended to at the psychiatric emergency room (ER) or Acute Inpatient Unit (AIU) in the 27 participating centers were registered. The clinical characteristics and management of the agitation episode were also described. A descriptive analysis was performed. A total of 334 agitation episodes out of 7295 psychiatric emergencies were recorded, giving a prevalence rate of 4.6% (95% CI: 4.12-5.08). Of them, 172 [9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-10.9)] were attended at the ER and 162 [2.8% (95% CI: 2.4-3.3)] at AIU. Only data from 165 episodes of agitation (those with a signed informed consent form) was registered and described in this report. The most common psychiatric conditions associated with agitation were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and personality disorder. The management of agitation included from non-invasive to more coercive measures (mechanical, physical restraint or seclusion) that were unavoidable in more than half of the agitation episodes (59.5%). The results show that agitation is a common symptom in the clinical practice, both in emergency and inpatient psychiatric departments. Further studies are warranted to better recognize (using a standardized definition) and characterize agitation episodes.
de Vries, Hille T; Nakamae, Takashi; Fukui, Kenji; Denys, D.; Narumoto, Jin
BACKGROUND: Many studies reported the high prevalence of problematic internet use (PIU) among adolescents (13-50%), and PIU was associated with various psychiatric symptoms. In contrast, only a few studies investigated the prevalence among the adult population (6%). This study aimed to investigate
Raphael Guimarães Bettero
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a prevalência de cefaléia entre a população com lupus e normal e verificar as condições associadas à sua presença. MÉTODO: Analisaram-se 49 pacientes com lupus eritematoso (LES e 50 controles quanto a episódios de cefaléia (enxaqueca e tensional. Em pacientes com LES estudou-se: presença de Raynaud, telangiectasias, vasculites cutâneas, convulsões e de anticorpos antifosfolípideos. RESULTADOS: Dos lúpicos com LES, 42 tinham cefaléia (85,7%, sendo 29 casos de enxaqueca e 13 tensional; no grupo controle, 28 tinham cefaléia (57,14%, sendo 18 com enxaqueca e 10 tensionais (p=0,0026 para enxaqueca. Nos pacientes com LES não se encontrou associação entre enxaqueca e Raynaud (p=0,34, telangiectasias (p=0,77, vasculites cutâneas (p=0,63 e convulsões (p=0,13. Também não se encontrou associação entre enxaqueca e anticorpos anticardiolipina Ig G (p=0,45, IgM (p=0,07 ou LAC (p=0,59. CONCLUSÃO: Enxaqueca é mais prevalente na população com L v ES. Este achado não está associado com Raynaud, telangiectasias, vasculites cutâneas, convulsões e anticorpos antifosfolípideos.OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of headache in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and normal population as well as associated conditions. METHOD: Forty nine SLE patients and 50 controls were analyzed for presence of headaches (tensional and migraine. In the SLE group, we studied the occurrence of Raynaud, teleangiectasis, cutaneous vasculitis, convulsions and antiphospholipid antibodies. RESULTS: Among SLE patients, 42 had headaches (85.7%, 29 with migraine and 13 tensional; on the control group, 28 had headaches (57.1%, 18 migraine and 10 tension type with p=0.0026 for migraine. In SLE patients we did not find any association between migraine and Raynaud (p=0.34, teleangiectasis (p=0.77, cutaneous vasculitis (p=0.63, seizures (p=0.13, aCl IgG (p=0.45, IgM (=0.07 and LAC (p=0.59. CONCLUSION: Migraine is more prevalent in the
García Marchena, Nuria; Araos, Pedro; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Ponce, Guillermo; Pedraz, María; Serrano, Antonia; Arias, Francisco; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Pastor, Antoni; De la Torre, Rafael; Torrens, Marta; Rubio, Gabriel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando
Alcohol addiction is associated with high psychiatric comorbidity. Objective stratification of patients is necessary to optimize care and improve prognosis. The present study is designed to gain insights into this challenge by addressing the following objectives: a) to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in a sample of outpatients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, b) to describe the existence of gender differences and c) to validate 2-acyl-glycerols as biomarkers of alcohol use disorder and/or psychiatric comorbidity. One hundred and sixty-two patients were recruited and evaluated with the semi-structured interview PRISM. The presence of psychopathology was associated with a greater number of criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence according to DSM-IV-TR. We found gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity, e.g., mood disorder, as well as in comorbid substance use disorders. The prevalence of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity was 68.5%, with mood disorders the most frequent (37%), followed by attention deficit disorder (24.7%) and anxiety disorders (17.9%). Substance-induced disorders were more frequent in mood and psychotic disorders, whereas the primary disorders were more prevalent in patients with comorbid anxiety disorders. We found that 2-acyl-glycerols were significantly decreased in comorbid anxiety disorders in alcohol dependent patients in the last year, which makes them a potential biomarker for this psychopathological condition.
Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert
In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura.
Nenoff, P; Ginter-Hanselmayer, G; Tietz, H-J
Onychomycosis describes a chronic fungal infection of the nails most frequently caused by dermatophytes, primarily Trichophyton rubrum. In addition, yeasts (e. g. Candida parapsilosis), more rarely molds (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis), play a role as causative agents of onychomycosis. However, in every case it has to be decided if these yeasts and molds are contaminants, or if they are growing secondarily on pathological altered nails. The point prevalence of onychomycosis in Germany is 12.4%, as demonstrated within the "Foot-Check-Study", which was a part of the European Achilles project. Although, onychomycosis is rarely diagnosed in children and teens, now an increase of fungal nail infections has been observed in childhood. More and more, diabetes mellitus becomes important as significant disposing factor both for tinea pedis and onychomycosis. By implication, the onychomycosis represents an independent and important predictor for development of diabetic foot syndrome and foot ulcer. When considering onychomycosis, a number of infectious and non-infectious nail changes must be excluded. While psoriasis of the nails does not represent a specific risk factor for onychomycosis, yeasts and molds are increasing isolated from patients with psoriatic nail involvement. In most cases this represents secondary growth of fungi on psoriatic nails. Recently, stigmatization and impairment of quality of life due to the onychomycosis has been proven.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Opioid dependence is a major public health problem in Kerala. Presence of psychiatric disorder among opioid dependent patients worsens the scenario. To date no attempts have been made to analyse the magnitude and pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders in the state. MATERIALS AND METHODS We assessed 30 patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of opioid dependence syndrome for the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders using structured clinical interview for DSM IV Axis 1 disorder (SCID-1. Patients with opioid withdrawal state, delirium and acute medical emergencies were excluded. RESULTS 56.7% of our subjects had a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Major depressive disorder was the most common one (n=7, 23.3%. Prevalence of other disorders were generalised anxiety disorder (n=6, 20%, bipolar affective disorder (n=3, 10% and schizophrenia (n=1, 3.3%. CONCLUSION Comorbid Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in opioid dependence. There is a need for further large sample studies in the areas of comorbidities and in the integrated strategies for the identification and management of both opioid dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Miyachi, Hideo; Nakakita, Nobuaki; Akimoto, Minekatsu; Aoyagi, Kazuya; Miyaoka, Hitoshi; Uchinuma, Eijyu
Some studies have suggested that certain types of psychiatric problems may be more prevalent in patients undergoing cosmetic surgery than in the general population. In this study, 140 patients undergoing cosmetic surgery took a screening test before surgery. The results were statistically analyzed to evaluate the importance of a psychiatric approach in cosmetic surgery. At the first visit to the clinic, an interview was carried out in the presence of a psychiatrist. If needed, a secondary evaluation was performed on those patients with suspected psychological disorders. Preoperative screening led to the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in 45 of 140 patients (32%). Final psychiatric diagnoses included neuroses such as body dysmorphic disorder and depression/depressive states. It is sometimes beneficial to prioritize psychiatric treatment instead of focusing solely on surgical treatment to achieve better outcomes in patients undergoing cosmetic surgery who have psychiatric disorders. Preoperative psychiatric screening should be routine in the practice of cosmetic surgery.
El-Gilany, A; Khater, M; Gomaa, Z; Hussein, E; Hamdy, I
To estimate the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders among prisoners and its associated factors, and to estimate the prevalence of different mental and personality disorders. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in 16 randomly selected prisons in Egypt. A stratified proportional random sample of 1350 adult prisoners was included in the study. Data were collected by a psychiatrist by direct interview with prisoners. The study questionnaire obtained information about socio-demographics, prisoner circumstances, medical history, psychological factors, legal history of the prisoner as well as the Arabic version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the significant factors associated with presence of psychiatric disorder. The overall point prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 22%, excluding substance abuse and alcohol intake. The independent predictors for psychiatric disorders were work in prison (adjusted odds ratio = 0.6), family visits (0.5), substance abuse outside prison (2.7), history of psychiatric disorders outside prison (2.0), and repeated admission to the prison (2.5). The prevalence of mood disorders and psychosis was 3.3% and 1.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of personality disorders was 13.6%. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent among prisoners; the most common being personality and antisocial disorders. There is a need for psychiatric assessment of prisoners when first imprisoned and for subsequent regular monitoring and treatment.
Taib, Mohd Firdaus Mohd; Bahn, Sangwoo; Yun, Myung Hwan; Taib, Mohd Syukri Mohd
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) have been recognized as one of the main occupational health problems for dentists. Many studies have suggested that dentists experience work-related pain or discomfort in the neck, shoulder, and back, as well as in other parts of the body. This study aimed to examine the relationship between specific physical and psychosocial factors and/or ergonomic conditions on MSD symptoms among dentists in Malaysia. A group of 85 dentists was asked to complete a questionnaire to determine whether their complaints were related to physical and psychosocial factors and/or ergonomic conditions in their practices. Among the nine reviewed body areas, the shoulders were most often affected by symptoms of MSDs (92.7%). Moreover, MSDs of the neck and upper back were most likely to prevent these practitioners from engaging in normal activities (32.9%). In general, no significant differences were found in the prevalence of MSD symptoms in relation to gender, age, body mass index, years in practice, number of patients, and frequency of breaks. Our results were consistent with those reported in other studies that focused on MSD problems among dentists in other countries. To reduce the prevalence of MSDs, more attention should be paid to instituting ergonomically sensible approaches in the dental practice setting.
Green, Ariel R; Leff, Bruce; Wang, Yongfei; Spatz, Erica S; Masoudi, Frederick A; Peterson, Pamela N; Daugherty, Stacie L; Matlock, Daniel D
Geriatric conditions may influence outcomes among patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). We sought to determine the prevalence of frailty and dementia among older adults receiving primary prevention ICDs and to determine the impact of multimorbidity on mortality within 1 year of ICD implantation. The cohort included 83 792 Medicare patients from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry who underwent first primary prevention ICD implantation between 2006 and 2009. These data were merged with Medicare analytic files to determine the prevalence of frailty, dementia, and other conditions before ICD implantation, as well as 1-year mortality. A validated claim-based algorithm was used to identify frail patients. Mutually exclusive patterns of chronic conditions were examined. The association of each pattern with 1-year mortality was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for selected patient characteristics. Approximately 1 in 10 Medicare patients with heart failure receiving a primary prevention ICD had frailty (10%) or dementia (1%). One-year mortality was 22% for patients with frailty, 27% for patients with dementia, and 12% in the overall cohort. Several multimorbidity patterns were associated with high 1-year mortality rates: dementia with frailty (29%), frailty with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (25%), and frailty with diabetes mellitus (23%). These patterns were present in 8% of the cohort. More than 10% of Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure receiving primary prevention ICDs have frailty or dementia. These patients had significantly higher 1-year mortality than those with other common chronic conditions. Frailty and dementia should be considered in clinical decision-making and guideline development. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Owen, Richard; McGovern, Mark P; Williams, Silas
Soldiers often return from war with a variety of combat-related mental health conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance-use disorders. The authors investigated common co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions and patterns of conditions among returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans using the Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare systems. Common clusters of ICD-9 diagnostic-related conditions among returning soldiers (N=293,861) were extracted from the VA data center. Diagnoses involving pain are extremely common among returning veterans seeking health care at the VA. In addition to pain-related conditions, psychiatric disorders rank second most prevalent. Psychiatric disorders, and in particular the multimorbid triad of pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression frequently overlap. As more veterans return from war, there will be greater need for effective services. Given the findings of high rates of comorbidity and multimorbidity, VA services should be reorganized so as to co-locate psychiatric staff in pain centers, simultaneously targeting pain and psychiatric disorders.
Psychiatric conditions and general practitioner attendance prior to HPV vaccination and the risk of referral to a specialized hospital setting because of suspected adverse events following HPV vaccination: a register-based, matched case–control study
Full Text Available Tina Hovgaard Lützen,1 Bodil Hammer Bech,2 Jesper Mehlsen,3 Claus Høstrup Vestergaard,1 Lene Wulff Krogsgaard,1 Jørn Olsen,4 Mogens Vestergaard,1 Oleguer Plana-Ripoll,5 Dorte Rytter2 1Research Unit for General Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark; 2Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark; 3Coordinating Research Centre, Frederiksberg Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark; 5National Center for Register-based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus V, Denmark Aim: No association between human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination and numerous diseases has been found. Still, a large number of Danish women are reporting suspected adverse events. Other factors may play a role, and the aim of this study is to examine the association between psychiatric conditions, general practitioner (GP attendance and indicators of psychological symptoms prior to HPV vaccination and the risk of referral to an HPV center following vaccination. Study design and setting: Register-based, matched case–control study. Cases were identified from five Danish, regional HPV centers, and health data for cases and controls were obtained from national registries. Participants: Cases were defined as women referred to an HPV center between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 (n=1,496. Each case was matched with five controls on age, region and time of first vaccine registration. The total study population consisted of 8,976 women. Results: Overall, women above 18 years who had been referred to an HPV center were more likely to have used psychiatric medication (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88 [95% CI 1.48–2.40] or to have been hospitalized because of a psychiatric disorder within 5 years prior to the first vaccine registration (OR: 2.13 [95% CI 1.59–2.86]. Specifically, referred women were more likely to have used
Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo
The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.
Prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos em jovens infratores na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brasil: estudo de gênero e relação com a gravidade do delito Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in juvenile offenders in the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil
Renata Candido de Andrade
Full Text Available Cresce no Brasil a prevalência de jovens infratores, principalmente do gênero feminino. A literatura aponta para prevalências aumentadas de transtornos mentais entre esses jovens em vários países, mas no Brasil faltam estudos. O objetivo é avaliar a prevalência de transtornos mentais em adolescentes sob medida socioeducativa, considerando como hipótese sua diferença entre gêneros com base no tipo de delito cometido. O instrumento usado foi o K-SADS-PL. Como resultados, alta prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos entre adolescentes infratores, sendo os mais prevalentes: transtorno de déficit de atenção com hiperatividade (33%, transtorno da conduta (77%, transtorno desafiador opositivo (50%, transtornos de ansiedade (70%, transtorno depressivo (50%, abuso de drogas ilícitas (70% e abuso de álcool (52%. O abuso de álcool aumentou em 2,4 vezes a chance de um adolescente cometer delito violento. Esses dados sugerem às autoridades em saúde pública que tanto a detecção quanto o tratamento precoce de transtornos psiquiátricos na infância podem ajudar na prevenção de atos infratores. Sugerem também que o tratamento em saúde mental dos jovens sob custódia da lei deve ser parte fundamental da recuperação e da ressocialização deles.The prevalence of juvenile offenders in Brazil, mainly among young females, is on the increase. The literature on this issue indicates an increased incidence of mental disorders among young offenders in several countries, though studies in Brazil are lacking. The aim of this article is to study the prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents from a socio-educational standpoint, taking as a hypothesis the gender difference and the type of offense committed. The instrument used was the K-SADS-PL. As results, we found a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among juvenile offenders, the most common being: attention deficit hhyperactivity disorder (33.3%; behavioral disorder (77
Shears, Daniel; Nadel, Simon; Gledhill, Julia; Gordon, Fabiana; Garralda, M. Elena
Objective: To assess psychiatric status after meningococcal disease. Method: Cohort study of 66 children (34 boys, 32 girls) ages 4 to 17 years admitted to pediatric hospitals with meningococcal disease. The main outcome measure was psychiatric disorder (1-year period and point prevalence on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia…
Kamphuis, Jeanine; Karsten, Julie; de Weerd, Al; Lancel, Marike
Objective: Poor sleep is known to cause detrimental effects on the course of diverse psychiatric disorders and is a putative risk factor for hostility and aggression. Thus, sleep may be crucial in forensic psychiatric practice. However, little is known about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in
Background: In Nigeria, with a rising incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), there are no controlled studies of specific psychiatric morbidity among sufferers. Objective: To assess the prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders and general cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes mellitus. Method: Using Wing's Present ...
disorders. Hence, as suggested by Clarke and colleagues (1989) 9, patients should not be assessed for mental disorders after ruling out a physical illness .... ns. Table 3: Frequency of the psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorder. Prevalence in study sample (N =258). Major depression. 33.7% (87). Anxiety disorder.
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the study population was found to be 38.3%. Mood disorders accounted for 78.3% of psychiatric disorders (Major Depressive Disorder 52.2%; Dysthymia 26.1%), Anxiety disorders 15.6% (Panic disorder 6.1%; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 5.2%; Social Phobia 4.3%), ...
Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne
Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…
Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.
