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Sample records for prevalent individual chronic

  1. Chronic mucus hypersecretion: prevalence and risk factors in younger individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Lotte; Thomsen, S F; Ingebrigtsen, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals.......Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  2. Chronic mucus hypersecretion: prevalence and risk factors in younger individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Ingebrigtsen, T; Steffensen, I E; Skadhauge, L R; Kyvik, K O; Backer, V

    2010-08-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals. To determine prevalence, incidence and risk factors for CMH in a young general population. A cohort of Danish twins (aged 12-41 years) was prospectively examined using questionnaires in 1994 (n = 29 180) and in 2002 (n = 21 130). Prevalence and incidence of CMH were determined, and risk factors for the condition were assessed using logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence of CMH was 8.6% in females and 6.9% in males in 1994, and the cumulative incidence among females and males was respectively 10.7% and 8.7% during the study period. Smoking and asthma were risk factors for CMH, with a dose-response effect of tobacco consumption, and smoking habits also predicting incidence of CMH. Among the young, CMH is a condition related to asthma and smoking, with a dose-response relationship with tobacco consumption and a relation between smoking habits and incidence. Female susceptibility to development of CMH was observed, as well as signs of greater susceptibility related to young age.

  3. Prevalence of microsporidia in healthy individuals and immunocompetent patients with acute and chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Cetin, Feyza; Dogruman Al, Funda; Oguz, Ilkiz; Aksu, Neriman

    2016-02-01

    Previously published studies of microsporidial infections have primarily focused on immunodeficient or immunocompromised patients. Data regarding infections caused by this microorganism in immunocompetent subjects are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of microsporidia in healthy individuals and immunocompetent patients with acute and chronic diarrhea. The study included stool samples from 74 patients with acute diarrhea, 41 patients with chronic diarrhea, and 88 healthy volunteers. Slides were prepared after concentration with a formalin-ethyl acetate technique and were stained with modified trichrome, calcofluor white, and Uvitex 2B stains. The number of spores observed in each magnification field (×1000) was scored as follows: 1+, 1-10; 2+, 11-20; 3+, > 20. The prevalence of microsporidia was 27.0% in patients with acute diarrhea, 34.1% in patients with chronic diarrhea, and 45.5% in healthy volunteers. The parasite score was 1 + in all positive samples. The rate of microsporidia positivity was higher in solid stools (51.4%), and the rate of positivity increased with advancing age. Unexpectedly, a high prevalence of microsporidia was found in immunocompetent individuals in our region. There was no relationship between positivity for microsporidia and the presence of symptoms, due to higher rates both in solid stools and in healthy subjects. The parasite score was the same in all groups. Our results indicate that there is high exposure to microsporidia in immunocompetent subjects in our region. Natural reservoirs and environmental sources of microsporidia should be determined to design strategies for effective prevention of transmission.

  4. PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC DISEASES IN INDIVIDUALS ASSISTED BY THE FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM IN NITEROI, BRAZIL: EVALUATION OF SELECTION BIAS AND PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Luiza G, Mesquita Evandro T, Jorge Antonio José L, Correia Dayse MS, Lugon Josemir R, Kang HC, Yokoo EM, Wahrlich V

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The strategy of the Family Health Program has been used as an alternative scenario for prevalence studies. This study intended to present the protocol of the Digitalis Study (DS, prevalence study of chronic diseases, to assess sources of possible selection bias and estimate their impact on the prevalence of self-reported hypertension, diabetes, and myocardial infarction. Methods: Randomization was performed between 38 160 registered individuals with 45 to 99 years by the Family Health Program .Differences between the sources of selection bias (non-acceptance, non-attendance, substitutions were observed for gender and age. Results: Of the 1,190 residents contacted, 67.1% agreed to participate. There were 144 residents who were not randomly selected but whose participation was confirmed (substitutes. Women and individuals in the intermediate age groups and the prevalence of hypertension were higher among substitutes compared with the randomly selected individuals. Conclusion: The approach of the DS was adequate for the purposes of estimating prevalences, but there was a significant percentage of non-participation. The randomization strategy did not assume outdated records; alternative schedules for visits were not provided for; follow-up at the invitation stage was not sufficient to prevent substitutions and the inclusion of substitutes with a higher prevalence of hypertension.

  5. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence of a negative impact of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy on reproductive outcomes. Knowledge of the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy is limited, but essential for a focused preventive effort regarding optimal disease control during...... pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories...... of both physical and mental health conditions recorded within a period of 10 years before childbirth. RESULTS: We included 1 362 200 childbirths during the study period. The overall prevalence of maternal chronic disease increased from 3.71% in 1989 to 15.76% in 2013. The most frequently registered...

  6. Prevalence of sleep disturbance in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, S; Karaman, T; Dogru, S; Onder, Y; Citil, R; Bulut, Y E; Tapar, H; Sahin, A; Arici, S; Kaya, Z; Suren, M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a vital function for human beings, which can be affected by several factors. Chronic pain is one of these factors where it is the most frequent cause for seeking medical care in combination with insomnia. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and relationship between sleep disturbance and chronic pain. After approval, a total of 85 Family Medicine Units from over 170 in Tokat were randomly selected using a 50% sampling. A sample of 2635 subjects, over the age of 19 years, who were registered with the selected Family Medicine Units, were assessed due to gender, age group, and the urban/rural population size of Tokat using the stratified sampling method. The sample size distribution was calculated as 1515 urban subjects, 1120 rural subjects; 1345 female subjects, 1290 male subjects; 1123 subjects between 20-39 years of age, 1103 subjects between the ages of 40-64, and 409 subjects over 64 years of age. After sampling, subjects were invited to participate in the study via an invitation letter, and agreeing individuals were taken to the Family Medicine Unit for face-to-face meetings. Written, informed consent was obtained, along with demographic data. The presence of chronic pain was recorded. According to the presence of chronic pain, all subjects were separated into two groups as Group Chronic Pain and Group Non-Chronic Pain. The visual analog scale for pain intensity, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for sleep quality, were performed with all subjects. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the predictors of sleep quality. Analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), version 20.0. The statistical significance for all analyses was set at p 5. A moderate positive correlation was found between the global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Visual Analog Scale scores (r = 0.310, p < 0.01). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, gender, income, Visual

  7. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually and in combination, in male patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome, without previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. ... They were categorized according to the specific criteria stated in the latest joint statement for the global definition of MS. Results: ...

  8. Estimating multimorbidity prevalence with the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System

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    Allison Feely

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS uses a validated, standardized methodology to estimate prevalence of individual chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Expansion of the CCDSS for surveillance of multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more chronic diseases, could better inform health promotion and disease prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the CCDSS to estimate multimorbidity prevalence. Methods: We used administrative health data from seven provinces and three territories and five validated chronic conditions (i.e. cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, mental illness, hypertension and diabetes to estimate multimorbidity prevalence. We produced age-standardized (using Canada’s 1991 population and age-specific estimates for two multimorbidity definitions: (1 two or more conditions, and (2 three or more conditions from the five validated conditions, by sex, fiscal year and geography. Results: Among Canadians aged 40 years and over in the fiscal year 2011/12, the prevalence of two or more and three or more chronic conditions was 26.5% and 10.2%, respectively, which is comparable to other estimates based on administrative health data. The increase in multimorbidity prevalence with increasing age was similar across provinces. The difference in prevalence for males and females varied by province and territory. We observed substantial variation in estimates over time. Results were consistent for the two definitions of multimorbidity. Conclusion: The CCDSS methodology can produce comparative estimates of multimorbidity prevalence across provinces and territories, but there are challenges in using it to estimate temporal trends. Further expansion of the CCDSS in the number and breadth of validated case definitions will improve the accuracy of multimorbidity surveillance for the Canadian population.

  9. Prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases in individuals over the age of 40 in São Paulo, Brazil: the Platino study Prevalência de doenças crônicas autorrelatadas em indivíduos acima de 40 anos em São Paulo, Brasil: estudo Platino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa K. Carvalho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic diseases and its impact in individuals aged 40 years or over in Brazil. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of some common chronic diseases in the Brazilian subgroup assessed by the PLATINO study using a self-reported survey. A total of 918 individuals (55% women with a mean age of 54.6 ± 10.9 years were evaluated. The most prevalent diseases were obesity (62.5%, hypertension (39.2% and gastritis (30.9%. We conclude from this study that there is a high prevalence of chronic diseases in the population over 40 years of age: 88% of the population suffers from a minimum of one disease and 26% of the sample suffers from at least three diseases. We also observed that the number of comorbidities increases with age.Poucos estudos foram desenvolvidos para determinar a prevalência de doenças crônicas e suas associações em indivíduos com mais de 40 anos de idade no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de algumas doenças crônicas altamente prevalentes no país, de modo autorreferido, avaliadas no Estudo PLATINO em São Paulo, em uma amostra de base populacional. Novecentos e dezoito indivíduos (55% mulheres com média de idade de 54,6 ± 10,9 anos foram avaliados. As três doenças mais prevalentes foram obesidade (62,5%, hipertensão (39,2% e gastrite (30,9%. Há uma alta prevalência de doenças crônicas na população acima de 40 anos: 88% da amostra apresentaram pelo menos uma doença e 26%, pelo menos, três doenças; e o número de doenças apresentava tendência a aumentar com a idade.

  10. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-19

    Mar 19, 2013 ... 2005; 112: e297 and Circulation. 2005; 112: e298). Circulation. 2005; 112: 2735Б52. 19. Al-Lawati JA, Mohammed AJ, Al-Hinai HQ, Jousilahti P. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Omani adults. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 1781Б5. 20. Al-Qahtani DA, Imtiaz ML. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Valid community-based data on the prevalence of chronic diseases in adolescents (12-18 years) with intellectual disability (ID-adolescents) are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates and the nature of chronic diseases in a population of ID-adolescents and to compare them

  12. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease after preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes van Balen, Veronica Agatha; Spaan, Julia Jeltje; Cornelis, Tom; Spaanderman, Marc Erich August

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), an endothelial disease that affects kidney function during pregnancy, is correlated to an increased future risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guideline emphasizes the combined role of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria in determining the frequency of monitoring of kidney function. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of CKD in women with a history of PE. We investigated how many seemingly healthy women required monitoring of kidney function according to the KDIGO guideline. We included 775 primiparous women with a history of PE. They were at least 4 months postpartum, and had no pre-existing hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease. We estimated GFR by the CKD-Epidemiology equation and urinary albumin loss by albumin creatinine ratio in a 24-h urine collection. Most women, 669 (86.3 %), had a normal GFR and absent albuminuria. Based on the KDIGO guideline, 13.7 % would require at least yearly monitoring of kidney function. Only 1.4 % were classified to be at high risk for kidney function deterioration. Monitoring of kidney function seems relevant for about one in seven women with a history of PE, mainly due to albuminuria. Albuminuria should be evaluated postpartum to identify those women that need further monitoring of kidney function.

  13. Correlation between caries prevalence and chronic perodontitis

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    Sara Entezari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Periodontitis and dental caries may be synergistically associated, negatively associated, or completely independent.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these two diseases and investigate the prevalence of dental caries in periodontitis. Methods: This cross- sectional study has been performed in 180 samples in two groups: periodontal and control group during 2012-2013 in Babol Dental School.All 180 patients were divided into two groups, including 90 cases with chronic periodontitis as the periodontal group (PG and 90 cases with healthy gums as the control group ( probing depth between 2- 3 mm (HG.Clinical measurments including Gingival Index ( GI, Bleeding Index( BI, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL, Periodontal Pocket Depth (PPD were used to assess the severity of periodontal disease . The clinical features of control group were healthy gums , probing less than 3 mm in depth, and CAL< 1mm . The examination to measure AL was conducted using a Williams’s periodontal probe .In chronic periodontitis group , the patients had GI≥1 and CAL ≥ 1 .The assessment of caries of patients was conducted using bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection , dent on the use of explorer and direct observation. A p-value≤0.05 is considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the mean number of decayed and filled teeth (DFT in periodontal group was 4.32 ± 0.17, and in healthy group was 2.16 ± 0.17.DFT in males with periodontitis was 4.85 ± 0.17 and in females was 4.3 ± 0.17 ,while the healthy males was 2.54 ± 0.17, and females was 2.25 ± 0.17 therefore, the mean DFT in the periodontal group was more than the healthy group (p≤0.05 . Conclusion : Based on our findings, in patients with periodontitis, more dental carries were more significant than the healthy group.

  14. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera López, Carlos; Juliá Serdá, Gabriel; Cabrera Lacalzada, Cristina; Martín Medina, Ana; Gullón Blanco, José Antonio; García Bello, Miguel Ángel; Cabrera Navarro, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies significantly among the different geographical areas reported. In Spain, two epidemiological studies have shown a prevalence of 9-10% in the population aged over 40. However, neither of these studies included the Canary Islands, which are of interest due to their climatic conditions and high incidence of smoking. A random group of 1,353 subjects aged between 40 and 70years was selected from a sample population of 596,478 individuals. Participants completed a questionnaire and then performed spirometry with bronchodilator testing if obstruction was observed. COPD was diagnosed when the post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio was less than 0.70. The prevalence of COPD was 7.3% (95%CI: 5.5-9.5) and was higher in males than in females (8.7% vs. 6.3%, P=.134). The incidence of smoking was 29.4% (95%CI: 25.4-33.1) and was also higher in males than in females (35.1% vs 25.4%, P<.001). The prevalence of COPD stratified by severity of obstruction, according to the GOLD criteria, was 16% in groupi, 69.9% in groupii, 10.4% in groupiii and 3.3% in groupiv. 71.6% of the subjects were underdiagnosed and 63.5% undertreated. Despite having one of the highest rates of smoking in Spain, the prevalence of COPD in the Canary Islands is lower than in most of the Spanish regions studied. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological profile of individuals presenting with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Katrin; Deary, Vincent; Dogan, Sian; Parker, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic refractory cough (CRC) is a common problem in respiratory clinics. Adverse effects on quality of life are documented in the literature, but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological factors in this patient population. We aimed to investigate the association of psychological factors with chronic cough, comparing CRC to explained cough and non-cough groups. 67 patients attending a specialist cough clinic (CRC, n=25; explained cough, n=42) and 22 non-cough individuals participated. All participants completed the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Big Five Inventory (Personality), Chalder Fatigue Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-15. Cough patients also completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. Appropriate statistical analyses were used to compare participant groups. Chronic refractory coughers displayed significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, fatigue and somatic physical symptoms than non-cough participants. Compared to explained coughers, there were higher depression and fatigue scores and significantly more negative illness representations (specifically, strong beliefs regarding negative consequences, lower illness coherence and higher emotional representations). "Explained" coughers reported significantly increased fatigue and somatic symptoms in comparison to non-coughers. The prevalence of fatigue, low mood, negative illness beliefs and increased physical symptom reporting should be considered in consultations and in developing novel interventions for CRC patients.

  16. Psychological profile of individuals presenting with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hulme

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic refractory cough (CRC is a common problem in respiratory clinics. Adverse effects on quality of life are documented in the literature, but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological factors in this patient population. We aimed to investigate the association of psychological factors with chronic cough, comparing CRC to explained cough and non-cough groups. 67 patients attending a specialist cough clinic (CRC, n=25; explained cough, n=42 and 22 non-cough individuals participated. All participants completed the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Big Five Inventory (Personality, Chalder Fatigue Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-15. Cough patients also completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. Appropriate statistical analyses were used to compare participant groups. Chronic refractory coughers displayed significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, fatigue and somatic physical symptoms than non-cough participants. Compared to explained coughers, there were higher depression and fatigue scores and significantly more negative illness representations (specifically, strong beliefs regarding negative consequences, lower illness coherence and higher emotional representations. “Explained” coughers reported significantly increased fatigue and somatic symptoms in comparison to non-coughers. The prevalence of fatigue, low mood, negative illness beliefs and increased physical symptom reporting should be considered in consultations and in developing novel interventions for CRC patients.

  17. Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South Africa: A threat to public health. Lourens Johannes Rothmann, Martha Susanna Lubbe, Jan Hendrik Philippus Serfontein, Jan Jakobus Gerber, Madeeha Malik ...

  18. Prevalence estimates of chronic kidney disease in Canada: results of a nationally representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Paul; Vasa, Priya; Brenner, Darren; Iglar, Karl; McFarlane, Phil; Morrison, Howard; Badawi, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease is an important risk factor for death and cardiovascular-related morbidity, but estimates to date of its prevalence in Canada have generally been extrapolated from the prevalence of end-stage renal disease. We used direct measures of kidney function collected from a nationally representative survey population to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Canadian adults. Methods: We examined data for 3689 adult participants of cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009) for the presence of chronic kidney disease. We also calculated the age-standardized prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors by chronic kidney disease group. We cross-tabulated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with albuminuria status. Results: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease during the period 2007–2009 was 12.5%, representing about 3 million Canadian adults. The estimated prevalence of stage 3–5 disease was 3.1% (0.73 million adults) and albuminuria 10.3% (2.4 million adults). The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were all significantly higher among adults with chronic kidney disease than among those without it. The prevalence of albuminuria was high, even among those whose eGFR was 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater (10.1%) and those without diabetes or hypertension (9.3%). Awareness of kidney dysfunction among adults with stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease was low (12.0%). Interpretation: The prevalence of kidney dysfunction was substantial in the survey population, including individuals without hypertension or diabetes, conditions most likely to prompt screening for kidney dysfunction. These findings highlight the potential for missed opportunities for early intervention and secondary prevention of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23649413

  19. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in a Nigerian Family Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem, with a greater burden and prohibitive cost of care particularly in developing countries. This study determined the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and identified its associated risk factors in patients attending the Family Practice Clinic, Wesley ...

  20. Prevalence and correlates of chronic kidney disease among civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health problem with rising incidence and prevalence ... Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD among Nigerian civil servants was fairly high and was associated with advancing ... including Nigeria, hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus.

  1. Subgingival microbiota in individuals with severe chronic periodontitis

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    Chi-Ying Tsai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Subgingival microorganisms are potentially associated with periodontal diseases. However, the correlation between the variance in the periodontal microbiome and the prevalence and severity of periodontitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the subgingival microbiota in Taiwanese individuals with severe chronic periodontitis (SP. Methods: The composition of the subgingival microbiota in healthy and diseased individuals was compared using a 16S rRNA metagenomic approach and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. A total of 20 samples, including 10 from healthy individuals and 10 from SP patients, were analyzed. Results: We found high microbial diversity, with an average of 774 classified phylotypes per sample and a total of six bacterial phyla across all samples. Cluster analysis by principal component analysis and heat map showed that the bacterial communities were different in the two groups. Streptococcus dominated across all the healthy samples, whereas Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Treponema were highly abundant across all diseased samples. At least 13 bacterial genera were conserved among all the samples. Only eight genera, including Lautropia, Parvimonas, Actinomyces, Capnocytophaga, Paludibacter, Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Corynebacterium, were significantly enriched in the healthy group, and six genera, including Porphyromonas, Treponema, Tannerella, Aggregatibacter, Peptostreptococcus, and Filifactor, were significantly enriched in the diseased group. Furthermore, a trend of abundance of bacteria at the species level measured by qPCR in all samples was consistent with the 16S rRNA metagenomics results. Conclusion: This study is the first in Taiwan to provide a picture of the microbiome in SP via 16S rRNA metagenomics. Keywords: 16S rRNA metagenomics, severe chronic periodontitis

  2. Prevalence And Factors Associated With Chronic Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A substantial proportion of patients with diabetes develop long-term macrovascular and microvascular complications. Many risk factors have identified for development and progression of these complications. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of these complications ...

  3. The Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Bakhshaee; Farahzad Jabari; Mohammad Mehdi Ghassemi; Shiva Hourzad; Russell Deutscher; Kianoosh Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a multifactorial disease. Allergies are considered a predisposing factor to CRS; however, this remains controversial. The objective of this research was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbidities and allergic reaction, and to specify the most common allergens in patients with confirmed CRS.   Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with signs and symptoms of CRS who met the diagnostic endoscopic and radiologic criteria of chronic rhinosi...

  4. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  5. Increased prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Torsten; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Knudsen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without...... manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design. METHODS: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years) were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus......-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers. RESULTS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C had more hypertension (40% versus 25%, prevalence ratio [PR] 1.6; 95...

  6. Chronic periodontitis prevalence and the inflammatory burden in a sample population from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S K; Lavu, Vamsi; Rao, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent oral diseases in the world. Apart from repercussions in the oral cavity, there is evidence that periodontitis contributes to systemic damage in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in a sample urban population (<18 years) in Tamil Nadu and to estimate the inflammatory burden posed by chronic periodontitis by calculating the periodontal inflammatory surface area. This was a population-based study and cross-sectional design. A total of 1000 individuals (<18 years) were selected and screened for their periodontal status, oral hygiene status (OHI), and the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) in an outreach center located in Chennai, India. The proportion of individuals with different periodontal states (health, gingivitis, and periodontitis) was determined. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of the individual risk factors such as habits (tobacco use), systemic conditions (diabetes), and oral hygiene maintenance on periodontitis prevalence in the sample population. A high prevalence of periodontal disease was observed in the study population (42.3%). Among the urban participants, age, cigarette smoking, pan chewing, decayed, missing, and filled teeth scores, OHI scores, and PISA scores were found to be significantly associated with periodontitis (P < 0.05). Periodontitis prevalence appears to be high even in areas with adequate access to oral health care and an inflammatory burden risk exists in a definitive manner.

  7. Prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Chronic Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Brian T.; Jarjoura, David; Lambert, Lynn; Roy, Sashwati; Gordillo, Gayle; Schlanger, Richard; Sen, Chandan K.; Khayat, Rami N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic non-healing wounds are a major human and economic burden. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in patients with obesity, diabetes, aging, and cardiovascular disease, all of which are risk factors for chronic wounds. We hypothesized that OSA would have more prevalence in patients of a wound center than the general middle-aged population. Methods: Consecutive patients of the Ohio State University Comprehensive Wound Center (CWC) were surveyed with the Berlin and Epworth questionnaires. In the second stage of the protocol, 50 consecutive unselected CWC patients with lower extremity wounds underwent home sleep studies. Results: In 249 patients of the CWC who underwent the survey study, OSA had been previously diagnosed in only 22%. The prevalence of high-risk status based on questionnaires for OSA was 46% (95% CI 40%, 52%). In the 50 patients who underwent home sleep studies, and using an apnea hypopnea index of 15 events per hour, the prevalence of OSA was 57% (95% CI 42%, 71%). There was no difference between the Berlin questionnaire score and weight between patients with OSA and those without. Conclusions: The prevalence of OSA in patients with chronic wounds exceeds the estimated prevalence of OSA in the general middle aged population. This study identifies a previously unrecognized population with high risk for OSA. Commonly used questionnaires were not sufficiently sensitive for the detection of high risk status for OSA in this patient population. Citation: Patt BT; Jarjoura D; Lambert L; Roy S; Gordillo G; Schlanger R; Sen CK; Khayat RN. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with chronic wounds. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):541-544. PMID:21206743

  8. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue 10 Years After Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litleskare, Sverre; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Hanevik, Kurt; Langeland, Nina; Wensaas, Knut-Arne

    2018-03-06

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complication that can follow gastrointestinal infection, but it is not clear if patients also develop chronic fatigue. We investigated the prevalence and odds ratio of IBS and chronic fatigue 10 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia, compared with a control cohort, and changes in prevalence over time. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 1252 laboratory-confirmed cases of giardiasis (exposed), which developed in Bergen, Norway in 2004. Statistics Norway provided us with information from 2504 unexposed individuals from Bergen, matched by age and sex (controls). Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3, 6, and 10 years after the outbreak. Results from the 3- and 6-year follow-up analyses have been published previously. We report the 10-year data and changes in prevalence among time points, determined by logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. The prevalence of IBS 10 years after the outbreak was 43% (n = 248) among 576 exposed individuals and 14% (n = 94) among 685 controls (adjusted odds ratio for development of IBS in exposed individuals, 4.74; 95% CI, 3.61-6.23). At this time point, the prevalence of chronic fatigue was 26% (n = 153) among 587 exposed individuals and 11% (n = 73) among 692 controls (adjusted odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.22-4.08). The prevalence of IBS among exposed persons did not change significantly from 6 years after infection (40%) to 10 years after infection (43%; adjusted odds ratio for the change 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22). However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased from 31% at 6 years after infection to 26% at 10 years after infection (adjusted odds ratio for the change 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90). The prevalence of IBS did not change significantly from 6 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia infection in Norway to 10 years after. However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased significantly from 6 to 10 years afterward. IBS and chronic fatigue were

  9. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis (IA) in the general practice and compare this to a group of control patients without IA. Methods: In this nested-case-control study, data were used from the Netherlands Information Network of eneral

  10. The prevalence of chronic conditions associated with modifiable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sunday Times Discovery Healthiest Company Index Survey collected a dataset of 13 578 responses from corporate employees in 101 companies. This dataset has been used to assess the prevalence of self-reported modifiable health-risk factors and the association with chronic conditions. The analysis indicates that ...

  11. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Depression has been shown to affect mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of depressive symptoms among CKD patients. Materials and Methods: A ...

  12. Prevalence of dental trauma in individuals with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guare, Renata Oliveira; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Individuals with special needs exist throughout the world. The last demographic census (IBGE, 2002) in Brazil indicated that 14.5% of the total population (24.5 million) present some type of impairment. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dental trauma (DT) in individuals with special needs and the first attendance by a dental surgeon of patients admitted to the special care clinic of the School of Dentistry of Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Brazil, between 2001 and 2005. The sample included 544 individuals with special needs aged 1-20 years old (mean 10.7 ± SD 5.3). Patient medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data, including medical diagnosis, gender, age, presence of DT and whether the attendance provided was the first time the patient had sought dental treatment. The individuals were distributed into 11 subgroups according to medical diagnosis. The DT prevalence determined was 9.2% (n = 50), with no difference in relation to gender. The majority (78.3%) of the individuals were seeking dental treatment for the first time at an advanced age. The present data suggest that DT prevalence in individuals presenting special needs is more common in permanent dentition and that the first attendance by a dental surgeon is delayed. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Other Chronic Pain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Yunus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS. CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild.

  14. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in the Elderly in Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Peiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Extra weight and obesity are the most important preventable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in the elderly. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of obesity and hypertension (HTN as well as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (MD amongst the elderly population in Ilam. Methods & Materials: Using cluster sampling, a random sample of 121 elderly people (62.4% male with a mean age of 70.4±11.0 years were recruited through a cross-sectional study in the city of Ilam. The height, weight and blood pressure of all samples were measured by an experienced nurse. Results: Mean BMI was 25.3±4.2 Kg/m2. More than half the women (56.1% and 46.2% of men were affected by either extra weight or obesity. The prevalence of medically-diagnosed CVD, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were 53%, 36.8% and 17.4%, respectively. There was no significant relationship between obesity and extra weight and CVD, HTN and DM. Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic diseases in the studied elderly is associated with aging, literacy and too much time watching TV. In the present study, the prevalence of obesity and being overweight was similar to that of other studies done nationally, but the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension prevalence was higher. In order to decrease the prevalence of chronic diseases in the elderly population, screening and health education programs are suggested.

  15. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Vivian S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012 and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants’ characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses “chronic musculoskeletal pain” or “specific musculoskeletal diagnoses”. Results Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32% were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each. Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%, followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%. Conclusions Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population.

  16. Gait Kinematics in Individuals with Acute and Chronic Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron; Ferber, Reed; Saunders, Natalie; Osis, Sean; Bonacci, Jason

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the discriminating kinematic gait characteristics between individuals with acute and chronic patellofemoral pain (PFP) and healthy controls. Ninety-eight runners with PFP (39 male, 59 female) and 98 healthy control runners (38 male, 60 female) ran on a treadmill at a self-selected speed while three-dimensional lower limb kinematic data were collected. Runners with PFP were split into acute (n = 25) and chronic (n = 73) subgroups on the basis of whether they had been experiencing pain for less or greater than 3 months, respectively. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to determine the combination of kinematic gait characteristics that optimally separated individuals with acute PFP and chronic PFP and healthy controls. Compared with controls, both the acute and chronic PFP subgroups exhibited greater knee flexion across stance and greater ankle dorsiflexion during early stance. The acute PFP subgroup demonstrated greater transverse plane hip motion across stance compared with healthy controls. In contrast, the chronic PFP subgroup demonstrated greater frontal plane hip motion, greater knee abduction, and reduced ankle eversion/greater ankle inversion across stance when compared with healthy controls. This study identified characteristics that discriminated between individuals with acute and chronic PFP when compared with healthy controls. Certain discriminating characteristics were shared between both the acute and chronic subgroups when compared with healthy controls, whereas others were specific to the duration of PFP.

  17. Chronic Pain in the Japanese Community--Prevalence, Characteristics and Impact on Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Inoue

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is recognized as a public health problem that affects the general population physically, psychologically, and socially. However, there is little knowledge about the associated factors of chronic pain, such as the influence of weather, family structure, daily exercise, and work status.This survey had three aims: 1 to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Japan, 2 to analyze these associated factors, and 3 to evaluate the social burden due to chronic pain.We conducted a cross-sectional postal survey in a sample of 6000 adults aged ≥20 years. The response rate was 43.8%.The mean age of the respondents was 57.7 years (range 20-99 years; 39.3% met the criteria for chronic pain (lasting ≥3 months. Approximately a quarter of the respondents reported that their chronic pain was adversely influenced by bad weather and also oncoming bad weather. Risk factors for chronic pain, as determined by a logistic regression model, included being an older female, being unemployed, living alone, and no daily exercise. Individuals with chronic pain showed significantly lower quality of life and significantly higher psychological distress scores than those without chronic pain. The mean annual duration of absence from work of working-age respondents was 9.6 days (range 1-365 days.Our findings revealed that high prevalence and severity of chronic pain, associated factors, and significant impact on quality of life in the adult Japanese population. A detailed understanding of factors associated with chronic pain is essential for establishing a management strategy for primary care.

  18. Estimating HIV prevalence from surveys with low individual consent rates: annealing individual and pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2013-02-27

    : Many HIV prevalence surveys are plagued by the problem that a sizeable number of surveyed individuals do not consent to contribute blood samples for testing. One can ignore this problem, as is often done, but the resultant bias can be of sufficient magnitude to invalidate the results of the survey, especially if the number of non-responders is high and the reason for refusing to participate is related to the individual's HIV status. One reason for refusing to participate may be for reasons of privacy. For those individuals, we suggest offering the option of being tested in a pool. This form of testing is less certain than individual testing, but, if it convinces more people to submit to testing, it should reduce the potential for bias and give a cleaner answer to the question of prevalence. This paper explores the logistics of implementing a combined individual and pooled testing approach and evaluates the analytical advantages to such a combined testing strategy. We quantify improvements in a prevalence estimator based on this combined testing strategy, relative to an individual testing only approach and a pooled testing only approach. Minimizing non-response is key for reducing bias, and, if pooled testing assuages privacy concerns, offering a pooled testing strategy has the potential to substantially improve HIV prevalence estimates.