Paquet, Claire; Magnin, Eloi; Wallon, David; Troussière, Anne-Cécile; Dumurgier, Julien; Jager, Alain; Bellivier, Frank; Bouaziz-Amar, Elodie; Blanc, Frédéric; Beaufils, Emilie; Miguet-Alfonsi, Carole; Quillard, Muriel; Schraen, Susanna; Pasquier, Florence; Hannequin, Didier; Robert, Philippe; Hugon, Jacques; Mouton-Liger, François
Affective and psychotic disorders are mental or behavioural patterns resulting in an inability to cope with life's ordinary demands and routines. These conditions can be a prodromal event of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevalence of underlying AD lesions in psychiatric diseases is unknown, and it would be helpful to determine them in patients. AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (amyloid β, tau and phosphorylated tau) have high diagnostic accuracy, both for AD with dementia and to predict incipient AD (mild cognitive impairment due to AD), and they are sometimes used to discriminate psychiatric diseases from AD. Our objective in the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of CSF biomarkers in a group of patients with psychiatric disease as the main diagnosis. In a multicentre prospective study, clinicians filled out an anonymous questionnaire about all of their patients who had undergone CSF biomarker evaluation. Before and after CSF biomarker results were obtained, clinicians provided a diagnosis with their level of confidence and information about the treatment. We included patients with a psychiatric disorder as the initial diagnosis. In a second part of the study conducted retrospectively in a followed subgroup, clinicians detailed the psychiatric history and we classified patients into three categories: (1) psychiatric symptoms associated with AD, (2) dual diagnosis and (3) cognitive decline not linked to a neurodegenerative disorder. Of 957 patients, 69 had an initial diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Among these 69 patients, 14 (20.2 %) had a CSF AD profile, 5 (7.2 %) presented with an intermediate CSF profile and 50 (72.4 %) had a non-AD CSF profile. Ultimately, 13 (18.8 %) patients were diagnosed with AD. We show that in the AD group psychiatric symptoms occurred later and the delay between the first psychiatric symptoms and the cognitive decline was shorter. This study revealed that about 20 % of patients with a primary
Husain, Farah; Anderson, Mark; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Becknell, Kristin; Blanton, Curtis; Araki, Diane; Vithana, Eeshara Kottegoda
Nearly 2.7 million individuals worldwide are internally displaced (seeking refuge in secure areas of their own country) annually by armed conflict. Although the psychological impact of war has been well documented, less is known about the mental health symptoms of forced displacement among internally displaced persons. To estimate the prevalence of the most common war-related mental health conditions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression, and to assess the association between displacement status and these conditions in postwar Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. Between July and September 2009, a cross-sectional multistage cluster sample survey was conducted among 1517 Jaffna District households including 2 internally displaced persons camps. The response rate was 92% (1448 respondents, 1409 eligible respondents). Two percent of participants (n = 80) were currently displaced, 29.5% (n = 539) were recently resettled, and 68.5% (n = 790) were long-term residents. Bivariable analyses followed by multivariable logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between displacement status and mental health. Symptom criteria of PTSD, anxiety, and depression as measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. The overall prevalences of symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 7.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1%-9.7%), 32.6% (95% CI, 28.5%-36.9%), and 22.2% (95% CI, 18.2%-26.5%), respectively. Currently displaced participants were more likely to report symptoms of PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; 95% CI, 1.28-5.73), anxiety (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.89-4.48), and depression (OR, 4.55; 95% CI, 2.47-8.39) compared with long-term residents. Recently resettled residents were more likely to report symptoms of PTSD (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.11-3.47) compared with long-term residents. However, displacement was no longer associated with mental health symptoms after controlling for trauma exposure
Zafar I. Chaudhry
Full Text Available Data regarding the prevalence of skin diseases reducing the market value of skins and hides and ultimately refined leather were not available in Pakistan. The current study was conducted in the hide/skin markets and abattoirs of Lahore and Faisalabad and tanneries of Sheikhupura, Kasur and Sialkot. The record of various skin diseases and conditions damaging the skin/hide of cattle, goat and sheep was made. Lesions, extent and type of damage were recorded. A total of 21,671 skins / hides were examined out of which 3918 of skins and 600 hides were examined at the abattoirs of Lahore and Faisalabad, 6784 Skins and 1399 hides at hide markets and 8091 skins and 879 hides at tanneries. Out of total 21,671 skins / hides, 66.12% were normal and 33.88% were having some sort of damage. The data were gathered on questionnaire sheets. The prevalence of skin diseases was assessed through Strata V.9 software program. The correlation of the disease and area was analyzed by the chi-square. The prevalence of various diseases and damages due to mal-management in sheep, goats and cattle has been discussed in detail. The damages in goat skins were significantly less as compared with cattle and sheep. However, the type of defects and severity varied amongst various ruminants studied. The most common damages observed, overall in all species studied were atrophy of skin (Thin skin 6.38%, followed in descending order observed was lesions of wounds 4.94%, old lesions of pox 4.82%, flaying cuts 3.17%, tick infestation 3.08%, lesions caused by mites infestation 2.45%, scratches 2.33%, lesions caused by warble fly larvae 1.47%, decomposition 1.32%, charr (fibrosis 1.28%, ringworm infection 1.10%, extensive soiling by dung 0.84%, chronic abscesses 0.46%, and Lice infestation 0.17%.
Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher
Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…
Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.
Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic
Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas
Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…
Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.
Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members
Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.
Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff
Background: It is common knowledge that Nigeria is a source and route of transit for victims of human trafficking. Yet studies on psychiatric morbidity among the victims in the country are rare. In addition, previous studies were among post destination victims. The present study is aimed at determining the prevalence of ...
Miller, R D; Metzner, J L
While legislatively sanctioned discrimination against the mentally ill in general society has largely disappeared, it persists in correctional systems where inmates are denied earn-time reductions in sentences, parole opportunities, placement in less restrictive facilities, and opportunities to participate in sentence-reducing programs because of their status as psychiatric patients or their need for psychotropic medications. The authors discuss the prevalence of such problems from detailed examinations of several correctional systems and from the results of a national survey of correctional medical directors.
Full Text Available Effect of shade, nutrition, height of mowing and density of turf on snow mould (Microdochium nivale prevalence on Lolium perenne under turf maintenance were studied in 2000-2004 at Radzików (central Poland. The materials for studies were cultivars of L. perenne originated from Poland and abroad. The turf experiments were performed in three series of trials where each factor were analysed independently. The cultivars were assessed for: density of turf, the first symptom of disease and snow mould injury in spring. The investigations revealed that shade as well as high nutrition applied in autumn and high mowing of grass influenced significantly snow mould prevalence on L. perenne. The cultivars expressed a wide range of susceptibility to snow mould. The cultivars with high density of turf were the most injured by snow mould. Disease occurred at different periods of autumn and winter, usually before snow fall. Winter weather conditions had a slight effect on changes in snow mould injury of L. perenne in subsequent years.
Langan, Clare; Sarode, Deep P; Russ, Tom C; Shenkin, Susan D; Carson, Alan; Maclullich, Alasdair M J
Delirium is an acute and usually transient severe neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with significant long-term physical morbidity. However, its chronic psychiatric sequelae remain poorly characterized. To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, namely anxiety, depressive, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after delirium, a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases was performed independently by two authors in March 2016. Bibliographies were hand-searched, and a forward- and backward-citation search using Web of Science was performed for all included studies. Of 6411 titles, we included eight prospective cohort studies, including 370 patients with delirium and 1073 without delirium. Studies were heterogeneous and mostly included older people from a range of clinical groups. Consideration of confounders was variable. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was almost three times higher in patients with delirium than in patients without delirium (22.2% vs 8.0%, risk ratio = 2.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.36-5.73). There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of anxiety symptoms between patients with and without delirium. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms after delirium was inconclusive: only one study investigated this and no association between PTSD symptoms after delirium was reported. There is limited published evidence of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms after non-ICU delirium and the strongest evidence is for depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias
Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormones on sexual drive and conditions such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, perimenopausal dysphoria, postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis, dysphoria induced by oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and anabolic steroid-induced aggression. The fact that men and women (as groups) differ with respect to the prevalence of several psychiatric disorders, certain aspects of cognitive function and certain personality traits may possibly also reflect an influence of sex steroids on human behaviour. The heritability of most behavioural traits, including personality, cognitive abilities and susceptibility to psychiatric illness, is considerable, but as yet, only few genes of definite importance in this context have been identified. Given the important role of sex steroids for brain function, it is unfortunate that relatively few studies so far have addressed the possible influence of sex steroid-related genes on interindividual differences with respect to personality, cognition and susceptibility to psychiatric disorders. To facilitate further research in this area, this review provides information on several such genes and summarizes what is currently known with respect to their possible influence on brain function.
Han, Sang Beom; Yang, Hee Kyung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang
Dry eye disease (DED) is a common disease that can impair quality of life significantly. Its prevalence increases with advancing age, and the economic burden of the disease on both a patient and the society is increasing with elongation of life expectancy. The diagnosis and treatment of DED are often difficult due to the discordance between symptoms and signs of the disease. Recent studies have suggested the role of neurological or psychological factors in the development of dry eye symptoms and discrepancy of the symptoms and signs, particularly in elderly patients. In this review, the authors discuss the association of DED with various psychiatric and neurological disorders. In addition to psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep disorders, medications for the psychiatric disorders have association with DED. Neurological disorders, such as neuropathic pain, chronic pain syndrome, peripheral neuropathy and several central nervous system disorders, are related to DED. Treatment of DED, combined with psychiatric or neurological disorders, is also discussed. Attention should be paid to the DED patients with discordant symptoms and signs, and unsatisfactory response to conventional treatment for associated psychiatric or neurological disorders, as well as an integrated treatment approach, could be helpful for these patients.
Wagner, Ernest H; Hoelterhoff, Mark; Chung, Man Cheung
The link between serious illness and subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychiatric comorbidity has been established. In populations with asthma, however, few studies have investigated this link, or what psychological mechanisms mediate it. Healthcare guidance for chronic conditions, and PTSD literature, highlight "agency beliefs" as a direction for investigation. To determine the prevalence of PTSD following asthma attack, and investigate whether agency beliefs mediate PTSD and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in this population. We recruited 110 adults with asthma from online peer support forums. Participants completed the Asthma Symptom Checklist, PTSD Checklist, GHQ-28, General Self-Efficacy scale, and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale. 20% of our sample met criteria for PTSD. Regression results indicated that higher asthma severity significantly predicted PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Lower self-efficacy significantly predicted PTSD symptoms while controlling for asthma severity, however Locus of Control (LoC) did not improve the model further. Self-efficacy, but not LoC, significantly partially mediated the effect of asthma severity on PTSD severity and psychiatric co-morbidity. PTSD and other psychiatric symptoms in asthma populations are mediated in part by self-efficacy. Safeguarding and improving self-efficacy in this population is an important area for future research and intervention.
Frances, A J; Egger, H L
The aim of this paper is to describe the development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), its purposes and limitations, and the psychiatric nosologies which may emerge from advances in psychiatric research and which may supersede the current classification system. A review of the methodology used to develop DSM-IV, considered in the context of current and future psychiatric, neurobiological, and genetic research, was undertaken. The DSM-IV is a descriptive nosology that has shaped psychiatric research and clinical practice by providing agreed-upon definitions of psychiatric disorders based on the current state of empirical data. Despite the critical importance of the DSM system of classification, this complex yet limited nosology will eventually be replaced by simpler, more incisive explanatory models of psychiatric illness that reflect the interplay of biological, psychological, environmental and social variables affecting the expression and treatment of psychiatric disorders. As we continue to understand the pathophysiology of brain disorders, as well as the biological effects of psychiatric interventions, we will be able to move from a descriptive model to an integrative, explanatory model of psychiatric illness.
Kalakoti, Piyush; Sciubba, Daniel M; Pugely, Andrew J; McGirt, Matthew J; Sharma, Kanika; Patra, Devi P; Phan, Kevin; Madhavan, Karthik; Menger, Richard P; Notarianni, Christina; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil; Sun, Hai
Retrospective, observational cohort study. To investigate the impact of psychiatric diseases on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing fusion surgery for LDDD. Limited literature exists on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities on outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD). Adult patients (>18 years) registered in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2002-2011) and undergoing an elective spine fusion for LDDD that met inclusion criteria formed the study population. Defined primary outcome measures were discharge disposition, length of stay (LOS), hospitalization cost, and short-term post-surgical complications [neurological, respiratory, cardiac, gastro-intestinal, wound complication and infections, venous thromboembolism, and acute-renal failure (ARF)]. Multivariable regression techniques were used to explore the association of psychiatric comorbidities on short-term outcomes by adjusting for patient demographics, clinical and hospital characteristics. Of the 126,044 adult patients undergoing fusion surgery for LDDD (mean age: 54.91 years, 58% female) approximately 18% had a psychiatric disease. Multivariable regression analysis revealed patients with psychiatric disease undergoing fusion surgery have higher likelihood for unfavorable discharge (OR 1.41; 95%CI 1.35-1.47;p psychiatric disease were also associated to have higher hospitalization cost (6.3% higher; 95% CI: 5.6%-7.1%;p psychiatric comorbid conditions on short-outcomes in patients undergoing fusions for LDDD. The data provides supporting evidence for adequate preoperative planning and post-surgical care including consultation for mental health for favorable outcomes. 4.
Miura, Anna; Tu, Trang T H; Shinohara, Yukiko; Mikuzuki, Lou; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Sugawara, Shiori; Suga, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Watanabe, Motoko; Umezaki, Yojiro; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Motomura, Haruhiko; Takenoshita, Miho; Maeda, Hidefumi; Toyofuku, Akira
Atypical Odontalgia (AO) is a condition characterized by tooth pain with no apparent cause. Although psychiatric comorbidity seems to be very common, it has rarely been studied. To clarify the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the clinical features in patients with AO, we retrospectively evaluated their examination records. Clinical features and psychiatric diagnoses of 383 patients with AO were investigated by reviewing patients' medical records and referral letters. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We also analyzed visual analogue scale (VAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) scores. Of the 383 patients with AO, 177 (46.2%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. The most common were depressive disorders (15.4%) and anxiety disorders (10.1%). Serious psychotic disorders such as bipolar disorder (3.0%) and schizophrenia (1.8%) were rare. Dental trigger of AO was reported in 217 (56.7%) patients. There were no significant correlations between psychiatric comorbidities and most of the demographic features. Higher VAS and SDS scores, higher frequency of sleep disturbance, and higher ratings of "Fearful" and "Punishing-cruel" descriptors of the SF-MPQ were found in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. About half of AO patients had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Dental procedures are not necessarily causative factors of AO. In AO patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, pain might have a larger emotional component than a sensory one. VAS, SDS, and SF-MPQ scores might aid in the noticing of underlying comorbid psychiatric disorders in AO patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grant, Jon E; Levine, Laura; Kim, Daniel; Potenza, Marc N
The authors' goal was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients. They used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, a semistructured clinical interview assessing pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, to screen 204 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. One hundred twelve of the inpatients were women (54.9%), and the mean age of the 204 inpatients was 40.5 years (SD=13.2, range=18-83). Patients whose screen was positive for an impulse control disorder were evaluated with structured clinical interviews. Sixty-three patients (30.9%) were diagnosed with at least one current impulse control disorder. The most common impulse control disorders were compulsive buying (N=19 [9.3%]), kleptomania (N=16 [7.8%]), and pathological gambling (N=14 [6.9%]). Patients with and without co-occurring impulse control disorders did not differ significantly from each other on demographic measures or number or type of psychiatric diagnoses other than impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders appear common among psychiatric inpatients. Additional, larger studies are needed to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in the general population and specific psychiatric groups.
Cooper, Sally-Ann; Hughes-McCormack, Laura; Greenlaw, Nicola; McConnachie, Alex; Allan, Linda; Baltzer, Marion; McArthur, Laura; Henderson, Angela; Melville, Craig; McSkimming, Paula; Morrison, Jill
Background: In the UK, general practitioners/family physicians receive pay for performance on management of long-term conditions, according to best-practice indicators. Method: Management of long-term conditions was compared between 721 adults with intellectual disabilities and the general population (n = 764,672). Prevalence of long-term…
Ji Nam Park
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector, shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.
Park, Ji Nam; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females). Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector), shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression.
Woestelandt, Laure; Touhami, Fatima; Radjack, Rahmeth; Moro, Marie Rose; Lachal, Jonathan
The various traumatic events experienced by young isolated foreigners can weaken them psychologically and cause psychiatric decompensation. A qualitative study, carried out by the Maison de Solenn and the Avicenne hospital, aimed to provide better understanding of the conditions for initiating psychiatric care with these adolescents. The different results show that this type of care for these young migrants must be cross-cultural and multi-disciplinary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Niraula, Kiran; Kohrt, Brandon A; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina; Thapa, Narbada; Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Pathak, Rahul; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Ghimire, Pukar; Regmi, Bhawana; Macfarlane, Elizabeth K; Shrestha, Roshni
Diabetes is a growing health problem in South Asia. Despite an increasing number of studies exploring causal pathways between diabetes and depression in high-income countries (HIC), the pathway between the two disorders has received limited attention in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of this study is to investigate the potential pathway of diabetes contributing to depression, to assess the prevalence of depression, and to evaluate the association of depression severity with diabetes severity. This study uses a clinical sample of persons living with diabetes sequelae without a prior psychiatric history in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 persons living with type-2 diabetes attending tertiary centers in Kathmandu, Nepal. Patients with at least three months of diagnosed diabetes and no prior depression diagnosis or family history of depression were recruited randomly using serial selection from outpatient medicine and endocrine departments. Blood pressure, anthropometrics (height, weight, waist and hip circumference) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured at the time of interview. Depression was measured using the validated Nepali version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia). The proportion of respondents with depression was 40.3%. Using multivariable analyses, a 1-unit (%) increase in HbA1c was associated with a 2-point increase in BDI score. Erectile dysfunction was associated with a 5-point increase in BDI-Ia. A 10 mmHg increase in blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) was associated with a 1.4-point increase in BDI-Ia. Other associated variables included waist-hip-ratio (9-point BDI-Ia increase), at least one diabetic complication (1-point BDI-Ia increase), treatment non-adherence (1-point BDI-Ia increase), insulin use (2-point BDI-Ia increase), living in a nuclear family (2-point BDI-Ia increase), and lack of family history of diabetes (1-point BDI-Ia increase). Higher monthly income was associated
Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina
Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.
Morton, W. Alexander
Background: Cocaine is an addictive drug that produces numerous psychiatric symptoms, syndromes, and disorders. The symptoms include agitation, paranoia, hallucinations, delusions, violence, as well as suicidal and homicidal thinking. They can be primary to the drug's effect or secondary to exacerbation of comorbid psychiatric disorders.
Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M
to do in the present study. We designed a descriptive prospective study and included information from Danish population registers to study first-time ever and recurrent psychiatric episodes during the perinatal period, including treatment at psychiatric facilities and general practitioners (GPs...
Zago-Gomes Maria P.
Full Text Available This report describes the prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in children from elementary school in the Municipality of Vila Velha, ES, Brazil. Anti-HAV antibodies were investigated by ELISA method in the serum of 606 children (four to fourteen years old from three elementary schools, located in neighborhoods with varying household monthly income levels: São José School, 200 chidren, household income higher than US$700; São Torquato School, 273 children, US$200 to 300; and Cobi School, 133 children, less than US$200. From each children data on age, gender, skin color, sanitary conditions, frequency of contact with sea or river water and family history of hepatitis were recorded. Anti-HAV antibodies were present in 38.6% of all children, 9% in São José School, 49.1% in São Torquato School and 61.7% in Cobi School. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation of positive anti-HAV test with age, non white color of the skin, absence of sewage treatment and domestic water filter, and a past history of hepatitis. The prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in school children in Vila Velha, ES, was lower than that observed in the same age group in North and Northeast Brazil and was significantly higher in children from families with low socioeconomic status. In addition the results indicate a changing epidemiologic pattern of hepatitis A in our country, with an increasing number of children and adolescents with high risk for HAV infection, mainly in high socioeconomic class. A consideration must be given to the feasibility of vaccination programs for children and adolescents in our country.
Ingstrup, Katja G; Liu, Xiaoqin; Gasse, Christiane; Debost, Jean-Christophe P; Munk-Olsen, Trine
Prescription drug use during pregnancy has increased during the past decades. However, little is known about prescription drug use for high-risk pregnancies. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of redeemed prescriptions in Danish pregnant women with and without previous psychiatric history. A Danish population-based descriptive study of 981 392 pregnancies ending in live-born singletons by 586 988 women aged 15 to 55 years between 1997 and 2012, of which 113 449 (11.6%) pregnancies were by women with a psychiatric history prior to the index pregnancy. All prescription drugs redeemed during pregnancy were identified, and dispensing patterns among the women were reported by therapeutic classes of drugs, calendar year of childbirth, and trimester. Overall, women with psychiatric history prior to pregnancy were more likely to fill a prescription (75.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 75.5-76.0%), compared with women with no psychiatric history (64.5%; 95% CI, 64.4-64.6%). The difference was observed even when psychotropic drug use was excluded and in all therapeutic classes except for antineoplastic and immunomodulating drugs. The most commonly prescribed drugs were anti-infectives. Approximately 44.7% (95% CI, 44.5-45.0%) of women with psychiatric history and 31.3% (95% CI, 31.2-31.4%) of women with no psychiatric history redeemed more than one therapeutic class of drugs. Women with a psychiatric history were more likely to redeem prescriptions during pregnancy across almost all drug classes, especially anti-infectives. Two thirds of all women redeemed at least one prescription drug during pregnancy and one third more than one drug class. KEY POINTS We mapped prescription drug use of almost 600 000 women during almost one million pregnancies with focus on women with a history of psychiatric disorder before conception compared with women with no such history. Pregnant women with a previous psychiatric disorder were more likely to redeem prescription drugs compared
Full Text Available Compared to the association between cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorders, relatively little is known about the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and psychiatric disorders. To identify the psychiatric correlates of smokeless tobacco use, the analysis used a national representative sample from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC wave 1. Smokeless tobacco use was classified as exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco at some time in the smokeless tobacco user's life. Lifetime psychiatric disorders were obtained via structured diagnostic interviews. The results show that the prevalence of lifetime exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both snuff and chewing tobacco was 2.16%, 2.52%, and 2.79%, respectively. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and cigarette smoking, the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco in persons with panic disorder and specific phobia were 1.53 and 1.41 times the odds in persons without those disorders, respectively. The odds of exclusive snuff use, exclusive chewing tobacco, and dual use of both products for individuals with alcohol use disorder were 1.97, 2.01, and 2.99 times the odds for those without alcohol use disorder, respectively. Respondents with cannabis use disorder were 1.44 times more likely to use snuff exclusively than those without cannabis use disorder. Respondents with inhalant/solvent use disorder were associated with 3.33 times the odds of exclusive chewing tobacco. In conclusion, this study highlights the specific links of anxiety disorder, alcohol, cannabis, and inhalant/solvent use disorders with different types of smokeless tobacco use.
Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie
suicides with schizophrenia, with other diagnosed psychiatric disorder and without psychiatric disorders. The result indicated that each groups showed their unique characteristics, which gave us new viewpoints to control and prevent the prevalence of suicides according to their different characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.
Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.
The present study used data from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653) to examine lifetime Axis I psychiatric comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Lifetime prevalences±standard errors of PTSD and partial PTSD were 6.4%±0.18 and 6.6%±0.18, respectively. Rates of PTSD and partial PTSD were higher among women (8.6%±0.26 and 8.6%±0.26) than men (4.1%±0.19 and 4.5%±0.21). Respondents with both PTSD and partial PTSD most commonly reported unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and sexual assault as their worst stressful experiences. PTSD and partial PTSD were associated with elevated lifetime rates of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. Respondents with partial PTSD generally had intermediate odds of comorbid Axis I disorders and psychosocial impairment relative to trauma controls and full PTSD. PMID:21168991
Kinnear, Deborah; Morrison, Jill; Allan, Linda; Henderson, Angela; Smiley, Elita
Objectives To investigate the prevalence of multimorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities with and without Down syndrome. Design Large, population-based cross-sectional study. Setting The geographical area of one Health Board, Scotland. Participants All adults (aged 16+ years) known to general practitioners to have intellectual disabilities and adults receiving services provided or paid by intellectual disabilities health or social work services. 1023/1562 potential participants took part (65.5%); 562 (54.9%) men and 461 (45.1%) women, aged 43.9 years (16–83 years). 186 had Down syndrome and 837 did not. Main outcome measures The prevalence of International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, physical health conditions and multimorbidity detected at a comprehensive health assessment. Results The mean number of physical health conditions/participant was 11.04, and 98.7% had multimorbidity. The most prevalent conditions are painful and/or disabling and, in some cases, life threatening. The five most prevalent were visual impairment, obesity, epilepsy, constipation and ataxic/gait disorders. The pattern of multimorbidity differs from that seen in the general population and is spread across the entire adult life course. The extent of multimorbidity in the adults with Down syndrome was similar to that of the adults without Down syndrome, while the prevalence of individual conditions differed. Conclusions This robustly designed study with a large population found an extremely high prevalence of multimorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities across the entire adult life course. This increases complexity of medical management that secondary healthcare services and medical education are not yet geared towards, as these tend to focus on single conditions. This is in addition to complexity due to limitations in communication and understanding. As the physical conditions within their multimorbidity also differ from that seen in the older
Fielding, Roger A; Vellas, Bruno; Evans, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Morley, John E; Newman, Anne B; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bauer, Juergen; Breuille, Denis; Cederholm, Tommy; Chandler, Julie; De Meynard, Capucine; Donini, Lorenzo; Harris, Tamara; Kannt, Aimo; Keime Guibert, Florence; Onder, Graziano; Papanicolaou, Dimitris; Rolland, Yves; Rooks, Daniel; Sieber, Cornel; Souhami, Elisabeth; Verlaan, Sjors; Zamboni, Mauro
Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability, and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy, on November 18, 2009, to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. Although cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the 2 conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1 m/s(-1). Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s(-1) and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg, appendicular mass relative to ht(2) that is ≤ 7.23 kg/m(2) in men and ≤ 5.67 kg/m(2) in women). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization, and death. Copyright © 2011 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jessurun, Janique G; van Harten, Peter N; Egberts, Toine C G; Pijl, Ysbrand J; Wilting, Ingeborg; Tenback, Diederik E
Objective. Constipation is a prevalent problem in patients with psychiatric disorders; it reduces quality of life and may lead to severe complications. The prevalence distribution of constipation across all psychiatric diagnoses in patients with severe mental illness (SMI) has hardly been studied.
A history of psychiatry cannot step back from the question of psychiatric diseases, but the field has in general viewed psychiatric entities as manifestations of the human state rather than medical diseases. There is little acknowledgement that a true disease is likely to rise and fall in incidence. In outlining the North Wales History of Mental Illness project, this paper seeks to provide some evidence that psychiatric diseases do rise and fall in incidence, along with evidence as to how such ideas are received by other historians of psychiatry and by biological psychiatrists. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gokce Nur Say
Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113
Panza, Francesco; Lozupone, Madia; Stella, Eleonora; Lofano, Lucia; Gravina, Carolina; Urbano, Maria; Daniele, Antonio; Bellomo, Antonello; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide
Therapeutic failures (TFs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs), together with the recurring nature of the clinical course of psychiatric disorders, mainly bipolar disorders (BDs), strongly contributed to the prevalence and frequency of hospital readmissions observed in these patients. This is the revolving door (RD) condition, dramatically rising costs for the management of these patients in psychiatric settings. Areas covered: We searched in the medical literature until May 2016 to review the role of functional variants in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene on observed ADRs and TFs in RD patients with BDs, conferring a different capacity to metabolize psychotropic drugs. Expert commentary: CYP2D6 functional polymorphisms might directly contributed to the prevalence and frequency of the RD condition, commonly observed in BD patients. Although several environmental and socio-demographic/diagnostic variables such as alcohol/drug abuse, and medication non-compliance accounted for a significant proportion of the ability to predict RD prevalence and frequency, the pharmacogenetics of CYP, particularly CYP2D6, may help to identify BD patients at risk for ADRs and TFs. These patients may be addressed towards alternative treatments, thus improving their quality of life, and reducing RD prevalence and frequency and the overall costs for their management.
Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Min; Kang, Minah
This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country.
Scott, Fiona J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol
A study investigated the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children (ages 5-11) in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Using 1999 data from public records, screening instruments, educational psychology and special education needs coordinator records, a prevalence of almost 0.6% was found, with a ratio of 4:1 males to females. (Contains…
Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anne Marie Morse
Full Text Available Narcolepsy and psychiatric disorders have a significant but unrecognized relationship, which is an area of evolving interest, but unfortunately, the association is poorly understood. It is not uncommon for the two to occur co-morbidly. However, narcolepsy is frequently misdiagnosed initially as a psychiatric condition, contributing to the protracted time to accurate diagnosis and treatment. Narcolepsy is a disabling neurodegenerative condition that carries a high risk for development of social and occupational dysfunction. Deterioration in function may lead to the secondary development of psychiatric symptoms. Inversely, the development of psychiatric symptoms can lead to the deterioration in function and quality of life. The overlap in pharmaceutical intervention may further enhance the difficulty to distinguish between diagnoses. Comprehensive care for patients with narcolepsy should include surveillance for psychiatric illness and appropriate treatment when necessary. Further research is necessary to better understand the underlying pathophysiology between psychiatric disease and narcolepsy.
Newson, Rachel S; Karlsson, Hasse; Tiemeier, Henning
Psychiatric epidemiology is an important cornerstone of research in psychiatry and integral for the treatment and care of people suffering from psychiatric disorders. However, psychiatric epidemiology is a difficult science, which is often beset with methodological problems. In light of this, the current review sought to explore 13 of the common methodological issues in psychiatric epidemiology. Many methodological problems result from misunderstandings. As such, we sought to highlight these problems, provide evidence to counteract the myths surrounding these problems and subsequently provide recommendations to overcome these problems. To highlight and clarify these issues, examples are provided from current psychiatric literature. Areas discussed in the review include problems with: taxonometry of disorders, sole reliance on self-reports, single-question diagnoses, baseline participation rates, measurement of lifetime prevalence, inconsistency of multiple informants, selection of covariates, testing of interactions, correction for multiple testing, the intermittent measurement of disorders during follow-up, evaluation of causal associations, data invalidation related to loss from follow-up and the publication of negative findings. Many methodological myths prevail in the area of epidemiology and this review endeavoured to elucidate and clarify these. This review was developed as a teaching tool for students, clinicians and researchers.
Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Tran, Susan T; Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Ting, Tracy V; Sil, Soumitri; Strotman, Daniel; Noll, Jennie G; Powers, Scott W; Arnold, Lesley M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita
Adolescents with juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) have increased rates of psychiatric disorders, but to our knowledge no studies have examined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with JFM when they enter young adulthood. This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young adults diagnosed with JFM during adolescence and the relationship between mental health diagnoses and physical functioning. Ninety-one young adults (mean age 21.60, SD 1.96) with a history of JFM being followed as part of a prospective longitudinal study and 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 21.57, SD 1.55) completed a structured interview of psychiatric diagnoses and a self-report measure of physical impairment. Young adults with a history of JFM were more likely to have current and lifetime histories of anxiety disorders (70.3% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (33.3% for both, both p < 0.001). Individuals with JFM were also more likely to have current and lifetime histories of major mood disorders (29.7% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (10% and 40%, p < 0.05). The presence of a current major mood disorder was significantly related to impairment in physical functioning [F (1, 89) = 8.30, p < 0.01] and role limitations attributable to a physical condition [F (1, 89) = 7.09, p < 0.01]. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent in young adulthood for individuals with a history of JFM, and a current major mood disorder is associated with greater physical impairment. Greater attention to early identification and treatment of mood disorders in patients with JFM is warranted.
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders among children and young persons appearing in the Nairobi juvenile court, Kenya. Design: A point prevalence survey. Setting: The Nairobi Juvenile Court, Kenya. Subjects: Ninety (sixty-four males and twenty-six females) children and young ...
Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests and comorbid psychiatric disorders among patients with anorexia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified in the anorexia nervosa DSM-IV criteria.
Goh, Kye Hock Robin; Lee, Ee Lian
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are on the rise in Singapore. Abnormal liver function tests have been reported for up to 12.2% of patients with AN. These patients are also known to present with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This study aims to investigate the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and the severity of abnormal liver function tests, and between BMI and the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders. A retrospective cohort analysis of 373 patients diagnosed with AN or EDNOS at a tertiary hospital was performed. The clinical course of transaminitis and comorbid psychiatric disorders was correlated with the patient's BMI. Patients with a BMI of ≥ 16.6 kg/m(2) at their first consult had a significantly lower risk of having comorbid psychiatric disorders (χ(2) = 32.08, p disorders as compared to patients from the other BMI groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.21). On the other hand, patients with a BMI of < 14.6 kg/m(2) had a significantly higher risk of having transaminitis (χ(2) = 72.5, p < 0.001). They were 11.1 times more likely to develop transaminitis as compared to patients with a BMI of ≥ 14.6 kg/m(2) (OR 11.05). Severity of BMI can be used by clinicians as an indicator to assess for secondary psychiatric comorbidities and/or transaminitis during the first consultation. This could help reduce the morbidity and mortality rates in patients with AN or EDNOS.
Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Ramírez, Sandra; Rodríguez, María Nelcy
The study of mental disorders in people with chronic conditions recognises the importance of actively seeking and treating both, since chronic conditions have a higher prevalence than mental disorders and their comorbidity generates greater burden than if each one was considered separately. To measure the prevalence of mood disorders and anxiety in a Colombian population of 12 years and older and with and without different chronic conditions. The information is taken from the National Mental Health Survey 2015 in Colombia, which was an observational cross-sectional study with national representativeness for the age groups measured 12-17, 18-44, and 45 and older. Disorders measured where mood disorders and anxiety social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder, and panic disorder in the past 12 months, and several chronic conditions. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed for these conditions. The highest prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders were found in people with gastrointestinal diseases, followed by those with chronic pain, heart, and lung diseases, which corresponded to 27.1%, 13.3%, 12.2%, and 11.5%, respectively, in those between 18 and 44 years old, and 15.9%, 12.2%, 8.0%, and 7.4% of those 45 and older, respectively. This was greater than the prevalence of these mental disorders in people with no chronic condition, where the prevalence is 3.5% in the younger, and 1.1% in the older group. However, the risk of these mental disorders is higher in older people. Thus, in those with gastrointestinal diseases when compared to people of the same age without any chronic condition the prevalence is 14.9 times higher, but for the same disease in the younger group it is 7.8. These findings link chronic conditions with a higher prevalence of mental disorders, which in the present study also highlights the greater comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier Espa
Brownlow, Janeese A; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Boland, Elaine M; Brewster, Glenna S; Gehrman, Philip R
There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity of insomnia and psychiatric disorders, but much of the existing data is based on small samples and does not assess the full diagnostic criteria for each disorder. Further, the exact nature of the relationship between these conditions and their impact on cognitive problems are under-researched in military samples. Data were collected from the All Army Study of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (unweighted N = 21, 449; weighted N = 674,335; 18-61 years; 13.5% female). Participants completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire to assess for insomnia disorder and a self-administered version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales to assess for psychiatric disorders and cognitive problems. Military soldiers with current major depressive episode (MDE) had the highest prevalence of insomnia disorder (INS; 85.0%), followed by current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 82.6%) and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 69.7%), respectively. Significant interactions were found between insomnia and psychiatric disorders; specifically, MDE, PTSD, and GAD status influenced the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems. Cross-sectional nature of the assessment and the absence of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Psychiatric disorders moderated the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems, suggesting that psychiatric disorders contribute unique variance to cognitive problems even though they are associated with insomnia disorder. Results highlight the importance of considering both insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits in military soldiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Estudio de la prevalencia de trastorno mental grave (TMG en los centros penitenciarios de Puerto I, II y III del Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz: nuevas estrategias en la asistencia psiquiátrica en las prisiones Study of the prevalence of severe mental disorder in the penitentiaries Puerto I, II and III of Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz: new strategies of psychiatric care in prison
Full Text Available Objetivo: Se pretende estudiar la prevalencia de TMG (trastorno mental grave en los internos recluidos en las tres prisiones de Cádiz (España que solicitaron asistencia psiquiátrica. Material y método: Estudio transversal que analiza la demanda asistencial psiquiátrica en los centros penitenciarios de Puerto I, II y III del Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz durante un año. Resultados: Se estudian 128 pacientes. Los diagnósticos psiquiátricos más prevalentes fueron los trastornos de personalidad (F60-69 (35.2%, el grupo de esquizofrenia, trastorno esquizotípico y trastorno de ideas delirantes (F20-29 (25.8% y los trastornos mentales y del comportamiento debidos al consumo de sustancias psicótropas (F10-19 (16.4%. El 46.1% corresponden a trastornos mentales graves (TMG. Discusión: Se confirma que hay una alta prevalencia de TMG en los presos de Cádiz, por lo que se precisa una elevada asignación de recursos para atender este grupo de enfermedades.Introduction: In recent years it has been observed that there is a high level of severe mental disorder within the Spanish prison system. Methods and Materials: A one year descriptive and transversal study of the psychiatric health care demand in the prisons Puerto I, II and III of Puerto de Santa Maria (Cadiz. Results: Of the 128 patients studied, the psychiatric diagnostics with highest prevalence were personality disorders (F60-69 at 35.16%, the next group was psychosis (F20-29 at 25.78%, and in third place mental and behaviour disorders due to use of psychotropic substances (F10-19 at 16.41%. 46.09% suffered conditions which are categorised as severe mental disorders. Discussion: This study confirms the high levels of severe mental disorder in prisons located in the area of the Puerto Real Hospital. We are making efforts to improve on psychiatric health care provided to these patients by working closely with the Prison system.