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Chronic Health Conditions of Inmates Newly Admitted to Maximum Security Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jennifer R.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Lowy, Franklin D.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and risk predictors of 759 newly admitted inmates in two New York State maximum-security prisons. The most prevalent conditions were respiratory (34.1%), cardiovascular (17.4%), and sexually transmitted diseases (STD; 16.1%); least prevalent were HIV (3.6%), cancer (1.7%), and kidney disease (1.7%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that females had higher risk for all conditions except cardiovascular and liver disease; individuals aged 40 years and older had significantly higher risk for all conditions except asthma and STD; non-Hispanic Black inmates had higher risk for respiratory disease and STD; cigarette smoking was associated with asthma; and obesity was significantly associated with diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular conditions. These findings highlight the heavy burden of chronic illnesses among newly admitted inmates and the need to address adequate screening, prevention, and treatment services. PMID:26084947

  20. Hidden prevalence of chronic kidney disease in hypertensive patients: the strategic role of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, L S; Cotta, R M M; Moreira, T R; da Silva, R G; Rosa, C de O B; Machado, J C; da Silva, L S; Bastos, M A P

    2016-11-01

    To identify the hidden prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in hypertensive patients. Cross-sectional study of individuals with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) who were registered for primary health care (PHC). In total, 293 individuals participated. Data were collected through interviews, as well as biochemical and anthropometric assessments. The CKD-EPI formula was used to identify the occurrence of CKD. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were used to compare proportions. Prevalence ratios were estimated with a confidence interval of 95% for associations between the explanatory variables and CKD. Most of the individuals assessed were female (74%), elderly (69%), with a low income (90%), low education levels (84%) and overweight (66.9%). A CKD prevalence of 38.6% (95% CI: 33.0-44.2) was found and approximately 14% were at an advanced stage of the disease. Upon comparison of the variables in the different stages of CKD, statistically significant association could be suggested between CKD and age, education, alcohol intake, overweight individuals, cardiovascular risk, abnormal creatinine and abnormal microalbuminuria. When the prevalence ratio was assessed, association could be suggested between CKD and age, and CKD and creatinine. The high hidden prevalence of CKD confirms the need to train health professionals involved in the treatment of SAH through PHC, enabling the prevention and diagnosis of CKD in its early stages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic periodontitis prevalence and the inflammatory burden in a sample population from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Balaji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent oral diseases in the world. Apart from repercussions in the oral cavity, there is evidence that periodontitis contributes to systemic damage in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. Aims: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in a sample urban population (<18 years in Tamil Nadu and to estimate the inflammatory burden posed by chronic periodontitis by calculating the periodontal inflammatory surface area. Settings and Design: This was a population-based study and cross-sectional design. Subjects and Methods: A total of 1000 individuals (<18 years were selected and screened for their periodontal status, oral hygiene status (OHI, and the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA in an outreach center located in Chennai, India. Statistical Analysis Used: The proportion of individuals with different periodontal states (health, gingivitis, and periodontitis was determined. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of the individual risk factors such as habits (tobacco use, systemic conditions (diabetes, and oral hygiene maintenance on periodontitis prevalence in the sample population. Results: A high prevalence of periodontal disease was observed in the study population (42.3%. Among the urban participants, age, cigarette smoking, pan chewing, decayed, missing, and filled teeth scores, OHI scores, and PISA scores were found to be significantly associated with periodontitis (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Periodontitis prevalence appears to be high even in areas with adequate access to oral health care and an inflammatory burden risk exists in a definitive manner.

  2. Chronic management and health supervision of individuals with propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, V Reid; Chapman, Kimberly A; Gropman, Andrea L; MacLeod, Erin; Stagni, Kathy; Summar, Marshall L; Ueda, Keiko; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Franks, Jill; Island, Eddie; Matern, Dietrich; Peña, Loren; Smith, Brittany; Urv, Tina; Venditti, Charles; Chakarapani, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is a relatively rare inborn error of metabolism. Individuals with propionic acidemia often have life-threatening episodes of hyperammonemia and metabolic acidosis, as well as intellectual disability. There are many reports of additional problems, including poor growth, stroke-like episodes of the basal ganglia, seizures, cardiomyopathy, long QTc syndrome, immune defects, pancreatitis and optic neuropathy; however, there is little information about the incidence of these problems in this rare disease. Additionally, there are no clear guidelines for medical or surgical management of individuals with propionic acidemia. Through a comprehensive and systematic review of the current medical literature and survey of expert opinion, we have developed practice guidelines for the chronic management of individuals with propionic acidemia, including dietary therapy, use of medications, laboratory monitoring, chronic health supervision, use of gastrostomy tubes and liver transplantation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients: Prevalence of coccidian parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV patients with or without diarrhoea and to see an association between diarrhoea and the coccidian parasites in our setting. Stool samples from 113 HIV patients, 34 chronic diarrhoea and 79 without any history of diarrhoea were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy. One hundred and thirteen control samples from HIV negative patients complaining of prolonged diarrhoea were also collected and analysed. Prevalence of coccidian parasites in HIV and non-HIV patients; with and without diarrhoea was compared using chi-square tests. Enteric parasites were detected in 55.8% HIV patients with diarrhoea compared to 16.4% in patients without diarrhoea ( P < 0.001. Isospora belli was found in 41.1% (14/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 6.3% (5/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.001. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.6% (7/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 2.5% (2/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.01. Cyclospora cayetanensis associated diarrhoea was detected in only one case of chronic diarrhoea (2.9%. CD4+ T-cell count was lower (180 cells/μl0 in diarrhoeal HIV patients as compared to non-diarrhoeal patients. Coccidian parasites were seen at a mean CD4+ T-cell count of 186.3 cells/μL. This study concluded that Isospora belli was the predominant parasite followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and both were strongly associated with diarrhoea among HIV patients.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Periodontal Status of Chronic Renal Failure Patients and Systemically Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhika; Kumar, Uttam; Mallapragada, Siddharth; Agarwal, Pallavi

    2018-03-01

    Periodontitis, a chronic infectious disease, affects most of the population at one time or the other and its expression is a combination of hosts, microbial agents, and environmental factors. Extensive literature exists for the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Only a few studies performed in a limited number of patients have reported peri-odontal health status in chronic renal failure patients. Hence, the aim of the present study is to assess and compare the periodontal status of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis, predialysis with systemically healthy individuals. A total of 90 patients were divided into three groups. Group I: 30 renal dialysis patients. Group II: 30 predialysis patients. Control group comprised 30 systemically healthy patients who formed group III. Periodontal examination was carried out using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. The results of the study showed that the periodontal status of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis (dialysis group) and patients with chronic renal failure not undergoing renal dialysis (predialysis) when compared with systemically healthy subjects showed significantly higher mean scores of OHI-S, PI, and clinical attachment loss. Thus, patients with chronic renal failure showed poor oral hygiene and higher prevalence of periodontal disease. The dental community's awareness of implications of poor health within chronic renal failure patients should be elevated.

  5. Prevalence of chronic headache with and without medication overuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2014-01-01

    with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ⩾16years were invited to the 2010 Danish National...... medication overuse (⩾20 or ⩾30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health...... composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1...

  6. Unemployment risk among individuals undergoing medical treatment for chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, N; Nakamura, T; Tsuchiya, N; Tsuji, I; Hozawa, A; Tomita, H

    2016-03-01

    Chronic diseases increase the risk of unemployment even in non-disaster settings; therefore, in post-disaster settings, special attention needs to be paid to the employment status of those suffering from chronic diseases. To examine the association between chronic disease and the risk of unemployment in a disaster area. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, north-eastern Japan, where had been severely inundated by the 2011 tsunami. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between undergoing medical treatment for a combination of chronic diseases (stroke, cancer, myocardial infarction and angina) and unemployment risk. Confounders such as psychological distress and levels of daily life activity were considered. Among the 2588 individuals studied, there was a statistically significant association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and the risk of unemployment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.7, P unemployment risk was observed only in participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a multifactorial disease. Allergies are considered a predisposing factor to CRS; however, this remains controversial. The objective of this research was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbidities and allergic reaction, and to specify the most common allergens in patients with confirmed CRS.   Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with signs and symptoms of CRS who met the diagnostic endoscopic and radiologic criteria of chronic rhinosinusitis were selected. They filled out a questionnaire and underwent a skin prick test for the common inhalant allergens. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed according to the history and positive skin prick tests.   Results: The mean age of patients was 34. Males were slightly more involved (54%. The prevalence of polypoid and none-polypoid rhinosinusitis was 54% and 46% respectively. The patients’ most common symptoms were nasal discharge (95%, blockage (94%, smell disorders (63%, cough (45%, halitosis (41%, lethargy (37%, and aural fullness (36%. Allergy to at least one allergen was noted in 64% of the CRS patients which is higher than general population in Mashhad, Iran with allergic rhinitis (22.4%. Salsola was the most common allergen. There was no significant difference in allergic reactions between polypoid and non-polypoid CRS patients.   Conclusion:  Allergic reactions was found in Iranian CRS patients with or without polyposis to be much higher than general population in Mashhad with allergic rhinitis alone.

  8. Prevalence rate of chronic overuse pain in taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jae-Ok

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo. This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport poomsae taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. The prevalence of COP is high among sport poomsae taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.

  9. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Peruvian primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Lazo-Porras, María; Alberto Quintanilla, E; Ortiz-Soriano, Victor Manuel; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2017-07-19

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. There are few studies in Latin America, especially in primary care settings. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, stages, and associated factors of CKD in primary care setting. We did a retrospective secondary analysis of a database from the Diabetes and Hypertension Primary Care Center of the Peruvian Social Security System (EsSalud) in Lima, Peru. We defined CKD as the presence of eGFR 30 mg/day in 24 h, according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Factors associated with CKD were evaluated with Poisson Regression models; these factors included age, gender, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), hypertension (HTN), body mass index (BMI), and uric acid. Associations were described as crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We evaluated 1211 patients (women [59%], mean age 65.8 years [SD: 12.7]). Prevalence of CKD was 18%. Using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI 5.3 - 13.3) in patients without HTN or DM2; 20.2% (95% CI 17.6 - 22.8) in patients with HTN, and 23.9% (95% CI 19.4 - 28.4) in patients with DM2. The most common stages were 1 and 2 with 41.5% and 48%, respectively. Factors associated with CKD in the adjusted analysis were: age in years (PR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04), DM2 (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.09 - 10.39), HTN plus DM2 (PR = 3.90, 95% CI 1.54 - 9.88), and uric acid from 5 to DM2, older age and hyperuricemia have higher prevalence of CKD.

  10. PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE IN HEMODIALITIC TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Rocha Santos Caracas; Daliane Barbosa Lima; Gleidson Ferreira Santos; Mariane Alves Sousa; Constança Margarida Sampaio Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a health problem that has reached more and more individuals due to the aging and increase of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The presence of chronic uremic syndrome along with aggravating factors such as sedentary lifestyle is directly associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk and determine the levels of regular physical activity...

  11. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I-II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (Psmokers. Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an "early" intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis.

  12. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in adults with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P C Emem-Chioma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD and other non- communicable diseases continues to rise globally, and recent studies suggest that metabolic syndrome (MS may add to this burden by contributing to the development of CKD. Given that reports on the prevalence of CKD in patients with MS in this environment are scanty, this study was undertaken with the sole aim of determining the prevalence of CKD in subjects with MS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III. A total of 240 consenting adults (18-70 years attending the general out- patient clinic of the General Hospital Okrika for various ailments were studied. Subjects were screened for MS as per the above- mentioned criteria. Estimated GFR (eGFR was determined with Modification of Diet for Renal Disease (MDRD formula and CKD was defined as eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 and Epi info version 4.06d; P 0.05. CKD was more common in subjects with MS compared with those without, although the difference was not statistically significant. The prevalence of CKD in subjects with MS in our study population did not differ significantly when the different MS definitions were employed.

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tan, Hongzhuan; Cofie, Reuben; Hu, Shimin; Li, Yan; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Tubao; Tang, Xuemin; Cui, Guanghui; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-10-01

    To explore the prevalence and determinants of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2014 among individuals who had experienced the 1998 floods and had been diagnosed with PTSD in 1999 in Hunan, China. Cluster sampling was used to select subjects from the areas that had been surveyed in 1999. PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, social support was measured according to a Social Support Rating Scale, coping style was measured according to a Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and personality was measured by use of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews by use of a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to reveal the determinants of chronic PTSD. A total of 123 subjects were interviewed, 17 of whom (14.4%) were diagnosed with chronic PTSD. Chronic PTSD was significantly associated with disaster stressors (odds ratio [OR]: 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.47), nervousness (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17), and social support (OR: 0.85; 95 CI%: 0.74-0.98). Chronic PTSD in flood victims is significantly associated with disaster stressors, nervousness, and social support. These factors may play important roles in identifying persons at high risk of chronic PTSD.

  14. Effect of eliminating chronic diseases among elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Goncalves Campolina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the elimination of certain chronic diseases is capable of leading to the compression of morbidity among elderly individuals. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with official data for the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil in 2000 and data from the SABE (Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. Sullivan's method was used to calculate disability-free life expectancy. Cause-deleted life tables were used to calculate the probabilities of death and disabilities with the elimination of health conditions. RESULTS: The largest gains in disability-free life expectancy, with the elimination of chronic illness, occurred in the female gender. Among individuals of a more advanced age, gains in disability-free life expectancy occurred as result of a relative compression of morbidity. Among men aged 75 years, all conditions studied, except heart disease and systemic arterial pressure, led to an absolute expansion of morbidity and, at the same time, to a relative compression of morbidity upon being eliminated. CONCLUSIONS: The elimination of chronic diseases in the elderly could lead to the compression of morbidity in elderly men and women.

  15. Telomerase expression in individuals with chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarkar, Atul; Saha, Arindam; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Kundu, Debabrata; Bandyopadhyay, Prasanta; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of human telomerase reverse transcription (hTERT) enzyme in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared with healthy individuals. A total of 79 individuals consented to participate in the study. The study sample comprised healthy individuals (n = 30), patients with CP (n = 30), and patients with AgP (n = 19). Gingival tissue was collected and evaluated for hTERT expression by Western blot and immunohistochemical methods. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed using the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples. The hTERT messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was significantly higher in AgP compared with CP (P periodontal disease progression, suggesting that hTERT could be a potential prognostic marker.

  16. Prevalence of undiagnosed acute and chronic HIV in a lower-prevalence urban emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschella, Phillip C; Hart, Kimberly W; Ruffner, Andrew H; Lindsell, Christopher J; Wayne, D Beth; Sperling, Matthew I; Trott, Alexander T; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Lyons, Michael S

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the seroprevalence of both acute and chronic HIV infection by using a random sample of emergency department (ED) patients from a region of the United States with low-to-moderate HIV prevalence. This cross-sectional seroprevalence study consecutively enrolled patients aged 18 to 64 years within randomly selected sampling blocks in a Midwestern urban ED in a region of lower HIV prevalence in 2008 to 2009. Participants were compensated for providing a blood sample and health information. After de-identification, we assayed samples for HIV antibody and nucleic acid. There were 926 participants who consented and enrolled. Overall, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was 0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30%, 1.56%). Three participants (0.32%; 95% CI = 0.09%, 0.86%) were nucleic acid-positive but antibody-negative and 4 (0.43%; 95% CI = 0.15%, 1.02%) were antibody-positive. Even when the absolute prevalence is low, a considerable proportion of undetected HIV cases in an ED population are acute. Identification of acute HIV in ED settings should receive increased priority.

  17. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Acute and Chronic HIV in a Lower-Prevalence Urban Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschella, Phillip C.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Ruffner, Andrew H.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Wayne, D. Beth; Sperling, Matthew I.; Trott, Alexander T.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the seroprevalence of both acute and chronic HIV infection by using a random sample of emergency department (ED) patients from a region of the United States with low-to-moderate HIV prevalence. Methods. This cross-sectional seroprevalence study consecutively enrolled patients aged 18 to 64 years within randomly selected sampling blocks in a Midwestern urban ED in a region of lower HIV prevalence in 2008 to 2009. Participants were compensated for providing a blood sample and health information. After de-identification, we assayed samples for HIV antibody and nucleic acid. Results. There were 926 participants who consented and enrolled. Overall, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was 0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30%, 1.56%). Three participants (0.32%; 95% CI = 0.09%, 0.86%) were nucleic acid–positive but antibody-negative and 4 (0.43%; 95% CI = 0.15%, 1.02%) were antibody-positive. Conclusions. Even when the absolute prevalence is low, a considerable proportion of undetected HIV cases in an ED population are acute. Identification of acute HIV in ED settings should receive increased priority. PMID:25033145

  18. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lebanon: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waked M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking

  20. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansores RH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Raúl H Sansores, Mónica Velázquez-Uncal, Oliver Pérez-Bautista, Jaime Villalba-Caloca, Ramcés Falfán-Valencia, Alejandra Ramírez-VenegasTobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic.Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers.Methods: Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire.Results: Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5% smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5% had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961 and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637. From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers.Conclusion: Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may

  1. Risk Factors for Chronic Cough Among 14,669 Individuals From the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Yunus; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Laursen, Lars C; Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter; Dahl, Morten

    2017-09-01

    Risk factors for chronic cough in the general population have not been described systematically. We identified and ranked chronic cough risk factors at the individual and community level using data from 14,669 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Severity of chronic cough was assessed using the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). We ranked chronic cough risk factors based on magnitude of age-adjusted ORs at the individual level and of the population attributable risks (PARs) at the community level. Prevalence of chronic cough in the general population was 4% overall and 3% in never smokers, 4% in former smokers, and 8% in current smokers. Median score of the LCQ was 5.8 (25th-75th percentile, 5.0-6.3) for physical domain, 5.6 (25th-75th percentile, 4.6-6.3) for psychologic domain, 6.3 (25th-75th percentile, 5.5-6.8) for social domain, and 17.3 (25th- 75th percentile, 15.4-18.9) in total. At the level of the individual, age-adjusted ORs for the three top-ranked risk factors were 5.0 (95% CI, 1.4-18) for bronchiectasis, 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7-3.9) for asthma and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5-3.4) for gastroesophageal reflux disease in never smokers, 7.1 (95% CI, 2.6-20) for bronchiectasis, 3.1 (95% CI, 2.2-4.4) for asthma and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.5-3.2) for occupational exposure to dust/fumes in former smokers, and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3-2.9) for airflow limitation in current smokers. At the level of the community, the three top-ranked risk factors were female sex (PAR, 19%), asthma (PAR, 10%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (PAR, 8%) in never smokers; abdominal obesity (PAR, 20%), low income (PAR, 20%), and asthma (PAR, 13%) in former smokers; and airflow limitation (PAR, 23%) in current smokers. Risk factors for chronic cough differ at the level of the individual and community, and by smoking status. Strategies to prevent and treat modifiable chronic cough risk factors should be tailored accordingly. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians

  2. Individual and dyadic coping in chronic pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burri A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Burri,1–3 Michèle Blank Gebre,4 Guy Bodenmann1 1Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Health and Rehabilitation Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, 3Waitemata Pain Service, Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, North Shore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Private Practice, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. Keywords: individual coping, dyadic coping, social support, chronic pain

  3. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Suicide is a common problem worldwide and the magnitude is high especially in countries where mental illnesses are prevalent and psychiatric services are poor. Objective: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among patients who attended the Psychiatry clinic of Gondar University ...

  4. Chronic mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, L; Thomsen, S F; Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals.......Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common condition in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Little is known about the incidence, prevalence and determinants of CMH in younger individuals....

  5. A tool for classifying individuals with chronic back pain: using multivariate pattern analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Callan

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent health problems in the world today, yet neurological markers, critical to diagnosis of chronic pain, are still largely unknown. The ability to objectively identify individuals with chronic pain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data is important for the advancement of diagnosis, treatment, and theoretical knowledge of brain processes associated with chronic pain. The purpose of our research is to investigate specific neurological markers that could be used to diagnose individuals experiencing chronic pain by using multivariate pattern analysis with fMRI data. We hypothesize that individuals with chronic pain have different patterns of brain activity in response to induced pain. This pattern can be used to classify the presence or absence of chronic pain. The fMRI experiment consisted of alternating 14 seconds of painful electric stimulation (applied to the lower back with 14 seconds of rest. We analyzed contrast fMRI images in stimulation versus rest in pain-related brain regions to distinguish between the groups of participants: 1 chronic pain and 2 normal controls. We employed supervised machine learning techniques, specifically sparse logistic regression, to train a classifier based on these contrast images using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure. We correctly classified 92.3% of the chronic pain group (N = 13 and 92.3% of the normal control group (N = 13 by recognizing multivariate patterns of activity in the somatosensory and inferior parietal cortex. This technique demonstrates that differences in the pattern of brain activity to induced pain can be used as a neurological marker to distinguish between individuals with and without chronic pain. Medical, legal and business professionals have recognized the importance of this research topic and of developing objective measures of chronic pain. This method of data analysis was very successful in correctly classifying

  6. Chronic gingivitis: the prevalence of periodontopathogens and therapy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, M; Kesic, L; Lekovic, V; Apostolovic, M; Mihailovic, D; Kostadinovic, L; Milasin, J

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of gingival inflammation and the prevalence of periodontopathogenic microorganisms in adolescents with chronic gingivitis, as well as to compare the effectiveness of two approaches in gingivitis treatment-basic therapy alone and basic therapy + adjunctive low-level laser therapy (LLLT). After periodontal evaluation, the content of gingival pockets of 140 adolescents with gingivitis was analyzed by multiplex PCR for the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythensis and P. intermedia. Subsequent to bacteria detection, the examinees were divided into two groups with homogenous clinical and microbiological characteristics. Group A was subjected to basic gingivitis therapy, and group B underwent basic therapy along with adjunctive LLLT. A statistically significant difference between the values of plaque-index (PI) and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) before and after therapy was confirmed in both groups (pgingivitis should be regarded as a sign for dentists to foster more effective oral health programs. LLLT appears to be beneficial as adjuvant to basic therapy.

  7. Depressive symptoms in people with chronic physical conditions: prevalence and risk factors in a Hong Kong community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Hairong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is predicted to become one of the two most burdensome diseases worldwide by 2020 and is common in people with chronic physical conditions. However, depression is relatively uncommon in Asia. Family support is an important Asian cultural value that we hypothesized could protect people with chronic physical conditions from developing depression. We investigated depressive symptom prevalence and risk factors in a Chinese sample with chronic medical conditions, focusing on the possible protective role of family relationships. Methods Data were obtained from the Hong Kong Jockey Club FAMILY Project cohort study in 2009–2011, which included 6,195 participants (age ≥15 with self-reported chronic conditions. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived family support and neighborhood cohesion were assessed. Factors associated with a non-somatic (PHQ-6 depression score were also examined. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥5 was 17% in those with one or more chronic conditions, and was more prevalent in women than in men (19.7% vs. 13.9%; p p p  Conclusions Acute life stress and the number of chronic conditions, together with socio-demographic factors, explain most variance in depressive symptoms among chronically ill Chinese individuals. Somatic items in the PHQ-9 increased the depression scores but they did not alter the pattern of predictors. Family support appears to be an important protective factor in Chinese cultures for individuals with chronic conditions.

  8. Prevalence of Candida spp. in Healthy Oral Mucosa Surfaces with Higher Incidence of Chronic Hyperplastic Candidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Claúdia; Artico, Gabriela; Freitas, Roseli; Filho, Antônio; Migliari, Dante

    2016-08-01

    Predisposing factors in chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC) have been poorly recognized. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of Candida spp. in areas of the oral mucosa showing greater prevalent rate of CHC, such as the retrocomissural area, the lateral borders of the tongue, and the hard-palate mucosa in four groups of individuals presenting predisposing factors as follows: Smoking habits (group I); patients with low salivary flow rate (SFR) (hyposalivation - group II); patients with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion (LVDO -group III); and control subjects (group IV). A total of 44 individuals (age 4090 years, mean: 55.8 years) were divided into four groups: Group I (11 smokers); group II (10 hyposalivation patients); group III (10 LVDO patients); and group IV (control, 13 healthy subjects). All individuals were tested for Candida-pseudohyphae form by direct examination and for Candida spp. culture growth in samples obtained from the retrocomissural, tongue's lateral border, and hard-soft palatal mucosa. Direct examination showed a statistically significant prevalence rate for pseudohyphae (p < 0.05) on the retrocomissural and on tongue's lateral borders of individuals with LVDO. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) culture growth for Candida spp. was found on the retrocomissural areas of those with hyposalivation and with LVDO, and on the palate mucosa and on the tongue's lateral borders in the smokers and in the individuals with LVDO when compared with those of the control group. While direct examination is effective for detecting pseudohyphae, LVDO and tobacco smoking seem to be factors of relevance to the development of CHC. Since CHC has been linked to a high rate of malignant transformation, this study analyzes some clinical (and exogenous) factors that may contribute to the development of CHC and addresses some preventive measures to reduce its incidence.

  9. Prevalence of chronic illnesses and characteristics of chronically ill informal caregivers of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Rong; Robinson, Karen M; Carter-Harris, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    to examine the prevalence of and the link of chronic illnesses (CIs) to informal caregivers of persons with dementia (PWDs), as well as to identify characteristics of caregivers with CIs. the sample included 124 caregivers of PWDs from a caregiver programme of research. Sociodemographic information and caregivers CIs were collected by an in-person interview. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square analysis and binary logistic regressions were performed for data analysis. approximately 81.5% (n = 101) of caregivers reported having at least one CI, 60.5% (n = 75) reported two or more CIs. Caregivers with CIs were more likely to be older and unemployed; advanced age and female gender were risk factors for CIs. The link of CIs to caregivers was stronger in younger caregivers but weaker in older caregivers when compared with the general population. targeted interventions based on this study need to be developed to improve the health of caregivers of PWDs.

  10. Prevalence and changes in chronic diseases among South Korean farmers: 1998 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Eun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have suggested a unique pattern of disease among farmers in Western countries, but limited information is available about the magnitude of disease prevalence and their changes over time in Asian farmers. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and changes in chronic diseases among farmers with those of other occupational groups in South Korea. Methods Using data from three consecutive cross-sectional national surveys: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 (n = 39,060, 2001 (n = 37,769, and 2005 (n = 34,145, we calculated age and gender-standardized prevalence of chronic diseases by the direct method and compared the prevalence changes from 1998 to 2005. Results Female farmers had significantly higher chronic disease prevalence than other occupational groups in all three surveys. Arthritis was the most prevalent chronic disease among farmers for both men and women. Compared with other populations, farmers demonstrated a higher prevalence of arthritis and intervertebral disc disorders. Farmers showed higher prevalence changes for intervertebral disc disorders than other occupational workers. Conclusion Our findings support that South Korean farmers have a distinct pattern of diseases prevalence from other populations. More detailed studies investigating the risk of musculoskeletal diseases and intensive intervention efforts to reduce the prevalence these diseases, particularly among female farmers, are required.

  11. High prevalence of myocardial monoclonal antimyosin antibody uptake in patients with chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrador, D.; Ballester, M.; Carrio, I.; Berna, L.; Pons-Llado, G.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antimyosin antibody studies were undertaken to assess the presence of myocardial uptake in patients with chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Three groups were studied: 17 patients with chronic (greater than 12 months) idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 12 patients with a large, poorly contracting left ventricle not due to dilated cardiomyopathy (control patients) and 8 normal individuals. The patients in the cardiomyopathy and control groups showed a similar degree of clinical and functional impairment. Imaging was undertaken 48 h after antimyosin injection. The heart/lung ratio of antimyosin uptake was used to assess the results. The mean ratio in the cardiomyopathy group was 1.83 +/- 0.36 (range 1.40 to 2.80), a value significantly higher than that obtained in the control patients without cardiomyopathy (mean 1.46 +/- 0.04, range 1.38 to 1.50) or normal subjects (mean 1.46 +/- 0.13, range 1.31 to 1.6) (p less than 0.01). No difference in the ratio was noted between the normal subjects and control patients. Abnormal antimyosin uptake was seen in 12 (70%) of the 17 patients with cardiomyopathy and in only 1 (8%) of the 12 control patients. Positive monoclonal antimyosin antibody studies are highly prevalent in chronic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

  12. Comparison of prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis in Japan, China, Tanzania, and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazuo; Kihaile, Paul E; Wenyuan, Zhao; Xianghang, Zhang; Castro, Mercedes; Disla, Mildre; Nyambo, Thomas B; Misumi, Junichi

    2005-09-01

    To compare the prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in Japan, China, Tanzania, and the Dominican Republic and to assess the usefulness of Helicobacter pylori infection and serum gastrin level as markers of CAG. The subjects were volunteers from local communities in Japan (n=859), China (n=1741), Tanzania (n=573), and the Dominican Republic (n=1215). Each individual underwent a health checkup and blood sampling for measurement of serum pepsinogen I and II, pepsinogen I /II ratio, serum gastrin, and H. pylori antibodies, and responded to a questionnaire on upper digestive tract diseases. The prevalences of H. pylori infection (23.5-96.1%), CAG (5.6-60.4%), and serum gastrin (62.0-136.5 pg/ml) varied by age, sex, and country. Serum gastrin level for men differed in each country according to age. In Tanzanian men, the median gastrin level (101.0 pg/ml) was the highest in the 40 to 49 years age group (p or = 70 years was higher than in other age groups in both sexes in the Dominican Republic (males, 92.5, females, 136.5 pg/ml). The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased (p < 0.01) with advancing age in Japan (only for women) and the Dominican Republic but was high in all age groups of both sexes in China and Tanzania. The prevalence of CAG increased (p < 0.01) with age in both sexes in Japan, China (women only), and the Dominican Republic, but not in Tanzania. The odds ratio of CAG in H. pylori infected subjects was 5.3 times that in H. pylori-negative subjects. The odds ratio of CAG increased by 0.6%/1 pg/ml increase in serum gastrin. Our results indicated that H. pylori infection, serum gastrin, and advancing age are good markers of CAG and that the prevalence of CAG is the highest in Japan.

  13. Prevalence, predictors, and survival in pulmonary hypertension related to end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Iversen, Martin; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, prognostic importance, and factors that predict the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed with right heart catheterization (RHC) in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear....

  14. Chronic Post Inguinal Herniorraphy Pain: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inguinal hernia is a common surgical condition. Whereas complications associated with hernia repair are well documented, chronic postoperative groin pain has received less attention. Objective: To review the frequency and associated risk factors for chronic post herniorrhaphy groin pain at a tertiary urban ...

  15. A longitudinal study of self-reported spasticity among individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPiro, Nicole D; Li, Chao; Krause, James S

    2018-03-01

    A longitudinal study. To describe the prevalence and stability of self-reported spasticity severity in adults with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) over a 3-year timeframe and examine predictors of severity and change in spasticity severity. The data were collected by mail at a medical university in the Southeastern United States. A total of 1790 adults with chronic SCI responded to two self-report assessments, one between 2007 and 2009 (baseline) and another between 2011 and 2014 (follow-up). Average spasticity severity was measured on a numeric rating scale from 0 (no spasticity) to 10 (spasticity as bad as you can imagine). Frequency of prescription medication use for spasticity in the past year was also reported (never, sometimes/weekly, daily). About 82.5% of participants had spasticity at baseline and 86.5% at follow-up. There was a significant change in spasticity severity (0.9 ± 2.3; p < 0.001), corresponding to a 31% increase in mean severity. Overall, the frequency of medication use did not significantly change. At baseline, 55.6% of participants reported using medications for spasticity in the past year; 54.9% reported use at follow-up. Variables significantly associated with spasticity severity included race/ethnicity, age, and spasticity medication use. Spasticity is highly prevalent after SCI. Though severity is mild on average, a statistically significant increase was observed over a relatively short natural timeframe. The changes observed in spasticity severity categories (mild, moderate, severe) highlight the need to monitor spasticity in individuals with chronic SCI.

  16. Prevalence of chronic pancreatitis: Results of a primary care physician-based population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Pasquali, Piera; Aceti, Alessandro; Balducci, Paolo; Bianchi, Patrizia; Buono, Francesco; Camerucci, Stefano; Cantarini, Rosanna; Centofanti, Sergio; Colantonio, Patrizia; Cremaschi, Riccarda; Crescenzi, Sergio; Di Mauro, Caterina; Di Renzi, Davide; Filabozzi, Andrea; Fiorillo, Alfonso; Giancaspro, Giuseppe; Giovannetti, Paola; Lanna, Giuseppe; Medori, Claudio; Merletti, Emilio; Nunnari, Enzo; Paris, Francesca; Pavone, Marco; Piacenti, Angela; Rossi, Almerindo; Scamuffa, Maria Cristina; Spinelli, Giovanni; Taborchi, Marco; Valente, Biagio; Villanova, Antonella; Chiriatti, Alberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2017-05-01

    Data on chronic pancreatitis prevalence are scanty and usually limited to hospital-based studies. Investigating chronic pancreatitis prevalence in primary care. Participating primary care physicians reported the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis among their registered patients, environmental factors and disease characteristics. The data were centrally reviewed and chronic pancreatitis cases defined according to M-ANNHEIM criteria for diagnosis and severity and TIGAR-O classification for etiology. Twenty-three primary care physicians participated in the study. According to their judgment, 51 of 36.401 patients had chronic pancreatitis. After reviewing each patient data, 11 turned out to have definite, 5 probable, 19 borderline and 16 uncertain disease. Prevalence was 30.2/100.000 for definite cases and 44.0/100.000 for definite plus probable cases. Of the 16 patients with definite/probable diagnosis, 8 were male, with mean age of 55.6 (±16.7). Four patients had alcoholic etiology, 5 post-acute/recurrent pancreatitis, 6 were deemed to be idiopathic. Four had pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, 10 were receiving pancreatic enzymes, and six had pain. Most patients had initial stage and non-severe disease. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis in primary care. Results suggest that the prevalence in this context is higher than in hospital-based studies, with specific features, possibly representing an earlier disease stage. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  18. Prevalence of chronic diseases at the onset of inflammatory arthritis: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursum, J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Peters, M.J.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about the presence of chronic morbidity in inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients at disease onset. Previous studies have been mainly performed in established IA patients or they focus on isolated co-morbid diseases. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of chronic

  19. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV. Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%. The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%. Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8% of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4% of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias.

  20. Prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in chronic nonsteroidal anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At endoscopy, only 10 (13.9%) patients had normal gastroduodenal mucosa. Gastritis was the most prevalent lesion occurring in 50% of the patients. Peptic ulcer disease had a point prevalence of 30.5% (duodenal ulcers 22.2%, and gastric ulcers 8.3%). Other lesions at endoscopy were duodenitis 16.7%, gastric erosions ...

  1. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…

  2. Prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate this hypothesis, a comparative cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, intensity, and specie-specific prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in children with CND such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City ...

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of diabetic patients in a chronic heart failure population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistorp, Caroline; Galatius, Søren; Gustafsson, Finn

    2005-01-01

    Previously, estimates of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have solely been based on history in retrospective studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DM and glucose abnormalities in patients with CHF in accordance...

  4. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in chronic schizophrenic inpatients in relation to long-term neuroleptic treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, D.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; de Wied, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Many reports indicate that the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in schizophrenic patients and related to antipsychotic treatment. In an exploratory cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in 266 chronic schizophrenic and

  5. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Stojceva-Taneva

    2016-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Our study showed that chronic kidney disease is frequent in the Republic of Macedonia and is associated with older age and diabetes. Diabetes had a significantly stronger association with CKD at younger age.

  6. High prevalence of autoimmune urticaria in children with chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Luigia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Miniello, Vito L

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) in childhood often remains unrecognized. Recently, in adults it has been shown that approximately 40% of patients with CU have autoimmune urticaria (AU); however, no data are available in children.......The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) in childhood often remains unrecognized. Recently, in adults it has been shown that approximately 40% of patients with CU have autoimmune urticaria (AU); however, no data are available in children....

  7. Determinants and prevalence of depression in patients with chronic renal disease, and their caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawamdeh S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sana Hawamdeh, Aljawharah Mohammed Almari, Asrar Salem Almutairi, Wireen Leila T Dator College of Nursing, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: This study explored the prevalence of depression among the patients with chronic kidney disease and their caregivers and its association to their demographic profile.Methods: A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study that used the Hamilton rating scale tool to assess the prevalence of depression among 226 patients undergoing hemodialysis and 105 of their caregivers in a hospital in Saudi Arabia.Results: Patients with chronic renal disease and their caregivers experience depression at varying levels. Depression was positively associated with the socioeconomic and marital status of the patients. Socioeconomic status of the caregivers was seen to be associated with their depression.Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent among patients with chronic renal disease and their caregivers. Keywords: caregivers, chronic renal disease, depression

  8. Short telomere length, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 46,396 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig Egil; Weischer, Maren

    2013-01-01

    A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  9. Prevalence and care-seeking for chronic diseases among Syrian refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Roberton, Timothy; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Burnham, Gilbert

    2015-10-31

    There are currently more people displaced by conflict than at any time since World War II. The profile of displaced populations has evolved with displacement increasingly occurring in urban and middle-income settings. Consequently, an epidemiological shift away from communicable diseases that have historically characterized refugee populations has occurred. The high prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) poses a challenge to in terms of provision of appropriate secondary and tertiary services, continuity of care, access to medications, and costs. In light of the increasing burden of NCDs faced by refugees, we undertook this study to characterize the prevalence of NCDs and better understand issues related to care-seeking for NCDs among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey of 1550 refugees was conducted using a multi-stage cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling to obtain a nationally representative sample of Syrian refugees outside of camps. To obtain information on chronic conditions, respondents were asked a series of questions about hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and arthritis. Differences by care-seeking for these conditions were examined using chi-square and t-test methods and characteristics of interest were included in the adjusted logistic regression model. Among adults, hypertension prevalence was the highest (9.7%, CI: 8.8-10.6), followed by arthritis (6.8%, CI: 5.9-7.6), diabetes (5.3%, CI: 4.6-6.0), chronic respiratory diseases (3.1%, CI: 2.4-3.8), and cardiovascular disease (3.7%, CI: 3.2, 4.3). Of the 1363 NCD cases, 84.7% (CI: 81.6-87.3) received care in Jordan; of the five NCDs assessed, arthritis cases had the lowest rates of care seeking at 65%, (CI:0-88, p = 0.005). Individuals from households in which the head completed post-secondary and primary education, respectively, had 89% (CI: 22-98) and 88% (CI: 13-98) lower odds of seeking care

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Portugal: Pneumobil (1995 and 2002 Prevalence Studies revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, over the years. In 1995, the implementation of a respiratory function survey seemed to be an adequate way to draw attention to neglected respiratory symptoms and increase the awareness of spirometry surveys. By 2002 there were new consensual guidelines in place and the awareness that prevalence of COPD depended on the criteria used for airway obstruction definition. The purpose of this study is to revisit the two studies and to turn public some of the data and respective methodologies. Methods: From Pneumobil Study database of 12,684 subjects, only the individuals with 40+ years old (n = 9.061 were selected. The 2002 Study included a randomized representative sample of 1384 individuals with 35–69 years old. Results: The prevalence of COPD was 8.96% in Pneumobil and 5.34% in the 2002 Study. In both studies, presence of COPD was greater in males and there was a positive association between presence of COPD and older age groups. Smokers and ex-smokers showed a higher proportion of cases of COPD. Conclusions: Prevalence in Portugal is lower than in other European countries. This may be related to lower smokers’ prevalence. Globally, the most important risk factors associated with COPD were age over 60 years, male gender and smoking exposure. All aspects and limitations regarding different recruitment methodologies and different criteria for defining COPD cases highlight the need of a standardized method to evaluate COPD prevalence and associated risks factors, whose results can be compared across countries, as it is the case of BOLD project. Resumo: Introdução: A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC tem sido, ao longo dos anos, uma importante causa de morbilidade e mortalidade no mundo. Em 1995, a implementação de um rastreio da função respiratória pareceu a forma mais adequada

  11. The prevalence of chronic postmastectomy pain syndrome in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nerve (lateral cutaneous branch of T2), during operative procedures on the breast and/or axilla.6. Chronic pain can have wide-ranging effects on health, functioning and quality of life. Studies4,7,13 conducted previously show a significant number of postmastectomy breast cancer survivors (ranging from 20% to 40% in these ...

  12. Prevalence of fibromyalgia syndrome in diabetics with chronic pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS), an increasingly recognized disorder with heightened response to pressure, characterized by Chronic Widespread Pain (CWP), for which no other cause can be identified. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is the most common metabolic endocrinopathy. It is estimated that more than 50% of ...

  13. Chronic Post Inguinal Herniorraphy Pain: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors for chronic post herniorrhaphy groin pain at a tertiary urban hospital. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study using data retrieved from patient files and theatre logs was conducted. Only inguinal herniae patients 13 years and above were considered. Pain was self reported at least 3months to 2 years.

  14. Prevalence and individual risk factors associated with clinical lumbar instability in rice farmers with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Yodchaisarn, Wantanee; Emasithi, Alongkot; Keawduangdee, Petcharat; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical lumbar instability (CLI) is one of the subgroups of chronic non-specific low back pain. Thai rice farmers often have poor sustained postures during a rice planting process and start their farming at an early age. However, individual associated factors of CLI are not known and have rarely been diagnosed in low back pain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and individual associated factors of CLI in Thai rice farmers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 Thai rice farmers in a rural area of Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the 13-item Delphi criteria questionnaire, after which an objective examination was performed using aberrant movement sign, painful catch sign, and prone instability test to obtain information. Individual factors such as sex, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, smoking, and number of years of farming experience, were recorded during the face-to-face interview. The prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers calculated by the method described in this study was 13% (age 44±10 years). Number of years of farming experience was found to be significantly correlated with the prevalence of CLI (adjusted odds ratio =2.02, 95% confidence interval =1.03-3.98, Pfarmers. Those with long-term farming experience of at least 30 years have a greater risk of CLI.

  15. Prevalence of Chronic Pain, Treatments, Perception, and Interference on Life Activities: Brazilian Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotti, Dirce Maria Navas; de Oliveira Junior, Jose Oswaldo; da Fonseca, Paulo Renato Barreiros; Posso, Irimar de Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic pain affects between 30% and 50% of the world population. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Brazil, describe and compare differences between pain types and characteristics, and identify the types of therapies adopted and the impact of pain on daily life. Methods Cross-sectional study of a population-based survey with randomized sample from a private database. The interviews were conducted by phone. 78% of the respondents aged 18 years or more agreed to be interviewed, for a total of 723 respondents distributed throughout the country. Independent variables were demographic data, pain and treatment characteristics, and impact of pain on daily life. Comparative and associative statistical analyses were conducted to select variables for nonhierarchical logistic regression. Results Chronic pain prevalence was 39% and mean age was 41 years with predominance of females (56%). We found higher prevalence of chronic pain in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Pain treatment was not specific to gender. Dissatisfaction with chronic pain management was reported by 49% of participants. Conclusion 39% of interviewed participants reported chronic pain, with prevalence of females. Gender-associated differences were found in intensity perception and interference of pain on daily life activities. PMID:29081680

  16. HAART impact on prevalence of chronic otitis media in Brazilian HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Raimar; Pinheiro Neto, Carlos Diógenes; Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Araújo Filho, Bernardo Cunha

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new antiretroviral drugs such as protease inhibitors has generated sensible changes in morbity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. To evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the prevalence of chronic otitis media in HIV-infected pediatric population. We analyzed medical charts of 471 children aged zero to 12 years and 11 months with HIV infection from an Ambulatory of ENT and AIDS. Children were divided according to the age: 0 to 5 years and 11 months and 6 to 12 years and 11 months and classified as having chronic otitis media based on history, physical examination, audiologic and tympanometric data. Prevalence of chronic otitis media, as well as CD4+ lymphocyte count were compared between groups in use of HAART and the group without HAART. Out of 459 children, 65 (14.2%) had chronic otitis media. We observed that in children aged 0 to 5 years and 11 months who were taking HAART there was significant lower prevalence of chronic otitis media (p=0.02). The use of HAART was associated to higher mean CD4+ lymphocyte count (p<0.001). The use of HAART was associated to reduction in prevalence of chronic otitis media in HIV infected children, probably due to increase in mean CD4+ lymphocyte count.

  17. Estimating the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection--New York City, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Anne Marie; Bornschlegel, Katherine; Lazaroff, Julie; Kennedy, Joseph; Balter, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a preventable cause of liver failure, cirrhosis, and liver cancer; estimated chronic HBV infection prevalence is 0.3-0.5% in the U.S.A. Prevalence in New York City (NYC) is likely higher because foreign-born persons, who represent 36% of NYC's population versus 11% nationwide, bear a disproportionate burden of chronic HBV infection. However, because no comprehensive, population-based survey of chronic HBV infection has been conducted in NYC, a reliable prevalence estimate is unavailable. We used two approaches to estimate chronic HBV infection prevalence in NYC: (1) a census-based estimate, combining local and national prevalence data for specific populations, and (2) a surveillance-based estimate, using data from NYC's Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Hepatitis B Surveillance Registry and adjusting for out-migration and deaths. Results from both the census-based estimate and the surveillance-based estimate were similar, with an estimated prevalence of chronic HBV in NYC of 1.2%. This estimate is two to four times the estimated prevalence for the U.S.A. as a whole. According to the census-based estimate, >93% of all cases in NYC are among persons who are foreign-born, and approximately half of those are among persons born in China. These findings underscore the importance of local data for tailoring programmatic efforts to specific foreign-born populations in NYC. In particular, Chinese-language programs and health education materials are critical. Reliable estimates are important for policymakers in local jurisdictions to better understand their own population's needs and can help target primary care services, prevention materials, and education.

  18. The Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimates have been reported in Asia,[2] Australia,[3] and across Europe.[4-6] It is more difficult to get accurate estimates in the developing countries like Nigeria, due to lack of national registries of CKD and limited surveys. However, the risk factors for CKD are known to be just as prevalent in many developing countries as ...

  19. Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes insipudus. Parkinson's disease. Diabetes mellitus type I. Rheumatoid arthritis. Diabetes mellitus type II. Schizophrenia. Systemic lupus erythematosus Ulcerative colitis. Analyses were performed on patient level. The prevalence of each condition was calculated by dividing the number of patients with the condition.

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lisbon, Portugal: The burden of obstructive lung disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bárbara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a great heterogeneity in the prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD across the world. The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD initiative was started to measure the prevalence of COPD in a standardized way. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of COPD in Portuguese adults aged 40 years or older of a target population of 2,700,000 in the Lisbon region, in accordance with BOLD protocol. Methods: A stratified, multi-stage random sampling procedure was used which included 12 districts. The survey included a questionnaire with information on risk factors for COPD and reported respiratory disease and a post-bronchodilator spirometry performed at survey centres. Results: For the 710 participants with questionnaires and acceptable spirometry, the overall weighted prevalence of GOLD stage I+ COPD was 14.2% (95% C.I. 11.1, 18.1, and stage II+ was 7.3% (95% C.I. 4.7, 11.3. Unweighted prevalence was 20.2% (95% C.I.17.4, 23.3 for stage I+ and 9.5% (95% C.I. 7.6, 11.9 for stage II+. Prevalence of COPD in GOLD stage II+ increased with age and was higher in men. The prevalence of GOLD stage I+ COPD was 9.2% (95% C.I. 5.9, 14.0 in never smokers versus 27.4% (95% C.I. 18.5, 38.5 in those who had smoked ≥20 pack-years. The agreement between previous doctor diagnosis and spirometric diagnosis was low, with 86.8% of underdiagnosed individuals. Conclusions: The 14.2% of COPD estimated prevalence indicates that COPD is a common disease in the Lisbon region. In addition, a large proportion of underdiagnosed disease was detected. The high prevalence of COPD with a high level of underdiagnosis, points to the need of raising awareness of COPD among health professionals, and requires more use of spirometry in the primary care setting. Resumo: Introdução: A prevalência da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC apresenta valores muito heterogéneos em todo o mundo. A iniciativa Burden of Obstructive Lung

  1. Prevalence of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Individuals with Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Devshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.

  2. Prevalence of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Individuals with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devshi, Rajal; Shaw, Sarah; Elliott-King, Jordan; Hogervorst, Eef; Hiremath, Avinash; Velayudhan, Latha; Kumar, Satheesh; Baillon, Sarah; Bandelow, Stephan

    2015-12-02

    A review of 23 studies investigating the prevalence of Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the general and learning disability population and measures used to assess BPSD was carried out. BPSD are non-cognitive symptoms, which constitute as a major component of dementia regardless of its subtype Research has indicated that there is a high prevalence of BPSD in the general dementia population. There are limited studies, which investigate the prevalence of BPSD within individuals who have learning disabilities and dementia. Findings suggest BPSDs are present within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia. Future research should use updated tools for investigating the prevalence of BPSD within individuals with learning disabilities and dementia.

  3. Rapid Hepatitis C Virus Divergence among Chronically Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Lozano, Daniela; Vergara-Castaneda, Arely; Rivera-Osorio, Pilar; Martinez-Guarneros, Armando; Chacon, Carlos A. Vazquez; Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Vaughan, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Here, we analyze the viral divergence among hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic cases infected with genotype 1. The intrahost viral evolution was assessed by deep sequencing using the 454 Genome Sequencer platform. The results showed a rapid nucleotide sequence divergence. This notorious short-term viral evolution is of the utmost importance for the study of HCV transmission, because direct links between related samples were virtually lost. Thus, rapid divergence of HCV significantly affects gene...

  4. Prevalence and association of oral candidiasis with dysphagia in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Kothari, Mohit

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of oral candidiasis (OC) in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and to evaluate the association of OC with improvement in dysphagia. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: Individuals with ABI admitted to a rehabilitation centre were...

  5. Prevalence and association of oral candidiasis with dysphagia in individuals with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Kothari, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of oral candidiasis (OC) in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and to evaluate the association of OC with improvement in dysphagia. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: Individuals with ABI admitted to rehabilitation were recruited over...

  6. Prevalence of Chronic Erythematous Candidiasis in Lebanese Denture Wearers: a Clinico-microbiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aoun, Georges; Berberi, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Chronic erythematous candidiasis also known as denture-related stomatitis refers to inflammatory changes of the denture-bearing mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of chronic erythematous candidiasis in a Lebanese population using clinical and microbiological examinations. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight patients wearing full acrylic maxillary denture (50 women and 48 men) were included in this study. A clinical oral assessment and a microbiological exa...

  7. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of diabetic patients in a chronic heart failure population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistorp, Caroline; Galatius, Søren; Gustafsson, Finn

    2005-01-01

    Previously, estimates of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have solely been based on history in retrospective studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DM and glucose abnormalities in patients with CHF in accordance...... with the modern diagnostic criteria of DM. A second aim was to characterize patients with DM with respect to severity of CHF....

  9. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity among elderly people in Kosovo: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerliu, Naim; Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Ramadani, Naser; Brand, Helmut

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic correlates of chronic morbidity in the elderly population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including a representative sample of 1890 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (949 men, mean age 73 ± 6 years; 941 women, mean age 74 ± 7 years; response rate: 83%). A structured questionnaire inquired about the presence and the number of self-reported chronic diseases among elderly people, and their access to medical care. Demographic and socioeconomic data were also collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with chronic conditions. In this nationwide population-based sample in Kosovo, 42% of elderly people were unable to access medical care, of whom 88% due to unaffordable costs. About 83% of the elderly people reported at least one chronic condition (63% cardiovascular diseases), and 45% had at least two chronic diseases. In multivariable-adjusted models, factors associated with the presence of chronic conditions and/or multimorbidity were female sex, older age, self-perceived poverty and the inability to access medical care. This study provides important evidence on the magnitude and distribution of chronic conditions among the elderly population of Kosovo. Our findings suggest that, in this sample of elderly people from Kosovo, the oldest-old (especially women) and the poor endure the vast majority of chronic conditions. These findings point to the urgent need to establish a social health insurance scheme including the marginalized segments of elderly people in this transitional country.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of chronic kidney disease among Danish adults with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kristina H; Ryom, Lene; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With improved prognosis of CF, comorbidities including chronic kidney disease (CKD) are becoming increasingly important. Identification of those at highest CKD risk is hence a priority. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, adults with CF attending the Copenhagen CF Centre...... median duration of chronic pulmonary infection (28.3 (20.0-35.8) vs. 20.0 (9.9-34.7) years; p=0.008) and with longer intravenous aminoglycosides use (606 (IQR, 455-917) vs. 273 (IQR, 91-826) days, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The CKD prevalence is high and related to age, diabetes, chronic infection...

  11. Prevalence and individual risk factors associated with clinical lumbar instability in rice farmers with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntumetakul R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rungthip Puntumetakul,1 Wantanee Yodchaisarn,1 Alongkot Emasithi,2 Petcharat Keawduangdee,1 Uraiwan Chatchawan,1 Junichiro Yamauchi3 1The Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Clinical lumbar instability (CLI is one of the subgroups of chronic non-specific low back pain. Thai rice farmers often have poor sustained postures during a rice planting process and start their farming at an early age. However, individual associated factors of CLI are not known and have rarely been diagnosed in low back pain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and individual associated factors of CLI in Thai rice farmers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 Thai rice farmers in a rural area of Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the 13-item Delphi criteria questionnaire, after which an objective examination was performed using aberrant movement sign, painful catch sign, and prone instability test to obtain information. Individual factors such as sex, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, smoking, and number of years of farming experience, were recorded during the face-to-face interview. Results: The prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers calculated by the method described in this study was 13% (age 44±10 years. Number of years of farming experience was found to be significantly correlated with the prevalence of CLI (adjusted odds ratio =2.02, 95% confidence interval =1.03–3.98, P<0.05. Conclusion: This study provides prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers. Those with long-term farming experience of at least 30 years have a greater risk of CLI. Keywords: Delphi study, aberrant movement sign, painful catch sign

  12. Quality of life in individuals with chronic foot conditions: a cross sectional observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Chronic foot conditions have been reported to be a significant cause of impairment and disability to individuals affected. However, studies to date have particularly focussed on patient satisfaction with outcomes following surgery.

  13. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Mapuche individuals living in urban and rural environment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Salas, Carlos; Navarrete, Claudia; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Rainqueo, Angélica; Jara, Tamara; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Miquel, Juan F; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk of diabetes and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of MS could differ by ethnicity and lifestyle factors. To determine the prevalence of MS in Mapuche individuals living in urban and rural environments in Chile and to investigate whether the prevalence and risk of MS in urban and rural environments differs by sex, age and nutritional status. A total of 1077 Mapuche participants were recruited from urban (MU = 288) and rural (MR = 789) settings. Body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure serum glucose, HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The prevalence of MS was determined using the unified IDF and ATP-III criteria. An environment and sex interaction was found for the prevalence of MS (p = 0.042). The prevalence was significantly lower in male MR (13%) compared to other groups (22, 23 and 25% among female MR, female MU and male MU respectively). Also, the prevalence of central obesity and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in male MR. MU are at an increased risk of developing MS compared to MR, with an odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence intervals 1.1 to 2.2). This risk increases along with age or body mass index of the population. The adoption of an urbanized lifestyle increases the risk of developing MS in Mapuche individuals. This risk is enhanced by age and nutritional status.

  14. High prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthat, Walter G; Castellano, Mauro; Berenguer, Leandro; Guzmán, M Alejandra; de Arteaga, Javier; Chiurchiu, Carlos R; Massari, Pablo U; Garay, Gabriela; Capra, Raúl; de La Fuente, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    There are few data in Argentina on the prevalence and management of bone and mineral metabolism (BMM) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A survey was carried out in dialysis units in 2010 to measure the prevalence of and types of treatments for BMM disorders in Argentina. The data obtained was then compared to the published results from other large population studies. We recorded characteristics of dialysis centres and participating patients, the frequency of measurements and individual results for BMM biochemical markers, as well as the type of management used to control hyperphosphataemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. 1210 patients from 25 dialysis centres in Argentina participated in the study (representing 4.7% of the country’s prevalent dialysis population in 2010). The mean patient age was 55.3±17.6 years, 60.8% were male, 3.3% were on peritoneal dialysis and 29.1% suffered diabetes. In all centres, phosphataemia and calcaemia were measured on a monthly basis, 60% of centres measured intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) every 6 months, 36% every 3 to 4 months, and 4% annually. As recommended by K/DOQI, 51.6% of patients had adequate levels of calcium (8.4-9.5 mg/dl), 51.6% had adequate phosphorus (3.5-5.5 mg/dl) and 21.1% displayed acceptable iPTH levels (150-300 pg/ml). 24% had iPTH 300 pg/ml. iPTH ≥600 pg/ml was present in 28.3%, and 13.3% had values ≥1000 pg/ml. These figures differed from those published by the DOPPS II study, in which 51.1% of patients had iPTH hyperparathyroidism, oral or intravenous calcitriol was predominantly used (50.5%) with a small percentage of patients receiving paricalcitol or doxercalciferol. The present study shows a high prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, which differs from that published by other large population studies. There was a high proportion of patients with BMM markers outside the ranges suggested by K/DOQI. Mainly phosphate binders based on calcium and calcitriol continue to be used

  15. Prevalence and patterns of permanent tooth agenesis in individuals with Down syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaska, Pinelopi K; Antonarakis, Gregory S

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of permanent tooth agenesis in individuals with Down syndrome, using meta-analysis methodology. Two independent investigators carried out a literature search to locate articles pertaining to permanent tooth agenesis in individuals with Down syndrome. The outcomes of interest were the prevalence and pattern of permanent tooth agenesis. Thirteen articles were selected for inclusion. The estimated overall prevalence of permanent tooth agenesis, excluding third molars, was 54.6% (95% CI: 44-66%). Considerable heterogeneity was present across the studies. Among subjects with tooth agenesis, approximately half had three or more missing teeth. The permanent teeth with the highest prevalence of agenesis were the maxillary lateral incisor (27%), mandibular second premolar (21%) and maxillary second premolar (18%). The single most commonly absent tooth, however, was the mandibular left second mandibular premolar (19.9%), followed by the maxillary left lateral incisor (19.4%). Little data describing specific tooth-agenesis patterns were available. In conclusion, individuals with Down syndrome display high prevalence rates and severity of agenesis of permanent teeth. Proper and timely diagnosis of missing permanent teeth is thus necessary, to allow a more comprehensive long-term treatment plan and a more favorable prognosis in these individuals. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. Spanish multicentre PIBHE study: Prevalence and immunisation of chronic hepatitis B in haemodialysis patients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca García Agudo

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in haemodialysis in Spain is low and so are the rates of immunisation against the virus. The vaccination schedules used are very diverse and have been observed to correlate with the immune response. It would therefore be necessary to establish a protocol for the most effective vaccination schedule to increase immunisation in these patients.

  17. Prevalence of HBV and/or HDV markers using RIA in patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, S.; Almoslih, M.; Altawil, N.G.; Kassir, Z.A.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty six with different chronic liver disease (CLD) were studied for the prevalence of HBV and/or HDV markers using radioimmunoassay. The total prevalence of HBV markers (i.e. when any of the markers is present) for chronic active hepatitis (CAH), post viral cirrhosis, chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH), cryptogenic cirrhosis, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), alcoholic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCCA) and methyldopa induced chronic hepatitis were 6/13 (46.2%), 6/6 (100%), 7/9 (77.8%), 0/10, 0/2, 10/15 (66.7%), 7/10 (70%) and 0/1 respectively; whereas the total prevalence of anti-delta antibody was 0/13, 1/6 (16.7%), 3/9 (33.3%), 0/10 0/2, 0/15, 2/10 (20%) and 0/1 respectively, while the prevalence of anti-delta antibody for the control group was 4/102 (3.9%). Various patients with CLD, though they showed various viral markers yet they showed different pattern groups. 3 tabs

  18. Prevalence of archaea in chronic periodontitis patients in an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipun Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of archaea in the subgingival crevices of patients with chronic periodontitis in an Indian population. Materials and Methods: Thirty four chronic periodontitis patients and 16 healthy subjects were included in the study. Thirty four subgingival plaque samples were collected from chronic periodontitis patients, of which 17 samples were from deep pockets and 17 were from shallow pockets. Sixteen subgingival plaque samples were collected from healthy subjects. The presence of archaea in plaque samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Prevalence of archaea in chronic periodontitis patients was 29.4% and in healthy subjects was 11.8%, which was not a statistically significant difference. However, prevalence of archaea, in deep periodontal pockets was 47.1%, in shallow periodontal pockets was 11.8% and in healthy sulcus was 12.5%, respectively. Thus, showing a statistically significant difference between prevalence of archaea in deep periodontal pockets (47.1% and healthy sulcus (12.5% and also between deep periodontal pockets (47.1% and shallow pockets (11.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Archaea were detected commonly in severe periodontitis suggesting that these microorganisms might be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.

  19. Prevalence of Obesity-Related Chronic Health Conditions in Overweight Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…

  20. Prevalence of Chronic Health Conditions in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Geke J.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review of the prevalence rates of chronic health conditions in populations of children with intellectual disability was provided. We identified 2,994 relevant studies by searching Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO databases from 1996 to 2008. We included the 31 studies that had sufficient methodological quality. The 6 most prevalent…

  1. Prevalence of chronic pain in Libya before and after the uprising of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-17

    Feb 17, 2011 ... Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V, Cohen R, Gallacher D. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. Eur J Pain. 2006; 10: 287Б333. 4. Alabas OA, Tashani OA, Johnson MI. Effects of ethnicity and gender role expectations of pain on experimentally induced pain:.