Full Text Available Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002.All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419 were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%, of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men, 25% women in 199 enterprises are included in this study.The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males ¯x = 43.9, 40.7; females ¯x = 37.9, 33.9. Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system.In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002.In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002.The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013.Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are
Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002. All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419) were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%), of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men and 25% women) in 199 enterprises are included in this study. The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males [Formula: see text]; females [Formula: see text]). Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013, 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system. In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men, and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002. In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years) to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002. The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013. Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are
Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002. All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419) were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%), of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men and 25% women) in 199 enterprises are included in this study. The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males x¯= 43.9, 40.7; females x¯= 37.9, 33.9). Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013, 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system. In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men, and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002. In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years) to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002. The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013. Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are
Waldinger, Marcel D
Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bhola, Poornima; Kapur, Malavika
The increasing focus on child mental health in developing countries like India points to the importance of epidemiological data in developing training, service and research paradigms.This review attempts to synthesise and evaluate the available research on the prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India and highlight significant conceptual and methodological trends. It identified 55 epidemiological studies conducted between 1964 and 2002 in the community and school setti...
Lin Hung-Yen; Huang Chih-Kun; Tai Chi-Ming; Lin Hung-Yu; Kao Yu-Hsi; Tsai Ching-Chung; Hsuan Chin-Feng; Lee Su-Long; Chi Shu-Ching; Yen Yung-Chieh
Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were re...
Davis, Melinda M; Spurlock, Margaret; Dulacki, Kristen; Meath, Thomas; Li, Hsin-Fang Grace; McCarty, Dennis; Warne, Donald; Wright, Bill; McConnell, K John
Research on urban/rural disparities in alcohol, drug use, and mental health (ADM) conditions is inconsistent. This study describes ADM condition prevalence and access to care across diverse geographies in a predominantly rural state. Multimodal cross-sectional survey in South Dakota from November 2013 to October 2014, with oversampling in rural areas and American Indian reservations. Measures assessed demographic characteristics, ADM condition prevalence using clinical screenings and participant self-report, perceived need for treatment, health service usage, and barriers to obtaining care. We tested for differences among urban, rural, isolated, and reservation geographic areas, controlling for participant age and gender. We analyzed 7,675 surveys (48% response rate). Generally, ADM condition prevalence rates were not significantly different across geographies. However, respondents in isolated and reservation areas were significantly less likely to have access to primary care. Knowledge of treatment options was significantly lower in isolated regions and individuals in reservation areas had significantly lower odds of reporting receipt of all needed care. Across the sample there was substantial discordance between ADM clinical screenings and participant self-reported need; 98.1% of respondents who screened positive for alcohol or drug misuse and 63.8% of respondents who screened positive for a mental health condition did not perceive a need for care. In a predominantly rural state, geographic disparities in ADM conditions are related to differences in access as opposed to prevalence, particularly for individuals in isolated and reservation areas. Educational interventions about ADM condition characteristics may be as important as improving access to care. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Pekurinen, Virve; Willman, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Välimäki, Maritta
Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine). A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 emergency nurses) participated in the study. Subjective measures were used to assess both the occurrence of patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses (self-rated health, sleep disturbances, psychological distress and perceived work ability). Binary logistic regression with interaction terms was used to compare the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported all types of patient aggression more frequently than medical and surgical nurses, whereas nurses working in emergency settings reported physical violence and verbal aggression more frequently than psychiatric nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported poor self-rated health and reduced work ability more frequently than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, whereas medical and surgical nurses reported psychological distress and sleep disturbances more often. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced at least one type of patient aggression or mental abuse in the previous year, were less likely to suffer from psychological distress and sleep disturbances compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced physical assaults and armed threats were less likely to suffer from sleep disturbances compared to nurses working in emergency settings. Compared to medical and surgical nurses, psychiatric nurses face patient aggression more often, but certain types of aggression are more common in emergency settings. Psychiatric nurses have worse subjective
Full Text Available The right to respect the dignity of children using medical services in psychiatric units is regulated among other by the Patients’ Rights act and the Patients’ Rights Ombudsman act, Physician and Dentist Professions Act and the Medical Ethics Code. Although since 1994 the Mental Health Protection Act has existed, some information appears about the violation of the dignity of the child in psychiatric hospitals. Material and methods: Analysis of the information obtained from different sources (the media, the Internet, from patients and/or their legal guardians, peror Psychiatric Hospital Patients’ Ombudsman allowed to draw up a list of repeated situations in psychiatric units for children and adolescents where the dignity of the juvenile/minor patient may be violated. Results: The most frequently reported issues are: reduction of the minor/juvenile patients’ access to “privileges” (such as direct contacts with colleagues, lack of privacy (such as controls in toilets and bathrooms, irregularities during the use of direct coercion, lack of regular access to a mobile phone, the Internet, stereo equipment, lack of juvenile/minor patients’ consent for treatment (including the double permission, engaging the patients to cleaning work, and medical staff’s interventions of educational and corrective character (the patients perceive this as the use of penalties. Discussion: It was found out that the reaction of a minor/juvenile psychiatric unit patient or her/his carers to the detachment from her/his surroundings, favourite activities or things, and educational interventions are related to precise determination of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and rules prevalent in the group, privileges, consequences, and application of behavioural effects in the form of negative reinforcements (so-called penalties and positive reinforcements (rewards. A strong response to infringement of the rules may be perceived by the patients as a violation of
Chronic disruptive pain in emerging adults with and without chronic health conditions and the moderating role of psychiatric disorders: Evidence from a population-based cross-sectional survey in Canada.
Qadeer, Rana A; Shanahan, Lilly; Ferro, Mark A
There has been a growth in the proportion of emerging adults vulnerable to pain-related sequelae of chronic health conditions (CHCs). Given the paucity of research during this important developmental period, this study investigated the association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain among emerging adults and the extent to which psychiatric disorders moderate this association. Data come from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH). This cross-sectional survey included 5987 participants that were 15-30 years of age and self-reported their CHCs (n=2460, 41%) and the extent to which pain impacted daily functioning using items from the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI 3). Group comparisons between respondents with CHCs and healthy controls were made using chi-square tests. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed from ordinal logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Product-term interactions between CHCs and psychiatric disorders were included in the models to explore moderating effects. All analyses were weighted to maintain representativeness of the study sample to the Canadian population. The mean age of participants was 23.5 (SE 0.1) years and 48% were female. Compared to healthy controls, a greater proportion of participants with CHCs reported having chronic pain (20.3% vs. 4.5%, p<0.001). Among those with chronic pain, respondents with CHCs reported a greater number of activities prevented because of chronic disruptive pain (χ 2 =222.28, p<0.001). Similarly, in logistic regression models, participants with CHCs had greater odds of reporting chronic disruptive pain (OR=4.94, 95% CI=4.08-5.99). Alcohol (β=-0.66; p=0.025) and drug abuse/dependence disorders (β=-1.24; p=0.012) were found to moderate the association between CHCs and chronic disruptive pain. Specifically, the probability of chronic disruptive pain was higher for emerging adults without CHCs and with alcohol or
Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185
Matali, José Luis; Andión, Oscar; Pardo, Marta; Iniesta, Raquel; Serrano, Eduard; San, Luis
In recent years, both the prevalence of drug use and related child and adolescent psychiatric emergencies have risen sharply. There are few studies about the impact on child and adolescent emergency services. This study has a twofold aim. The first is to describe the prevalence of substance use disorders, mental disorders and dual diagnosis (substance use problems plus mental disorder) in adolescents in psychiatric emergency service. The second is to analyze clinical and healthcare differences between patients with dual diagnosis and patients with a mental disorder without substance use disorder.We retrospectively reviewed 4012 discharge forms for emergencies treated at the psychiatric emergency department during the period 2007-2009. We obtained a sample of 1795 visits. This sample was divided into two groups: the dual diagnosis group (n = 477) and the psychiatric disorder group (n = 1318).The dual diagnosis group accounted for 26.5% of psychiatric emergencies analyzed. Compared to the psychiatric disorder group,the dual diagnosis group had significantly more conduct disorders, social problems, involuntariness in the visit, less hospital admissions and less connection with the healthcare network.Adolescents with a dual diagnosis account for a high percentage of visits at child and adolescent psychiatric emergency services. This patient group requires specialized care both at emergency services and in specific units. Accordingly, these units should play a triple role when handling dual diagnosis: detection, brief treatment and referral to a specialised unit.
Bersani, F Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella
Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.
F. Saverio Bersani
Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.
Prevalence of eating disorders and psychiatric comorbidity in a clinical sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients Prevalência de transtornos alimentares e comorbidade psiquiátrica em uma amostra clínica de pacientes com diabetes mellitus do tipo 2
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A few studies have shown high rates of eating disorders and psychiatric morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: disturbed eating behavior and psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of T2DM patients. METHODS: Seventy type 2 diabetes mellitus patients between 40 and 65 years of age (mean, 52.9 ± 6.8 from a diabetes outpatient clinic were sequentially evaluated. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Binge Eating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were used to assess eating disorders and other psychiatric comorbidity. In addition to the descriptive analysis of the data, we compared groups divided based on the presence of obesity (evaluated by the body mass index or an eating disorder. RESULTS: Twenty percent of the sample displayed an eating disorder. Binge eating disorder was the predominant eating disorder diagnosis (10%. Overall, the group of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented rates of psychiatric comorbidity comparable to those seen in their nonobese counterparts. However, the presence of an eating disorder was associated with a significant increase in the frequency of anxiety disorders (57.1% x 28.6%; p = 0.044. CONCLUSIONS: In our study sample, the occurrence of eating disorders was increased compared to rates observed in the general population, with the predominance of binge eating disorder. The presence of an eating disorder in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was associated with higher rates of anxiety disorders.INTRODUÇÃO: Alguns estudos têm demonstrado uma freqüência elevada de transtornos alimentares (TA e morbidade psiquiátrica em pacientes com diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM2. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a presença de alterações do comportamento alimentar e comorbidade psiquiátrica em uma amostra de pacientes com diabetes mellitus do tipo 2. MÉTODOS: Setenta pacientes com diabetes mellitus do tipo 2, com idade entre 40 e 65 anos (média de 52,9 ± 6,8, em tratamento
Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio
The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.
Law enforcement officers all across the world are exposed to violence, confrontation, and traumatic incidents. They regularly witness death and suffering and are at risk of personal injury. Psychiatric sequelae include an increased risk for trauma-related symptoms, depression, alcohol-use disorders, and stress-related medical conditions. Law enforcement officers have been applying for early disability retirement pensions at an increased rate for stress-related psychiatric and medical conditions. As a result, law enforcement agencies are prematurely losing valuable resources, officers with training and experience. Departments have become proactive in trying to address mental health issues to prevent psychiatric disability by implementing employee wellness plans and stress reduction interventions. Programs have been developed to mitigate the effects of stress on law enforcement personnel. Many law enforcement agencies have developed strategies to encourage early confidential referral for psychiatric treatment. They utilize peer support groups and employee assistance programs and develop alliances with mental health professionals. When these approaches fail, a fitness for duty process can be used to identify impairment in work functioning due to psychiatric factors with the prospect of later returning the officer to full duty. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Joginder Pal Attri
Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.
Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.
This paper states that generally psychiatric disorders contribute significantly to disease burden worldwide and that the prognosis of many of these disorders is poor. It emphasizes that there is no system of therapeutics that treats all conditions; the orthodox psychiatric system being no exception. That being the case the ...
Følling, Ingrid Sørdal; Kulseng, Bård; Helvik, Anne-Sofie
Background Overweight, obesity and associated conditions are major public health concerns in Norway. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population in Norway is increasing, but there are limited data on how the situation is in hospitals. This study aimed to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and explore the associations of overweight, obesity and its related medical conditions in an adult in-patient sample at specified somatic and psychiatric departments at St....
van Schagen, Annette M; Lancee, Jaap; de Groot, Izaäk W; Spoormaker, Victor I; van den Bout, Jan
Nightmares are associated with psychopathology and daily distress. They are highly prevalent in a psychiatric population (30%). Currently, imagery rehearsal therapy (IRT) is the treatment of choice for nightmares. With IRT, the script of the nightmare is changed into a new dream, which is imagined during the day. However, the effects of IRT in a psychiatric population remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of IRT in a heterogeneous psychiatric population. Between January 2006 and July 2010, 90 patients with psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV-TR) were randomized to IRT or treatment-as-usual conditions. IRT consisted of 6 individual sessions added to the treatment as usual. Nightmare frequency was assessed using daily nightmare logs and the Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire. Nightmare distress was assessed using the Nightmare Distress Questionnaire and the Nightmare Effects Survey. General psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90 and a PTSD symptom questionnaire. Assessments were administered at the start of the trial, after the IRT and at follow-up 3 months later. IRT showed a moderate effect (Cohen d = 0.5-0.7, P effects were largely sustained at the 3-month follow-up (Cohen d = 0.4-0.6, P effective treatment for nightmares among patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders and can be employed in addition to the on-going treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00291031. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available Taryn Heck,1 Monica Zolezzi21Pharmacy Department, University of Alberta Hospital, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, QatarAbstract: Psychiatric disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are often comorbid. However, there is limited information on the impact of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms, on how to manage psychiatric pharmacotherapy in patients presenting with OSA, or on the effectiveness and challenges of OSA treatments in patients with comorbid mental illness. As such, the objective of this article is to provide an overview of some epidemiological aspects of OSA and treatment considerations in the management of OSA in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Predefined keywords were used to search for relevant literature in electronic databases. Data show that OSA is particularly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. The medical care that patients with these comorbidities require can be challenging, as some of the psychiatric medications used by these patients may exacerbate OSA symptoms. As such, continuous positive airway pressure continues to be the first-line treatment, even in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. However, more controlled studies are required, particularly to determine continuous positive airway pressure compliance in patients with mental illness, the impact of treating OSA on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of the use of psychotropic medications on OSA symptoms.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, psychotropic medications
Wang, A G
A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...
Full Text Available Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease including simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. NASH could progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing by increasing the prevalence of obesity. Objectives This study was designed to determine the prevalence of NASH in morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve bariatric surgery and its correlation with other comorbidities. Patients and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, 114 morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy were selected. Liver ultrasonography was performed for all patients before surgery and NAFLD existence and its grade was determined by hyperechoic texture and fatty infiltration. The liver enzymes and lipid profile were also measured. Prevalence of NAFLD in these patients and its correlation with other comorbid conditions (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hypothyroidism and ischemic heart disease were evaluated by SPSS software version 18. Results One hundred fourteen patients with a mean age of 33.96 ± 9.92 years and mean BMI of 43.61 ± 5.77 kg/m2 were enrolled (48 males and 66 females. The prevalence of NAFLD was 16.7%. NAFLD existence was associated with systolic blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and potassium (P < 0.05. Conclusions According to high prevalence of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy in Iran, we suggest using gold standard diagnostic method to determine the exact NAFLD prevalence and evaluation of impact of sleeve surgery on NAFLD in short and long term follow-up periods.
Full Text Available Host traits can significantly influence patterns of infection and disease. Here, we studied the helminths parasitizing the Italian edible frog Pelophylax kl. hispanicus, giving special attention to the relationship between parasites and host traits such as sex, snout vent length, weight and body condition. The helminth community was composed of seven species: three trematode species (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Gorgodera cygnoides, Pleurogenes claviger, three nematode species (Icosiella neglecta, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Rhabdias sp. and one acanthocephalan species (Pomphorhychus laevis. We found that prevalence was positively correlated with snout-vent length and weight, but did not differ with body condition or sex. We found that prevalence and mean species richness increased with age. Our results show that abundance of Icosiella neglecta was positively correlated with higher values for host body condition. In fact, we found that high prevalence and mean species richness do not necessarily imply poorer body condition in the parasitized host. In conclusion, our results show that the helminth community in this taxon has great diversity, and this host-parasite system seems to be evolved to low levels of virulence, helminths maintaining a commensal relationship with this frog.
Research Paper Prevalence of enuresis in a community sample of children and adolescents referred for outpatient clinical psychological evaluation: Psychiatric comorbidities and association with intellectual functioning.
Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças e adolescentes de diferentes condições socioeconômicas Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of different socioeconomic conditions
Giselia Alves Pontes da Silva
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: comparar as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade em um grupo de pré-escolares, escolares e adolescentes de diferentes condições socioeconômicas na cidade do Recife. MÉTODOS: estudo do tipo transversal envolvendo uma amostra de 1616 crianças e adolescentes, escolhida por conveniência. Os indicadores nutricionais foram definidos conforme as recomendações do National Center of Health Statistics 2000, sendo considerado sobrepeso o índice de massa corporal igual ou superior ao percentil 85 e inferior ao percentil 95 e obesidade, o índice de massa corporal igual ou superior ao percentil 95. RESULTADOS: foi identificado sobrepeso em 234 (14,5% indivíduos e obesidade, em 134 (8,3%. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi maior nos pré-escolares (22,2%, observando-se redução progressiva da freqüência nas faixas etárias de escolar (12,9% e adolescente (10,8%. Constatou-se fato idêntico quanto à obesidade, detectada em 13,8% dos pré-escolares, 8,2% dos escolares e 4,9% dos adolescentes. O sobrepeso e a obesidade foram mais observados entre crianças e adolescentes de melhor condição socioeconômica. CONCLUSÕES: as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade diminuíram à medida que ocorreu aumento da faixa etária. Entre os pré-escolares observou-se prevalência de sobrepeso semelhante, independente das condições socioeconômicas. A prevalência da obesidade foi maior entre escolares de boas condições socioeconômicas e adolescentes de baixa condição socioeconômica.OBJECTIVES: to compare overweight and obesity in preschool children, school children and adolescents belonging to different socioeconomic conditions. METHODS: cross-sectional and based on a 1616 children and adolescents sample. Nutritional indicators were defined according to the National Center of Health Statistics 2000 recommendations, overweight being BMI equal to or above 85 percentile and below percentile 95; obesity indicator being defined with BMI equal to
Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O; McAllister, Samantha J; Aleman, Katherine M; St Sauver, Jennifer L
Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the problem of multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design Retrospective medical record review. Setting Olmsted County, Minnesota. Participants 1111 adults with fibromyalgia. Primary and secondary outcome measures Number and type of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions, medication use. Results Medical record review demonstrated that greater than 50% of the sample had seven or more chronic condi...