  2. Prevalence rates of chronic diseases: the Netherlands and the United Kingdom compared.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Fleming, D.M.; Linden, M.W. van der; Westert, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Information about the European population’s health origins from different sources. For some chronic diseases general practice is the most useful source for prevalence data. On the European level comparability of data from general practice is complicated by differences in the position of

  3. Action plan for determining and monitoring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coresh, Josef; Hu, Jiun-Ruey; Bello, Aminu K.; Feldman, Harold I.; Fogo, Agnes B.; Ganji, Mohammad Reza; Harris, David C.; Levey, Andrew S.; Okpechi, Ikechi G.; Stengel, Benedicte; Thomas, Bernadette; Wiecek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) continues to remain high globally, up to 13.4% by one estimate. Although the number, geographic distribution, size, and quality of the studies examining CKD prevalence and incidence have increased over the past decade, the global capacity for CKD surveillance is still

  4. Prevalence and determinants of medication non-adherence in chronic pain patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, L; Stronks, D L; Groeneweg, J G; Huygen, F J

    2016-04-01

    Chronic pain is commonly treated with analgesic medication. Non-adherence to prescribed pain medication is very common and may result in sub-optimal treatment outcome. The aim of this review was to investigate the prevalence of medication non-adherence and to present determinants that may help identify patients at risk for non-adherence to analgesic medication. A search was performed in PubMed and Embase with systematic approach including PRISMA recommendations. Individual risk of bias was assessed and systematic data extraction was performed. Twenty-five studies were included. Non-adherence rates to pain prescriptions ranged from 8% to 62% with a weighted mean of 40%. Underuse of pain medication was more common than overuse in most studies. Factors that were commonly positively associated with non-adherence were dosing frequency, polymedication, pain intensity, and concerns about pain medication. Factors negatively associated with non-adherence were age, again pain intensity and quality of the patient-caregiver relationship. Underuse was positively associated with active coping strategies and self-medication, and negatively associated with perceived need for analgesic medication. Overuse was positively associated with perceived need, pain intensity, opioid use, number of prescribed analgesics, a history of drug abuse, and smoking. Non-adherence to analgesic medication use is very common in the chronic pain population. The choice for pharmacological therapy should not only be based upon pain diagnosis but should also take the risks of non-adherence into account. The value of adherence monitoring or adherence enhancing interventions has to be investigated in future studies. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of chronic ankle instability and associated symptoms in university dance majors: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Janet; Hall, Emily; Docherty, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations have established that dancers suffer a large number of injuries to the lower leg, foot, and ankle, with a portion of these being significant time loss injuries or in some cases career ending. Lateral ankle sprain is a common injury in dancers and can often lead to recurrent instability and repetitive injuries. Research in other active populations has linked ankle sprains to the development of chronic ankle instability (CAI). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of CAI and related symptoms of ankle sprain in a student dance population. Individuals were included if they were currently a modern or ballet dance major at the investigators' university (exclusion criterion: a history of fracture or surgery in the lower extremities). A self-reported demographic questionnaire and the Identification of Functional Ankle Instability survey were used to identify the presence and characteristics of CAI. A total of 83 questionnaires were collected, and after exclusions, 77 participants remained: 43 modern dancers and 34 ballet dancers (10 males and 67 females, mean age 19.61 ± 2.53 years, mean dance experience 13.61 ± 3.16 years). Of all dancers surveyed, 41 (53.2%) had CAI, and of those 24 (58.5%) were modern dancers, and 17 (41.5%) were ballet dancers. When looking only at those dancers who had a previous lateral ankle sprain, 75.9% were identified as having CAI. Chronic Ankle Instability can create long-term problems for anyone but especially female dancers, who place extreme stress on their feet and ankles from being en pointe or demi-pointe. It is important to educate dancers, instructors, and medical staff of the importance of recognizing CAI and seeking medical care for ankle sprains and their residual symptoms.

  6. Individual and contextual determinants of perceived peer smoking prevalence among adolescents in six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Richter, Matthias; Rathmann, Katharina; Rimpelä, Arja H; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Lorant, Vincent; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    Young people perceiving a high peer smoking prevalence are more likely to initiate smoking. It is unclear which factors contribute to perceived peer smoking prevalence and if these factors vary according to education. This study aimed to assess the determinants of perceived smoking prevalence and assessed its variation at school and country-level. Data of 10,283 14-17-year-old students in 50 secondary schools in six European cities were derived from the 2013 SILNE survey. The outcome was the perceived smoking prevalence score among peers at school (0-10 scale, 10 represented 100% smoking prevalence). Multilevel linear regression models estimated the associations of factors with perceived prevalence score and variance at school and country-levels. Analyses were also stratified by academic achievement of the adolescent and parental education. Determinants of a higher perceived prevalence score were female sex, ever smoking, having friends who smoke, low academic achievement, low parental educational level, and higher actual prevalence of smoking in the school. The perceived prevalence score was not associated with school policies or with the availability of cigarettes near the school. Determinants were very similar across levels of academic achievement and parental education. Perceived prevalence scores substantially varied between schools and countries: 10% and 11% of total variance was related to schools and countries respectively. Across educational levels, perceptions of peer smoking are strongly determined by both individual characteristics and school and national contexts. Future studies should assess why perceived smoking prevalence varies between schools and countries and identify modifiable factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad A; Quinlan, Amy; Heck-Kanellidis, Jennifer; Calderon, Dawn; Patel, Tejas; Gandhi, Bhavika; Patel, Shrinil; Hetavi, Mahida; Costanzo, Eric J; Cosentino, James; Patel, Chirag; Dewan, Asa; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Salman, Loay; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2018-03-01

    While transradial approach to conduct percutaneous coronary interventions offers multiple advantages, the procedure can cause radial artery damage and occlusion. Because radial artery is the preferred site for the creation of an arteriovenous fistula to provide dialysis, patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly dependent on radial artery for their long-term survival. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients undergoing coronary interventions via radial artery. Stage of chronic kidney disease was based on estimated glomerular filtration rate and National Kidney Foundation - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. A total of 497 patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions were included. Over 70.4% (350/497) of the patients had chronic kidney disease. Stage II chronic kidney disease was observed in 243 (69%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 76.0 ± 8.4 mL/min). Stage III was observed in 93 (27%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 49 ± 7.5 mL/min). Stage IV chronic kidney disease was observed in 5 (1%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 25.6 ± 4.3 mL/min) and Stage V chronic kidney disease was observed in 9 (3%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 9.3 ± 3.5 mL/min). Overall, 107 of 350 patients (30%) had advanced chronic kidney disease, that is, stage III-V chronic kidney disease. Importantly, 14 of the 107 (13%) patients had either stage IV or V chronic kidney disease. This study finds that nearly one-third of the patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions have advanced chronic kidney disease. Because many of these patients may require dialysis, the use of radial artery to conduct percutaneous coronary interventions must be carefully considered in chronic kidney disease population.

  8. [Prevalence of chronic hyperventilation syndrome in children and teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridina, I; Bidat, E; Chevallier, B; Stheneur, C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperventilation syndrome in the general population of children and teenagers from the Île-de-France region (France). Three hundred children and teenagers (170 girls and 130 boys, aged 1 to17 years) were included in the study. To evaluate the probability of hyperventilation syndrome, we asked the children and teenagers to complete the Hyperventilation Syndrome Ambroise-Paré Enfant (SHAPE) questionnaire. The frequency of occurrence of the signs was evaluated by the child himself or herself with or without parental help. Children and teenagers with a score of 25 or over were considered to have hyperventilation syndrome. Sixty-three out of 300 questionnaires with a score of 25 or over revealed the presence of hyperventilation syndrome: 21% of the population evaluated. Among those surveyed, 42 were girls and 21 boys: 24.7 and 16.2%, respectively. The 280 questionnaires filled out among the non-asthmatics showed that 52 were positive (18.6%), while the positivity rate in the asthma group amounted to 55%. Although the diagnostic criteria for hyperventilation syndrome remains contested, this study shows that the disorder is real and frequent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Amy; Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ?18 years, identi...

  10. Dissociative symptoms in individuals with gender dysphoria:is the elevated prevalence real?

    OpenAIRE

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Todarello, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated dissociative symptomatology, childhood trauma and body uneasiness in 118 individuals with gender dysphoria, also evaluating dissociative symptoms in follow-up assessments after sex reassignment procedures were performed. We used both clinical interviews (Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule) and self-reported scales (Dissociative Experiences Scale). A dissociative disorder of any kind seemed to be greatly prevalent (29.6%). Moreover, individuals with gender dysphoria...

  11. Models for estimating projections for disease prevalence and burden: a systematic review focusing on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Susannah; Barbour, Victoria; Wild, Sarah; Simpson, Colin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological models for estimating the prevalence and burden of disease inform health policy and service planning decisions. Our aim was to describe the challenges in evaluating such models using the example of epidemiological models for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two reviewers searched Medline, Embase, CAB Abstracts and World Health Organization (WHO) Databases from 1980 to November 2013 for epidemiological models of COPD prevalence and burden. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of the studies. We then undertook a descriptive and narrative synthesis of data. We identified 22 models employing a variety of techniques to calculate the prevalence and/or burden of COPD. Models calculated prevalence and/or mortality or other facet of disease burden using demographics and risk factors or trends, Markov-type modelling and microsimulation modelling. The six models which scored highly on the quality framework were: the Peabody model, which generated estimates of COPD prevalence; the WHO DISMOD II model which produced burden estimates in terms of disability adjusted life years with COPD and life years lost to COPD; the Atsou model which gave the life expectancy gains of individual smokers who quit smoking and associated costs; two Dutch COPD models which produced estimates of mortality and health care costs related to COPD; and the Pichon-Riviere model which gave the costs and cost effectiveness of smoking quit programmes. The field of chronic disease modelling is burgeoning. As a result, policy makers need to understand how to interpret epidemiological models and their data sources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions in the United States' Medicare population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Debbie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which administers the Medicare program in the United States, launched the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW. The CCW contains all Medicare fee-for-service (FFS institutional and non-institutional claims, nursing home and home health assessment data, and enrollment/eligibility information from January 1, 1999 forward for a random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries (and 100% of the Medicare population from 2000 forward. Twenty-one predefined chronic condition indicator variables are coded within the CCW, to facilitate research on chronic conditions. The current article describes this new data source, and the authors demonstrate the utility of the CCW in describing the extent of chronic disease among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare claims were analyzed to determine the prevalence, utilization, and Medicare program costs for some common and high cost chronic conditions in the Medicare FFS population in 2005. Chronic conditions explored include diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, heart failure, cancer, chronic kidney disease (CKD, and depression. Fifty percent of Medicare FFS beneficiaries were receiving care for one or more of these chronic conditions. The highest prevalence is observed for diabetes, with nearly one-fourth of the Medicare FFS study cohort receiving treatment for this condition (24.3 percent. The annual number of inpatient days during 2005 is highest for CKD (9.51 days and COPD (8.18 days. As the number of chronic conditions increases, the average per beneficiary Medicare payment amount increases dramatically. The annual Medicare payment amounts for a beneficiary with only one of the chronic conditions is $7,172. For those with two conditions, payment jumps to $14,931, and for those with three or more conditions, the annual Medicare payments per beneficiary is $32,498. The CCW data files have tremendous value for health services research. The

  13. Anxiety in individuals with ASD: Prevalence, phenomenology, etiology, assessment, and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Magiati, I.; Perrin, S.; Patel, V.B.; Preedy, V.R.; Martin, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    ndividuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high levels of anxiety symptomatology with an estimated prevalence rate of anxiety disorders as high as 40 %. It is likely that anxiety is prominent in individuals with ASD throughout the life-span and that factors such as age, IQ, and ASD

  14. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Turkish Adults With Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: A Post Hoc Analysis from Chronic Renal Disease in Turkey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinsoy, Turgay; Deger, Serpil Muge; Ates, Kenan; Altun, Bulent; Ecder, Tevfik; Camsari, Taner; Serdengecti, Kamil; Suleymanlar, Gultekin

    2016-11-01

    Obesity confers an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is increased further by accompanying metabolic abnormalities. To investigate the relationship of the risk of CKD with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in adults by means of post hoc analysis of data from the Chronic Renal Disease in Turkey (CREDIT) study. The anthropometric measurements of a total of 9,100 adult participants in the CREDIT study were included in the analyses. Subjects were classified according to the presence or absence of obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 30) and MS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratio for CKD. Effect modification analyses were also performed. The prevalence of obesity was 20.6% and that of MS was 31.3%. The prevalence of CKD was higher among obese subjects compared to those with a normal BMI (20.5% vs. 14%; P obesity, 1.983 (95% CI, 1.489-2.641) for those with class II obesity and 2.799 (95% CI, 1.719-4.557) for subjects with extreme obesity (P obese subjects with MS (adjusted OR, 1.321; 95% CI, 1.109-1.573; P = .002). The stratification of obese individuals based on their metabolic phenotype is important for prevention and treatment of CKD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Age Group Comparisons of TENS Response among Individuals with Chronic Axial Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Corey B.; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark D.; George, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly prevalent and disabling musculoskeletal pain condition among older adults. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat CLBP, however, TENS response for older adults compared to younger adults is untested. In a dose-response study stratified by age, sixty participants with axial CLBP (20 young, 20 middle-aged, 20 older) received four 20-minute sessions of high frequency, high intensity TENS over a two to three-week period in a laboratory-controlled setting. Experimental measures of pain sensitivity (mechanical pressure pain detection threshold, PPT) and central pain excitability (phasic heat temporal summation, TS; heat aftersensations, AS) were assessed before and after TENS. Episodic or immediate axial CLBP relief was assessed after TENS via measures of resting pain, movement-evoked-pain, and self-reported disability. Cumulative or prolonged axial CLBP relief was assessed by comparing daily pain report across sessions. Independent of age, individuals experienced episodic increase in PPT and reduction in AS following TENS application. Similarly, all groups, on average, experienced episodic axial CLBP relief via improved resting pain, movement-evoked pain, and disability report. Under this design, no cumulative effect was observed as daily pain did not improve for any age group across the four sessions. However, older adults received higher TENS amplitude across all sessions in achieving similar TENS responses to younger adults. These findings suggest that older adults experience similar episodic axial CLBP relief as younger individuals following high frequency, high intensity TENS when higher dosage parameters are used. PMID:26342650

  16. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preventable Hospitalizations for Chronic Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Riddhi P; Aseltine, Robert H; Sabina, Alyse B; Graham, Garth N

    2017-12-01

    Hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) result in high morbidity and economic burden on the American healthcare system. Admissions due to chronic ACSCs, in particular, cost the American healthcare system over 30 billion dollars annually. This paper presents the current research on racial and ethnic disparities in the burden of hospitalizations due to chronic ACSCs. For this narrative review, we evaluated over 800 abstracts from MEDLINE and Google Scholar and cited 62 articles. Since 1998, racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalizations from chronic ACSCs have increased resulting in over 430,000 excess hospitalizations among non-Hispanic Blacks compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Racial disparities in chronic ACSCs hospitalizations are pervasive in the USA. There is need for more research on the pathways through which an individual's race modifies the risk for hospitalizations due to chronic ACSCs.

  17. Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in Chinese patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Shi, Hao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Peng, Ai; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Ni, Zhao-Hui; He, Li-Qun; Niu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Nian-Song; Mei, Chang-Lin; Xu, Xu-Dong; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Yan, Hai-Dong; Deng, Yue-Yi; Yu, Chen; Cen, Jun; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This was the first multicenter, cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of anemia, patient awareness, and treatment status in China. Data of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; age, 18–75 years; both out- and inpatients) from 25 hospitals in Shanghai, seeking medical treatment at the nephrology department, were collected between July 1, 2012 and August 31, 2012. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in patients with nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) were assessed. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. A total of 2420 patients with ND-CKD were included. Anemia was established in 1246 (51.5%) patients: 639 (51.3%) men and 607 (48.7%) women. The prevalence of anemia increased with advancing CKD stage (χ2trend = 675.14, P Anemia was more prevalent in patients with diabetic nephropathy (68.0%) than in patients with hypertensive renal damage (56.6%) or chronic glomerulonephritis (46.1%, both P anemia patients, only 7.5% received more effective and recommended intravenous supplementation. Anemia is highly prevalent in patients with ND-CKD in China, with a low target-achieving rate and poor treatment patterns. The study highlights the need to improve multiple aspects of CKD management to delay the progression of renal failure. PMID:27310973

  18. Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Kocaeli: An Industrialised City in Turkey

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    Zeliha Arslan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an important cause of mortality worldwide. Aims: The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in residents who were ≥40 years old and living in a heavily industrialised city of Turkey, Kocaeli, using the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease Initiative questionnaire. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: 1035 residents ≥40 years old and living in Kocaeli were surveyed. Spirometry and the basic BOLD questionnaire was performed. Results: 946 subjects entered into the analysis. The prevalence of stage I or higher COPD was 13.3% (8.7% for women and 16.5% for men, the prevalence of COPD at GOLD stage II or higher was 7.1% (4.1% for women and 9.2% for men. We also noted a high prevalence of COPD in never-smokers. Conclusion: Besides cigarette smoking, occupational exposure to fumes, chemicals and dusts might have also contributed to the high prevalence of COPD noted in residents who were ≥40 years old and living in Kocaeli, Turkey.

  19. Prevalence of food-responsive enteropathy among dogs with chronic enteropathy in Japan.

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    Kawano, Koji; Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Nagata, Noriyuki; Masashi, Yuki; Suto, Akemi; Suto, Yukinori; Uto, Shohei; Ueno, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Takehiro; Ushigusa, Takahiro; Nagai, Takashi; Arawatari, Yasunori; Miyaji, Kazuki; Ohmori, Keitaro; Mizuno, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    There have been limited reports on the prevalence of adverse food reactions among dogs suffering from chronic enteropathy (CE) in Japan. We examined the prevalence and histological features of food-responsive enteropathy (FRE) in a total of 32 dogs with history of CE. Fourteen of 18 cases (56.2%) diagnosed as FRE had lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis or eosinophilic enteritis by histopathological examination. Characteristic histopathological changes indicating FRE were not identified in 18 cases, though 4 cases did not show any abnormalities. Results collected from this study provided important information that can help to change the way dogs with CE are treated in the future.

  20. Associations among Gender, Coping Patterns and Functioning for Individuals with Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nina El-Shormilisy; Jenny Strong; Pamela J Meredith

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developing strategies for coping with chronic pain is an integral part of successfully living with this often debilitating health condition. While gender differences in pain coping strategies have long been investigated, the relationship between gender-specific engagement in coping and associated functioning in individuals experiencing chronic pain is yet to be clearly understood. OBJECTIVE: The present systematic review focused on studies that address these relationships to criti...

  1. A comparison of chronic pain prevalence in Japan, Thailand, and myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Wang, Zhuo; Paholpak, Permsak; Kosuwon, Weerachai; Oo, Myint; Kasai, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Pain has been regarded as important in the improvement of quality of life (QOL). In the advanced countries of Europe and the North America, a number of large-scale epidemiological surveys on pain, particularly chronic pain, have thus been performed in general populations. However, few epidemiological surveys of chronic pain have been reported from developing countries, and no surveys appear to have examined chronic pain in the least developed countries. To compare the incidence of chronic pain in Asian countries, using Japan as an advanced country, Thailand as a developing country, and Myanmar as one of the least developed countries. Cross-sectional study in 4 hospitals. A university hospital and a general hospital in Japan, a university hospital in Thailand, and a general hospital in Myanmar. Patients were 1,000 nursing staff working in Japan, 448 nursing staff working in Thailand, and 405 nursing staff working in Myanmar. The survey was performed by requesting all nursing staff to anonymously answer the questionnaire. Data were used to calculate chronic pain prevalence, pain site, presence or absence of consultation with doctors, methods of handling pain other than consultation with doctors, and whether pain was controlled for each country. The results were then compared between countries. The prevalence of chronic pain in Myanmar was 5.9%, which was significantly lower (P Thailand (19.9%). The most frequent pain sites were the lower back, head, and shoulders in Japan, and the shoulders, ankle, upper back, and head in Thailand, whereas in Myanmar, no clear certain tendencies were observed. The most frequent method for handling pain other than consultation with doctors was over-the-counter drugs in Japan, massage in Thailand, and relaxation therapy (meditation) in Myanmar. Limitations of this study were the cross-sectional design study, the small number of hospitals included, the limitation of patients to nursing staff, and the omission from the questionnaire of

  2. Prevalence of Depressive Disorders in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Chloe C; Hall, Layla; Harkness, Kate L

    2018-03-01

    Substantial uncertainty exists about the prevalence of depressive disorders in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analysis quantitatively summarized studies that assessed the lifetime and current prevalence of unipolar depressive disorders in children, adolescents, and adults with ASD. We also examined demographic, methodological, and study moderators. This meta-analysis adhered to PRISMA guidelines. A total of 7857 articles were identified through 5 databases (PubMed, Web of Science, PYSCInfo, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses), forward searches, and backward searches. Two reviewers independently screened articles and extracted data. Sixty-six articles met inclusion criteria. Results indicated that the pooled lifetime and current prevalence was 14.4% (95% CI 10.3-19.8) and 12.3% (95% CI 9.7-15.5), respectively. Rates of depressive disorders were highest among studies that used a standardized interview to assess depressive disorders (lifetime = 28.5%, 95% CI 20.1-38.8; current = 15.3%, 95% CI 11.0-20.9) and required participants to report on their own depressive symptoms (lifetime = 48.6%, 95% CI 33.3-64.2; current = 25.9%, 95% CI 17.0-37.3). Rates were also higher in studies that included participants with higher intelligence. Lifetime, but not current, prevalence was positively associated with age and the proportion of the sample that was White. In conclusion, we found that the rates of depressive disorders are high among individuals with ASD. Compared to typically developing individuals, individuals with ASD are 4-times more likely to experience depression in their lifetime. These results suggest that individuals with ASD should be regularly screened and offered treatment for depression.

  3. Balance Confidence Is Related to Features of Balance and Gait in Individuals with Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Wong, Jennifer S; Mansfield, Avril

    2017-02-01

    Reduced balance confidence is associated with impairments in features of balance and gait in individuals with subacute stroke. However, an understanding of these relationships in individuals at the chronic stage of stroke recovery is lacking. This study aimed to quantify the relationships between balance confidence and specific features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke. Participants completed a balance confidence questionnaire and clinical balance assessment (quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping) at 6 months postdischarge from inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Regression analyses were performed using balance confidence as a predictor variable, and quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping outcome measures as the dependent variables. Walking velocity was positively correlated with balance confidence, whereas mediolateral center of pressure excursion (quiet standing) and double support time, step width variability, and step time variability (walking) were negatively correlated with balance confidence. This study provides insight into the relationships between balance confidence and balance and gait measures in individuals with chronic stroke, suggesting that individuals with low balance confidence exhibited impaired control of quiet standing as well as walking characteristics associated with cautious gait strategies. Future work should identify the direction of these relationships to inform community-based stroke rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic stroke, and determine the potential utility of incorporating interventions to improve balance confidence into these programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Balance confidence is related to features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Wong, Jennifer S.; Mansfield, Avril

    2016-01-01

    Reduced balance confidence is associated with impairments in features of balance and gait in individuals with sub-acute stroke. However, an understanding of these relationships in individuals at the chronic stage of stroke recovery is lacking. This study aimed to quantify relationships between balance confidence and specific features of balance and gait in individuals with chronic stroke. Participants completed a balance confidence questionnaire and clinical balance assessment (quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping) at 6 months post-discharge from inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Regression analyses were performed using balance confidence as a predictor variable and quiet standing, walking, and reactive stepping outcome measures as the dependent variables. Walking velocity was positively correlated with balance confidence, while medio-lateral centre of pressure excursion (quiet standing) and double support time, step width variability, and step time variability (walking) were negatively correlated with balance confidence. This study provides insight into the relationships between balance confidence and balance and gait measures in individuals with chronic stroke, suggesting that individuals with low balance confidence exhibited impaired control of quiet standing as well as walking characteristics associated with cautious gait strategies. Future work should identify the direction of these relationships to inform community-based stroke rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic stroke, and determine the potential utility of incorporating interventions to improve balance confidence into these programs. PMID:27955809

  5. Monitoring the prevalence of chronic conditions: which data should we use?

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    Orueta Juan F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are an increasing threat to people’s health and to the sustainability of health organisations. Despite the need for routine monitoring systems to assess the impact of chronicity in the population and its evolution over time, currently no single source of information has been identified as suitable for this purpose. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of various chronic conditions estimated using routine data recorded by health professionals: diagnoses on hospital discharge abstracts, and primary care prescriptions and diagnoses. Methods The ICD-9-CM codes for diagnoses and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC codes for prescriptions were collected for all patients in the Basque Country over 14 years of age (n=1,964,337 for a 12-month period. We employed a range of different inputs: hospital diagnoses, primary care diagnoses, primary care prescriptions and combinations thereof. Data were collapsed into the morbidity groups specified by the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACGs Case-Mix System. We estimated the prevalence of 12 chronic conditions, comparing the results obtained using the different data sources with each other and also with those of the Basque Health Interview Survey (ESCAV. Using the different combinations of inputs, Standardized Morbidity Ratios (SMRs for the considered diseases were calculated for the list of patients of each general practitioner. The variances of the SMRs were used as a measure of the dispersion of the data and were compared using the Brown-Forsythe test. Results The prevalences calculated using prescription data were higher than those obtained from diagnoses and those from the ESCAV, with two exceptions: malignant neoplasm and migraine. The variances of the SMRs obtained from the combination of all the data sources (hospital diagnoses, and primary care prescriptions and diagnoses were significantly lower than those using only diagnoses. Conclusions The

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with lung cancer: prevalence, impact and management challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Spyratos, Dionisios; Papadaki, Eleni; Lampaki, Sofia; Kontakiotis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Dionisios Spyratos, Eleni Papadaki, Sofia Lampaki, Theodoros Kontakiotis Pulmonary Department, Lung Cancer Oncology Unit, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, G. Papanicolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer share a common etiological factor (cigarette smoking) and usually coexist in everyday clinical practice. The prevalence of COPD among newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer sometimes exceed...

  7. Prevalence

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    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  8. Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions

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    Pampati Vidyasagar

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine, in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP. The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%, with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%, and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%. The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72% in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78% in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32% in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain.

  9. Prevalence of Chronic Erythematous Candidiasis in Lebanese Denture Wearers: a Clinico-microbiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Georges; Berberi, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    Chronic erythematous candidiasis also known as denture-related stomatitis refers to inflammatory changes of the denture-bearing mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of chronic erythematous candidiasis in a Lebanese population using clinical and microbiological examinations. Ninety-eight patients wearing full acrylic maxillary denture (50 women and 48 men) were included in this study. A clinical oral assessment and a microbiological exam using swab samples collected from the palate of these patients were performed and the data obtained were analyzed statistically. Sixty-nine point thirty-eight per cent (69.38%) of the patients examined, (68 out of 98; 25 men and 43 women), presented chronic erythematous candidiasis. The statistical analysis showed that patient's gender was a significant predictor of the disease while no statistically significant relationship with the patient's age was found. Within the limits of this study, the prevalence of chronic erythematous candidiasis is estimated to be high in Lebanon. Women were more affected than men.

  10. Associations of chronic stress burden, perceived stress, and traumatic stress with cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Linda C.; Roesch, Scott C.; Fortmann, Addie L.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Penedo, Frank J.; Perreira, Krista; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Daviglus, Martha L.; Schneiderman, Neil; Isasi, Carmen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined multiple stress indicators (chronic, perceived, traumatic) in relation to prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, current smoking) in the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010–2011). Methods Participants were 5313 men and women, 18–74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic/Latino ethnic backgrounds, who underwent a comprehensive baseline clinical exam and sociocultural exam with measures of stress. Results Chronic stress burden was related to a higher prevalence of CHD after adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral and biological risk factors [OR (95% CI) = 1.22, (1.10–1.36)] and related to stroke prevalence in the model adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors [OR (95% CI) = 1.26, (1.03–1.55∂)]. Chronic stress was also related to a higher prevalence of diabetes [OR=1.20, (1.11–1.31)] and hypertension [OR=1.10 (1.02–1.19)] in individuals free from CVD (N=4926). Perceived stress [OR=1.03 (1.01–1.05)] and traumatic stress [OR=1.15 (1.05–1.26)] were associated with a higher prevalence of smoking. Participants who reported a greater number of lifetime traumatic events also unexpectedly showed a lower prevalence of diabetes [OR=.89 (.83–.97)] and hypertension [OR=.88 (.82–.93)]. Effects were largely consistent across age and sex groups. Conclusions The study underscores the utility of examining multiple indicators of stress in relation to health, since the direction and consistency of associations may vary across distinct stress conceptualizations. In addition, the study suggests that chronic stress is related to higher CVD risk and prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos, the largest U.S. ethnic minority group. PMID:24979579

  11. Prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: a blinded sonographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromba, L; Blasi, S; Vestri, A; Kiltzanidi, D; Tartaglia, F; Redler, A

    2015-02-01

    To verify the prevalence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in patients affected by different clinical forms of multiple sclerosis and in healthy subjects using the Zamboni ultrasound protocol combined with M-mode ultrasound examination. We enrolled 112 patients with multiple sclerosis and 67 healthy subjects from 20 to 67 years of age. All the patients underwent Duplex and color-Doppler sonography of the neck vessels, transcranial colour duplex sonography, M-mode study of the valve system and of venous abnormalities. Subjects were positive for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency when at least two of five hemodynamic criteria of the Zamboni protocol were fulfilled. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency condition was further analyzed by a multivariate analysis including age, sex, disease duration, subtypes of multiple sclerosis and expanded disability status scale score as independent variables. No healthy subjects was positive for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, while in the sample of patients affected by multiple sclerosis the diagnosis was made in 59.8% of cases (p multiple sclerosis and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (respectively 54.4% and 76.1%, p present in healthy subjects but were detected in patients with multiple sclerosis. The positivity of the second criterion was associated with diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in 100% of cases. The third criterion had a prevalence of 52.2% in the subgroup of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency patients. It was positive in 36 multiple sclerosis patients and was associated with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency diagnosis in all cases except one. The multivariate analysis showed that age, disease duration, sex, subtypes of multiple sclerosis and expanded disability status scale score were not considered predictors of this haemodynamic condition. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is a haemodynamic condition strongly

  12. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Nathan R Hill

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a global health burden with a high economic cost to health systems and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. All stages of CKD are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity, premature mortality, and/or decreased quality of life. CKD is usually asymptomatic until later stages and accurate prevalence data are lacking. Thus we sought to determine the prevalence of CKD globally, by stage, geographical location, gender and age. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating CKD prevalence in general populations was conducted through literature searches in 8 databases. We assessed pooled data using a random effects model. Of 5,842 potential articles, 100 studies of diverse quality were included, comprising 6,908,440 patients. Global mean(95%CI CKD prevalence of 5 stages 13·4%(11·7-15·1%, and stages 3-5 was 10·6%(9·2-12·2%. Weighting by study quality did not affect prevalence estimates. CKD prevalence by stage was Stage-1 (eGFR>90+ACR>30: 3·5% (2·8-4·2%; Stage-2 (eGFR 60-89+ACR>30: 3·9% (2·7-5·3%; Stage-3 (eGFR 30-59: 7·6% (6·4-8·9%; Stage-4 = (eGFR 29-15: 0·4% (0·3-0·5%; and Stage-5 (eGFR<15: 0·1% (0·1-0·1%. CKD has a high global prevalence with a consistent estimated global CKD prevalence of between 11 to 13% with the majority stage 3. Future research should evaluate intervention strategies deliverable at scale to delay the progression of CKD and improve CVD outcomes.