Full Text Available Farid R Talih,1 Jean J Ajaltouni,1 Hani M Tamim,2 Firas H Kobeissy3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Objectives: This study evaluated the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in hospitalized psychiatric patients at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUB-MC. Factors associated with OSA and EDS occurrence in this sample were also examined. Methods: The Berlin questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale; which respectively evaluate OSA and EDS symptoms, were administered to individuals hospitalized at an acute psychiatric treatment unit at the AUB-MC between the dates of January 2014 and October 2016. Additional data collected included general demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, and questionnaires evaluating depression and anxiety symptoms. Statistical analyses utilizing SPSS were performed to determine the prevalence of OSA and EDS, as well as their respective associations with patient profiles. Results: Our results showed that 39.5% of participants were found to have a high risk of sleep apnea and 9.9% of the participants were found to have abnormal daytime sleepiness. The risk of developing OSA was associated with a higher body mass index (BMI (P=0.02, and depression severity (patient health questionnaire 9 score (P=0.01. Increasing severity of depressive symptoms was associated with a higher risk of sleep apnea (P=0.01. BMI (odds ratio [OR] =5.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89–18.82 and depression severity (OR =4.04, 95% CI 1.80–9.07 were also found to be predictors of OSA. The psychiatric diagnoses of the participants were not found to have a significant association with the risk of sleep apnea. Conclusion: The risk of OSA is increased among hospitalized
most disabling medical conditions are psy-. c h i at ric in nat u r e . .... likely to gi ve financial or health-. r e l ated reasons for their at ... Caregiver burn-out. Substance use disorders. Borderline personality disorder. Homicidal patient. Assaultive/aggressive patient. Table I. Working classification of psychiatric emer- gencies ...
Bhojani, Upendra; Beerenahalli, Thriveni S; Devadasan, Roopa; Munegowda, C M; Devadasan, Narayanan; Criel, Bart; Kolsteren, Patrick
The burden of chronic conditions is high in low- and middle-income countries and poses a significant challenge to already weak healthcare delivery systems in these countries. Studies investigating chronic conditions among the urban poor remain few and focused on specific chronic conditions rather than providing overall profile of chronic conditions in a given community, which is critical for planning and managing services within local health systems. We aimed to assess the prevalence and health- seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in a poor neighbourhood of a metropolitan city in India. We conducted a house-to-house survey covering 9299 households (44514 individuals) using a structured questionnaire. We relied on self-report by respondents to assess presence of any chronic conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the prevalence and health-seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in general as well as for diabetes and hypertension in particular. The predictor variables included age, sex, income, religion, household poverty status, presence of comorbid chronic conditions, and tiers in the local health care system. Overall, the prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was 13.8% (95% CI = 13.4, 14.2) among adults, with hypertension (10%) and diabetes (6.4%) being the most commonly reported conditions. Older people and women were more likely to report chronic conditions. We found reversal of socioeconomic gradient with people living below the poverty line at significantly greater odds of reporting chronic conditions than people living above the poverty line (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.5, 5.8). Private healthcare providers managed over 80% of patients. A majority of patients were managed at the clinic/health centre level (42.9%), followed by the referral hospital (38.9%) and the super-specialty hospital (18.2%) level. An increase in income was positively associated with the use
Stephen Rich, J; Martin, Peter R
Alcohol use disorder (AUD), a term that comprises both alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Over 50% of treated AUD patients also suffer from other psychiatric disorder(s). Detailed study has revealed disorders across multiple psychiatric domains with rates of co-occurrence far greater than chance, suggesting a synergistic relationship. The basis of this synergy is explored along with its multiple forms, including behavioral and neurobiologic. Specific topics include the predisposition to both AUD and co-occurring psychopathology, the vulnerability to environmental risk factors that exacerbate these predispositions, and the nature of reinforcement in acute intoxication. Co-occurrence can also modify and exacerbate the neuroadaptations underpinning chronic dependence and relapse, the manifestations of acute and protracted withdrawal, emergence of medical and psychiatric complications, and ultimately the potential for relapse. The outcomes of co-occurrence as well as the unique impact it has on proper treatment are also discussed. Throughout, the significance of recognizing co-occurrence is emphasized since, both neurobiologically and clinically, the synergies between co-occurring disorders yield a result far more complex than a mere sum of the component disorders. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rössler, W; Drake, R E
To describe the core elements of modern psychiatric rehabilitation. Based on selected examples we describe the discussion about values in mental health care with focus on Europe. We present outcome data from studies, which have tried to implement care structures based on this value discussion. In the second half of the 20th century, mental health care in all European and other high-income countries changed conceptually and structurally. Deinstitutionalisation reduced the number of psychiatric beds and transferred priority to outpatient care and community-based services, but community mental health programs developed differently across and within these countries. High-income countries in Europe continued to invest in costly traditional services that were neither evidence-based nor person-centered by emphasising inpatient services, sheltered group homes and sheltered workshops. We argue that evidence-based, person-centred, recovery-oriented psychiatric rehabilitation offers a parsimonious solution to developing a consensus plan for community-based care in Europe. The challenges to scaling up effective psychiatric rehabilitation services in high-income countries are not primarily a lack of resources, but rather a lack of political will and inefficient use and dysfunctional allocation of resources.
Keywords: Bipolar disorder; Obsessive-compulsive disorder; Pharmacogenetics; Psychiatric genetics; Schizophrenia; South African .... A family-based genetic study that examines the co-segregation of the phenotype of interest with genetic markers to identify ..... gene and the Alzheimer's disease-related ε4 allele of the.
Cosgrove, G R
The modern therapeutic approach to most psychiatric diseases involves a combination of well-supervised psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. Patients who fail to adequately respond to these modern treatment methods and remain severely disabled may be considered for surgical intervention. Cingulotomy, capsulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and limbic leucotomy are the most common psychosurgical procedures performed today, with response rates in the 35% to 65% range. Modern stereotactic techniques have reduced complication rates, but controversy remains regarding the optimal surgical procedure. The major psychiatric diagnostic categories that might respond to surgery include treatment-refractory major affective disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and chronic anxiety states. Surgery should be considered as one part of an entire treatment plan and must be followed by an appropriate psychiatric rehabilitation program. It should only be carried out by an expert multidisciplinary team consisting of a neurologist a neurosurgeon, and a psychiatrist with experience in these disorders. Surgical intervention remains a reasonable therapeutic option for select patients with a disabling psychiatric disease and may be underutilized.
Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira
There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially “cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.
Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira
There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially "cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.
Berkowitz, Robert I; Fabricatore, Anthony N
This article has shown that obesity is related to several psychiatric disorders, the most thoroughly researched of which is depression. In both community and clinical populations, the observed relationship is more consistent in women than in men, and is stronger in more severely obese individuals. The presence of BED also is associated with elevated risk of additional psychopathology. Longitudinal research provides evidence to support a pathway from obesity to depression, as well as one from depression to obesity. Weight loss, particularly with nonpharmacologic methods, appears to have favorable group-level effects on mood, but may be associated with adverse outcomes for some individuals. Persons who require antipsychotic medications are at risk for weight gain and metabolic abnormalities, and their management should be informed by consensus guidelines.
Sharpless, Brian A; Barber, Jacques P
To determine lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis. Keyword term searches using "sleep paralysis", "isolated sleep paralysis", or "parasomnia not otherwise specified" were conducted using MEDLINE (1950-present) and PsychINFO (1872-present). English and Spanish language abstracts were reviewed, as were reference lists of identified articles. Thirty five studies that reported lifetime sleep paralysis rates and described both the assessment procedures and sample utilized were selected. Weighted percentages were calculated for each study and, when possible, for each reported subsample. Aggregating across studies (total N=36,533), 7.6% of the general population, 28.3% of students, and 31.9% of psychiatric patients experienced at least one episode of sleep paralysis. Of the psychiatric patients with panic disorder, 34.6% reported lifetime sleep paralysis. Results also suggested that minorities experience lifetime sleep paralysis at higher rates than Caucasians. Sleep paralysis is relatively common in the general population and more frequent in students and psychiatric patients. Given these prevalence rates, sleep paralysis should be assessed more regularly and uniformly in order to determine its impact on individual functioning and better articulate its relation to psychiatric and other medical conditions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fatores relacionados à prevalência de morbidades psiquiátricas menores em mulheres selecionadas em um Centro de Saúde no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Factors associated with minor psychiatric disorders among women selected from a healthcare center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Full Text Available O objetivo foi investigar fatores potencialmente associados às morbidades psiquiátricas menores, incluindo variáveis do estado nutricional materno. Foi estudada uma coorte com 479 mulheres entre 15 45 anos. O General Health Questionnaire (GHQ reduzido (12 itens foi aplicado, aos nove meses pós-parto, nas 312 mulheres que completaram o seguimento. A presença de morbidades psiquiátricas menores foi definida como valores do escore derivado do GHQ > 4 pontos, sendo analisada como variável dependente. As análises foram realizadas com modelos de regressão logística multivariados hierarquizados. A prevalência de morbidades psiquiátricas menores foi de 54,2% (IC95%: 48,6-59,7. Os resultados do modelo final revelaram que as seguintes variáveis permaneceram estatisticamente associadas: nível 1: renda familiar (1º quartil: OR = 2,71; IC95%: 1,42-5,19; 2º quartil: OR = 2,13; IC95%: 1,13-4,04; nível 3: gordura corporal > 30% (OR = 1,66; IC95%: 1,03-2,65. Conclui-se que a baixa renda e a obesidade foram os únicos fatores potencialmente associados à probabilidade de ocorrência de morbidades psiquiátricas menores, mesmo após o controle para variáveis de confusão, e que são escassos os estudos relacionando estado nutricional materno e morbidades psiquiátricas menores.The aim was to investigate factors potentially associated with minor psychiatric disorders, including maternal nutritional status variables. A cohort was studied with 479 women 15-45 years of age. The reduced General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12 items was applied at nine months post-partum with the 312 women who had completed follow-up. Minor psychiatric disorder was defined as a GHQ score of > 4 points and was treated as the response variable. Statistical analysis used hierarchical multivariate logistic regression models. The prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity was 54.2% (95%CI: 48.6-59.7. According to the final model, the following variables remained
Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre
The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634
Evans, Janet; Dummer, Verena; Kinzl, Johann
This paper on psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals in Austria first looks at the overall situation of Austrian day clinics then, in a second step, compares psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals. For this purpose, a questionnaire was developed and sent to all psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals in Austria. The first part consisted of closed questions and was used to gather and evaluate the categories: general conditions for treatment in day hospitals, tasks of day hospitals, therapeutic paradigms, indication and contraindication, diagnostics, day hospital organisation, interdisciplinary cooperation and the offering in day hospitals. The second section consisted of open questions which were used to gather and evaluate active factors, difficulties, specifics and requests for future treatment in day hospitals. The results show that there is a trend towards more day hospitals. Psychosomatic day hospitals are a rather new phenomenon. Furthermore, the distinction between psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals is important in order to offer patients distinguishable treatment options in future. The results show that psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals both have a strong focus on psychotherapy and both fulfill the active factors for psychotherapy by Grawe.
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and disabling conditions of increasing public health relevance. Much recent research has focused on the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders; however the related family of immune proteins designated chemokines has been relatively neglected. Chemokines were originally identified as having chemotactic function on immune cells, however recent evidence has begun to elucidate novel, brain-specific functions of these proteins of relevance to the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. A systematic review of both human and animal literature in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was undertaken. After application of all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 157 references were remained for the review. Some early mechanistic evidence does associate select chemokines with the neurobiological processes, including neurogenesis, modulation of the neuroinflammatory response, regulation of the HPA axis, and modulation of neurotransmitter systems. This early evidence however does not clearly demonstrate any specificity for a certain psychiatric disorder, but is primarily relevant to mechanisms which are shared across disorders. Notable exceptions include CCL11 which has recently been shown to impair hippocampal function in aging - of distinct relevance to Alzheimer’s disease and depression in the elderly, and prenatal exposure to CXCL8 that may disrupt early neurodevelopmental periods predisposing to schizophrenia. Pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL7, CCL8, CCL12, CCL13, have been shown to drive chemotaxis of pro-inflammatory cells to the inflamed or injured CNS. Likewise, CX3CL has been implicated in promoting glial cells activation, proinflammatory cytokines secretion, expression of ICAM-1 and recruitment of CD4+ T-cells into the CNS during neuroinflammatory processes. With further translational research, chemokines may present novel diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets in
Stuart, Michael J; Singhal, Gaurav; Baune, Bernhard T
Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and disabling conditions of increasing public health relevance. Much recent research has focused on the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders; however, the related family of immune proteins designated chemokines has been relatively neglected. Chemokines were originally identified as having chemotactic function on immune cells; however, recent evidence has begun to elucidate novel, brain-specific functions of these proteins of relevance to the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. A systematic review of both human and animal literature in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was undertaken. After application of all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 157 references were remained for the review. Some early mechanistic evidence does associate select chemokines with the neurobiological processes, including neurogenesis, modulation of the neuroinflammatory response, regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and modulation of neurotransmitter systems. This early evidence however does not clearly demonstrate any specificity for a certain psychiatric disorder, but is primarily relevant to mechanisms which are shared across disorders. Notable exceptions include CCL11 that has recently been shown to impair hippocampal function in aging - of distinct relevance to Alzheimer's disease and depression in the elderly, and pre-natal exposure to CXCL8 that may disrupt early neurodevelopmental periods predisposing to schizophrenia. Pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL7, CCL8, CCL12, and CCL13, have been shown to drive chemotaxis of pro-inflammatory cells to the inflamed or injured CNS. Likewise, CX3CL has been implicated in promoting glial cells activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, expression of ICAM-1, and recruitment of CD4+ T-cells into the CNS during neuroinflammatory processes. With further translational research, chemokines may present novel diagnostic and
Solberg, Berit Skretting; Halmøy, Anne; Engeland, Anders; Igland, Jannicke; Haavik, Jan; Klungsøyr, Kari
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at determining whether gender modified associations between ADHD and psychiatric comorbidities in adults. METHOD: We identified adults with ADHD by linking Norwegian national registries and compared them with the remaining adult population (born 1967-1997, ADHD and bipolar during 2004-2015, other psychiatric disorders 2008-2015). Prevalence differences (PDs) and prevalence ratios (PRs) of psychiatric disorders were determined by Poisson regression. Interaction by gender wa...
Costello, E. Jane; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian
Objective: To review recent progress in child and adolescent psychiatric epidemiology in the area of prevalence and burden. Method: The literature published in the past decade was reviewed under two headings: methods and findings. Results: Methods for assessing the prevalence and community burden of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders have…
João Campos Mendes
Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.
The number of Iranian immigrants in Canada has been increasing since 1979. This study is the result of a review of 111 charts of Iranian patients who were referred for psychiatric treatment between 1985 and 1988. Ninety-eight percent of them arrived in Canada after the Iranian revolution, which started in 1979, and the Iran-Iraq war of 1980. Ten percent were experiencing trauma as a result of their involvement with the revolutionary government or the war. The symptoms were in accordance with the DSM-III-R criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Sixty percent met the criteria for adjustment disorder with depressed or anxious mood. Six percent had been subjected to physical and psychological torture and confinement. This is the first study that looks at the prevalence of psychiatric illness among Iranians and illustrates the effect of migration and displacement in the integrity of the psychic life of this population.
Factors influencing the practice of psychiatric nursing in Australian prisons. A qualitative study of psychiatric nurses (N = 30) working in a prison. The psychiatric nurses identified the following factors as influencing their work: challenging patients, threats to personal survival of patients, the technology and artifice of confinement, conflicting values of nurses and corrections staff, stigma by association, and prisoner identification of the nurses with prison administration. Psychiatric nurses who work in forensic settings must adapt to less than optimal practice conditions.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available Problem gambling is complex and often comorbid with other mental health problems. Unfortunately, gambling studies on comorbid psychiatric disorders among Chinese communities are extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to (a determine the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers; (b compare the demographic profiles and clinical features of pathological gamblers with and without comorbid psychiatric disorders; (c explore the associations between pathological gambling and psychiatric disorders and their temporal relationship. Participants (N=201 who sought gambling counseling were examined by making Axis-I diagnoses including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorder. Results showed that 63.7% of participants had lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common comorbid psychiatric mental disorders were mood disorders, adjustment disorder, and substance use disorders. Pathological gamblers with psychiatric comorbidities were significantly more severe in psychopathology, psychosocial functioning impairment, and gambling problems than those without the disorders.
Interpretation & conclusions: A review of Indian literature on cannabis use and its association with psychiatric disorders indicates a high co-prevalence of psychotic disorders, especially in vulnerable individuals as well as high rates of co-occurrence of other psychiatric comorbidities. However, there is limited focus on exploring the aetiological association between cannabis use and psychiatric disorders; understanding the neurobiology of this association and management-related issues.
Barry, Liliana Kalogjera
The field of psychiatric research ethics has evolved in recent years. This evolution seems to stem from the efforts of various groups (eg, medical ethicists, regulatory bodies, and the profession's own association, the APA) and from increased understanding of the endeavor of psychiatric empirical research. Current data regarding mental illness highlight the need for the continued expansion of psychiatric research to help relieve the suffering of the many individuals whom mental illness affects. The ethics for psychiatric research should parallel this expansion of psychiatric research to ensure that studies sufficiently address ethical considerations and thus foster the proper, delicate balance between progress and protection (see Table 1).
Langeveld, Hans; Melhus, Henning
The prevalence in Norwegian prisons of psychiatric disorders in relation to the treatment potential in the prison health system has not been properly examined. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, drug problems and personality disorders was examined in a prison population in the western health region in Norway. Additionally, treatments of these disorders were surveyed. The methods used were structured clinical interviews, self reports and reviews of medical case notes. Psychiatric disorders in need of treatment were found in 18 out of 40 interviewed inmates. Of these 18, 13 actually received treatment with psychoactive medication. Criteria for alcohol and drug addiction or misuse were fulfilled by over 90%. Personality disorders were found in 80% and antisocial personality disorder in more than 60%. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders including personality disorders and drug addiction is high among inmates. Compared to international studies, more of the inmates with psychiatric disorders that we interviewed receive psychoactive medication.
Zago-Gomes, Maria P.; Stantolin, Gustavo C.; Perazzio, Sandro; Aikawa, Kioshi H.; Gonçalves, Carlos S.; Pereira, Fausto E.L.