  13. Prevalence and clinical profile of chronic pain and its association with mental disorders

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    Flávia Garcia Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of 12-month self-reported pain and chronic pain in a general population and to describe their clinical profile to assess if chronic pain is associated with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS The data used comes from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a population-based study assessing adult (≥ 18 years residents of the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil. We have assessed the respondents (n = 5,037 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0, with a global response rate of 81.3%. Descriptive analyses have been performed, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR have been calculated with logistic and multinomial regression and presented with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. RESULTS The prevalence of pain and chronic pain in the past 12 months were 52.6% (95%CI 50.3–54.8 and 31.0% (95%CI 29.2–32.7, respectively. Joints (16.5%, 95%CI 15.4–17.5 and back or neck (15.5%, 95%CI 14.2–16.9 were the most frequently reported anatomical sites of chronic pain. On a 10-point analogue scale, the mean intensity of the worst pain was 7.7 (95%CI 7.4–7.8, and the mean average pain was 5.5 (95%CI 5.2–5.6; the mean treatment response was 6.3 (95%CI 6.0–6.6. Mean pain duration was 16.1 (95%CI 15.6–17.0 days a month and 132 (95%CI 126–144 minutes a day. Chronic pain was associated with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders (OR = 2.7, 95%CI 2.3–3.3, anxiety disorders (OR = 2.1, 95%CI 1.9–3.0, and mood disorders (OR = 3.3, 95%CI 2.4–4.1. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of chronic pain in multiple sites is observed among the general adult population, and associations between chronic pain and mental disorders are frequent.

  14. Prevalence of Chronic Morbidity and Sociodemographic Profile of Police Personnel - A Study from Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kishankumar Maheshkumar; Pandit, Niraj

    2017-09-01

    The police personnel are special group of population that work for minimum 12 hours a day. They are at risk of various types of chronic morbidities. To determine the sociodemographic, chronic morbidity and health profile of police personnel of Vadodara district. It was a cross-sectional study conducted on the police force of Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. The present study was the outcome of health checkup camp for police personnel. Total 982 police personnel participated in the aforementioned study. Information regarding the sociodemographic profile, addiction to alcohol drinking, tobacco chewing or smoking, diagnosed chronic morbidities, BMI, blood sugar and history of exercise and yoga was collected. Data collected was entered into Microsoft Excel 2007 and analysed by using Epi-Info 7. Statistical methods used included frequencies and proportions for categorical data while range, mean and standard deviation were calculated for continuous data. For bivariate analysis, Chi-square test was used. In the study population, 95.10% were males. The prevalence of chronic morbidity, hypertension and diabetes were 9.5%, 5% and 2.6% respectively. About 47.05% had normal BMI and mean BMI was 24. The study revealed that 7.64% police personnel had the habit of smoking, 3.16% consumed alcohol whereas 24.03% consumed tobacco products. It was found that 138 (14.05%) were active in sports and 304 (30.95%) were actively involved in exercise while 44 (4.48%) were involved in yoga. The prevalence of hypertension (5%) and diabetes (2.6%) were low as compared to the general population (NFHS-4). This can be attributed to health consciousness prevalent among the population. A substantial number of study population were involved in sports, exercise and yoga.

  15. The nature and prevalence of chronic pain in homeless persons: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rebecca; Ewing, Judith; Garrett, Alice; Harrison, E Katherine; Lwin, Kimberly Kt; Wheeler, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Homeless people are known to suffer disproportionately with health problems that reduce physical functioning and quality of life, and shorten life expectancy. They suffer from a wide range of diseases that are known to be painful, but little information is available about the nature and prevalence of chronic pain in this vulnerable group. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain among homeless people, and to examine its location, effect on activities of daily living, and relationship with alcohol and drugs. We conducted face-to-face interviews with users of homeless shelters in four major cities in the United Kingdom, in the winters of 2009-11. Participants completed the Brief Pain Inventory, Short Form McGill Pain questionnaire, Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs, and detailed their intake of prescribed and unprescribed medications and alcohol. We also recorded each participant's reasons for homelessness, and whether they slept rough or in shelters. Of 168 shelter users approached, 150 (89.3%) participated: 93 participants (63%) reported experiencing pain lasting longer than three months; the mean duration of pain experienced was 82.2 months. The lower limbs were most frequently affected. Opioids appeared to afford a degree of analgesia for some, but whilst many reported symptoms suggestive of neuropathic pain, very few were taking anti-neuropathic drugs. The prevalence of chronic pain in the homeless appears to be substantially higher than the general population, is poorly controlled, and adversely affects general activity, walking and sleeping. It is hard to discern whether chronic pain is a cause or effect of homelessness, or both. Pain is a symptom, but in this challenging group it might not always be possible to treat the underlying cause. Exploring the diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain may offer a means of improving the quality of these vulnerable people's lives.

  16. [Prevalence of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-qiong; Liu, Wei; Xu, Jun-jie; Mei, Hong; Peng, Han-ming; Gao, Yuan; Yuan, Lan; Xu, Chun-di

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China. Inpatients of the pediatric hospitals in Shanghai, Jinan, Wuhan and Chengdu who were diagnosed as chronic diarrhea were recruited from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2008. Their clinical history, physical examination and laboratory data were collected. The SPSS version 11.5 statistical package for Microsoft Windows was used for statistical analysis. Data of 199 patients and finally enrolled 118 hospitalized chronic diarrhea inpatients during the observation period were collected and 14 (12%) of the chronic diarrhea patients were suspected as having celiac disease and in one the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed. Gluten-free diet (GFD) treatment was effective. M/F: 12/2, the age ranged from 6 months to 12 years; 43% (6/14) had malnutrition, 29% (4/14) had anemia, villous atrophy was found in 4 patients by endoscopy. Duodenal biopsies revealed stage I in 1, stage II in 2, stage IIIa in 7, stage IIIb in 3 and stage IIIc in 1 patient according to the modified Marsh classification. This study was the first time to report the research of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China. The percentage of suspicious celiac disease patients was 12% (14/118) in children and one was confirmed. CD exists in China. Chinese pediatricians should pay attention to the disease.

  17. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in patients on hemodialysis in southwest Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Timothy S; Barnoya, Joaquin; Cipriano, Ever; Herrera, Erick; Lopez, Noemi; Polo, Vicente Sanchez; Rothstein, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Objective To document the prevalence of patients on hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) of non-traditional causes (CKDnt). Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study interviewed patients on hemodialysis at the Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social on their health and occupational history. Laboratory serum, urine and vital sign data at the initiation of hemodialysis were obtained from chart reviews. Patients were classified according to whether they had hypertension or obesity or neither. The proportion of patients with and without these traditional CKD risk factors was recorded and the association between demographic and occupational factors and a lack of traditional CKD risk factors analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 242 total patients (including 171 non-diabetics) enrolled in hemodialysis in southwestern Guatemala, 45 (18.6% of total patients and 26.3% of non-diabetics) lacked traditional CKD risk factors. While agricultural work history was common, only travel time greater than 30 minutes and age less than 50 years old were significantly associated with CKD in the absence of traditional risk factors. Individuals without such risk factors lived throughout southwestern Guatemala's five departments. Conclusions The prevalence of CKDnT appears to be much lower in this sample of patients receiving hemodialysis in Southwestern Guatemala than in hospitalized patients in El Salvador. It has yet to be determined whether the prevalence is higher in the general population and in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of chronic disease multimorbidity and associated determinants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Roberts

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multimorbidity is increasingly recognized as a key issue in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the prevalence and correlates of chronic disease multimorbidity in the general adult Canadian population in relation to age and other key determinants. Methods: We extracted data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011/12 on 105 416 Canadians adults. We analysed the data according to the number of multimorbidities (defined as 2+ or 3+ diseases from a list of 9 and examined the determinants of multimorbidity using regression analyses. Results: Our findings show that 12.9% of Canadians report 2+ chronic diseases and 3.9% report 3+ chronic diseases. Those reporting 3 or more chronic diseases were more likely to be female, older, living in the lowest income quintile and to have not completed high school. In the overall population, social deprivation is associated with a 3.7 odds of multimorbidity, but when examined across age groups, the odds of multimorbidity were notably higher in middle age, 7.5 for those aged 35 to 49 years and 5.4 for those aged 50 to 64 years. Discussion: As the proportion of Canadians living with multiple chronic diseases increases, we need to assess chronic disease from a holistic perspective that captures multimorbidity and upstream factors, to facilitate broader and more context-appropriate associations with healthy living, quality of life, health care costs and mortality. Special consideration should be given to the role that social deprivation plays in the development of multimorbidity. Canadians living in the lowest socioeconomic group are not only more likely to develop multimorbidity, but the onset of multimorbidity is also likely to be significantly earlier.

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Prescription Sleep Aid Use among Individuals with DSM-5 Insomnia: The Role of Hyperarousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Cheng, Philip; Kalmbach, David A; Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Despite mounting evidence for the overuse of prescription sleep aids (PSA), reliable data on PSA use among insomniacs are unavailable. Current studies focus on trends in PSA use at the general population level, and thus do not distinguish between transient sleep disturbance and insomnia disorder. Therefore, we prospectively examined the prevalence and predictors of baseline and chronic PSA use in a well-defined sample of individuals with insomnia. We analyzed longitudinal data from an urban, community-based cohort of 649 adults (48.1 ± 11.6 y; 69.3% female) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)-based insomnia disorder. Participants completed standardized measures of sleep disturbance, daytime alertness, depression, and anxiety at baseline and follow-up 1 y later. They also reported whether and with what frequency they used PSA at both time points. Approximately 19% of the sample used PSA at baseline, the majority (69.4%) of whom continued use 1 y later. Anxiety and daytime alertness were the only independent predictors of both acute and chronic PSA use. An increase of 1 standard deviation (SD) in alertness was associated with a 33% increase in the odds of chronic PSA use (χ(2) = 4.98; odds ratio [OR] = 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.72; P insomnia. These findings are consistent with emerging data showing that insomnia is not just a nocturnal sleep disorder, but one characterized by 24-h arousal. Though current research targets sleep disturbance, this study highlights the role of the arousal system in pharmacological treatment seeking. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Metabolic syndrome among individuals with heroin use disorders on methadone therapy: Prevalence, characteristics, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Robles, María José; Torrens, Marta; Samos, Pilar; Roquer, Albert; Martires, Paula K; Sanvisens, Arantza; Muga, Roberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2018-01-02

    Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in subjects on methadone therapy; there are, however, limited data about metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. A cross-sectional study in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy at a drug abuse outpatient center. Medical examinations and laboratory analyses after a 12-hour overnight fast were recorded. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were included, with a mean age of 46.1 ± 9 years, a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21.2-28), and 77.9% were men. Median exposure to methadone therapy was 13 years (IQR: 5-20). Overweight and obesity were present in 29.5% and 17.2% of the participants, respectively. Metabolic syndrome components were low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (51.6%), hypertriglyceridemia (36.8%), high blood pressure (36.8%), abdominal obesity (27.0%), and raised blood glucose levels (18.0%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (52% vs. 20%, P = >0.01) and high blood pressure more prevalent in men (41.1% vs. 22.2%, P = .07). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-31.8). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (per 1 kg/m 2 increase odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76) and exposure time to methadone therapy (per 5 years of treatment increase OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.48) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Overweight and metabolic syndrome are prevalent findings in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. Of specific concern is the association of methadone exposure with metabolic syndrome. Preventive measures and clinical routine screening should be

  1. PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE IN HEMODIALITIC TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rocha Santos Caracas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is a health problem that has reached more and more individuals due to the aging and increase of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The presence of chronic uremic syndrome along with aggravating factors such as sedentary lifestyle is directly associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk and determine the levels of regular physical activity in patients on hemodialysis. Cross-sectional analytical study with quantitative approach. A sociodemographic and anamnestic questionnaire was applied, followed by cardiovascular risk assessment using the Framingham scale; Of weekly energy expenditure related to daily activities, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 113 individuals with a mean age of 54.13 years, the predominant male gender being 50.4%. 86.7% presented a moderate to high cardiovascular risk classification and 46% were classified as sedentary. From the analyzed data the present research obtained statistically significant value for the variables sedentarism x cardiovascular risk, time of hemodialysis x cardiovascular risk. It is concluded that patients are at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, associated with sedentary lifestyle and the time the patient is exposed to dialysis.

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Dewan S; Chowdhury, Muhammad Ah; Siddiquee, Ali T; Ahmed, Shyfuddin; Clemens, John D

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of population-based data on COPD prevalence and its determinants in Bangladesh. To measure COPD prevalence and socioeconomic and lifestyle determinants among ≥40 years Bangladeshi adults. In a cross-sectional study, we measured lung function of 3744 randomly selected adults ≥40 years from rural and urban areas in Bangladesh, using a handheld spirometer. COPD was defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria as post-bronchodilator ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st second (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) COPD was also assessed by the lower limit of normal (LLN) threshold defined as lower fifth percentile for the predicted FEV1/FVC. The prevalence of COPD was 13.5% by GOLD criteria and 10.3% by LLN criteria. Prevalence of COPD was higher among rural than urban residents and in males than females. More than half of the COPD cases were stage II COPD by both criteria. Milder cases (Stages I and II) were over estimated by the GOLD fixed criteria, but more severe cases (Stages III and IV) were similarly classified. In multiple logistic regression analysis, older age, male sex, illiteracy, underweight, history of smoking (both current and former), history of asthma and solid fuel use were significant predictors of COPD. COPD is a highly prevalent and grossly underdiagnosed public health problem in Bangladeshi adults aged 40 years or older. Illiteracy, smoking and biomass fuel burning are modifiable determinants of COPD.

  3. Impact of farm modernity on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, Alexia; Degano, Bruno; Soumagne, Thibaud; Thaon, Isabelle; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2016-02-01

    Dairy farming is associated with an excess of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The dairy industry has been changing for the past three decades with larger, more efficient farms and potentially less exposure to agents involved in COPD development. However, the impact of farm modernisation on COPD prevalence is unknown. We studied respiratory symptoms, respiratory function by spirometry and tobacco smoking in 575 male dairy farmers working either in traditional or in modern farms in the French Doubs region. COPD was defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criterion (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) system for the animals (model 2). The prevalence of COPD in dairy farmers was 12.0 ± 2.7% (GOLD), and 5.6 ± 4.1% (LLN definition). By multivariate analysis using the LLN definition, tobacco smoking (OR (95% CI) 3.96 (1.53 to 10.3) and 3.42 (1.32 to 8.84) for models 1 and 2, respectively) and characteristics of traditional farms (1.97 (1.02 to 4.47) and 5.20 (1.73 to 15.64) for models 1 and 2, respectively) were associated with higher COPD prevalence. Working in a traditional farm plus current smoking had an additive effect on COPD prevalence in model 1 and a synergistic effect in model 2. These findings support a positive impact of farm modernity on COPD prevalence in dairy farmers. Occupational and smoking-related risk factors are of nearly the same magnitude. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Individuals in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Jiangrong; Wang, Zhenyan; Qi, Tangkai; Song, Wei; Tang, Yang; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the epidemiological features of dyslipidemia among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals in China. We used a cross-sectional study design to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this population, and to identify risk factors associated with the presence of dyslipidemia. One thousand five hundred and eighteen antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals and 347 HIV-negative subjects in China were enrolled during 2009 to 2010. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. After an overnight fast, serum samples were collected to measure lipid levels. Factors associated with the presence of dyslipidemia were analyzed by logistic regression. Mean total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels were lower in HIV-positive than HIV-negative subjects, but mean triglyceride (TG) was higher in HIV-positive subjects. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups did not differ (75.6% vs. 73.7%, P = 0.580). However, the prevalence of high TC (8.4% vs. 28.2%, P dyslipidemia characterized by high TG and low HDL, which was associated with lower CD4 counts. These data support the assessment of lipid profiles before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy regardless of age. PMID:26632908

  5. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components in Brazilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Roberto Wagner F; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio M; Marinho, Niciane Bandeira P; de Vasconcelos, Hérica Cristina A; Lima, Adman Câmara S; Pereira, Dayse Christina R; Almeida, Paulo César; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Damasceno, Marta Maria C

    2013-05-01

    To identify the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components in a population of college students at a public higher education institution in Fortaleza, Brazil. Scientific evidence has demonstrated the ascent of the metabolic syndrome in the young population. Cross-sectional study of 702 Brazilian college students between January-July 2011. Socio-demographic indicators, life habits and the components of the metabolic syndrome were assessed. anova statistical tests were used to associate gender with the metabolic syndrome components, and the chi-square test to associate the number of metabolic syndrome components with gender and body mass index. High fasting venous glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were found in 12·3, 23·0, 9·7 and 5·9% of the sample, respectively. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome amounted to 1·7%. Nevertheless, 30·4% of students manifested at least one and 12·4% at least two individual components. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was higher in men (58·3%) and in people who were overweight (33·3%) and obese (41·7%). It is important to implement public health policies to reduce college students' vulnerability to the metabolic syndrome. Most college students who displayed ≥3 metabolic syndrome components were men and already indicated being overweight and/or obesity. It is important that nurses assess the frequency of metabolic syndrome in college students as a predictor of cardiovascular health. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Migraine is the most prevalent primary headache in individuals with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana L; Gonçalves, Daniela A G; Castanharo, Sabrina M; Speciali, José G; Bigal, Marcelo E; Camparis, Cinara M

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of primary headaches (HA) in adults with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) who were assessed in a specialty orofacial pain clinic, as well as in controls without TMD. The sample consisted of 158 individuals with TMD seen at a university-based specialty clinic, as well as 68 controls. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD were used to diagnose the TMD patients. HAs were assessed using a structured interview and classified according to the Second Edition of the International Classification for Headache Disorders. Data were analyzed by chi-square tests with a significance level of 5% and odds ratio (OR) tests with a 95% confidence interval (CI). HAs occurred in 45.6% of the control group (30.9% had migraine and 14.7% had tension-type headache [TTH]) and in 85.5% of individuals with TMD. Among individuals with TMD, migraine was the most prevalent primary HA (55.3%), followed by TTH (30.2%); 14.5% had no HA. In contrast to controls, the odds ratio (OR) for HA in those with TMD was 7.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.65-13.61; P = .000), for migraine, the OR was 2.76 (95% CI = 1.50-5.06; P = .001), and for TTH, the OR was 2.51 (95% CI = 1.18-5.35; P = .014). Myofascial pain/arthralgia was the most common TMD diagnosis (53.2%). The presence of HA or specific HAs was not associated with the time since the onset of TMD (P = .714). However, migraine frequency was positively associated with TMD pain severity (P = .000). TMD was associated with increased primary HA prevalence rates. Migraine was the most common primary HA diagnosis in individuals with TMD.

  7. Attempt to calculate the prevalence and features of chronic hepatitis C infection in Tuscany using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Caterina; Bartolacci, Simone; Pepe, Pasquale; Monnini, Mirko; Voller, Fabio; Cipriani, Francesco; Stasi, Cristina

    2016-11-28

    To evaluate this prevalence in Tuscan populations that was known and unknown to the Tuscan Regional Health Service in 2015. Tuscan Health administrative data were used to evaluate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected people known to the Regional Health Service. Residents in Tuscany with a HCV exemption code (070.54) were identified. Using the universal code attributed to each resident, these patients were matched with hospital admission codes identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), Clinical Modification, and with codes for dispensing drugs to patients by local and hospital pharmacies. Individuals were considered only once. Capture-recapture analysis was used to evaluate the HCV-infected population unknown to the Regional Health Service. In total, 14526 individuals were living on 31/12/2015 with an exemption code for HCV. In total, 9524 patients were treated with pegylated interferon + ribavirin and/or direct-acting antiviral drugs during the last 10 years, and 13879 total hospital admissions were noted in the last 15 years. After data linkage, the total number was 25918. After applying the Capture-Recapture analysis, the number of unknown HCV-infected people was 23497. Therefore, the total number of chronic HCV-infected people was 38643, excluding those achieved sustained virological response to previous treatment. Our results show a prevalence of HCV infected people of 1%. Tuscan administrative data could be useful for calculating health care costs and health planning in the coming years.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among a sample of adult smokers in Baghdad, Iraq, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Lami, Faris; Salim, Zainab

    2017-03-30

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among a convenience sample of 325 adult smokers in Baghdad, Iraq, 2014. Beside demographic variables, participants had Lung Function Questionnaire to assess respiratory symptoms; individuals with a score of ≤18 had a spirometry examination. Those with FEV1/FVC ratio spirometry; those with FEV1/FVC% of 55 (OR=2.14, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-4.39), and pack year smoking >40 (OR =5.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.70-16.91) were the significant independent determinants. All adult smokers should have a spirometry testing and counseled to stop smoking.

  9. [Etiology, prevalence of chronic renal failure and growth retardation in Lithuanian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundziene, Birute; Masalskiene, Jūrate; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Cerkauskiene, Rimante; Aleksyniene, Vilte; Dobiliene, Diana; Rudaitis, Sarūnas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes, prevalence, and grades of chronic renal failure in Lithuanian children and to assess its influence on children's growth. The study was performed in Vilnius University Children's Hospital and Clinic of Children's Diseases, Kaunas University of Medicine. By March 31, 2006, 65 children with chronic renal failure had been registered. The prevalence was 88.3 cases per million children. The mean age was 10.8+/-4.9 years. The leading causes of chronic renal failure were congenital diseases (37%) and obstruction with interstitial nephritis (33.8%). At presentation, 23 (35.40%) children had mild, 17 (26.15%) had moderate, 9 (23.85%) had severe renal failure, and 16 (24.6%) had end-stage renal disease. Fourteen (21.54%) children were below the third percentile in height for their age. Growth failure was observed in one (4.35%) child with Grade 1 renal failure. The deterioration of renal function had a significant influence on growth impairment, and 13 (30.95%) children with glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 7 (43.75%) with end-stage renal disease had a height below the third percentile. Growth retardation as one of the symptoms of impairment of children's physical development depends on the severity of renal function.

  10. The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Johnston,1 Ekua W Brenu,1 Donald Staines,1,2 Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik1 1Griffith Health Institute, School of Medical Sciences, National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia; 2Gold Coast Public Health Unit, Queensland Health, Robina, QLD, Australia Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis to examine variability among prevalence estimates for CFS/ME, according to the method of assessment used. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for studies on CFS/ME prevalence in adults that applied the 1994 Centers for Disease Control (CDC case definition.1 Estimates were categorized into two methods of assessment: self-reporting of symptoms versus clinical assessment of symptoms. Meta-analysis was performed to pool prevalences by assessment using random effects modeling. This was stratified by sample setting (community or primary care and heterogeneity was examined using the I2 statistic. Results: Of 216 records found, 14 studies were considered suitable for inclusion. The pooled prevalence for self-reporting assessment was 3.28% (95% CI: 2.24–4.33 and 0.76% (95% CI: 0.23–1.29 for clinical assessment. High variability was observed among self-reported estimates, while clinically assessed estimates showed greater consistency. Conclusion: The observed heterogeneity in CFS/ME prevalence may be due to differences in method of assessment. Stakeholders should be cautious of prevalence determined by the self-reporting of symptoms alone. The 1994 CDC case definition appeared to be the most reliable clinical assessment tool available at the time of these studies. Improving clinical case definitions and their adoption internationally will enable better comparisons of findings and inform health systems about the true burden of CFS/ME. Keywords: chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis, prevalence, meta-analysis

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdalles, Úrsula; Goicoechea, Marian; Garcia de Vinuesa, Soledad; Quiroga, Borja; Galan, Isabel; Verde, Eduardo; Perez de Jose, Ana; Luño, José

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased albuminuria are associated with RH; however, there are few published studies about the prevalence of this entity in patients with CKD. To estimate the prevalence of RH in patients with different degrees of kidney disease and analyse the characteristics of this group of patients. A total of 618 patients with hypertension and CKD stages i-iv were enrolled, of which 82 (13.3%) met the criteria for RH. RH prevalence increased significantly with age, the degree of CKD and albuminuria. The prevalence of RH was 3.2% in patients under 50 years, 13.8% between 50-79 years and peaked at 17.8% in patients older than 80 years. Renal function prevalence was 4, 15.8 and 18.1% in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of > 60, 30-59 and  300mg/g respectively. In a logistic regression model, the characteristics associated with resistant hypertension were age, history of cardiovascular disease, GFR, albuminuria and diabetes mellitus. A total of 47.5% of patients with resistant hypertension had controlled BP (<140/90mmHg) with 4 or more antihypertensive drugs. These patients were younger, with better renal function, less albuminuria and received more aldosterone antagonists. RH prevalence increases with age, the degree of CKD and albuminuria. Strategies such as treatment with aldosterone receptor antagonists are associated with better blood pressure control in this group of patients, leading to reduced prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. No longer diseases of the wealthy: prevalence and health-seeking for self-reported chronic conditions among urban poor in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Beerenahalli, Thriveni S; Devadasan, Roopa; Munegowda, C M; Devadasan, Narayanan; Criel, Bart; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-08-13

    The burden of chronic conditions is high in low- and middle-income countries and poses a significant challenge to already weak healthcare delivery systems in these countries. Studies investigating chronic conditions among the urban poor remain few and focused on specific chronic conditions rather than providing overall profile of chronic conditions in a given community, which is critical for planning and managing services within local health systems. We aimed to assess the prevalence and health- seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in a poor neighbourhood of a metropolitan city in India. We conducted a house-to-house survey covering 9299 households (44514 individuals) using a structured questionnaire. We relied on self-report by respondents to assess presence of any chronic conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the prevalence and health-seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in general as well as for diabetes and hypertension in particular. The predictor variables included age, sex, income, religion, household poverty status, presence of comorbid chronic conditions, and tiers in the local health care system. Overall, the prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was 13.8% (95% CI = 13.4, 14.2) among adults, with hypertension (10%) and diabetes (6.4%) being the most commonly reported conditions. Older people and women were more likely to report chronic conditions. We found reversal of socioeconomic gradient with people living below the poverty line at significantly greater odds of reporting chronic conditions than people living above the poverty line (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.5, 5.8). Private healthcare providers managed over 80% of patients. A majority of patients were managed at the clinic/health centre level (42.9%), followed by the referral hospital (38.9%) and the super-specialty hospital (18.2%) level. An increase in income was positively associated with the use

  13. What do health interview surveys tell us about the prevalences of somatic chronic diseases?: a study into concurrent validity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, J. van der; Abrahamse, H.P.H.; Donker, G.; Steen, J. van der; Sonsbeek, J.L.A. van; Bos, G.A.M. van den

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent validity of a list of chronic conditions used in health interview surveys. The results regarding the prevalence of chronic diseases from three health interview surveys, carried out in The Netherlands during the 1980s, were compared. In addition, the results for

  14. Are We overestimating the prevalence of depression in chronic illness using questionnaires? Meta-analytic evidence in obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is common in chronic illness, albeit prevalence can be highly variable. This variability may be a function of symptom overlap between depression and chronic illness. Using Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) as an exemplar, this meta-analysis explored whether the proportion of overlapping s...

  15. Prevalence of depression in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism or undiagnosed diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nouwen, Arie; Nefs, Giesje; Caramlau, Isabela

    2011-01-01

    diagnosed type 2 diabetes (PDD) has not been the subject of a systematic review/meta-analysis. This study examined the prevalence of depression in IGM and UDD subjects relative to each other and to NGM and PDD subjects by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of studies on this topic......OBJECTIVE: Meta-analyses have shown that the risk for depression is elevated in type 2 diabetes. Whether this risk in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or undiagnosed diabetes (UDD) is elevated relative to normal glucose metabolism (NGM) or decreased relative to previously....... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for articles published up to May 2010. All studies that compared the prevalence of depression in subjects with IGM and UDD were included. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed and random-effects models. RESULTS: The meta...

  16. Risk factors for chronic mucus hypersecretion in individuals with and without COPD: influence of smoking and job exposure on CMH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E; de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Groen, Harry J M; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is highly prevalent in smokers and associated with an accelerated lung function decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several risk factors contribute to CMH and to COPD. It is, however, unknown if risk factors for CMH are similar in

  17. Risk factors for chronic mucus hypersecretion in individuals with and without COPD : Influence of smoking and job exposure on CMH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E.; de Jong, Kim; Boezen, Hendrika; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Groen, Hendricus; Postma, Dirkje S.; Vonk, Judith M.

    Background Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is highly prevalent in smokers and associated with an accelerated lung function decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several risk factors contribute to CMH and to COPD. It is, however, unknown if risk factors for CMH are similar in

  18. Supportive housing for chronically homeless individuals: Challenges and opportunities for providers in Chicago, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Nowicki, Kelly; Johnson, Amy K; Bendixen, Arturo V

    2018-01-01

    Chronically homeless individuals often have extensive health, mental health and psychosocial needs that pose barriers to obtaining and maintain supportive housing. This study aims to qualitatively explore supportive housing providers' experiences and challenges with housing chronically homeless individuals and examine opportunities to improve supportive housing systems of care. In 2014, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 65 programme administrators and case managers of supportive housing programmes in Chicago, IL. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic content analysis. Analysis revealed four themes that capture the primary challenges faced by housing providers: housing priorities, funding cuts, co-ordinated entry and permanency of housing. Housing for the chronically homeless has been prioritised, yet service providers are being expected to provide the necessary services to meet the needs of this population without commensurate funding increases or agency capacity. Additionally, case managers and administrators discussed the tension over housing tenure and the permanency of supportive housing. Findings provide qualitative insight into the challenges providers face implementing supportive housing for chronically homeless individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Basic emotion profiles in healthy, chronic pain, depressed and PTSD individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Anne M; Dima, Alexandra; Ferreira, Nuno; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    To compare self-reports of five basic emotions across four samples: healthy, chronic pain, depressed and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to investigate the extent to which basic emotion reports discriminate between individuals in healthy or clinical groups. In total, 439 participants took part in this study: healthy (n = 131), chronic pain (n = 220), depressed (n = 24) and PTSD (n = 64). The participants completed the trait version of the Basic Emotion Scale. Basic emotion profiles were compared both within each group and between the healthy group and each of the three other groups. Discriminant analysis was used to assess the extent to which basic emotions can be used to classify the participants as belonging to the healthy group or one of the clinical groups. In the healthy group, happiness was experienced more than any other basic emotion. This was not found in the clinical groups. In comparison to the healthy participants, the chronic pain group experienced more fear, anger and sadness, the depressed group reported more sadness and the PTSD group experienced all of the negative emotions more frequently. Discriminant analysis revealed that happiness was the most important variable in determining whether an individual belonged to the healthy group or one of the clinical groups. Anger was found to further discriminate between depressed and chronic pain individuals. The findings demonstrate that basic emotion profile analysis can provide a useful foundation for the exploration of emotional experience both within and between healthy and clinical groups.  Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effect of acute and chronic job demands on effective individual teamwork behaviour in medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.

  1. Analysis of the prevalence of dyslipidemia in individuals with HIV and its association with antiretroviral therapy

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    Talita Gabriela de Limas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been used to treat large numbers of patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Lipid disorders are often observed in these patients, and include elevations in total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using 333 patient records from the Regional Hospital of São José Doutor Homero de Miranda Gomes (HRSJHMG. The study population consisted of patients with HIV who were under medical follow up, either on or off drug treatment. The data were entered into Excel and exported to SPSS 16.0 for analysis using chi-square testing. We used prevalence ratios as the measure of association. Results Lipid abnormalities were observed in 78.9% of individuals who received ART. Of the 308 subjects on ART, 59.1%, 41.9%, and 33.1% had TG, TC and low-density lipoprotein (LDL abnormalities, respectively. The prevalence of LDL changes was 2.57-fold higher in individuals who had been using ART for more than 12 months, compared to those using ART for 6 to 12 months. Conclusions HIV patients showed a significant increase in the association between TC and TG levels and the use of ART. In particular, changes in TC, LDL and TG were greater in individuals who had received ART for over more than 12 months.

  2. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria from acute and chronic wounds in Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shin Yee; Manikam, Rishya; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-09-27

    Chronic wounds represent a major health burden worldwide. It has been hypothesized that the polymicrobial nature of wounds plays an important role in their healing process. Thus, a review of pathogen frequency and susceptibility patterns in wounds is necessary to provide appropriate guidelines for antimicrobial usage. In this study, microbiota and antimicrobial resistance in both acute and chronic wound patients treated at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, were compared. Wound swabs from 84 patients with acute wounds and 84 patients with chronic wounds were collected. The specimens were cultured using standard microbiological techniques. Isolates were then tested for antibiotic sensitivity with the broth microdilution method. Of 210 pathogenic bacteria isolates, Staphylococcus aureus (49; 23.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31; 14.8%) were the most prevalent bacteria found in wounds. Staphylococcus aureus was found significantly more often in patients with chronic wounds (41; 48.8%) than in patients with acute wounds (8; 9.5%), while Staphylococcus epidermidis was found predominantly in acute wounds (15; 17.9%). At the time of study, patients with chronic wounds (58.3%) had received more antibiotic treatments in the past previous 12 months compared with patients with acute wounds (16.7%). In the antibiotic susceptibility test, Staphylococcus spp. revealed highest resistance towards penicillin and ampicillin. Isolates showed no decrease in susceptibility against a number of newly developed antibiotics (linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline). Our finding showed that bacteria diversity and antimicrobial-resistant strains are more frequently found in chronic wounds than in acute wounds.

  3. Prevalence of chronic complications, metabolic control and nutritional intake in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toeller, M; Buyken, A E; Heitkamp, G

    1999-01-01

    for gender, age and diabetes duration. All examinations were performed using standardised, validated methods. HBA1c, LDL-cholesterol and fasting triglycerides were higher in the eastern European centres than in the southern or north-western European centres. Acute (severe ketoacidosis, severe hypoglycaemia......This study compares the prevalence of chronic complications, the quality of metabolic control and the nutritional intake in people with type 1 diabetes in different European regions. The EURODIAB Complications Study included a sample of 3250 European patients with type 1 diabetes stratified......) and chronic diabetes complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular disease) were all considerably more frequent in the eastern European centres. HbA1c was lower in the German centres than in the total EURODIAB cohort or in the north-western European centres, but severe hypoglycaemia...

  4. Comorbidities and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Prevalence, Influence on Outcomes, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Nirupama; Drummond, M. Bradley; Wise, Robert A.; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidities impact a large proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with over 80% of patients with COPD estimated to have at least one comorbid chronic condition. Guidelines for the treatment of COPD are just now incorporating comorbidities to their management recommendations of COPD, and it is becoming increasingly clear that multimorbidity as well as specific comorbidities have strong associations with mortality and clinical outcomes in COPD, including dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, healthcare utilization, and exacerbation risk. Appropriately, there has been an increased focus upon describing the burden of comorbidity in the COPD population and incorporating this information into existing efforts to better understand the clinical and phenotypic heterogeneity of this group. In this article, we summarize existing knowledge about comorbidity burden and specific comorbidities in COPD, focusing on prevalence estimates, association with outcomes, and existing knowledge about treatment strategies. PMID:26238643

  5. Prevalence and breed distribution of chronic pancreatitis at post-mortem examination in first-opinion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Roulois, A J A; Scase, T; Johnston, P E J; Thompson, H; Herrtage, M E

    2007-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of canine chronic pancreatitis in first-opinion practice and identify breed associations or other risk factors. Three sections of pancreas were taken from 200 unselected canine post-mortem examinations from first-opinion practices. Sections were graded for inflammation, fibrosis and other lesions. Prevalence and relative risks of chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic diseases were calculated. The prevalence of chronic pancreatitis was 34 per cent omitting the autolysed cases. Cavalier King Charles spaniels, collies and boxers had increased relative risks of chronic pancreatitis; cocker spaniels had an increased relative risks of acute and chronic pancreatitis combined. Fifty-seven per cent of cases of chronic pancreatitis were classified histologically as moderate or marked. Forty-one per cent of cases involved all three sections. Dogs with chronic pancreatitis were more commonly female and overweight, but neither factor increased the relative risk of chronic pancreatitis. There were breed differences in histological appearances and 24.5 per cent of cases were too autolysed to interpret with an increased relative risk of autolysis in a number of large breeds. Chronic pancreatitis is a common, under-estimated disease in the first-opinion dog population with distinctive breed risks and histological appearances.

  6. Anemia in patients on chronic hemodialysis in Cameroon: prevalence, characteristics and management in low resources setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaze, Francois Folefack; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Mambap, Alex Tatang; Halle, Marie-Patrice; Mbanya, Dora; Ashuntantang, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the prevalence, characteristics and management of anemia in patients on chronic hemodialysis and assessed the response to blood-transfusion based management in Cameroon. This was a cohort study of five months' duration (August-December 2008) conducted at the Yaoundé General Hospital's hemodialysis center, involving 95 patients (67 men, 70.5%) on chronic hemodialysis by a native arteriovenous fistula. A monthly evaluation included full blood counts, number of pints of red cell concentrates transfused, and vital status. At baseline, 75 (79%) patients had anemia which was microcytic and hypochromic in 32 (43%). Anemia was corrected in 67 (70.5%) patients using blood transfusion only, while 28 (29.5%) patients were receiving erythropoietin (11 regularly, 39%). Only 77.2% of 342 pints (median 3.0, range 0-17 per patients) of red cell concentrates prescribed were effectively received during the follow-up at an unacceptably high cost to patients and families. Mean hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels remained stable during follow-up, while mean corpuscular volume increased. Erythropoietin treatment was the main determinant of favorable trajectories of hematological markers. Patients on chronic hemodialysis have predominantly microcytic hypochromic anemia, with limited capacity for correction using blood transfusion.

  7. High prevalence of human parvovirus 4 infection in HBV and HCV infected individuals in shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Hong, Liang; Wang, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Zhang, Xi; Ghildyal, Reena

    2012-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been detected in blood and diverse tissues samples from HIV/AIDS patients who are injecting drug users. Although B19 virus, the best characterized human parvovirus, has been shown to co-infect patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus (HBV, HCV) infection, the association of PARV4 with HBV or HCV infections is still unknown.The aim of this study was to characterise the association of viruses belonging to PARV4 genotype 1 and 2 with chronic HBV and HCV infection in Shanghai.Serum samples of healthy controls, HCV infected subjects and HBV infected subjects were retrieved from Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDC) Sample Bank. Parvovirus-specific nested-PCR was performed and results confirmed by sequencing. Sequences were compared with reference sequences obtained from Genbank to derive phylogeny trees.The frequency of parvovirus molecular detection was 16-22%, 33% and 41% in healthy controls, HCV infected and HBV infected subjects respectively, with PARV4 being the only parvovirus detected. HCV infected and HBV infected subjects had a significantly higher PARV4 prevalence than the healthy population. No statistical difference was found in PARV4 prevalence between HBV or HCV infected subjects. PARV4 sequence divergence within study groups was similar in healthy subjects, HBV or HCV infected subjects.Our data clearly demonstrate that PARV4 infection is strongly associated with HCV and HBV infection in Shanghai but may not cause increased disease severity.

  8. High prevalence of skin disorders among HTLV-1 infected individuals independent of clinical status.

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    Renata Okajima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection can increase the risk of developing skin disorders. This study evaluated the correlation between HTLV-1 proviral load and CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells count among HTLV-1 infected individuals, with or without skin disorders (SD associated with HTLV-1 infection [SD-HTLV-1: xerosis/ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis or infective dermatitis associated to HTLV-1 (IDH].A total of 193 HTLV-1-infected subjects underwent an interview, dermatological examination, initial HTLV-1 proviral load assay, CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells count, and lymphproliferation assay (LPA.A total of 147 patients had an abnormal skin condition; 116 (79% of them also had SD-HTLV-1 and 21% had other dermatological diagnoses. The most prevalent SD-HTLV-1 was xerosis/acquired ichthyosis (48%, followed by seborrheic dermatitis (28%. Patients with SD-HTLV-1 were older (51 vs. 47 years, had a higher prevalence of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP (75%, and had an increased first HTLV-1 proviral load and basal LPA compared with patients without SD-HTLV-1. When excluding HAM/TSP patients, the first HTLV-1 proviral load of SD-HTLV-1 individuals remains higher than no SD-HTLV-1 patients.There was a high prevalence of skin disorders (76% among HTLV-1-infected individuals, regardless of clinical status, and 60% of these diseases are considered skin disease associated with HTLV-1 infection.

  9. Low prevalence of chronic beryllium disease among workers at a nuclear weapons research and development facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Seward, James; Gotway, Michael B; Nishimura, Stephen; Fulton, George P; Thundiyil, Josef; King, Talmadge E; Harber, Philip; Balmes, John R

    2010-06-01

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with high-resolution computed tomography (N = 49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 years and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 years. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or high-resolution computed tomography); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  10. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  11. Activities of Daily Living and Prevalence of Chronic diseases Among Elderly People in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Results: The mean grade scores of ADL and IADL were 36.03±5.99 and 24.25±8.22diseases (r=-0.332, p=0.001. The most prevalent diseases of the participants were arthralgia (74/8%, osteoporosis (53/8%, hypertension (49/4%, sleep problems (39/2% and cardiovascular diseases (38/5% respectively. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the elderly in our population were relatively dependent in terms of their activities of daily living.Bathing in this context is one of the most important dependencies. In addition, high prevalence of chronic diseases was arthritis and osteoporosis among others. They needed to be taken care of more andit seems that theeducationalinterventionprograms forthe elderlyand their families seems to be veryuseful.

  12. Prevalence of gluteus medius weakness in people with chronic low back pain compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Nicholas A; Scavo, Kelsey M; Strickland, Kyle J; Tipayamongkol, Natti; Nicholson, Jeffrey D; Bewyer, Dennis C; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2016-04-01

    Clinical observation suggests that hip abductor weakness is common in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study is to describe and compare the prevalence of hip abductor weakness in a clinical population with chronic non-specific LBP and a matched sample without LBP. One hundred fifty subjects with chronic non-specific LBP and a matched cohort of 75 control subjects were recruited. A standardized back and hip physical exam was performed. Specifically tensor fascia lata, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus strength were assessed with manual muscle testing. Functional assessment of the hip abductors was performed with assessment for the presence of the Trendelenburg sign. Palpation examination of the back, gluteal and hip region was performed to try and reproduce the subject's pain complaint. Friedman's test or Cochran's Q with post hoc comparisons adjusted for multiple comparisons was used to compare differences between healthy controls and people with chronic low back pain for both the affected and unaffected sides. Mann-Whitney U was used to compare differences in prevalence between groups. Hierarchical linear regression was used to identify predictors of LBP in this sample. Gluteus medius is weaker in people with LBP compared to controls or the unaffected side (Friedman's test, p gluteus medius weakness, low back regional tenderness, and male sex were predictive of LBP in this sample. Gluteus medius weakness and gluteal muscle tenderness are common symptoms in people with chronic non-specific LBP. Future investigations should validate these findings with quantitative measures as well as investigate the effect of gluteus medius strengthening in people with LBP.

  13. Migraine in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Prevalence, potential mechanisms, and evaluation

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    Rakib eRayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of headache subtypes in Gulf War Illness and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome compared to controls. Background: Migraines are reported in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Approximately, 25% of the military personnel who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War have developed Gulf War Illness (GWI. Symptoms in GWI share considerable overlap with CFS, including headache complaints. The type and prevalence of headaches in GWI have not been adequately assessed.Methods: 50 GWI, 39 CFS and 45 controls were examined. Participants had structured headache evaluations based on the 2004 International Headache Society criteria. All subjects had history and physical examinations, measurements of systemic hyperalgesia (dolorimetry, assessments for exclusionary indicators, fatigue and symptom related questionnaires. Results: Migraines were detected in 64% of GWI (odds ratio, 11.6, [±95% CI, 4.1 to 32.5] and 82% of CFS subjects (odds ratio, 22.5, [±95% CI, 7.8 to 64.8] compared to only 13% of controls. There was a predominance of females in the CFS compared to GWI and controls. However, gender did not influence migraine status (x2= 2.7; P = 0.101. Measures of fatigue, pain, and other ancillary criteria were comparable between GWI and CFS subjects with and without headache. Conclusion: Results validate previous findings of migraine in CFS and confirms similar increased prevalence in GWI compared to controls. This suggests GWI and CFS subjects share pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie migraine attacks and contribute to the extensive overlap of symptom constructs and disease pathophysiology. The high migraine prevalence warrants the inclusion of a structured headache evaluation that coincides with clinical assessments of GWI and CFS diagnosis.

  14. Prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia in Japanese patients with generalized chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Komiya-Ito, Akiyo; Imamura, Kentaro; Kita, Daichi; Ota, Koki; Takayama, Saori; Makino-Oi, Asako; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Ota, Mikio; Saito, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and levels of major periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque samples of a group of Japanese patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and chronic periodontitis (CP). A total of 40 patients with clinical diagnosis of AgP or CP and 10 periodontally healthy volunteers were subjected to clinical and microbiological analysis. Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The prevalence of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia was relatively high in patients with periodontitis: over 60% of AgP or CP patients harbored these pathogens whereas they were not detected in the subgingival plaque samples from periodontally healthy individuals. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were relatively frequently detected together in AgP and CP patients. No significant differences in the prevalence or level of the 3 pathogens were found between periodontitis groups. The proportion of T. forsythia was approximately 4-fold higher in CP group than in AgP group (P = 0.02). In periodontitis patients, a significant positive correlation was found between periodontal parameters (probing depth and clinical attachment level) and the numbers of total bacteria, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. No distinct pattern of the subgingival profile of these pathogens was discerned between the two disease entities, except for the difference in the proportion of T. forsythia. The red complex bacteria, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were highly prevalent in this population of Japanese AgP and CP patients, collaborating their roles in periodontitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and association of oral candidiasis with dysphagia in individuals with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Kothari, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of oral candidiasis (OC) in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) and to evaluate the association of OC with improvement in dysphagia. Design: Longitudinal observational study. Methods: Individuals with ABI admitted to rehabilitation were recruited over...... during rehabilitation. Though non-significant, the negative trend between OC and improvement in dysphagia suggest that OC may delay rehabilitation of dysphagia....... a one-year period (n=206 (59% with dysphagia). OC-data were collected by clinical examinations and verified by cultivation/microscopy in every 3 weeks during first 10 weeks of admission. . Dysphagia improvement was defined by: 1) first positive change in food consistency, 2) initiation of at least soft...

  16. Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus among Iranian patients with chronic liver disease

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    Nematizadeh Fariborz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are frequently observed in cirrhosis. We conducted this study to define the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in Iranian patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, and explore the factors associated with DM in these patients. Methods One hundred and eighty-five patients with CLD were enrolled into the study. Fasting plasma glucose and two-hour plasma glucose were measured in patients' sera. DM and IGT were diagnosed according to the latest American Diabetes Association criteria. Results The subjects included 42 inactive HBV carriers with a mean age of 42.2 ± 12.0 years, 102 patients with HBV or HCV chronic hepatitis with a mean age of 41.2 ± 10.9 years, and 41 cirrhotic patients with a mean age of 52.1 ± 11.4 years. DM and IGT were diagnosed in 40 (21.6% and 21 (11.4% patients, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that age (P = 0.000, CLD status (P = 0.000, history of hypertension (P = 0.007, family history of DM (P = 0.000, and body mass index (BMI (P = 0.009 were associated with DM. Using Multivariate analysis, age (OR = 4.7, 95%CI: 1.8–12.2, family history of DM (OR = 6.6, 95%CI: 2.6–17.6, chronic hepatitis (OR = 11.6, 95%CI: 2.9–45.4, and cirrhosis (OR = 6.5, 95%CI: 2.4–17.4 remained as the factors independently associated with DM. When patients with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis were analyzed separately, higher Child-Pugh's score in cirrhotic patients (OR = 9.6, 95%CI: 1.0–88.4 and older age (OR = 7.2, 95%CI: 1.0–49.1, higher fibrosis score (OR = 59.5, 95%CI: 2.9–1211.3/ OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 1.0–132.2, and higher BMI (OR = 30.3, 95%CI: 3.0–306.7 in patients with chronic hepatitis were found to be associated with higher prevalence of DM. Conclusions Our findings indicate that patients with cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis are at the increased risk of DM occurrence. Older age, severe liver disease, and obesity were associated

  17. Chronic low back pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence and predictors of back muscle strength and its correlation with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezarino, Raíssa Sudré; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa; Rodrigues, Kedma Neves; Magalhães, Yasmin Santana; Souza, Talita Yokoy de; Mota, Lícia Maria Henrique da; Bonini-Rocha, Ana Clara; McVeigh, Joseph; Martins, Wagner Rodrigues

    To determine the prevalence of Chronic Low Back Pain and predictors of Back Muscle Strength in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Cross-sectional study. Ninety-six ambulatory patients with lupus were selected by non-probability sampling and interviewed and tested during medical consultation. The outcomes measurements were: Point prevalence of chronic low back pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, Fatigue Severity Scale and maximal voluntary isometric contractions of handgrip and of the back muscles. Correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were used in statistical analysis. Of the 96 individuals interviewed, 25 had chronic low back pain, indicating a point prevalence of 26% (92% women). The correlation between the Oswestry Index and maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the back muscles was r=-0.4, 95% CI [-0.68; -0.01] and between the maximal voluntary isometric contraction of handgrip and of the back muscles was r=0.72, 95% CI [0.51; 0.88]. The regression model presented the highest value of R 2 being observed when maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the back muscles was tested with five independent variables (63%). In this model handgrip strength was the only predictive variable (β=0.61, p=0.001). The prevalence of chronic low back pain in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus was 26%. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the back muscles was 63% predicted by five variables of interest, however, only the handgrip strength was a statistically significant predictive variable. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the back muscles presented a linear relation directly proportional to handgrip and inversely proportional to Oswestry Index i.e. stronger back muscles are associated with lower disability scores. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with HCV infection among elderly individuals in a southern Brazilian city

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    Tatiana Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Few Latin American studies have assessed the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in elderly individuals, in whom the highest rates are expected. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection in elderly residents in the municipality of Tubarão, Santa Catarina. Methods This cross-sectional study included 820 individuals (aged ≥ 60 years who were selected by simple random sampling. The presence of anti-HCV antibodies was tested by chemiluminescence, and HCV RNA detection was performed for the anti-HCV-reactive subjects. Those individuals who were anti-HCV reactive but had undetectable HCV RNA levels were tested using a third-generation recombinant immunoblot assay. The variables were compared using the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test, and those variables with p < 0.05 were included in the logistic regression model. Results The mean patient age was 68.6 years (SD 7.0 years; 39% were men, and 92% were Caucasian. Eighteen subjects were anti-HCV positive. Among these individuals, 4 were characterized as false-positives, leaving 14 (1.7% individuals with confirmed infections for analysis. HCV infection was associated with an age older than 65 years, households with 3 or more residents and the previous transfusion of blood products. In the logistic regression analysis, the following variables were independently associated with HCV infection: households with 3 or more residents (OR 7.9, 95% CI 1.7–35.9, p = 0.008 and previous blood transfusion (OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.1–18.6, p = 0.001. Conclusions The HCV prevalence in the elderly population in the municipality of Tubarão was higher than that found in previous studies of blood donors in the same region. Although exposure to contaminated blood products remained important, other transmission routes, such as household transmission, could play a role in HCV infection.

  19. Hepatitis B infection among HIV infected individuals in Gabon: Occult hepatitis B enhances HBV DNA prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amougou-Atsama, Marie; Zoa-Assoumou, Samira; M’boyis Kamdem, Hervé; Nzengui-Nzengui, Guy Francis; Ndojyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Njouom, Richard; François-Souquière, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    In Gabon, a central African country, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are endemic. In a recent study, conducted in a semi-urban area (Franceville, Gabon), HBV infection was found to be more prevalent among HIV infected individuals. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus infection among HIV infected individuals, predominantly under antiretroviral therapy, living in fully urbanized area: Libreville, capital of Gabon. Serological and molecular tests were performed to detect HBV infection among patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). We used Monolisa HBsAg ULTRA, Anti-HBc Plus and Anti-HBs Plus EIA kits for serological analyses. HBV DNA viral load (HBV DNA VL) was determined by real time PCR and molecular characterization of HBV strains was performed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial HBV surface and core genes. At all, 70.2% of patients were under antiretroviral therapy. The prevalence of HBsAg was 8.8% (43/487). Detectable HBV DNA was found in 69.7% (30/43) of HBsAg positive patients and in 17.5% (24/137) HBsAg negative patients. HBV DNA VL was significantly higher among patient with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3 than those with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3 (p = 0.008). We confirmed the presence of HBV sub-genotypes QS-A3 (40%), and A4 (20%) and HBV-E genotype (40%). The percentage of resistance to Lamivudine was high (40%) and varied according to the M204V/I motif. Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) was found in patients with isolated HBcAb and among patients who had completed their HBsAg seroconversion. We detected HBV DNA for one patient without any HBV serological marker. This study provides a new landmark for the comprehension of HBV infection in PLHA in urban areas. OBI enhances HBV DNA prevalence and should be investigated in all HBsAg negative individuals. PMID:29315352

  20. [Probable Mental Health Disorders Prevalence in Children With Chronic Conditions. Results From the National Mental Health Survey of Colombia 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Ramirez, Sandra; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rodriguez, Maria Nelcy; Rodríguez, Andrea; Rengifo, Henrey

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of chronic conditions is increasing globally and this phenomenon covers pediatric populations. There is a relationship between chronic conditions and mental health problems, which has been insufficiently studied in the case of children. To measure the frequency of problems and mental disorders in the Colombian population between 7 and 11 years, depending on the presence or absence of chronic conditions. The information pertains to the National Survey of Mental Health of Colombia 2015, an observational cross-sectional nationally representative for the group between 7 and 11 years old. Mental problems where measure with the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (RQC), the 12 month prevalence of seven mental disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version parents (DISC-P) and a list of chronic conditions. Univariate and stratification analysis of the data were performed. 41.6% of the children with no chronic conditions, 56.7% of the children with 1 chronic condition and 70.8% in those with 2 or more have at least one RQC symptom; the highest prevalence of mental health symptoms are those with chronic inflammatory lung disease, followed by diabetes mellitus and allergies. The prevalence of one or more mental disorders in children without chronic conditions is 3.1% while those with at least 1 is 13.8%. A higher prevalence of mental disorders in children and its association with chronic conditions justifies further studies that address this issue and develop strategies with multidisciplinary interventions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Individual Components Among Midwestern University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Snyder, Ericka; Cumper, Stephanie; Langolf, Andrea; Trayer, Chelsey; Green, Chelsea

    2017-08-01

    Michigan has the 17th highest adult obesity rate in the United States. Among college-aged adults between 18 and 25 years old, the rate of obesity was 11.6%. Obesity is a key precedent for the development of metabolic syndrome. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components among a sample of students at Central Michigan University. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 462 students, aged 18-25 years, in Spring 2015 and Fall/Spring 2016 semesters. Students were recruited throughout the campus via flyers, in-class, and Blackboard announcements. Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were taken for all students. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the prevalence of metabolic risk components. To explore the association between metabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors, students filled out a validated online questionnaire related to their eating habits, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Metabolic syndrome was not prevalent in our sample. However, about one-third of the students had at least one metabolic abnormality, and 6.0% had two metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormalities were low HDL-cholesterol levels (22.0%) and high waist circumference (12.6%), and elevated serum triglyceride (5.8%). Adjusting for other factors, excess adiposity and high visceral fat scores were associated with increased risk of metabolic risk factors, whereas healthy lifestyle practices such as daily breakfast consumption, eating three meals a day, being active, and not smoking were associated with lower risks for MetS. Given the adverse consequences of undiagnosed metabolic abnormalities, efforts to identify and manage MetS among asymptomatic college students, particularly women, is essential and warrants further

  2. Prevalence of suspected nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hispanic/Latino individuals differs by heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallwitz, Eric R; Daviglus, Martha L; Allison, Matthew A; Emory, Kristen T; Zhao, Lihui; Kuniholm, Mark H; Chen, Jinsong; Gouskova, Natalia; Pirzada, Amber; Talavera, Gregory A; Youngblood, Marston E; Cotler, Scott J

    2015-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was shown to disproportionally affect Hispanic persons. We examined the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in Hispanic/Latino persons with diverse backgrounds. We studied the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among 12,133 persons included in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We collected data on levels of aminotransferase, metabolic syndrome (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines), demographics, and health behaviors. Suspected NAFLD was defined on the basis of increased level of aminotransferase in the absence of serologic evidence for common causes of liver disease or excessive alcohol consumption. In multivariate analyses, data were adjusted for metabolic syndrome, age, acculturation, diet, physical activity, sleep, and levels of education and income. In multivariate analysis, compared with persons of Mexican heritage, persons of Cuban (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.85), Puerto Rican (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.87), and Dominican backgrounds (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.93) had lower rates of suspected NAFLD. Persons of Central American and South American heritage had a similar prevalence of suspected NAFLD compared with persons of Mexican heritage. NAFLD was less common in women than in men (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.40-0.60). Suspected NAFLD associated with metabolic syndrome and all 5 of its components. On the basis of an analysis of a large database of health in Latino populations, we found the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among Hispanic/Latino individuals to vary by region of heritage. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IL-21 augments NK effector functions in chronically HIV-infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbo, Natasa; de Armas, Lesley; Liu, Huanliang; Kolber, Michael A.; Lichtenheld, Mathias; Pahwa, Savita

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study addresses the interleukin (IL)-21 effects on resting peripheral blood NK cells in chronically HIV-infected individuals. Design The effects of IL-21 on perforin expression, proliferation, degranulation, IFN-γ production, cytotoxicity and induction of STAT phosphorylation in NK cells were determined in vitro. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected and healthy individuals were incubated in vitro for 6h, 24h or 5 days with IL-21 or IL-15. Percentages of perforin, IFN-γ, CD107a, NKG2D and STAT3-5 positive cells were determined within NK cell populations. K562 cells were used as target cells in NK cytotoxicity assay. Results Frequency of CD56dim cells in chronically HIV-infected individuals was diminished. Perforin expression in CD56dim and CD56bright was comparable in healthy and HIV-infected individuals. IL-15 up-regulated perforin expression primarily in CD56bright NK cells while IL-21 up-regulated perforin in both NK subsets. IL-21 and IL- 15 up-regulated CD107a and IFN-γ as well as NK cytotoxicity. IL-15 predominantly activated STAT5, while IL-21 activated STAT5 and STAT3. IL-15, but not IL-21 increased NK cell proliferation in uninfected and HIV-infected individuals. Conclusion IL-21 augments NK effector functions in chronically HIV-infected individuals and due to its perforin enhancing properties it has potential for immunotherapy or as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:18670213

  4. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetic adult out-patients in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, Mubarakali N; Kalluvya, Samuel E; Mueller, Andreas; Kabangila, Rodrick; Smart, Luke R; Downs, Jennifer A; Peck, Robert N

    2013-08-31

    The number of adults with diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide, particularly in Asia and Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, renal complications of diabetes may go unrecognized due to limited diagnostic resources. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among adult diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa has not been well described. This study was conducted at the diabetes mellitus clinic of Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total 369 consecutive adult diabetic patients were enrolled and interviewed. Each patient provided a urine sample for microalbuminuria and proteinuria and a blood sample for serum creatinine level. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation. CKD was staged according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes system. A total of 309 (83.7%) study participants had CKD; 295 (80.0%) had significant albuminuria and 91 (24.7%) had eGFR patients were aware of their renal disease, and only 5 (1.3%) had a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy recorded in their file. Older age was significantly associated with CKD in this population [OR 1.03, p = 0.03, 95%CI (1.00-1.05)]. Chronic kidney disease is highly prevalent among adult diabetic outpatients attending our clinic in Tanzania, but is usually undiagnosed. Nearly ¼ of patients had an eGFR low enough to require dose adjustment of diabetic medications. More diagnostic resources are needed for CKD screening among adults in Tanzania in order to slow progression and prevent complications.

  5. [Prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome in 4 family practices in Leiden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, R G; de Waal, M W; Opmeer, C; Petri, H; Springer, M P

    1997-08-02

    To determine the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in general practice. Descriptive. General practice and primary health care centres in Leyden region, the Netherlands. RNUH-LEO is a computerized database which contains the anonymous patient information of one general practice (with two practitioners) and four primary health care centres. The fourteen participating general practitioners were asked what International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) code they used to indicate a patient with chronic fatigue or with CFS. With these codes and with the code for depression patients were selected from the database. It then was determined whether these patients met the criteria of CFS by Holmes et al. The general practitioners used 10 codes. Including the code for depression a total of 601 patients were preselected from a total of 23,000 patients in the database. Based on the information from the patients' records in the database, 42 of the preselected patients were selected who might fulfill the Holmes' criteria of CFS. According to the patients' own general practitioner, 25 of the 42 patients would fulfil the Holmes' criteria. The men:women ratio was 1:5. The prevalence of CFS in the population surveyed was estimated to be at least 1.1 per 1,000 patients.

  6. Clinical forms of Trypanosoma cruzi infected individuals in the chronic phase of Chagas disease in Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Ordóñez-Toquero, Guillermo; Gomez-Albino, Isidoro; Ramos-Jimenez, Judith; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Salgado-Rosas, Hilda; Romero-Díaz, Mónica; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2006-11-01

    In Mexico, despite the relatively high seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans in some areas, reported morbidity of Chagas disease is not clear. We determined clinical stage in 71 individuals seropositive to T. cruzi in the state of Puebla, Mexico, an area endemic for Chagas disease with a reported seroprevalence of 7.7%. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was made by two standardized serological tests (ELISA, IHA). Individuals were stratified according to clinical studies. All patients were submitted to EKG, barium swallow, and barium enema. Groups were identified as indeterminate form (IF) asymptomatic individuals without evidence of abnormalities (n = 34 cases); those with gastrointestinal alterations (12 patients) including symptoms of abnormal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and absent peristalsis in the esophageal body, grade I megaesophagus, and/or megacolon; patients with clinical manifestations and documented changes of chronic Chagas heart disease who were subdivided as follows: mild (8 patients)--mild electrocardiographic changes of ventricular repolarization, sinus bradychardia); moderate (6 patients)--left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block associated with left anterior fascicular block); severe (8 patients)--signs of cardiomegaly, dilated cardiomyopathy); and the associated form (3 cases) that included presence of both cardiomyopathy and megaesophagus. These data highlight the importance of accurate evaluation of the prevalence and clinical course of Chagas disease in endemic and non-endemic areas of Mexico.