This report describes the prevalence of anti-HAV antibodies in children from elementary school in the Municipality of Vila Velha, ES, Brazil. Anti-HAV antibodies were investigated by ELISA method in the serum of 606 children (four to fourteen years old) from three elementary schools, located in neighborhoods with varying household monthly income levels: São José School, 200 chidren, household income higher than US$700; São Torquato School, 273 children, US$200 to 300; and Cobi School, 133 chi...
F. Javier Ayesta
Since the characteristics associated with smoking in these patients are not alone responsible for the cessation differences, this seems to suggest that the own psychiatric condition is also responsible for it.
Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil
Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...... whether the routine use of the BVC could reduce the frequency of patient aggression. We conducted a study with a semi-random regression discontinuity design in 15 psychiatric wards. Baseline aggression risk was assessed using the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS) over three months. The BVC...... was implemented in seven intervention wards, and the risk of aggressive incidents over three months of follow-up was compared with the risk in eight control wards. The analysis was conducted at the ward level because each ward was allocated to the intervention and control groups. At baseline, the risk...
Ganesh, Aravind; Campbell, David J T; Hurley, Janette; Patten, Scott
To carry out a preliminary assessment of the use of a psychiatric screening tool in an urban homeless population, and to estimate the potential prevalence of undiagnosed and (or) unmanaged mental illness in this population. Participants (n = 166) were recruited from the Calgary Drop-in and Rehab Centre to complete a questionnaire containing 6 modules screening for common psychiatric disorders. Summary statistics were used in the analysis. Only 12 respondents (7%) screened negative on each of the 6 modules. The screening process determined that 60.2% of the sample (n = 100) had probable mental illness but reported no history of psychiatric diagnosis or treatment. A straightforward application of screening (in which screen-positive subjects are referred for assessment) would be difficult in this population as most will screen positive. The results highlight the tremendous burden of psychiatric symptoms in this population.
Lanza, Marilyn Lewis; Zeiss, Robert; Rierdan, Jill
Psychiatric nurses are frequent victims of workplace violence, much of which is perpetrated by patients. In a review of literature on prevalence, perpetrators, and impact of violence on psychiatric nurses, we note that workplace violence is a virtually normative experience for the nurse, rather than a rare occurrence. Verbal violence and sexual harassment, like physical violence, are common experiences; in contrast to physical violence, these are often initiated by co-workers. The emotional impact of violence on psychiatric nurses is studied less often than frequency of exposure; we discuss hypotheses for this paucity of relevant research. Finally, we reflect on the implications of current research, concluding with recommendations for future research on violence against psychiatric nurses. In particular, we elaborate on the role of violence research in the healthcare setting as "sensitive research"--a research process that in itself may have both direct and indirect beneficial effects for the nursing profession.
Azadeh Mazaheri Meybodi
Full Text Available Objectives. Cooccurring psychiatric disorders influence the outcome and prognosis of gender dysphoria. The aim of this study is to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a group of patients. Methods. Eighty-three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS were recruited and assessed through the Persian Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I. Results. Fifty-seven (62.7% patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Major depressive disorder (33.7%, specific phobia (20.5%, and adjustment disorder (15.7% were the three most prevalent disorders. Conclusion. Consistent with most earlier researches, the majority of patients with gender dysphoria had psychiatric Axis I comorbidity.
Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt
Background Very little is known about the general appropriateness of prescribing for psychiatric patients. Aims To identify prevalence and types of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) of psychotropic and somatic medications, to assess the severity of potential clinical consequences...... and to identify possible predictive factors of PIP in a sample of adult psychiatric in-patients. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional design using medication reviews by clinical pharmacologists to identify PIP during a 3-month period. The setting was in-patient units in a psychiatric department of a Danish...... the most frequent PIP. Predictive factors for PIP were polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) and having one or more somatic diagnoses. Conclusion PIP is common in psychiatric patients and potentially fatal. Particularly polypharmacy (>5 prescriptions) and concomitant somatic illness were associated...
Khaldoun M. Aldiabat
Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.
Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan
Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*
Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie
suicide and suicide intents among the suicides with schizophrenia, with other diagnosed psychiatric disorder and without psychiatric disorders. The result indicated that each groups showed their unique characteristics, which gave us new viewpoints to control and prevent the prevalence of suicides according to their different characteristics. PMID:24657011
Saliou, Veronique; Fichelle, Anika; McLoughlin, Mary; Thauvin, Isabelle; Lejoyeux, Michel
The authors assessed the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among a population of patients examined in the emergency service of a French general hospital. They compared patients with and without psychiatric disorders. They also compared patients where the primary motive of emergency was psychiatric to those whose psychiatric disorders were secondarily diagnosed by a systematic assessment. Five hundred consecutive patients admitted to the emergency service of Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital (Paris, France) were interviewed with standardized questionnaires. Demographic details were collected along with information on current and past contacts with emergencies and psychiatric services. Psychiatric disorders were identified using a structured psychiatric interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Domestic violence was identified with a specific checklist validated for this purpose. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 38% (189 patients). Forty (8%) patients were primary psychiatric cases referred to the emergency department for psychiatric reasons, while 149 (30%) were secondary psychiatric cases, as revealed by a systematic assessment of their mental state. Psychiatric patients, primary or secondary, were more often homeless (13.6% vs.1.95%). They had been more often referred to the emergency department after an aggressive (7.4% vs.3.5%) or violent behavior (5.8% vs.0.9%) and less often after an accident (8.4% vs.14.3%). Psychiatric patients were more often examined after an episode of domestic violence (21.7% vs. 6.8%). Psychiatric diagnoses, according to the DSM-IV criteria, were depression (80 cases), generalized anxiety disorder (34 cases) acute alcohol intoxication (21 cases), alcohol dependence (20 cases), schizophrenia (16 cases), posttraumatic stress disorder (14 cases), drug abuse (4 cases), agoraphobia (4 cases), alcohol abuse (3 cases), anorexia nervosa (3 cases), mania (2 cases) and obsessive compulsive disorder (2 cases). The
Takenoshita, Miho; Sato, Tomoko; Kato, Yuichi; Katagiri, Ayano; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Sato, Yusuke; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Toyofuku, Akira
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and atypical odontalgia (AO) are two conditions involving chronic oral pain in the absence of any organic cause. Psychiatrically they can both be considered as "somatoform disorder". From the dental point of view, however, the two disorders are quite distinct. BMS is a burning or stinging sensation in the mouth in association with a normal mucosa whereas AO is most frequently associated with a continuous pain in the teeth or in a tooth socket after extraction in the absence of any identifiable cause. Because of the absence of organic causes, BMS and AO are often regarded as psychogenic conditions, although the relationship between oral pain and psychologic factors is still unclear. Some studies have analyzed the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with chronic oral pain who have been referred from dental facilities to psychiatric facilities. No study to date has investigated patients referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. To analyze the psychiatric diagnoses of chronic oral pain patients, diagnosed with BMS and AO, and referred from psychiatric facilities to dental facilities. Psychiatric diagnoses and disease conditions of BMS or AO were investigated in 162 patients by reviewing patients' medical records and referral forms. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. The proportion of F4 classification (neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders) in AO patients was significantly higher than in BMS patients. BMS patients were more frequently given a F3 classification (mood/affective disorders). However, 50.8% of BMS patients and 33.3% of AO patients had no specific psychiatric diagnoses. Although BMS and AO are both chronic pain disorders occurring in the absence of any organic cause, the psychiatric diagnoses of patients with BMS and AO differ substantially.
Purpose: To identify the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in a psychiatric ward, their levels and association with risk factors. Methods: This study was conducted in the psychiatric ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan. Medical records of 415 patients were retrospectively reviewed for ...
Seltzer, Benjamin; Buswell, Arthur
To examine possible reasons for conflicting prevalence data on psychiatric features of Alzheimer's disease, compared results of mental status examination by physician with questionnaire completed by caregivers in eliciting 12 different psychiatric symptoms. Found agreement only on categories suggesting agitation. Formal examination showed more…
Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.
The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with psychiatric disorders in 336 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish...
Objective: Research on HIV in South Africa has not reflected the impact of the disease on psychiatric patients. The aims of the study were: to compare the HIV prevalence among patient groups in Weskoppies Hospital; to compare psychiatric diagnoses of infected and non-infected patients; to assess intravenous drug use ...
O'Brien, Hope L; Slater, Shalonda K
Children and adolescents with chronic daily headaches (CDH) often have comorbid psychological conditions, though their prevalence is unclear. Pediatric patients with CDH may have higher rates of disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, some researchers have found that scores on depression and anxiety screening measures for pediatric patients with migraine are within reference range. Barriers to identify patients with psychiatric disorders have included limited validated screening tools and lack of available mental health resources. Several validated screening tools have recently been used in studies of pediatric patients with CDH. Once identified, treatment of comorbid psychological conditions may lead to improved functioning and headache outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blanco, Carlos; Hasin, Deborah S; Wall, Melanie M; Flórez-Salamanca, Ludwing; Hoertel, Nicolas; Wang, Shuai; Kerridge, Bradley T; Olfson, Mark
With rising rates of marijuana use in the general population and an increasing number of states legalizing recreational marijuana use and authorizing medical marijuana programs, there are renewed clinical and policy concerns regarding the mental health effects of cannabis use. To examine prospective associations between cannabis use and risk of mental health and substance use disorders in the general adult population. A nationally representative sample of US adults aged 18 years or older was interviewed 3 years apart in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005). The primary analyses were limited to 34 653 respondents who were interviewed in both waves. Data analysis was conducted from March 15 to November 30, 2015. We used multiple regression and propensity score matching to estimate the strength of independent associations between cannabis use at wave 1 and incident and prevalent psychiatric disorders at wave 2. Psychiatric disorders were measured with a structured interview (Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV). In both analyses, the same set of wave 1 confounders was used, including sociodemographic characteristics, family history of substance use disorder, disturbed family environment, childhood parental loss, low self-esteem, social deviance, education, recent trauma, past and present psychiatric disorders, and respondent's history of divorce. In the multiple regression analysis of 34 653 respondents (14 564 male [47.9% weighted]; mean [SD] age, 45.1 [17.3] years), cannabis use in wave 1 (2001-2002), which was reported by 1279 respondents, was significantly associated with substance use disorders in wave 2 (2004-2005) (any substance use disorder: odds ratio [OR], 6.2; 95% CI, 4.1-9.4; any alcohol use disorder: OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-3.8; any cannabis use disorder: OR, 9.5; 95% CI, 6.4-14.1; any other drug use disorder: OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.4; and
Pisk, Sandra Vuk; Vuk, Tomislav; Ivezić, Ena; Jukić, Irena; Bingulac-Popović, Jasna; Filipčić, Igor
The prevalence of ABO alleles is different in different populations, and many studies have shown a correlation between the occurrences of some diseases and different genotypes of ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between psychiatric syndromes and ABO blood groups. This case-control study involved 156 psychiatric patients and 303 healthy, unrelated, voluntary blood donors. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood on a QIAcube device using a QIAamp DNA Blood mini QIAcube kit. ABO genotyping on five basic ABO alleles was performed using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Compared with healthy subjects, a significantly higher proportion of psychiatric patients had AB blood group (χ 2 =9.359, df=3, p=0.025) and, accordingly, a significantly higher incidence of A1B genotype (χ 2 =8.226, df=3, p=0.042). The odds ratio showed that psychiatric disorders occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other blood groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of ABO blood groups among patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. Likewise, no correlations were found between ABO blood groups and other characteristics of the psychiatric patients (sex, psychiatric heredity, somatic comorbidity, suicidality). The results of this study support the hypothesis of an association between psychiatric disorders and ABO blood groups. The probability is that psychiatric disorders will occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other ABO blood groups in the Croatian population.
Background: Research on the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, and cormorbid psychiatric disorders in post-conflict areas is still limited. Aim: We explored the prevalence of suicidal ideation, attempt, associated psychiatric disorders and HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife ...
May 18, 2008 ... behaviours, antisocial behaviours, treatment non-adherence and a rise in the prevalence of mood, substance, eating and personality disorders. The onset of ... Psychiatric disorder. Pathways to psychopathology in this population may be multiple and complex, and direct cause-and-effect relationships.
... groups and no difference between the groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of certain psychiatric manifestations in Graves' disease was significantly higher than in the control group. There was no significant difference between therapy with antithyroid drugs and combination of antithyroid with psychotropic medications.
... the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among third year undergraduate students and the socio-demographic characteristics associated with morbidity. Methods: The study was descriptive and cross-sectional in design. The 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHO-28) was used to collect information from ...
Specific diagnoses recorded were depression (19.2%), generalised anxiety disorder (9.6%), harmful alcohol use (2.4%); dementia, somatoform disorder, phobia and delusional disorder each had a prevalence of 1.2%. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were not significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity.
Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy J.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mrdjenovich, Adam J.; Price, Joy A.
Objective: Most suicides (60%) are committed with firearms, and most (80%) of individuals attempting suicide meet diagnostic criteria for mental illness. This study assessed the prevalence of firearm injury prevention training in psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A three-wave mail survey was sent to the directors of 179 psychiatric…
Results: Patients with HIV infection are at an increased risk of psychiatric illness. Major depressive disorder and subsyndromal depressive symptoms, as well as anxiety disorder and substance abuse are more prevalent among HIV infected individuals than among the general population. HIV-associated neurocognitive ...
The PM was positively correlated with physical disability and marital status but not with age, sex, education, type of leprosy, or duration of the illness. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was lower among Kenyan leprosy patients compared to studies carried out in India (56% to 78%). It was high compared to the rate of ...
Alarcón, Renato D; Suarez-Richards, Manuel; Sarabia, Silvana
Medical education has incorporated psychiatric or mental health components more consistently during the last decades thanks to various factors such as: advances in neurobiological research; the increasing prevalence of mental disorders in global health; the increasingly close relationship between mental health and public health; comorbidities with medical conditions and the impact of sociocultural phenomena in clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Based on acquisition of core competencies and ethical principles of universal acceptance, the teaching process examined in this article proposes an education based on the provision of clinical experiences integrated throughout the collection of adequate information, the development of diagnostic capabilities, and exposure to a wide variety of forms of academic assessment of students and residents in training. The cultural components of psychiatric education receive special mention; we provide examples of their systematic integration with the acquisition of general skills. The teaching tools include theoretical and applied activities and supervision. Particular attention is paid to how the principles of modern psychiatric medical education, including cultural aspects and practice of holistic health care objectives, can and should be in effect in Latin American countries.
Giuliana S. Zuccoli
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders represent a great medical and social challenge and people suffering from these conditions face many impairments regarding personal and professional life. In addition, a mental disorder will manifest itself in approximately one quarter of the world's population at some period of their life. Dysfunction in energy metabolism is one of the most consistent scientific findings associated with these disorders. With this is mind, this review compiled data on disturbances in energy metabolism found by proteomic analyses of postmortem brains collected from patients affected by the most prevalent psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia (SCZ, bipolar disorder (BPD, and major depressive disorder (MDD. We searched in the PubMed database to gather the studies and compiled all the differentially expressed proteins reported in each work. SCZ studies revealed 92 differentially expressed proteins related to energy metabolism, while 95 proteins were discovered in BPD, and 41 proteins in MDD. With the compiled data, it was possible to determine which proteins related to energy metabolism were found to be altered in all the disorders as well as which ones were altered exclusively in one of them. In conclusion, the information gathered in this work could contribute to a better understanding of the impaired metabolic mechanisms and hopefully bring insights into the underlying neuropathology of psychiatric disorders.
Bimenyimana, E; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C; van Niekerk, V
Caring for good people is difficult enough; to care for people who are either aggressive or violent is even more difficult. This is what psychiatric nurses working in the psychiatric institution in which research was done are exposed to on a daily basis. The aim of the research was to explore and describe the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual study design was utilised. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews and naïve sketches. Tesch 's (Creswell, 2004: 256) method of open coding and an independent coder were utilised for data analysis. This study shed some light on the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. The findings show that the level of violence and aggression to which psychiatric nurses are exposed is overwhelming and the consequences are alarming. The contributing factors to this violence and aggression are: the mental status and the conditions in which patients are admitted; the staff shortage; the lack of support among the members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT); and the lack of structured and comprehensive orientation among newly appointed staff members. As a result, psychiatric nurses are emotionally, psychologically, and physically affected. They then respond with the following emotions and behaviour: fear, anger, frustration, despair, hopelessness and helplessness, substance abuse, absenteeism, retaliation and the development of an "I don't care" attitude.
Stinson, Frederick S; Dawson, Deborah A; Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Huang, Boji; Smith, Sharon M; Ruan, W June; Pulay, Attila J; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Grant, Bridget F
To present nationally representative findings on prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, disability, and comorbidity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) among men and women. Face-to-face interviews with 34,653 adults participating in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions conducted between 2004 and 2005 in the United States. Prevalence of lifetime NPD was 6.2%, with rates greater for men (7.7%) than for women (4.8%). NPD was significantly more prevalent among black men and women and Hispanic women, younger adults, and separated/divorced/widowed and never married adults. NPD was associated with mental disability among men but not women. High co-occurrence rates of substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders and other personality disorders were observed. With additional comorbidity controlled for, associations with bipolar I disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizotypal and borderline personality disorders remained significant, but weakened, among men and women. Similar associations were observed between NPD and specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar II disorder among women and between NPD and alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders among men. Dysthymic disorder was significantly and negatively associated with NPD. NPD is a prevalent personality disorder in the general U.S. population and is associated with considerable disability among men, whose rates exceed those of women. NPD may not be as stable as previously recognized or described in the DSM-IV. The results highlight the need for further research from numerous perspectives to identify the unique and common genetic and environmental factors underlying the disorder-specific associations with NPD observed in this study.