  7. Clinical forms of Trypanosoma cruzi infected individuals in the chronic phase of Chagas disease in Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Sánchez-Guillén

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, despite the relatively high seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans in some areas, reported morbidity of Chagas disease is not clear. We determined clinical stage in 71 individuals seropositive to T. cruzi in the state of Puebla, Mexico, an area endemic for Chagas disease with a reported seroprevalence of 7.7%. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was made by two standardized serological tests (ELISA, IHA. Individuals were stratified according to clinical studies. All patients were submitted to EKG, barium swallow, and barium enema. Groups were identified as indeterminate form (IF asymptomatic individuals without evidence of abnormalities (n = 34 cases; those with gastrointestinal alterations (12 patients including symptoms of abnormal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and absent peristalsis in the esophageal body, grade I megaesophagus, and/or megacolon; patients with clinical manifestations and documented changes of chronic Chagas heart disease who were subdivided as follows: mild (8 patients - mild electrocardiographic changes of ventricular repolarization, sinus bradychardia; moderate (6 patients - left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block associated with left anterior fascicular block; severe (8 patients - signs of cardiomegaly, dilated cardiomyopathy; and the associated form (3 cases that included presence of both cardiomyopathy and megaesophagus. These data highlight the importance of accurate evaluation of the prevalence and clinical course of Chagas disease in endemic and non-endemic areas of Mexico.

  8. The comparison of mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiography between patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeintaghavi, Amir; Hosseinizarch, Hossein; Tabassi, Sara Mohammadzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are two separate diseases with different origins and manifestations. It is believed that these diseases linked together, because they both lead to bone damage, some risk factors are similar, they both have the highest prevalence in middle-aged and older women. Some studies showed that the use of panoramic radiography and special indices could be reliable tools for osteoporosis screening. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and jaw osteoporotic indices. Eighty-two patients with chronic periodontitis and 80 healthy individuals were selected, they had been referred to a private oral and maxillofacial radiology clinic to take a panoramic radiograph. Then panoramic indicators; including the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), and panoramic mandible index (PMI) in both groups were measured, recorded and analyzed. The mean age of investigated individuals was 39/8 ± 9/33. 58.6% of participants were females and 41.4% were males. MI and PMI levels in the periodontal group were more than the periodontally healthy group, but the differences between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.808 and p = 0.102 respectively). The MCI level was significantly different between two groups (p = 0.028). The results of this study showed that there is significant relationship between MCI in panoramic radiography and chronic periodontitis. It is suggested to perform more studies to confrm if this index could be used for screening and indicating of bone status in high risk individuals. This study did not show a strong evidence of a relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis. Since panoramic radiographs are routinely used for screening in dental practice, any association between radiomorphometric indices of mandible in periodontitis patients might be useful in prediction of osteoporosis in patients referring to dental clinics.

  9. Disruption of cortical synaptic homeostasis in individuals with chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Tribikram; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Chipchase, Lucinda S.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Homeostatic plasticity mechanisms regulate synaptic plasticity in the human brain. Impaired homeostatic plasticity may contribute to maladaptive synaptic plasticity and symptom persistence in chronic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: We examined homeostatic plasticity in fifty individuals...... with baseline (P plasticity in the primary motor cortex of individuals with cLBP. SIGNIFICANCE: Impaired homeostatic plasticity could explain maladaptive synaptic plasticity and symptom persistence in cLBP....... an excitatory response to tDCS applied alone, and evaluate homeostatic plasticity, respectively. Corticomotor excitability was assessed in the corticomotor representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded before and 0, 10...

  10. Hospital-based prevalence of chronic kidney disease among the newly registered patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Khanam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is proved to be a major public health issue worldwide and an important contributor to the overall non-communicable disease burden. It increases risk of mortality, end-stage renal disease and accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD. Diabetes is the biggest contributor to CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. In Bangladesh, very few data on CKD is available. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of CKD among the newly registered diabetic patients at BIRDEM (Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, a referral center for diabetes in Bangladesh. Methods: The study included all diabetic patients aged 18 - 80 years and were registered in the year 2012. Socio-demographic (age, sex, residence, income, literacy, clinical (obesity, blood pressure and biochemical (blood glucose, lipids, eGFR information were collected from the BIRDEM registry. CKD was defined according to the K/ DOQI guidelines. Results: A total of 1317 type 2 diabetic patients of age 18 to 80 years were studied. Of them, men and women were 54.7% and 45.3%, respectively. The overall prevalence of CKD (eGFR ≤60 (ml/min/m2 was 13.9%. The prevalence was significantly higher in women than men (21.3 v. 7.8%, p50y, higher sBP (≥140mmHg and taking oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA were significant. Conclusions: Thus, the study concludes that the prevalence of CKD among the newly registered diabetic patients is quite high in Bangladesh. The female diabetic patients with older age and with higher SBP bear the brunt of CKD. Considering high prevalence of CKD with severe lifelong complications it is of utmost importance for early detection and intervention at the primary health care (PHC level.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among individuals living with HIV/AIDS at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

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    Habtom Kiros

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: A relatively high prevalence of enteric protozoan infection was observed among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Routine stool and CD4+ T-cell examinations should be conducted to monitor the status of HIV/AIDS patients.

  12. [Chronic kidney disease in Primary Health Care: prevalence and associated risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador González, Betlem; Rodríguez Pascual, Mercedes; Ruipérez Guijarro, Laura; Ferré González, Antonia; Cunillera Puertolas, Oriol; Rodríguez Latre, Luisa M

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in subjects over 60 years of age, as well as its staging by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional observational study. Primary Health Care. Patients≥60 years of age who were seen in 40 Primary Health Care centres with serum creatinine measured in a central laboratory between January 1 and December 31, 2010. kidney transplant, home care. Social-demographic and anthropometric data, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases established according to electronic clinical records. Serum creatinine was measured using standardised Jaffe kinetic method, and GFR estimated with MDRD-4-IDMS and CKD-EPI. A total of 97,665 subjects (57.3% women, median age 70.0 years [Q1: 65.0, Q3: 77.0]). GFR-MDRD prevalencedisease (OR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.50), peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.57), dyslipidaemia (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.33), diabetes (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.34), and stroke (OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.25). The GFR-CKD-EPI model showed an increase in OR with age and male sex, that became significant as a chronic kidney disease risk factor. Chronic kidney disease has considerable prevalence in subjects≥60 years seen in Primary Health Care, more in women, and increasing with age. Hypertension, more than diabetes, was the main associated cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of ocular hypertension and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Shikari, Hasanain; Dana, Reza

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of ocular hypertension (OHT) and glaucoma in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We performed a retrospective chart review of 218 patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥ 24 mmHg in either eye without any glaucomatous optic disc changes. Glaucoma suspect was defined as optic disc changes with a cup-to-disc ratio ≥ 0.7 in either eye or asymmetry of ≥ 0.3 between the two eyes. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc changes plus glaucomatous visual field defects in two consecutive reliable visual field tests. The number of cases of ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and glaucoma suspects was evaluated. Thirty-three patients (15 %) were diagnosed with OHT, eight patients (3.6 %) with suspicion of glaucoma, and one patient (0.4 %) with glaucoma. OHT occurred within 6 months of developing ocular GVHD in 60 % of the cases and within the first year in 76 %. High IOP normalized in 67 % of patients when the dosage of topical or systemic corticosteroids was lowered, and 27 % of patients required anti-glaucoma therapy. Ocular hypertension is a common complication in patients with ocular GVHD, with a prevalence of 15 %. The rise in intraocular pressure is often transient and resolves with management of corticosteroids in most cases. However, clinicians should be aware that nearly one-third of the patients with OHT might require anti-glaucoma treatment. The prevalences of glaucoma and suspicion of glaucoma were not higher than in the general population.

  14. Prevalence of fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome in a primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, D W; Schmitt, W; Buchwald, D; Ware, N C; Lee, J; Thoyer, E; Kornish, R J; Komaroff, A L

    1993-12-27

    Our goals were to determine the prevalence of unusual, debilitating fatigue and the frequency with which it was associated with the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or other physical or psychological illness in an outpatient clinic population. We prospectively evaluated a cohort of 1000 consecutive patients in a primary care clinic in an urban, hospital-based general medicine practice. The study protocol included a detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory and psychiatric testing. Five patients who came because of CFS studies were excluded. Of the remaining 995, 323 reported fatigue, and 271 (27%) complained of at least 6 months of unusual fatigue that interfered with their daily lives. Of the 271, self-report or record review revealed a medical or psychiatric condition that could have explained the fatigue in 186 (69%). Thus, 85 (8.5%) of 995 patients had a debilitating fatigue of at least 6 months' duration, without apparent cause. Of these patients, 48 refused further evaluation, and 11 were unavailable for follow-up; 26 completed the protocol. Three of the 26 were hypothyroid, and one had a major psychiatric disorder. Of the remaining 22 patients, three met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS, four met British criteria, and 10 met the Australian case definition. The point prevalences of CFS were thus 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0% to 0.6%), 0.4% (95% CI, 0% to 0.8%), and 1.0% (95% CI, 0.4% to 1.6%) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, British, and Australian case definitions, respectively. These estimates were conservative, because they assumed that none of the patients who refused evaluation or were unavailable for follow-up would meet criteria for CFS. While chronic, debilitating fatigue is common in medical outpatients, CFS is relatively uncommon. Prevalence depends substantially on the case definition used.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with rheumatic diseases and chronic joint symptoms in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsarella, Gláucia R; Coimbra, Ibsen B; Barcelos, Caroline C; Costallat, Lilian Tl; Carvalho, Olga Mf; Coimbra, Arlete Mv

    2013-10-01

    In the elderly population, rheumatic conditions are major causes of pain that restrict participation in activities and mobility, and cause difficulties in the execution of self-care tasks. The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with the self-reported rheumatic diseases and chronic joint symptoms of the elderly. This transversal epidemiological survey involved 2209 older adults (aged ≥ 60 years). The investigation included sociodemographic factors, anthropometrics, activities of daily living, chronic conditions, medication and quality of life. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used for statistical procedures, P ≤ 0.05. The prevalence of rheumatism was 22.7%. Multivariate analysis showed that rheumatism was correlated with the following: female sex (OR = 1.91), high income (OR = 2.34), cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.42), cataracts (OR = 1.39), glucocorticoids (OR = 5.24), other anti-inflammatory medications (OR = 2.24) and pain (OR = 0.983). After adjusting for age and glucocorticoids, an association between cataracts and rheumatism was detected (OR = 1.32). The prevalence of symptoms was 45.6%. Multivariate regression results for symptoms included the following: female sex (OR = 1.40), body mass index ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) (OR = 3.31), functional capacity (OR = 0.990), general health (OR = 0.993) and pain (OR = 0.981). After adjustment for age and glucocorticoids, an association between cataracts and symptoms was detected (OR = 1.26). There was a significant association of rheumatism and symptoms with women and high incomes. Obesity was associated with joint symptoms, which in turn were associated with an impaired quality of life. Cataracts and cardiovascular disease were associated with rheumatism. The identification of these characteristics in the elderly will contribute to a better understanding of this systemic disease and should be used to plan effective preventive measures. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in referred individuals to the medical centers of Tonekabon city, Mazandaran province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoust, Samira; Niyyati, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Azargashb, Eznoallah; Khataminejad, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relation with socio-demographic data in referred individuals to the medical centers in Tonekabon, Mazandaran province, 2015. Due to the climatic and ecological conditions in Mazandaran province, determination of the status of intestinal parasites among referred individuals to the medical centers of Tonekabon city can help researchers and healthcare services to prevent and/or control of parasitic infection in this region. This cross sectional study was conducted with randomized sampling in 2015 on 820 stool samples. Stool samples were assessed using direct slide smear with saline and Lugol, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen and trichrome staining. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using specific primers was conducted for the samples suspected for Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. One Cryptosporidium positive sample in this study was submitted for sequencing. A total of 444 (54.1%) and 376 (45.9%) were male and female, respectively. Furthermore, 495 (60.4%) and 325 (39.6%) of participants had lived in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Overall, 222 participants (27.1%) were infected with at least one intestinal parasites. Prevalence of pathogenic protozoa ( Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp.) and helminthes parasites was calculated as 3.1 and 1.2%, respectively. The most common intestinal parasites in this area were: Blastocystis 153 (18.7%), Endolymax nana 44 (5.4%), Entamoeba coli 40 (4.9%), Giardia lamblia 25 (3%), Iodamoeba butschlii 22 (2.7%), Ascaris 5 (0.6%), Enterobius vermicularis 4 (0.5%), Trichostrongylus 1 (0.1%) and Cryptosporidium 1 (0.1%). By sequencing of the positive Cryptosporidium isolate using Gp60 gene, Cryptosporidium parvum subtype ΠaA16G2R1 was diagnosed. Protozoa were more abundant than helminthes and Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoan pathogen. In this study, no significant association was

  17. Desigualdades sociais na prevalência de doenças crônicas no Brasil, PNAD-2003 Social inequalities in the prevalence of chronic diseases in Brazil, PNAD-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    2006-12-01

    Poisson's regression. The prevalence of at least one chronic disease increased with age, was higher among women, the indigenous population, individuals with low educational level, individuals affiliated with a health plan, immigrants from other states, residents of urban areas and among the inhabitants of the southern region of the country. The presence of a chronic disease resulted in an increase of disability and demand for healthcare services. The most prevalent conditions were: backbone conditions, hypertension, arthritis, and depression. The survey detected marked social inequality in the pattern of prevalent chronic diseases related to gender, color/race, education, macro-region of residence, and urban and rural households.

  18. Prevalence of cachexia in chronic heart failure and characteristics of body composition and metabolic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Schou, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiac cachexia has previously been estimated to 8-42 %. However, novel treatment strategies for chronic heart failure (CHF) have improved and decreased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to reassess the prevalence of cachexia in an outpatient CHF clinic...... and to characterize a CHF population with and without cachexia with respect to body composition and related biomarkers. From 2008 to 2011, we screened 238 optimally treated, non-diabetic CHF patients for cardiac cachexia, defined as unintentional non-oedematous weight loss of >5 % over ≥6 months. CHF patients (LVEF...... 45 % (n = 19). The groups were matched for age, sex, and kidney function. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of cachexia was 10.5 %. Abdominal fat ± SD (%) was reduced in cachectic CHF: 27.4 ± 10.0 versus 37.5 ± 10.6 % (CHF, no cachexia) and 40...

  19. [Prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome and primary fibromyalgia syndrome in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazelmans, E; Vercoulen, J H; Galama, J M; van Weel, C; van der Meer, J W; Bleijenberg, G

    1997-08-02

    To determine the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and of primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) in the Netherlands. Questionnaire. Department of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Nijmegen, the Netherlands. A questionnaire was mailed to all the 6657 general practitioners in the Netherlands in order to inform them of the existence of CFS and to ask them if they had any CFS or PFS patients in their practices. Sixty percent (n = 4027) of the general practitioners returned the questionnaire. Of all the general practitioners, 27% said they had no CFS patients, 23% said they had 1 CFS patient, while 21% had 2 CFS patients, and 29% said they had 3 or more CFS patients in their practice. Concerning PFS the results were 17% (no PFS patients), 18%, 18% and 47%, respectively. With a mean practice of 2486 patients per general practice, the estimated prevalence of CFS was 112 per 100,000 and that of PFS 157 per 100,000 persons. Of the CFS patients 81% were women and 55% were 25-44 years old; for PFS these figures were 87% and 48% respectively. Extrapolation of the study results indicates that there are at least 17,000 CFS patients and 24,000 PFS patients in the Netherlands. The found prevalence is probably an under-estimation.

  20. Chronic pruritus in Turkish dermatology outpatients: prevalence, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya Solak, Sezgi; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Mertoglu Caliskan, Eda

    2016-04-01

    Although chronic pruritus (CP) is one of the most frequent symptoms seen in dermatology outpatients, the characteristics of CP have not been thoroughly examined. Our aim was to determine the point prevalence of CP in patients attending a dermatology outpatient clinic and to examine its sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Patients attending our dermatology outpatient clinic were prospectively enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic data and dermatological diagnoses were recorded. A questionnaire providing information about pruritus was answered by patients with CP. Data were evaluated statistically. The data of 1428 patients (46% male, 54% female, age range 18-94, mean age 40.52±17.4) were evaluated, and the point prevalence of CP was found to be 30.9%. When patients with and without CP were compared, statistically significant results were obtained regarding age, education level, and occupational status (Pdermatology outpatient clinic had CP. It seems a significant rate when all dermatology outpatient population is considered. Age, education level, and occupational status were found to be factors affecting the prevalence. Since CP may cause serious discomfort and decrease quality of life, it should be considered as a significant pathology. Therefore, CP and related disorders should be evaluated thoroughly and treated appropriately by clinicians.

  1. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence, genotype distribution, and risk factors for hepatitis C infection among HIV-infected individuals in Slovenia: a 1986-2013 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škamperle, Mateja; Seme, Katja; Lunar, Maja M; Maver, Polona J; Tomažič, Janez; Vovko, Tomaž D; Pečavar, Blaž; Matičič, Mojca; Poljak, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, chronic hepatitis C has become one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Two previous Slovenian nationwide studies published in 2002 and 2009 showed a very low prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Slovenian HIV-infected individuals (14.5% and 10.7%, respectively). The presence of HCV infection was tested in 579/639 (90.6%) patients that were confirmed as HIV-positive in Slovenia by the end of 2013. Among them, 7.6% (44/579) of HIV-infected individuals were anti-HCV-positive, and 33/44 (75%) anti-HCV-positive patients were also HCV RNA-positive. HCV genotype 1 was most prevalent among HIV-infected patients (68%), followed by genotype 3 (20%), genotype 4 (8%), and genotype 2 (4%). Anti-HCV positivity was significantly higher in those that acquired HIV by the parenteral route (91.8%) than in those that acquired HIV by the sexual route (2.8%). Slovenia remains among the countries with the lowest prevalence of HCV infection in HIV-infected individuals. Because the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men in Slovenia is disproportionately high and increasing rapidly, the current favorable situation could change quickly and should be therefore monitored regularly.

  3. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases: A multicenter epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Cai; Huang, Kun-Ming; Huang, Jia-Guo; Zhou, Chang-Hong; Sun, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Su-Wen; Wu, Feng-Ting

    2016-11-14

    To investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with chronic digestive system diseases. A total of 1736 patients with chronic digestive system diseases were included in this cross-sectional study, including 871 outpatients and 865 in-patients. A self-designed General Information for Patients of the Department of Gastroenterology of General Hospitals questionnaire was used to collect each patient's general information, which included demographic data (including age, sex, marital status, and education) and disease characteristics (including major diseases, disease duration, principal symptoms, chronic pain, sleep disorder, and limited daily activities). The overall detection rate was 31.11% (540/1736) for depression symptoms alone, 27.02% (469/1736) for anxiety symptoms alone, 20.68% (359/1736) for both depression and anxiety symptoms, and 37.44% (650/1736) for either depression or anxiety symptoms. Subjects aged 70 years or above had the highest detection rate of depression (44.06%) and anxiety symptoms (33.33%). χ 2 trend test showed: the higher the body mass index (BMI), the lower the detection rate of depression and anxiety symptoms ( χ 2 trend = 13.697, P digestive system tumors had the highest detection rate of depression (57.55%) and anxiety (55.19%), followed by patients with liver cirrhosis (41.35% and 48.08%). Depression and anxiety symptoms were also high in subjects with comorbid hypertension and coronary heart disease. Depression and anxiety occur in patients with tumors, liver cirrhosis, functional dyspepsia, and chronic viral hepatitis. Elderly, divorced/widowed, poor sleep quality, and lower BMI are associated with higher risk of depression and anxiety.

  4. Outcome of a one-month therapy intensive for chronic aphasia: variable individual responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Code, Chris; Torney, Alison; Gildea-Howardine, Eleanor; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-02-01

    We examined the outcome of a 1-month intensive treatment block for people with chronic aphasia. The selected participants were eight chronically impaired people (mean months post-onset [MPO], 34). We conducted pre- and post-treatment assessments using the English-language version of the Aachen Aphasia Test (EAAT) and the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI). The group had significant overall improvement following treatment, which was maintained for 1 month, most significant changes seen on the EAAT were mainly in naming, comprehension, and reading and writing. Improvement was also observed on the CETI. Individual responses to treatment were variable, with some participants making more progress than others. Although the more mildly aphasic participant made most gains overall, the most severe and oldest participant made the most gains. We observed significant improvement in some subtests for some participants 1 month after treatment had ceased, suggesting a delayed effect of treatment. We conclude that short-term blocks of intensive treatment for chronically aphasic individuals can be effective.

  5. Walking and stair climbing abilities in individuals after chronic stroke with and without mental health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasomsri, Jaruwan; Jalayondeja, Chutima; Bovonsunthonchai, Sunee; Khemthong, Supalak

    2014-07-01

    To compare muscle strength, balance, walking and stair climbing abilities among individuals after chronic stroke with or without mental health problems; to describe their physiological response after stress stimulation. Subjects who had their first stroke more than one year ago were classified for mental health problems according to the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Lower extremity muscle strength of the quadriceps and plantar flexors, was measured by dynamometer Balance and walking performance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 10-m walk test and timing of stair climbing. Community participation and spiritual well-being were measured. The physiological response of stress stimulation was assessed by the long stress test protocol of the biofeedback device. Forty-five subjects with chronic stroke aged 40-80 years were grouped by with (n = 25) and without mental health problems (n = 20). Significant differences were found in quadriceps muscle strength, BBS, walking and stair climbing speed, community participation and spiritual well-being between two groups. In the stress stimulus phase, the electromyography and heart rate variability demonstrated significant difference between those with and without stress. Individuals with chronic stroke with mental health problems demonstrated decreased quadriceps muscle strength, balance and locomotor performances.

  6. The Prevalence of Fabry Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Turkey: The TURKFAB Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Kultigin; Guclu, Aydın; Sahin, Garip; Kocyigit, Ismail; Demirtas, Levent; Erdur, Fatih Mehmet; Sengül, Erkan; Ozkan, Oktay; Emre, Habib; Turgut, Faruk; Unal, Hilmi; Karaman, Murat; Acıkel, Cengiz; Esen, Hasan; Balli, Ebru; Bıtırgen, Gulfidan; Tonbul, Halil Zeki; Yılmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease is a treatable cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) characterized by a genetic deficiency of α-galactosidase A. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) recommends screening for Fabry disease in CKD patients. However, this is based on expert opinion and there are no reports of the prevalence of Fabry disease in stage 1-5 CKD. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of Fabry disease in CKD patients not receiving renal replacement therapy. This prospective study assessed α-galactosidase activity in dried blood spots in 313 stage 1-5 CKD patients, 167 males, between ages of 18-70 years whose etiology of CKD was unknown and were not receiving renal replacement therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed by GLA gene mutation analysis. Three (all males) of 313 CKD patients (0.95%) were diagnosed of Fabry disease, for a prevalence in males of 1.80%. Family screening identified 8 aditional Fabry patients with CKD. Of a total of 11 Fabry patients, 7 were male and started enzyme replacement therapy and 4 were female. The most frequent manifestations in male patients were fatigue (100%), tinnitus, vertigo, acroparesthesia, hypohidrosis, cornea verticillata and angiokeratoma (all 85%), heat intolerance (71%), and abdominal pain (57%). The most frequent manifestations in female patients were fatigue and cornea verticillata (50%), and tinnitus, vertigo and angiokeratoma (25%). Three patients had severe episodic abdominal pain attacks and proteinuria, and were misdiagnosed as familial Mediterranean fever. The prevalence of Fabry disease in selected CKD patients is in the range found among renal replacement therapy patients, but the disease is diagnosed at an earlier, treatable stage. These data support the ERBP recommendation to screen for Fabry disease in patients with CKD of unknown origin. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Validation of simplified centre of mass models during gait in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Andrew H; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Aqui, Anthony; Mansfield, Avril

    2017-10-01

    The feasibility of using a multiple segment (full-body) kinematic model in clinical gait assessment is difficult when considering obstacles such as time and cost constraints. While simplified gait models have been explored in healthy individuals, no such work to date has been conducted in a stroke population. The aim of this study was to quantify the errors of simplified kinematic models for chronic stroke gait assessment. Sixteen individuals with chronic stroke (>6months), outfitted with full body kinematic markers, performed a series of gait trials. Three centre of mass models were computed: (i) 13-segment whole-body model, (ii) 3 segment head-trunk-pelvis model, and (iii) 1 segment pelvis model. Root mean squared error differences were compared between models, along with correlations to measures of stroke severity. Error differences revealed that, while both models were similar in the mediolateral direction, the head-trunk-pelvis model had less error in the anteroposterior direction and the pelvis model had less error in the vertical direction. There was some evidence that the head-trunk-pelvis model error is influenced in the mediolateral direction for individuals with more severe strokes, as a few significant correlations were observed between the head-trunk-pelvis model and measures of stroke severity. These findings demonstrate the utility and robustness of the pelvis model for clinical gait assessment in individuals with chronic stroke. Low error in the mediolateral and vertical directions is especially important when considering potential stability analyses during gait for this population, as lateral stability has been previously linked to fall risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using Electronic Health Record Data to Measure Care Quality for Individuals with Multiple Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Elizabeth A; McQuillan, Deanna B; Ellis, Jennifer L; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Zeng, Chan; Barton, Mary B; Boyd, Cynthia M; Fortin, Martin; Ling, Shari M; Tai-Seale, Ming; Ralston, James D; Ritchie, Christine S; Zulman, Donna M

    2016-09-01

    To inform the development of a data-driven measure of quality care for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) derived from an electronic health record (EHR). Qualitative study using focus groups, interactive webinars, and a modified Delphi process. Research department within an integrated delivery system. The webinars and Delphi process included 17 experts in clinical geriatrics and primary care, health policy, quality assessment, health technology, and health system operations. The focus group included 10 individuals aged 70-87 with three to six chronic conditions selected from a random sample of individuals aged 65 and older with three or more chronic medical conditions. Through webinars and the focus group, input was solicited on constructs representing high-quality care for individuals with MCCs. A working list was created of potential measures representing these constructs. Using a modified Delphi process, experts rated the importance of each possible measure and the feasibility of implementing each measure using EHR data. High-priority constructs reflected processes rather than outcomes of care. High-priority constructs that were potentially feasible to measure included assessing physical function, depression screening, medication reconciliation, annual influenza vaccination, outreach after hospital admission, and documented advance directives. High-priority constructs that were less feasible to measure included goal setting and shared decision-making, identifying drug-drug interactions, assessing social support, timely communication with patients, and other aspects of good customer service. Lower-priority domains included pain assessment, continuity of care, and overuse of screening or laboratory testing. High-quality MCC care should be measured using meaningful process measures rather than outcomes. Although some care processes are currently extractable from electronic data, capturing others will require adapting and applying technology to

  9. Prevalence of right-to-left shunts on transcranial Doppler in chronic migraine and medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Shalchian, Sarvnaz; Gérard, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It was suggested that right-to-left shunt (RLS) may be highly prevalent in chronic migraine (CM) patients, indicating that patent foramen ovale (PFO) might be an aggravating and chronifying factor of migraine. Since a high proportion of chronic migraineurs also have medication......-overuse headache (MOH), one may wonder if they have a more severe form of the disorder and more frequently a PFO. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and grade of RLS in patients suffering from CM and MOH. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter study of air-contrast transcranial...... prevalence in CM is within the upper range of those reported in episodic migraine without aura or in the general population, and not higher in MOH. PFO is thus unlikely to have a significant causal role in these chronic headaches....

  10. Proprioceptive changes impair balance control in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Janssens

    Full Text Available Balance deficits are identified as important risk factors for falling in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, the specific use of proprioception, which is of primary importance during balance control, has not been studied in individuals with COPD. The objective was to determine the specific proprioceptive control strategy during postural balance in individuals with COPD and healthy controls, and to assess whether this was related to inspiratory muscle weakness.Center of pressure displacement was determined in 20 individuals with COPD and 20 age/gender-matched controls during upright stance on an unstable support surface without vision. Ankle and back muscle vibration were applied to evaluate the relative contribution of different proprioceptive signals used in postural control.Individuals with COPD showed an increased anterior-posterior body sway during upright stance (p = 0.037. Compared to controls, individuals with COPD showed an increased posterior body sway during ankle muscle vibration (p = 0.047, decreased anterior body sway during back muscle vibration (p = 0.025, and increased posterior body sway during simultaneous ankle-muscle vibration (p = 0.002. Individuals with COPD with the weakest inspiratory muscles showed the greatest reliance on ankle muscle input when compared to the stronger individuals with COPD (p = 0.037.Individuals with COPD, especially those with inspiratory muscle weakness, increased their reliance on ankle muscle proprioceptive signals and decreased their reliance on back muscle proprioceptive signals during balance control, resulting in a decreased postural stability compared to healthy controls. These proprioceptive changes may be due to an impaired postural contribution of the inspiratory muscles to trunk stability. Further research is required to determine whether interventions such as proprioceptive training and inspiratory muscle training improve postural balance and reduce the

  11. The burden of chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Sjøgren, Per; Juel, Knud

    2012-01-01

    sample consisted of 25,000 individuals (≥16 years old) living in Denmark. In all, 60.7% completed a mailed or online questionnaire. Associations were examined with multiple logistic regression analysis. The study population consisted of 14,925 individuals in whom a high prevalence of chronic pain (26......Chronic pain is currently considered a public health problem with high costs to the individual and society. To improve prevention and treatment of chronic pain, epidemiologic studies are mandatory for assessing chronic pain. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain...

  12. Multidisciplinary group rehabilitation versus individual physiotherapy for chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääpä, Eeva Helena; Frantsi, Kirsi; Sarna, Seppo; Malmivaara, Antti

    2006-02-15

    A randomized trial. To evaluate the effectiveness of a semi-intensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with chronic low back pain in an outpatient setting. Systematic reviews have shown that there is strong evidence that intensive multidisciplinary treatment (>100 hours), which includes functional restoration, improves function among chronic patients with low back pain, and moderate evidence that it reduces pain but contradictory evidence regarding improvement of working ability. However, there is paucity of data whether semi-intensive outpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation in groups is more effective than individual physiotherapy. A total of 120 women employed as healthcare and social care professionals with nonspecific chronic low back pain were recruited from two occupational healthcare centers. The patients were randomized into two intervention programs. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation (n = 59) was conducted in groups and comprised of physical training, workplace interventions, back school, relaxation training, and cognitive-behavioral stress management methods for 70 hours. The individual physiotherapy (n = 61) included physical exercise and passive treatment methods administered for 10 hours. Main outcome measures were: back pain and sciatic pain intensity, disability, sick leaves, healthcare consumption, symptoms of depression, and beliefs of working ability after 2 years. There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups in main outcome measures just after rehabilitation, at 6-, at 12-, or 24-month follow-up. In both intervention arms, however, the before-and-after comparison showed favorable effects, and the effects were still maintained at 2 years follow-up. The results of this study indicate that semilight outpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for female chronic low back pain patients does not offer incremental benefits when compared with rehabilitation carried out by a physiotherapist

  13. PREVALENCE OF ''TTV'' IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS ''B'' AND ''C''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOSSEIR, N.M.; MANSOUR, H.H.; FAHMY, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) is an enveloped single strand virus discovered in serum of patients with post-transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in Japan and designated as TT virus (TTV). To investigate the frequency of TTV infection in patients with viral hepatitis B or C, 25 Egyptian patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) aged 8-40 years and 25 patients with B virus (HBV) aged 8-57 years were tested. Detection of TTV-DNA was performed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TTV-specific primers. Serum levels of transaminases were tested. The prevalence of TTV in patients with chronic viral hepatitis B or C was frequent and the co-infection of TTV with HCV or HBV was accompanied by a high level of transaminases as compared to that of HBV or HCV alone. The present study confirms and extends that infection alone doesn't cause significant liver damage

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with lung cancer: prevalence, impact and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyratos, Dionisios; Papadaki, Eleni; Lampaki, Sofia; Kontakiotis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer share a common etiological factor (cigarette smoking) and usually coexist in everyday clinical practice. The prevalence of COPD among newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer sometimes exceeds 50%. COPD is an independent risk factor (2-4 times higher than non-COPD subjects) for lung cancer development. The presence of emphysema in addition to other factors (e.g., smoking history, age) could be incorporated into risk scores in order to define the most appropriate target group for lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography. Clinical management of patients with coexistence of COPD and lung cancer requires a multidisciplinary oncology board that includes a pulmonologist. Detailed evaluation (lung function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise test) and management (inhaled drugs, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation) of COPD should be taken into account for lung cancer treatment (surgical approach, radiotherapy).