Full Text Available M Gabrielle Pagé,1,2 Maude Fortier,1 Mark A Ware,3–5 Manon Choinière1,6 1Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CRCHUM, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3Department of Family Medicine, 4Department of Anesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, 5Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, 6Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada Introduction: The presence of multiple coexisting chronic pain (CP conditions (eg, low-back pain and migraines within patients has received little attention in literature. The goals of this observational longitudinal study were to determine the prevalence of coexisting CP conditions, identify the most frequent ones and patterns of coexistence, investigate the relationships among patients’ biopsychosocial characteristics and number of CP conditions, and determine the impact of coexisting CP conditions on treatment response.Patients and methods: A total of 3,966 patients attending multidisciplinary pain-treatment centers who were enrolled in the Quebec Pain Registry were included. Patients completed self-report and nurse-administered questionnaires before their first visit and 6 months later. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor and cluster analyses, negative binomials with log-link generalized linear models, and linear mixed-effect models.Results: A third of patients reported coexisting CP conditions. No specific patterns of comorbidities emerged. The presence of coexisting CP conditions was associated with longer pain duration, older age, being female, and poorer quality of life. The presence of more than one CP condition did not have a clinically significant impact on treatment responses.Discussion: The novelty of the study results relate to the heterogeneity that was found in the patterns of coexistence of CP conditions and the fact that having
Müller, Astrid; Rein, Katharina; Kollei, Ines; Jacobi, Andrea; Rotter, Andrea; Schütz, Patricia; Hillemacher, Thomas; de Zwaan, Martina
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in a European psychiatric inpatient sample. Two hundred thirty four consecutive psychiatric inpatients (62% female) were examined using a module of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) that has been developed for ICDs (SCID-ICD). In addition to intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, kleptomania, pathological gambling, and trichotillomania, the proposed ICDs not otherwise specified were assessed, including compulsive buying, nonparaphilic compulsive sexual behavior, pathological internet use, and pathological skin picking. Based on the SCID-ICD, a lifetime ICD rate of 23.5% and a current ICD rate of 18.8% were found. The most frequent ICDs were pathological skin picking (lifetime 7.3%, current 6.8%), compulsive buying (lifetime 6.8%, current 6.0%), and intermittent explosive disorder (lifetime 5.6%, current 3.4%). In contrast, referring to admission diagnoses taken from patients' charts only 3.8% of the inpatients were diagnosed with any current ICD. Individuals with comorbid ICD were significantly younger and had more admission diagnoses other than ICD. The results suggest high rates of ICDs among psychiatric inpatients that remain to be under-diagnosed in clinical routine. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dafoe, Michele E; Stewart, Katharine E
The relationships between HIV-related pain, psychiatric disorders, and suicidal ideation (SI) are not well understood. The presented research investigated the ability of pain, psychiatric diagnoses, coping styles, and locus of control (LOC) to predict SI in 75 HIV-positive persons, using a sequential logistic regression. Reported psychiatric diagnoses included depression, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. Variance accounted for by these analyses was approximated at 33%, with pain severity independently predicting SI after accounting for psychiatric diagnoses. Coping and LOC did not add significantly to the models. Given the prevalence of pain in this population, these results underscore the importance of assessing and treating pain and SI in persons with HIV.
Salameh, Pascale; Chahine, Mirna; Hallit, Souheil; Farah, Rita; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Asmar, Roland; Hosseiny, Hassan
Hypertension is a risk factor of several diseases, linked to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked indoor and outdoor pollution exposure items to hypertension, but results were inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the association of living conditions related to air pollution to hypertension in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. Blood pressure and its related medications were assessed to be able to classify participants as hypertensive or not. Moreover, in addition to living conditions related to air pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of hypertension, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information and biological measurements. Furthermore, we assessed dose-effect relationship of air pollution items in relation with hypertension. Living conditions related to indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures were associated with hypertension, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease (15% increase in risk of disease for every additional pollution exposure item), after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics (Ora = 1.15 [1.03-1.28]). Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, interventions should start to sensitize the population about the effect of air pollution on chronic diseases. The work on reducing pollution and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the disease burden on the population and health system.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points
Grønli, Ole; Kvamme, Jan Magnus; Friborg, Oddgeir; Wynn, Rolf
Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4%) and the patient group (41.0%) (χ(2) = 44.81, df = 1, pdeficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses) than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2) = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037). Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points varied in both the control group and the patient group. No data regarding zinc supplementation were collected.
Homelessness remains a major public health problem in the USA but there have been few recent epidemiological studies in the general population. Using data from structured interviews with a nationally representative sample of 36 299 US adults from the 2012-13 Wave 3 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), this study examined the lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness, and its correlates. Lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness in the US population was found to be 4.2 and 1.5%, respectively. Low income, debt, borderline personality disorder (PD), past-year tobacco use disorder, any history of suicidal attempts and being a victim of crime in the past year were all independently strongly associated with past-year homelessness (all OR > 1.5). Low income, debt, history of incarceration, antisocial PD and any history of suicidal attempts were all independently strongly associated with lifetime homelessness (all OR > 1.5). These findings provide an update to the original NESARC, suggesting a possible increase in lifetime homelessness (2.7-4.2%) in the past decade. Along with known economic and behavioral health conditions, special attention should be paid to PDs in efforts to prevent and end homelessness.
Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Cordingley, Dean; Chu, Stephanie; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly
The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the prevalence of emotional symptoms among children and adolescents with a sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and (2) to examine the prevalence, clinical features, risk factors, and management of postinjury psychiatric outcomes among those in this clinical population. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with SRC referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and October 2014. Clinical assessments carried out by a single neurosurgeon included clinical history, physical examination, and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scoring. Postinjury psychiatric outcomes were defined as a subjective worsening of symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder or new and isolated suicidal ideation or diagnosis of a novel psychiatric disorder (NPD). An NPD was defined as a newly diagnosed psychiatric disorder that occurred in a patient with or without a lifetime preinjury psychiatric disorder after a concussion. Clinical resources, therapeutic interventions, and clinical and return-to-play outcomes are summarized. One hundred seventy-four patients (mean age 14.2 years, 61.5% male) were included in the study. At least 1 emotional symptom was reported in 49.4% of the patients, and the median emotional PCSS subscore was 4 (interquartile range 1-8) among those who reported at least 1 emotional symptom. Overall, 20 (11.5%) of the patients met the study criteria for a postinjury psychiatric outcome, including 14 patients with an NPD, 2 patients with isolated suicidal ideation, and 4 patients with worsening symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder. Female sex, a higher initial PCSS score, a higher emotional PCSS subscore, presence of a preinjury psychiatric history, and presence of a family history of psychiatric illness were significantly associated with postinjury psychiatric outcomes
İzci, Filiz; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Fındıklı, Ebru; Özmen, Vahit
Cancer is a physical disease and also one of the leading clinical manifestations where psychosocial problems are prevalent. Psychosocial problems that these patients may have in the long run include anxiety, uneasiness, mourning, helplessness, fatigue, impairment of concentration, sleep disorders, mental and cognitive reservation, sexual dysfunction, infertility, psychological distress, and psychiatric disorders. Psychosocial problems have a nature of underpinning the emergence of psychological troubles. The prevalence of psychological disorders in patients with cancer range from 29% to 47%. Psychiatric disorders that are likely to be seen are severe stress disorder, adjustment disorder, depressive disorder, and other neurotic disorders. It is considered by the present author that in the event of breast cancer, potential psychiatric disorders may affect prognosis of the disease, adherance to and success of therapy, social and societal functioning, and survival rate. This paper aims to review the psychiatric symptoms and diseases that may develop in patients with breast cancer, which is one of the most frequent types of a globally common disease; i.e., cancer, as well as the impact of psychiatric symptoms on the treatment of disease.
Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo
This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.
Full Text Available (1 Background: Limited studies have utilized nationwide data to assess the patterns of psychiatric practice in other countries. In this study, data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan (NHIRD-TW for 2012 was analyzed to determine the patterns of psychiatric outpatient practice in Taiwan; (2 Methods: To determine the patterns of psychiatric outpatient practice in Taiwan, the data were drawn from the datasets of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database for 2012, with 619,760 records of outpatient visits representing 1/500 of all the claims in Taiwan for that year. The analysis of psychiatric outpatient visits included patient demographics, diagnoses, and prescribed medications; (3 Results: Neurotic disorders were the most prevalent diagnoses (43.1%, n = 5714. Hypnotics-sedatives and anxiolytics were prescribed in 51.7% (n = 6850 and 39.1% (n = 5181 of psychiatric visits, respectively, with zolpidem being the most commonly prescribed drug (22.6%, n = 2998; and (4 Conclusion: Hypnotics and sedatives were widely prescribed for the outpatient population, and zolpidem had the highest annual prevalence of use. These findings deserve the attention of clinicians and policy makers for monitoring the abuse and dependence of these agents and subsequent adverse events.
Hylwa, Sara A; Foster, Ashley A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael
Delusional infestation, which encompasses both delusions of parasitosis and delusions of infestation with inanimate objects (sometimes called Morgellons disease), has been said to represent a distinct and encapsulated delusion, that is, a stand-alone diagnosis. Anecdotally, we have observed that patients with delusional infestation often have one or more psychiatric comorbid conditions and that delusional infestation should not be regarded as a stand-alone diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patients with delusional infestation have psychiatric comorbid conditions. We therefore identified patients who had been formally evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry during their visit to Mayo Clinic. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed the cases of all patients with delusional infestation seen from 2001 through 2007 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and who underwent psychiatric evaluation. The diagnoses resulting from psychiatric evaluation were analyzed. During the 7-year study period, 109 patients seen for delusional infestation at Mayo Clinic were referred to the Department of Psychiatry, 54 (50%) of whom actually followed through with psychiatric consultation. Of these 54 patients, 40 (74%) received additional active psychiatric diagnoses; 14 patients (26%) had delusional infestation alone. Abnormal personality traits were rarely documented. Most patients with delusional infestation have multiple coexisting or underlying psychiatric disorders. Therefore, evaluation by a psychiatrist, when possible, is advised for all patients with delusional infestation. Copyright © 2012 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mavrogiorgou, P; Juckel, G
Acute agitation psychiatric emergencies as frequently occur in psychiatric as well as in non-psychiatric settings, such as general hospitals, specialized clinics, emergency services and private practices. Psychiatric emergencies can be life-threatening and necessitate immediate treatment. This article presents the core symptomatology, differential diagnoses and treatment options of acute agitation emergencies. Case control studies and reliable data regarding prevalence and treatment of acute agitation in psychiatric and general hospitals or private practices are sparse. Existing evidence suggests that optimization of diagnosis and therapy of psychiatric emergencies, such as acute agitation is warranted. Treatment of acute agitation, psychological distress and other psychiatric emergencies are highly demanding regarding psychiatric expertise and concerning the personality and behavior of the therapist. The basis of therapy comprises the ability to form a stable and trustworthy relationship with the patient as well as to patiently calm down agitated patients. Unambiguous and rapid decision-making that takes effective pharmacological treatment options into account usually leads to swift amelioration of the acute symptomatology.
Priscilla Maria Peixoto Patrício
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to correlate Streblidae parasitism rates with temperature and humidity as well as sex, age and reproductive condition of Artibeus bats. Streblidae specimens were collected during two years in the Tinguá Biological Reserve and in two areas inside buffer zone, located in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State and preserved as wet specimens. The abundance of Streblidae species parasitizing Artibeus was analyzed, and no differences were found between them. However, the number of females parasitizing Artibeus fimbriatus was higher. Moreover, regarding sex, Artibeus females were more parasitized, particularly A. fimbriatus and A. lituratus. There was no correlation between mean intensity of infestation and body mass index of Artibeus species, even when correlated to abiotic data. This study contributes to better understand the parasitism on Artibeus by Streblidae, and based on results, it is clear that Streblidae show no preferences in terms of reproductive condition, body size, age, sex, temperature and humidity in parasitizing Artibeus species.
Araya, R; Wynn, R; Leonard, R; Lewis, G
The aims were to determine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among primary care attenders in a poor suburb of Santiago and to study the relationship with health service use. A cross-sectional survey was made of 163 consecutive attenders to a primary care clinic. Eleven per cent of the sample gave a psychological reason for consultation and the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 53%, defined using the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Women and those of lower socio-economic status were at higher risk. Physicians recognised 14% of the psychiatric morbidity. Attenders with psychiatric morbidity consulted more frequently. There is a need to improve the recognition and management of psychiatric morbidity in primary care in Chile and other less developed countries. This could lead to the more efficient use of scarce health care resources in primary care.
Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.
is not seen to be associated with any specific mental disorder. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most commonly associated psychiatric disorders, diagnosed at least one time in 34.8% of the AA cases. Our findings underscore that it is important for clinicians working in adult psychiatric services......The prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in a clinical sample of 89 individuals with atypical autism (AA) first seen as children, and 258 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The average observation...... time was 36.9 years, and mean age at follow-up 45.3 years. A total of 61 persons with AA (68.5%) had been in contact with psychiatric hospitals during the follow-up period, compared with 10.9% in the comparison group. A whole range of significantly elevated psychiatric disorders was found, so AA...
Popkin, M K; MacKenzie, T B; Callies, A L
Drawing upon their studies of physicians' responses to the recommendations and diagnosis of psychiatric consultants, the authors propose that the psychiatric consultant is most often invoked when the primary physician experiences an inappropriate interpersonal distance in the relationship with the patient. Sensing the threat or the reality of the patient as too close or too distant, the physician seeks the presence of the consultant. In the subsequent triadic constellation, the psychiatric consultant is suggested to function principally as buffer between the physician and the patient, restoring, or effecting a more optimal interpersonal distance in the original dyad. This construct helps to explain the consultees' "selectivity" in requesting consultation and the marked disparity between reported prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the medically ill and referral rates. It also calls attention to the role of the psychiatric consultant in assuring that the medical care of the patient with psychiatric features is not compromised or abbreviated.
Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher
To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guzin Mukaddes Sevincer
Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is a treatment modality which is becoming increasingly popular in the last decade in our country and around the world. Patients who treated with a conventional methods are unable to loose sufficient weight and even they regained most of their lost weight easily. The number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery are increasing day by day considering the success of bariatric surgery with regard to lose weight fast and the improvement in co-morbid conditions. Obesity and bariatric surgery are in a reciprocal relationship both with psychiatric disorders and psychosocial variables. Relations are begin with the evaluation of a patients eligibility for surgery in terms of psychiatric and psychosocial issues at a very early stage of the process. Presence of psychopathology, level of knowledge related to the surgical procedure and patients expectations about physical, psychological and social changes that may occur after surgery are the significant parts of the evaluation of bariatric surgery patients. These components should be considered in assessing capacity of patients to comply with medical advice in post-operative stage. In this article the needs for assesment of psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of obese patients who will undergo bariatric surgery is reviewed in the light of current literature . Possible medical, psychiatric and psychosocial complications of bariatric surgery and related issues are reviewed and psycosocial factors that may be predictors of the successful outcome of bariatric surgery are discussed.Discussions around the nature of specific eating disorders seen frequently in bariatric surgery patients, wheter it is a separate entities from well known eating disorders and controversial issues such as presence or absence of psychopathology like suicide as directly consequence of the surgical procedures are summarized. Discussions about performing of psychiatric and psychosocial assesment (i.e by whom, how and
Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Bardach, Naomi S.; Coker, Tumaini R.; Berry, Jay G.
OBJECTIVE: To describe recent, 10-year trends in pediatric hospital resource use with and without a psychiatric diagnosis and examine how these trends vary by type of psychiatric and medical diagnosis cooccurrence. METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis using hospital discharge data from 33 tertiary care US children’s hospitals of patients ages 3 to 17 years from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2014. The trends in hospital discharges, hospital days, and total aggregate costs for each psychiatric comorbid group were assessed by using multivariate generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2014, the cumulative percent growth in resource use was significantly (all P hospital days: +92.9% vs 5.9%; and costs: +142.7% vs + 18.9%). During this time period, the most substantial growth was observed in children admitted with a medical condition who also had a cooccurring psychiatric diagnosis (hospitalizations: +160.5%; hospital days: +112.4%; costs: +156.2%). In 2014, these children accounted for 77.8% of all hospitalizations for children with a psychiatric diagnosis; their most common psychiatric diagnoses were developmental disorders (22.3%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (18.1%), and anxiety disorders (14.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The 10-year rise in pediatric hospitalizations in US children’s hospitals is 5 times greater for children with versus without a psychiatric diagnosis. Strategic planning to meet the rising demand for psychiatric care in tertiary care children’s hospitals should place high priority on the needs of children with a primary medical condition and cooccurring psychiatric disorders. PMID:27940773
Janique G. Jessurun
Full Text Available Objective. Constipation is a prevalent problem in patients with psychiatric disorders; it reduces quality of life and may lead to severe complications. The prevalence distribution of constipation across all psychiatric diagnoses in patients with severe mental illness (SMI has hardly been studied. The aim of this study is to estimate the association between psychiatric disorders and constipation in SMI inpatients. Methods. The strength of the association between constipation (based on use of laxatives and DSM-IV psychiatric diagnosis was studied in a cross-sectional study with “adjustment disorders” as the reference group. The association was analyzed using logistic regression. Results. Of the 4728 patients, 20.3% had constipation. In the stratum of patients older than 60 years, all psychiatric categories except for substance related disorders were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of constipation (odds ratios ranging from 3.38 to 6.52, whereas no significant associations were found in the stratum of patients between 18 and 60 years (odds ratios ranging from 1.00 to 2.03. Conclusion. In the elderly, all measured psychiatric diagnoses are strongly associated with an increased prevalence of constipation. Physicians should be extra alert for constipation in SMI patients, independent of specific psychiatric diagnoses.
Respiratory conditions are some of the most common indications for admission to critical care units. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms are highly comorbid with lung disease. They can occur as a risk factor to lung disease, as a co-occurring condition, as a consequence of a pulmonary condition, or as a treatment side effect either from medications or assistive devices. Patients can experience a myriad of mood, anxiety, and cognitive disorder symptoms and conditions in critical care units. Intensivists and psychiatrists must be aware of the interplay between pulmonary and psychiatric symptoms as well as medication effects and interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koebnick, Corinna; Smith, Ning; Huang, Karl; Martinez, Mayra P; Clancy, Heather A; Kushi, Lawrence H
To identify population groups that are most susceptible to obesity-related health conditions at young age. For this population-based cross-sectional study, measured weight and height, diagnosis, laboratory, and drug prescription information were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,819,205 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California in 2007 through 2009. Overall, 29.9% of young adults were obese. Extreme obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) was observed in 6.1% of women and 4.5% of men. The adjusted relative risk (RR) for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome increased sharply for those individuals with a BMI of 40 or greater, with the sharpest increase in the adjusted RR for hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The association between weight class and dyslipidemia, hypertension, and the metabolic syndrome but not diabetes was stronger among 20.0- to 29.9-year-olds compared with 30.0- to 39.9-year-olds (P for interaction young adults with a BMI of 40.0 to 49.9, 50.0 to 59.9, and 60 or greater kg/m(2) had a RR for hypertension of 11.73, 19.88, and 30.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.39-35.17) at 20 to 29 years old, and 9.31, 12.41, and 15.43 (95% CI, 14.32-16.63) at 30 to 39 years old. Although older individuals were more likely to be extremely obese, the association between obesity-related health conditions was stronger in younger individuals. Hispanics and Blacks are also more likely to be obese, including extremely obese, putting them at an elevated risk for premature cardiovascular disease and some cancers relative to non-Hispanic Whites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between smoking and psychiatric disorders. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking, 277 psychiatric outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders (DSM-IV answered a self-evaluation questionnaire about smoking behavior and were compared with a group of 68 control subjects. The diagnoses (N = 262 were: 30.2% (N = 79 major depressive disorder, 23.3% (N = 61 panic disorder, 15.6% (N = 41 social anxiety disorder, 7.3% (N = 19 other anxiety disorders, and 23.7% (N = 62 comorbidity disorders. Among them, 26.3% (N = 69 were smokers, 23.7% (N = 62 were former smokers and 50.0% (N = 131 were nonsmokers. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the smokers was 59.0% (DSM-IV. The frequency of cigarette smoking did not show any significant difference among the five classes of diagnosis. The social anxiety disorder patients were the heaviest smokers (75.0%, with more unsuccessful attempts to stop smoking (89.0%. The frequency of former smokers was significantly higher among older subjects and nonsmokers were significantly younger (chi² = 9.13, d.f. = 2, P = 0.01. Our data present some clinical implications suggesting that in our psychiatric outpatient sample with anxiety disorder, major depression and comorbidity (anxiety disorder and major depression, the frequency of cigarette smoking did not differ from the frequency found in the control group or in general population studies. Some specific features of our population (outpatients, anxiety and depressive disorders might be responsible for these results.
Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H
Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220,000 and 269,500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia.
Christenson, G A; Faber, R J; de Zwaan, M; Raymond, N C; Specker, S M; Ekern, M D; Mackenzie, T B; Crosby, R D; Crow, S J; Eckert, E D
Compulsive buying is infrequently described in the psychiatric literature despite suggestions that it may be prevalent. The authors investigated the demographics and phenomenology of this syndrome and assessed psychiatric comorbidity via interviews of both compulsive buyers and normal buyers. Twenty-four compulsive buyers were compared with 24 age- and sex-matched normal buyers using (1) a semistructured interview for compulsive buying and impulse control disorders, (2) a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, and (3) scales measuring compulsiveness, depression, and anxiety. The typical compulsive buyer was a 36-year-old female who had developed compulsive buying at age 17 1/2 and whose buying had resulted in adverse psychosocial consequences. Purchases were usually of clothes, shoes, jewelry, or makeup, which frequently went unused. Compared with normal buyers, compulsive buyers had a higher lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disorders and were more depressed, anxious, and compulsive. Among compulsive buyers, 16 (66.7%) described buying that resembled obsessive compulsive disorder, whereas 23 (95.8%) described buying that resembled an impulse control disorder. Compulsive buying is a definable clinical syndrome that can result in significant psychosocial impairment and which displays features of both obsessive compulsive disorder and the impulse control disorders.
Torrey, E. Fuller; Yolken, Robert H.
Although the Nazi genocide of Jews during World War II is well known, the concurrent Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients is much less widely known. An attempt was made to estimate the number of individuals with schizophrenia who were sterilized and murdered by the Nazis and to assess the effect on the subsequent prevalence and incidence of this disease. It is estimated that between 220 000 and 269 500 individuals with schizophrenia were sterilized or killed. This total represents between 73% and 100% of all individuals with schizophrenia living in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Postwar studies of the prevalence of schizophrenia in Germany reported low rates, as expected. However, postwar rates of the incidence of schizophrenia in Germany were unexpectedly high. The Nazi genocide of psychiatric patients was the greatest criminal act in the history of psychiatry. It was also based on what are now known to be erroneous genetic theories and had no apparent long-term effect on the subsequent incidence of schizophrenia. PMID:19759092
van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes
The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus
Alevizopoulos, Giorgos; Igoumenou, Artemis
Τo explore the psychopathology of the Greek male prisoner population and the relationship between psychiatric disorders and the criminal history of the subjects. The Iowa Structured Psychiatric Interview and the Personality Disorders Questionnaire were administered. The prevalence of the most common mental disorders was analyzed separately and in relation to the criminal history. SPSS was used for the statistical analysis. A total of 495 male prisoners were interviewed. Overall, 223 (45.06%) were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Non-violent crimes were the most prevalent reason for imprisonment (40.7%). One-third (30.3%) of the sample was convicted with drug-related crimes, and 28.0% with violent crimes. The prevalence of mental disorders in Greek prisoners was higher than in the general population. Personality disorder was the most common type of mental disorder and the only psychiatric diagnosis related to violent crime. This highlights the need for screening for mental disorders and the need for therapeutic provision within the prison setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tay, Tuan Leng; Béchade, Catherine; D'Andrea, Ivana; St-Pierre, Marie-Kim; Henry, Mathilde S; Roumier, Anne; Tremblay, Marie-Eve
Microglia are the predominant immune response cells and professional phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) that have been shown to be important for brain development and homeostasis. These cells present a broad spectrum of phenotypes across stages of the lifespan and especially in CNS diseases. Their prevalence in all neurological pathologies makes it pertinent to reexamine their distinct roles during steady-state and disease conditions. A major question in the field is determining whether the clustering and phenotypical transformation of microglial cells are leading causes of pathogenesis, or potentially neuroprotective responses to the onset of disease. The recent explosive growth in our understanding of the origin and homeostasis of microglia, uncovering their roles in shaping of the neural circuitry and synaptic plasticity, allows us to discuss their emerging functions in the contexts of cognitive control and psychiatric disorders. The distinct mesodermal origin and genetic signature of microglia in contrast to other neuroglial cells also make them an interesting target for the development of therapeutics. Here, we review the physiological roles of microglia, their contribution to the effects of environmental risk factors (e.g., maternal infection, early-life stress, dietary imbalance), and their impact on psychiatric disorders initiated during development (e.g., Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), hereditary diffuse leukoencephaly with spheroids, Rett syndrome, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)) or adulthood (e.g., alcohol and drug abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, eating disorders and sleep disorders). Furthermore, we discuss the changes in microglial functions in the context of cognitive aging, and review their implication in neurodegenerative diseases of the aged adult (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's). Taking into account the recent identification of microglia
Tuan Leng Tay
Full Text Available Microglia are the predominant immune response cells and professional phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS that have been shown to be important for brain development and homeostasis. These cells present a broad spectrum of phenotypes across stages of the lifespan and especially in CNS diseases. Their prevalence in all neurological pathologies makes it pertinent to reexamine their distinct roles during steady-state and disease conditions. A major question in the field is determining whether the clustering and phenotypical transformation of microglial cells are leading causes of pathogenesis, or potentially neuroprotective responses to the onset of disease. The recent explosive growth in our understanding of the origin and homeostasis of microglia, uncovering their roles in shaping of the neural circuitry and synaptic plasticity, allows us to discuss their emerging functions in the contexts of cognitive control and psychiatric disorders. The distinct mesodermal origin and genetic signature of microglia in contrast to other neuroglial cells also make them an interesting target for the development of therapeutics. Here, we review the physiological roles of microglia, their contribution to the effects of environmental risk factors (e.g., maternal infection, early-life stress, dietary imbalance, and their impact on psychiatric disorders initiated during development (e.g., Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD, hereditary diffuse leukoencephaly with spheroids, Rett syndrome, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD or adulthood (e.g., alcohol and drug abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar disorder (BD, schizophrenia, eating disorders and sleep disorders. Furthermore, we discuss the changes in microglial functions in the context of cognitive aging, and review their implication in neurodegenerative diseases of the aged adult (e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Taking into account the recent identification of
Devarajan, Naresh; Köhler, Thilo; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; van Delden, Christian; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mpiana, Pius T; Ibelings, Bastiaan W; Poté, John
Microbial populations which are resistant to antibiotics are an emerging environmental concern with potentially serious implications for public health. Thus, there is a growing concern in exploring the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in the environment with no limitations to the factors that contribute to their emergence. The aquatic environment is considered to be a hot-spot for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance due to pollution with emerging contaminants derived from anthropogenic activities. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of 141 Pseudomonas spp. from aquatic sediments receiving partially (un)treated hospital and communal effluents from three distinct geographical locations: Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), India (IN), and Switzerland (CH). P. putida (42%) and P. aeruginosa (39%) were the dominant Pseudomonas species. The highest frequency of antibiotic resistance against eight anti-pseudomonas agents was found among IN isolates (35-60%), followed by DRC (18-50%) and CH (12-54%). CTX-M was the most frequent β-lactamase found in CH (47% of isolates), while VIM-1 was dominant in isolates from DRC (61%) and IN (29%). NDM-1 was found in 29% of the total IN isolates and surprisingly also in 6% of CH isolates. Chromosomally-encoded efflux mechanisms were overexpressed in P. aeruginosa isolates from all three geographic locations. In vitro conjugative transfers of antibiotic resistance plasmids occurred more frequently under tropical temperatures (30 and 37 °C) than under temperate conditions (10 °C). The presence of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and Metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) in the isolates from environmental samples has important implications for humans who depend on public water supply and sanitation facilities. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a comparison between treated/untreated effluents from urban and hospital settings as a source of microbial resistance
Raghavendra B Nayak
Full Text Available Context: One percent of the population in India is homeless (destitutes which include beggars, commercial sex workers, homeless mentally ill, elderly women with dependent children, street children, and persons with disability. Psychiatric disorders are generally seen to be common among homeless individuals. The data are limited regarding psychiatric morbidity and its prevalence in this populace in Indian context. Aim: The aim was to study the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among the inmates of a center for destitutes. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study included all the residents (n = 50 of a center of destitutes. Psychiatric evaluation was done by qualified practicing psychiatrist. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning instruments were used to assess the severity of psychiatric symptoms and general functioning of the individuals with mental disorders. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: All residents (n = 50 of center of destitutes were evaluated for psychiatric co-morbidity. 42 (84% inmates were suffering from psychiatric disorders. Most common psychiatric disorder among them was psychotic disorders in 19 (38%, followed by affective disorders, mainly depression in 16 (32%, somatoform disorders in 5 (10%, and anxiety disorders in 2 (4%. No significant gender differences were noted (P = 0.335. Substance abuse was present in 22 (44% of the inmates. A significant negative correlation between psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the subject was seen, (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Psychiatric disorders and in particular substance abuse, are common among the homeless people who stay in the center of destitutes. Psychiatric disorders are likely to be the cause significant functional impairment.
Kamat, Shyama; Maniaci, Vincenzo; Linares, Marc Yves-Rene; Lozano, Juan M
This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that the lunar cycle influences the number of pediatric psychiatric emergency department (ED) visits. Pediatric psychiatric ED visits between 2009 and 2011 were obtained retrospectively. Patients aged between 4 and 21 years presenting to Miami Children's Hospital ED with a primary psychiatric complaint were included in the study. Patients with a concomitant psychiatric problem and a secondary medical condition were excluded. The number of psychiatric visits was retrieved for the full moon dates, control dates as well as the day before and after the full moon when the moon appears full to the naked eye (full moon effect). A comparison was made using the 2-sample independent t test. Between 2009 and 2011, 36 dates were considered as the true full moon dates and 108 dates as the "full moon effect." A total of 559 patients were included in the study. The 2-sample independent t tests were performed between the actual full moon date and control dates, as well as between the "full moon effect" dates and control dates. Our results failed to show a statistical significance when comparing the number of pediatric psychiatric patients presenting to a children's hospital ED during a full moon and a non-full moon date. Our study's results are in agreement with those involving adult patients. The full moon does not affect psychiatric visits in a children's hospital.
Borrusso, Patricia A; Quinlan, Jennifer J
Despite education efforts, consumers often practice unsafe food handling and storage behaviors. Little is known about how these unsafe practices contribute to contamination of the home kitchen with foodborne pathogens. In addition, only a limited number of studies have examined the role of the kitchen as a reservoir for pathogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize microbial contamination and foodborne pathogens found in home kitchens and determine whether contamination was significantly associated with unsafe or unsanitary conditions observed in the kitchen. Swab samples were collected from food contact and preparation surfaces in homes (n = 100) in Philadelphia, PA. The samples were tested for coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria. Fecal coliforms were found in 44% of homes (most often in samples from kitchen sinks, sponges, and dishcloths), and E. coli was found in 15% of homes (mostly in samples from kitchen sinks). Nearly half (45%) of the homes tested positive for a foodborne pathogen, and 12% had multiple pathogens present in the kitchen. S. aureus was isolated from 39% of homes, most often from countertops and refrigerator door handles. Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes and L. innocua , were present in 15% of homes, most often in samples from refrigerator meat drawers. C. jejuni was isolated from 3% of homes. Contamination with Listeria was significantly associated with higher refrigerator temperatures. The contamination of surfaces with fecal coliforms and S. aureus was significantly associated with a lack of cleaning materials: dish soap and paper or cloth towels in the kitchen, and any type of towel in the nearest bathroom. The contamination of a sponge or dishcloth with either fecal coliforms or S. aureus was predictive of other surfaces in the kitchen having the same contamination, indicating that sponges and dishcloths are both reservoirs and vectors for
Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the
Inglis, Angela; Morris, Emily; Austin, Jehannine
Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder are common disorders with complex aetiology. They can exact a heavy toll on the individual with the condition and can have significant impact on family members too. Accordingly, psychiatric disorders can arise as a concern in the prenatal context - couples may be interested in learning about the chance for their child to develop the illness that manifests in the family and may be interested in discussing options for prenatal testing. However, the complex nature of these conditions can present challenges for clinicians who seek to help families with these issues. We established the world's first specialist genetic counselling service of its kind in Vancouver, Canada, in 2012, and to date, have provided counselling for ~500 families and have demonstrated increases in patients' empowerment and self efficacy after genetic counselling. We draw on our accumulated clinical experience to outline the process by which we approach prenatal genetic counselling for psychiatric disorders to assist other clinicians in providing thoughtful, comprehensive support to couples seeking out this service. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients under treatment within the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia (Spain.A total of 64 healthcare professionals performed clinical diagnosis of mental disorders (on DSM IV-TR criteria in 2300 patients treated throughout March 2010 in 21 addictive disorders assistance units.56.3% of patients with substance abuse/dependency also showed some other mental disorder, 42.2% of patients suffering from at least an Axis I condition and 20.2% from some Axis II condition. Mood and anxiety disorders and borderline and antisocial personality disorders were the most frequent disorders in both axes.A high comorbidity was found between mental and substance use disorders (SUD in patients seen at the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia.
da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Kriebel, David
Background Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage. Their life and working conditions are extremely difficult. We examined minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among a cohort of ragpickers in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. Methods Ragpickers were matched by sex, age, and years of schooling with a sample of non-ragpickers from the same poor neighborhoods. The cross-sectional study gathered data by interview on 990 individuals in 2004. MPD were assessed using a standard self-reporting questionnaire, the SRQ-20. Results The prevalence of MPD among ragpickers was 44.7%, higher than reported by neighborhood controls (33.6%; p work accidents. Conclusion Ragpickers more frequently report MPD than other poor workers living in the same neighborhoods, with many of the same life conditions. Improving the work lives of these precarious workers should address not only the physical hazards of their jobs but their mental and emotional health as well. PMID:16734911
Pereiro, César; Pino, Carlos; Flórez, Gerardo; Arrojo, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo
The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients under treatment within the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia (Spain). A total of 64 healthcare professionals performed clinical diagnosis of mental disorders (on DSM IV-TR criteria) in 2300 patients treated throughout March 2010 in 21 addictive disorders assistance units. 56.3% of patients with substance abuse/dependency also showed some other mental disorder, 42.2% of patients suffering from at least an Axis I condition and 20.2% from some Axis II condition. Mood and anxiety disorders and borderline and antisocial personality disorders were the most frequent disorders in both axes. A high comorbidity was found between mental and substance use disorders (SUD) in patients seen at the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia.
Pereiro, César; Pino, Carlos; Flórez, Gerardo; Arrojo, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo
The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients under treatment within the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia (Spain). Material and Methods A total of 64 healthcare professionals performed clinical diagnosis of mental disorders (on DSM IV-TR criteria) in 2300 patients treated throughout March 2010 in 21 addictive disorders assistance units. Results 56.3% of patients with substance abuse/dependency also showed some other mental disorder, 42.2% of patients suffering from at least an Axis I condition and 20.2% from some Axis II condition. Mood and anxiety disorders and borderline and antisocial personality disorders were the most frequent disorders in both axes. Conclusions A high comorbidity was found between mental and substance use disorders (SUD) in patients seen at the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia. PMID:23823135
Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind
Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders......-hypothyroid controls were identified and followed over a mean period of 6 years (range 1-13). Additionally, we included 385 same sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders as well as treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotics and anxiolytics were recorded. Logistic and cox...... regression models were used to assess the risk of psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Results: Prior to the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, such individuals had an increased prevalence of diagnoses with psychiatric disorders (Odds ratio, OR, 1.51; 95% confidence...
Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.
Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide
This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.
Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Tazegül, Aybike; Gündüz, Sule
We aimed to determine Axis I psychiatric disorders in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to follow up the course of psychiatric disorder and its association with nausea and vomiting (NV) during pregnancy. The study sample was composed of 47 patients with HG. Psychiatric interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID-I). Other psychiatric interviews were performed in the second and third trimesters. On each visit, the subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 25.5%, and the prevalence of any mood disorder was 14.9% in women with HG in the first trimester. Psychiatric disorders continued throughout the pregnancy in two thirds of the women who had HG and a psychiatric diagnosis. Any SCID diagnosis in the first trimester was higher in women whose NV had partially resolved than in women whose NV had fully resolved (P<.05). The present studies suggest that psychiatric disorders may play a significant role in the etiology of HG. Our findings presented a potential connection between HG and anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Additionally, the NV symptoms in women with HG and a psychiatric disorder may persist during pregnancy. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moussa A. Chalah
Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent in patients with MS, and can have drastic impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Despite this high prevalence, whether psychiatric manifestations may represent the first signs of MS is still debatable. This constitutes an important issue, since early diagnosis of “psychiatric-onset MS” would result in prompt management, which usually ameliorates long-term prognosis. Here, we discuss clinical and radiological hints that suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric-onset MS. Briefly, this entity should be considered in healthy patients presenting with late-onset psychiatric symptoms, with or without cognitive decline, and with negative family history of psychiatric diseases. A thorough neurological exam is crucial to detect any subtle neurological signs. Brain magnetic resonance imagin