  15. Barriers and facilitators associated with colonoscopy completion in individuals with multiple chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Shahnaz Sultan,1–4 Melissa R Partin,1,2 Phalgoon Shah,5 Jennifer LeLaurin,4 Ivette Magaly Freytes,4 Chandylen L Nightingale,6 Susan F Fesperman,4 Barbara A Curbow,7 Rebecca J Beyth3,4,8 1Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System, 2Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, 4Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, 5Department of Medicine, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, 6Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem NC, 7Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 8Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: A recommendation to undergo a colonoscopy, an invasive procedure that requires commitment and motivation, planning (scheduling and finding a driver and preparation (diet restriction and laxative consumption, may be uniquely challenging for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs. This qualitative study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy experienced by such patients.Materials and methods: Semistructured focus groups were conducted with male Veterans who were scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy and either failed to complete the procedure or completed the examination. Focus group recordings were transcribed and analyzed by an inductive grounded approach using constant comparative analysis.Results: Forty-four individuals aged 51–83 years participated in this study (23 adherent and 21 nonadherent. Participants had an average of 7.4 chronic conditions (range 2–14. The five most common chronic conditions were hypertension (75%, hyperlipidemia (75

  16. Post-stroke depression: Prevalence and relationship with disability in chronic stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate (1 the prevalence of operationally defined depressive disorder (ICD-10 in chronic stroke subjects and (2 the relationship of post-stroke depression (PSD with disability. Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting: Neurological rehabilitation unit of a tertiary care university research center. Materials and Methods: Participants were those with first episode of supratentorial stroke of more than 3 months′ duration with impaired balance and gait who had been referred for rehabilitation. Data were collected on demographic data, stroke data (side and type of lesion and post-stroke duration, cognition (mini mental state examination, depressive ideation (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - HRDS, impairment (Scandinavian Stroke Scale, balance (Berg Balance Scale, ambulatory status (Functional Ambulation Category, walking ability (speed, and independence in activities of daily living (Barthel Index. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13.0. We carried out the chi-square test for ordinal variables and the independent t test for continuous variables. Results: Fifty-one patients (M:F: 41:10 of mean age 46.06 ± 11.19 years and mean post-stroke duration of 467.33 ± 436.39 days were included in the study. Eighteen of the 51 participants (35.29% met the criteria for depression. Demographic variables like male gender, being married, living in a nuclear family, urban background, and higher HRDS score were significantly correlated with PSD (P < 0.05. Depression was related to functional disability after stroke but to a statistically insignificant level (P > 0.05 and was unrelated to lesion-related parameters. Conclusion: Depression occurs in one-third of chronic stroke survivors and is prevalent in subjects referred for rehabilitation. PSD is related primarily to demographic variables and only to a lesser extent to functional disability following stroke.

  17. Prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun EM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eun Mi Chun, Seo Woo Kim, So Yeon Lim Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Colorectal adenomatous polyps are precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and determine whether COPD is associated with colorectal malignant potential.Methods: Subjects who had undergone post-bronchodilator spirometry and colonoscopy and were 40 years or older were selected from the hospital database. COPD was defined as a spirometry in which the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC is <0.7 in post-bronchodilator spirometry. The non-COPD group was matched for both age and sex, and were defined as having an FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC ≥0.7 in spirometry. Finally, 333 patients were retrospectively reviewed; of this group, 82 patients had COPD.Results: Among the subjects, 201 patients (60% were nonsmokers, while 78 (23% were current smokers. The prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39% (98/251 in the non-COPD group and 66% (54/82 in the COPD group. Among 54 patients with adenomatous polyps in the COPD group, 47 had tubular adenoma and seven had villous adenoma. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that only COPD patients whom matched to the criteria of COPD by pulmonary function test (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1–3.8; P=0.019 were independently associated with colorectal malignant potential.Conclusion: The risk of colorectal malignant potential in the COPD group was higher than in the non-COPD group. We may suggest that COPD patients should consider regular colonoscopic evaluation to screen for premalignant colon polyps regardless of smoking. Keywords: COPD, colorectal adenomatous polyp, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  18. Compelled Body-Weight Shift Approach in Rehabilitation of Individuals with Chronic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruin, Alexander S.; Rao, Noel; Sharma, Asha; Chaudhuri, Gouri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of the Compelled Body Weight Shift (CBWS) therapy approach in the rehabilitation of individuals with chronic stroke. CBWS involves a forced shift of body weight towards a person’s affected side by means of a shoe insert that establishes a lift of the non-affected lower extremity. Method Eighteen individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke (mean age 57.7 ± 11.9 years, with a range of 35–75 years, mean time since stroke 6.7±3.9 years with a range of 1.1–14.1 years) who showed asymmetrical stance were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group received a six-week physical therapy combined with CBWS therapy and the control group received only physical therapy. Both groups underwent a battery of identical tests (Fugl-Meyer assessment, Berg Balance Scale, weight bearing, and gait velocity) before the start of the rehabilitation intervention, following its completion, and three months after the end of therapy. Results After the intervention, weight bearing on the affected side (measured with the Balance Master®) increased in the experimental group to a larger degree compared to the control group (9.7% vs. 6.4%). Similarly, gait velocity increased 10.5% in the experimental group compared to the control group. Improvements in weight bearing and gait velocity were maintained in the experimental group after the three month retention period. Conclusion The study outcome revealed that a six-week intervention involving CBWS therapy could result in a long-lasting improvement of the symmetry of weight bearing and velocity of gait in individuals with chronic stroke. PMID:23192720

  19. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji In; Baek, Hyunjeong; Jung, Hae Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading public health problem related to poor quality of life and premature death. As a resource for evidence-informed health policy-making, we evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease using the data of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥ 20 years (n = 15,319) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2013. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g or an estimated glomerular filtration rate Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The total prevalence estimate of chronic kidney disease for adults aged ≥ 20 years in Korea was 8.2%. By disease stage, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was as follows: stage 1, 3.0%; stage 2, 2.7%; stage 3a, 1.9%; stage 3b, 0.4%; and stages 4-5, 0.2%. When grouped into three risk categories according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, the proportions for the moderately increased risk, high risk, and very high risk categories were 6.5%, 1.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. Factors including older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, body mass indexes of ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and chronic kidney disease. Based on this comprehensive analysis, evidence-based screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the Korean population should be developed to optimize prevention and early intervention of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors.

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease and Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achhra, Amit C; Nugent, Melinda; Mocroft, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as an important health concern in HIV-positive individuals. Preventing long-term kidney toxicity from an antiretroviral therapy is therefore critical. Selected antiretroviral agents, especially tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and some ritonavir...... require an intervention. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a TDF alternative, promises to be safer in terms of TDF-associated kidney and bone toxicity. While the short-term data on TAF does indicate lower eGFR decline and lower risk of proteinuria (vs. TDF), long-term data on renal safety of TAF are still...

  1. Prevalence of myofascial chronic pelvic pain and the effectiveness of pelvic floor physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Patterson, Betsy; Mahajan, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and the outcome of transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain caused by myofascial pelvic pain in a tertiary care facility. A retrospective chart review was performed on all women who presented to our facility between January 2005 and December 2007. Those diagnosed with myofascial pelvic pain and referred for transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy over this 3-year period were evaluated. Participants with an initial pain score of > or = 4, myofascial pelvic pain on examination, and who attended 2 or more physician visits were included in the analysis. Patient physical examination findings, symptoms, and verbal pain ratings were reviewed. In all, 146 (13.2%) of 1,106 initially screened patients were diagnosed with myofascial pain. Seventy-five (51%) of the 146 patients who were referred for physical therapy were included, and 75% had an initial pain score of > or = 7. Pain scores significantly improved proportional to the number of physical therapy visits completed, with 63% of patients reporting significant pain improvement. Transvaginal physical therapy is an effective treatment for chronic pelvic pain resulting from myofascial pelvic pain.

  2. Concurrent Use of Alcohol and Sedatives among Persons Prescribed Chronic Opioid Therapy: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kathleen; Von Korff, Michael; Campbell, Cynthia I.; Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Sullivan, Mark D.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Weisner, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Taking opioids with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants can increase risk of oversedation and respiratory depression. We used telephone survey and electronic health care data to assess the prevalence of, and risk factors for, concurrent use of alcohol and/or sedatives among 1848 integrated care plan members who were prescribed chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain. Concurrent sedative use was defined by receiving sedatives for 45+ days of the 90 days preceding the interview; concurrent alcohol use was defined by consuming 2+ drinks within 2 hours of taking an opioid in the prior 2 weeks. Some analyses were stratified by substance use disorder (SUD) history (alcohol or drug). Among subjects with no SUD history, 29% concurrently used sedatives vs. 39% of those with a SUD history. Rates of concurrent alcohol use were similar (12 to 13%) in the two substance use disorder strata. Predictors of concurrent sedative use included SUD history, female gender, depression, and taking opioids at higher doses and for more than one pain condition. Male gender was the only predictor of concurrent alcohol use. Concurrent use of CNS depressants was common among this sample of COT users regardless of substance use disorder status. PMID:22285611

  3. Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in Canada: prevalence and associations with six health status indicators

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    C. Rusu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have considered the factors independently associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and/or fibromyalgia (FM or considered the impact of these conditions on health status using population-based data. Methods: We used data from the nationally representative 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (n= 59 101 to describe self-reported health professional-diagnosed CFS and/or FM, and their associations with 6 health status indicators. Results: In 2010, diagnosed CFS and FM are reported by 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%–1.6% and 1.5% (1.4%–1.7%, respectively, of the Canadian household population aged 12 years and over, with comorbid CFS and FM affecting 0.3% (0.3%–0.4% of that population. Prevalent CFS and/or FM were more common among women, adults aged 40 years and over, those with lowest income, and those with certain risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. obesity, physical inactivity and smoking. After controlling for differences between the groups, people with CFS and/or FM reported poorer health status than those with neither condition on 5 indicators of health status, but not on the measure of fair/poor mental health. Having both CFS and FM and having multiple comorbid conditions was associated with poorer health status. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of CFS and FM and having other chronic conditions were strongly related to poorer health status and accounted for much of the differences in health status. Understanding factors contributing to improved quality of life in people with CFS and/or FM, particularly in those with both conditions and other comorbidities, may be an important area for future research.

  4. Prevalence of Albuminuria in a General Population Cohort of Patients With Established Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported an association between albuminuria and adverse outcomes in adults with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the prevalence of albuminuria in adults with established CHF remains unclear. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2012. Adults aged ≥18 years were included, and diagnosis of CHF was based on participant self-report. The primary outcome was the prevalence of microalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30-300 mg/g) and macroalbuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio >300 mg/g) in adults with CHF. The secondary outcome was the adjusted odds ratio of any albuminuria in adults with and without CHF. During the study period, 37,961 adults did not have CHF and 1,214 adults had CHF. In adults with CHF, 22.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.6%-24.7%) had microalbuminuria and 10.4% (95% CI 8.1%-12.7%) macroalbuminuria. In adjusted analyses, the odds of albuminuria in adults with CHF was 1.89-fold higher (95% CI 1.59-2.26; P albuminuria is more common in adults with CHF than in those without CHF, even after adjustment for important demographic and clinical confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glaucoma spectrum and age-related prevalence of individuals with FOXC1 and PITX2 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Siggs, Owen M; Zhou, Tiger; Galanopoulos, Anna; Hodson, Trevor; Taranath, Deepa; Mills, Richard A; Landers, John; Pater, John; Smith, James E; Elder, James E; Rait, Julian L; Giles, Paul; Phakey, Vivek; Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Dubowsky, Andrew; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Burdon, Kathryn P; Craig, Jamie E

    2017-06-01

    Variation in FOXC1 and PITX2 is associated with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, characterised by structural defects of the anterior chamber of the eye and a range of systemic features. Approximately half of all affected individuals will develop glaucoma, but the age at diagnosis and the phenotypic spectrum have not been well defined. As phenotypic heterogeneity is common, we aimed to delineate the age-related penetrance and the full phenotypic spectrum of glaucoma in FOXC1 or PITX2 carriers recruited through a national disease registry. All coding exons of FOXC1 and PITX2 were directly sequenced and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect copy number variation. The cohort included 53 individuals from 24 families with disease-associated FOXC1 or PITX2 variants, including one individual diagnosed with primary congenital glaucoma and five with primary open-angle glaucoma. The overall prevalence of glaucoma was 58.5% and was similar for both genes (53.3% for FOXC1 vs 60.9% for PITX2, P=0.59), however, the median age at glaucoma diagnosis was significantly lower in FOXC1 (6.0±13.0 years) compared with PITX2 carriers (18.0±10.6 years, P=0.04). The penetrance at 10 years old was significantly lower in PITX2 than FOXC1 carriers (13.0% vs 42.9%, P=0.03) but became comparable at 25 years old (71.4% vs 57.7%, P=0.38). These findings have important implications for the genetic counselling of families affected by Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, and also suggest that FOXC1 and PITX2 contribute to the genetic architecture of primary glaucoma subtypes.

  6. Dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos: prevalência e características Chronic pain in schizophrenic patients: prevalence and characteristics

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    Jouce Gabriela de Almeida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de dor crônica entre pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos é, possivelmente, no mínimo igual à encontrada entre a população geral. Para estimar a prevalência de dor crônica em pacientes com esquizofrenia, comparar os grupos com e sem dor crônica e caracterizar a dor foi realizado um estudo transversal, com uma amostra probabilística de 205 pacientes adultos, com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia (idade média 37 anos; 65% homens; média de escolaridade de nove anos; 87% sem companheiro(a; 65% residentes com os pais, atendidos em hospital público do Município de São Paulo, Brasil. A prevalência de dor foi de 36,6%; a dor foi mais presente no abdômen (30,7%, seguida da dor de cabeça, face e boca (24% e região lombar, sacra e cóccix (14,7%. Com relação à freqüência, 24% dos entrevistados referiram ter dor todos os dias. O tempo médio de dor foi de 41 meses, com intensidade moderada. A prevalência de dor crônica em pacientes esquizofrênicos foi semelhante à encontrada para a população geral, e o quadro álgico foi significativo em termos de duração, intensidade e freqüência dos episódios dolorosos.Chronic pain may be at least as prevalent in psychiatric patients as in the general population. To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in schizophrenic patients, compare the groups with and without chronic pain, and characterize the pain, a cross-sectional study was performed on a probabilistic sample of 205 adult patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (mean age 37 years; 65% men; mean schooling nine years; 87% single; 65% living with parents, treated at a public hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of pain was 36.6%, and the most frequent sites were abdomen (30.7%, head, face, and mouth (24%, and lower back (14.7%. Twenty-four percent of patients reported feeling pain every day. Mean duration of pain was 41 months, with moderate intensity. Prevalence of chronic pain in

  7. Can we use the pharmacy data to estimate the prevalence of chronic conditions? a comparison of multiple data sources

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    Borgia Piero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimate of the prevalence of the most common chronic conditions (CCs is calculated using direct methods such as prevalence surveys but also indirect methods using health administrative databases. The aim of this study is to provide estimates prevalence of CCs in Lazio region of Italy (including Rome, using the drug prescription's database and to compare these estimates with those obtained using other health administrative databases. Methods Prevalence of CCs was estimated using pharmacy data (PD using the Anathomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC. Prevalences estimate were compared with those estimated by hospital information system (HIS using list of ICD9-CM diagnosis coding, registry of exempt patients from health care cost for pathology (REP and national health survey performed by the Italian bureau of census (ISTAT. Results From the PD we identified 20 CCs. About one fourth of the population received a drug for treating a cardiovascular disease, 9% for treating a rheumatologic conditions. The estimated prevalences using the PD were usually higher that those obtained with one of the other sources. Regarding the comparison with the ISTAT survey there was a good agreement for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and thyroid disorder whereas for rheumatologic conditions, chronic respiratory illnesses, migraine and Alzheimer's disease, the prevalence estimates were lower than those estimated by ISTAT survey. Estimates of prevalences derived by the HIS and by the REP were usually lower than those of the PD (but malignancies, chronic renal diseases. Conclusion Our study showed that PD can be used to provide reliable prevalence estimates of several CCs in the general population.

  8. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients in Nigeria

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    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients. Methods: A total of 120 HIV positive patients attending the dedicated HIV outpatient clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were recruited for the study. Their periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Their CD4+ cell count was determined using the flow-cytometer method. The risk factors for periodontitis including age, gender, education, smoking, CD4+ cell counts, bleeding on probing (BOP were determined. Results: Prevalence of periodontitis was high (63.3% in the HIV positive patients. In a bivariate analysis, significant associations were observed between severity of periodontitis and age ≥35 years (P=0.021, male gender (P=0.005, smoking (P=0.040 and ≥3 community periodontal index of treatment needs sextants exhibiting BOP (P=0.004. In a binary logistic regression, independent predictors of periodontitis were ≥3 sextants exhibiting BOP (odds ratio 1.738, 95% CI 1.339 to 2.256, P=0.000 and age ≥35 years (odds ratio 1.057, 95% CI 1.005 to 1.111, P=0.030. The CD4+ cell counts were not associated with periodontitis in the HIV positive patients (P=0.988. Conclusions: A high prevalence of periodontitis was found among the HIV positive Nigerian patients in this study. Older age ≥35 years and BOP were the determinants of periodontitis. There is therefore a need for close periodontal monitoring of HIV positive Nigerian patients with emphasis on preventive, professional oral prophylaxis.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease in a rural region of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Felix; Sannon, Herriot; Mayr, Michael; Dickenmann, Michael; Ernst, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the Caribbean region chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing challenge. High rates of non-communicable and infectious diseases and the rise in people suffering from diabetes and hypertension explain the observed and further expected increase of CKD. However, data about the magnitude of the problem are rare and in some countries such as Haiti completely lacking. The aim of our study was to generate data about the prevalence and risk factors for CKD in a rural region in Haiti. In this prospective cross-sectional study, adult patients visiting the medical outpatient clinic of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles Haiti were included. CKD was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and measurement of proteinuria by dipstick test. Risk factors for CKD were assessed by clinical examinations and questionnaires. Overall 608 patients were screened for CKD, of whom 27% had CKD. CKD stages 1 to 2 were found in 15.3% and stages 3 to 5 in 11.7%. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 49.2% and 36.3%, respectively. Risk factors independently associated with CKD were hypertension (p = 0.0002) and HIV infection (p = 0.019) and age >60 years (p = 0.0052), whereas diabetes mellitus was not independently associated (p = 0.72). Our data show a high prevalence of CKD and traditional risk factors, and their association with CKD in Haiti. These findings have now to be confirmed in other regions in longitudinal analyses as a basic step to build up screening and prevention programmes for CKD.

  10. [Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in community-dwelling elderly and associated cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, J; Vaqueiro, M; Antón, E; Baré, M L; González, V; Jaimez, E; Gimeno, C

    2005-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem in developed countries. The incidence of patients on dialysis is increasing progressively in the last years. The ageing population and increasing incidence of diabetes and hypertension are the main causes. Moreover, the level of kidney function is now recognised as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, even in mild cases. There is a great unaware about the prevalence of mild to moderate chronic kidney disease in the general population. The aim of the present study was to know the kidney function level in our general population over 64 years old, and the associated cardiovascular risk. This is an epidemiological descriptive cross-sectional study, obtained by a representative random sampling of the population over 64 years living in the reference area of our Hospital. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated by the Cockroft-Gault formula and the MDRD equations. Kidney function has been classified by the K/DOQI stages. We examined the univariate and multivariate association between the estimated glomerular filtration rate and the presence of cardiovascular events. We analysed 253 subjects aged 65 to 93 years (mean 72 +/- 5.4). Present comorbidities were: HTA 64%, dislipemia 29%, diabetes 14%, active smokers: 10% of men, 1,5% of women. A previous cardiovascular event was present in 11% of patients (15% of men; 6,8% of women). A serum creatinin level over 1,3 and 1,5 mg/dl was present in 3,8% of women and 8% of men respectively. Nevertheless, chronic kidney insufficiency (estimated clreatinie clearance less than 60 mix') was present in 31-49% relying on the utilised formula. In addition to age, sex, and diabetes, an independent graded association was observed between reduced glomerular filtration rate and the existence of cardiovascular events. We have confirmed a high prevalence of renal insufficiency among elderly people, usually not detected by the isolated plasma creatinin concentration This

  11. Chronic neck pain and anxiety-depression: prevalence and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbinoune, Imane; Amine, Bouchra; Shyen, Siham; Gueddari, Sanae; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain in rheumatology often has a psychic impact, which may aggravate the daily life of patients. Chronic neck pain, as an example, is a frequent reason for consultation. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with neck pain, and identify risk factors associated with their occurrence. It was a cross-sectional study that concerned 80 patients with neck pain lasting for more than 3 months, seen in rheumatology consultations. All patients with symptomatic neck pain or psychological history or receiving psychotropic medication were excluded from the study. For each patient, we determined the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical ones. The anxious and depressed mood was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Of the 80 patients, 67 (83.8%) were women. Average age of our population was 51.8± 11.8 years. Median duration of symptoms was 24 months [12, 48]. Mean VAS pain was 63.9% ± 12.5, mean VAS functional discomfort was 60.9% ± 14.2 and mean VAS disability was 59.8% ± 14.7. 32 patients (40%) were illiterate and 18 (22.5%) had university level. Anxiety was found in 54 (68.4%) and 44 (55.7%) patients were depressed. In univariate analysis, VAS disability was statistically linked to anxiety (OR:1.05; 95%CI: 1.01-1.08; p = 0.02). The cervicobrachial neuralgia (CBN) was significantly associated with depression (OR: 3.33; 95%CI: 1.20-9.23; p = 0.02). Primary education level had a statistically significant relationship with anxiety (OR: 6.00; 95%CI: 1.03-34.84; p = 0.04) and depression (OR: 5.00; 95%CI: 1.09-22.82; p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, VAS disability and CBN were independently associated with anxiety and depression respectively. This study underlines the fact that anxiety and depression are prevalent in chronic neck pain (CNP) patients. Furthermore, disability and CBN which are linked to CNP can predict which patient is at higher risk of psychological distress.

  12. Fitness attenuates the prevalence of increased coronary artery calcium in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Fagman, Erika; Angerås, Oskar; Schmidt, Caroline; Rosengren, Annika; Börjesson, Mats; Bergström, Göran

    2018-02-01

    Background The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and coronary artery calcium (CAC) is unclear, and whether higher levels of fitness attenuate CAC prevalence in subjects with metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. The present study aims to: a) investigate the independent association of fitness on the prevalence of CAC, after adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time, and b) study the possible attenuation of increased CAC by higher fitness, in participants with metabolic syndrome. Design Cross-sectional. Methods In total 678 participants (52% women), 50-65 years old, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Fitness (VO 2 max) was estimated by submaximal cycle ergometer test and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. CAC score (CACS) was quantified using the Agatston score. Results The odds of having a significant CACS (≥100) was half in participants with moderate/high fitness compared with their low fitness counterparts. Further consideration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time and number of components of the metabolic syndrome did only slightly alter the effect size. Those with metabolic syndrome had 47% higher odds for significant CAC compared with those without metabolic syndrome. However, moderate/high fitness seems to partially attenuate this risk, as further joint analysis indicated an increased odds for having significant CAC only in the unfit metabolic syndrome participants. Conclusions Being fit is associated with a reduced risk of having significant CAC in individuals with metabolic syndrome. While still very much underutilized, fitness should be taken into consideration in everyday clinical risk prediction in addition to the traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in China in 1990 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kit Yee; Li, Xue; Chen, Wanjing; Song, Peige; Wong, Nuen Wing Katy; Poon, Adrienne N; Jian, Weiyan; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Cousens, Simon; Adeloye, Davies; Sheikh, Aziz; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is set to become the third most frequent cause of death and also the third largest cause of global morbidity by 2020. In China, where the population is aging rapidly, COPD has become one of the leading causes of disability and a large economic burden. An epidemiological assessment of the COPD in China is required, with a focus on the number of cases living with disease, main determinants of the disease and time trends. We systematically searched large Chinese bibliographic databases and English databases to identify spirometry-based epidemiological studies of the prevalence of COPD in China diagnosed according to GOLD criteria. We estimated age- and gender-specific prevalence of COPD using a multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression. We also presented the time trends of COPD between 1990 and 2010 by age, gender and setting (urban vs rural). In 1990, the prevalence of COPD ranged from 0.49% (95% CI = 0.29-0.85) in  = 80 years group, and the crude prevalence for China was 2.70% (95% CI = 1.86-3.51). In 2010, the prevalence in  = 80 years was 22.89% (95% CI = 18.13-28.96), with the crude prevalence for China of 3.84% (95% CI = 3.30-4.77). The COPD prevalence in males was about two-fold higher than in females, and it increased with increasing age. Between 1990-2010, the total number of Chinese people living with COPD increased by 66.73%, from 30.90 million (95% CI = 21.28-40.02) in 1990 to 51.52 million (95% CI = 44.26-63.93) in 2010. This increase was most striking in middle age, and greater in females than in males from 30 years up to 64 years. Our estimates, which used an independent approach to acquiring data and development of analytical methods, and were based on a more complete data set, are remarkably similar to those produced recently by the GBD 2013 collaboration, differing by only about 5% in the estimated number of COPD cases in 1990 and by 1% in 2010. COPD is a highly prevalent

  14. Associations between gender, coping patterns and functioning for individuals with chronic pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shormilisy, Nina; Strong, Jenny; Meredith, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Developing strategies for coping with chronic pain is an integral part of successfully living with this often debilitating health condition. While gender differences in pain coping strategies have long been investigated, the relationship between gender-specific engagement in coping and associated functioning in individuals experiencing chronic pain is yet to be clearly understood. The present systematic review focused on studies that address these relationships to critically evaluate the available evidence. A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL, with 7247 titles retrieved. To be included, studies had to be in English, focus on adult participants, consider chronic nonmalignant pain, use measures of coping and functioning (or disability), report on gender-specific outcomes (for coping and functioning [or disability]), and investigate a relationship among gender, coping and functioning. One researcher screened abstracts and full-text articles, and extracted and tabulated data, while two researchers independently assessed potential articles for eligibility and methodological quality. Only seven studies met the inclusion criteria - six of high quality and one of moderate quality. The presented findings suggest that women in pain are more likely to use coping strategies considered to be maladaptive, resulting in poorer functioning, while men tend to engage in coping strategies considered to be adaptive, leading to better functional outcomes. While there is some evidence supporting gender-specific engagement in coping and associated functioning, future research is necessary to expand understanding of these interrelations.

  15. Acceptance: what's in a name? A content analysis of acceptance instruments in individuals with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwerier, Emelien; Caes, Line; Van Damme, Stefaan; Goubert, Liesbet; Rosseel, Yves; Crombez, Geert

    2015-04-01

    Instruments to assess chronic pain acceptance have been developed and used. However, whether and to what extent the content of the items reflects acceptance remain uninvestigated. A content analysis of 13 instruments that aim to measure acceptance of chronic pain was performed. A coding scheme was used that consisted of 3 categories representing the key components of acceptance, that is, disengagement from pain control, pain willingness, and engagement in activities other than pain control. The coding scheme consisted of 5 additional categories in order to code items that do not represent acceptance, that is, controlling pain, pain costs, pain benefits, unclear, and no fit. Two coders rated to what extent the items of acceptance instruments belonged to one or more of these categories. Results indicated that acceptance categories were not equally represented in the acceptance instruments. Of note, some instruments had many items in the category controlling pain. Further analyses revealed that the meaning of acceptance differs among different instruments and among different versions of the same instrument. This study illustrates the importance of content validity when developing and evaluating self-report instruments. This article investigated the content validity of questionnaires designed to measure acceptance in individuals with chronic pain. Knowledge about the content of the instruments will provide further insight into the features of acceptance and how to measure them. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zavala, A; Del Razo, L M; García-Vargas, G G; Aguilar, C; Borja, V H; Albores, A; Cebrián, M E

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 microg As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized.

  17. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Zavala, A.; Del Razo, L.M.; Garcia-Vargas, G.G.; Aguilar, C.; Borja, V.H.; Albores, A.; Cebrian, M.E. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Farmacologia y Toxicologica

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 {mu}g As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  18. Individual and contextual determinants of perceived peer smoking prevalence among adolescents in six European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Richter, Matthias; Rathmann, Katharina; Rimpelä, Arja H.; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Lorant, Vincent; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Young people perceiving a high peer smoking prevalence are more likely to initiate smoking. It is unclear which factors contribute to perceived peer smoking prevalence and if these factors vary according to education. This study aimed to assess the determinants of perceived smoking prevalence and

  19. Chronic renal disease in spain: prevalence and related factors in persons with diabetes mellitus older than 64 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Candela, Juan; Sangrós González, Javier; García Soidán, Francisco Javier; Millaruelo Trillo, José Manuel; Díez Espino, Javier; Bordonaba Bosque, Daniel; Ávila Lachica, Luis

    2018-02-07

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are conditions which have a high prevalence in individuals ≥ 65 years of age and represent a major public health problem. To determine the prevalence of CKD, its categories and its relationship with various demographic and clinical factors in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. Observational, cross-sectional, multicenter, Spanish epidemiological study. Patients with known type 2 diabetes mellitus, age ≥ 65 years of age treated in Primary Care were included. We collected demographic, anthropometric and analytical variables from the previous 12 months, including the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate to evaluate renal function. The prevalence of CKD was 37.2% (95% CI, 34.1-40.3%), renal failure was 29.7% (95% CI, 26.8-32.6%) and increased albuminuria was 20.6% (95% CI, 17.3-23.9%), moderately increased albuminuria was 17.8% (95% CI, 14.7-20.9%) and severely increased albuminuria was 2.8% (95% CI, 1.4-4.2%). In turn, the prevalence of CKD categories were: G1 1.3% (95% CI, 0.6-2%), G2 6.2% (95% CI, 4.6-7.8%), G3a 17.2% (95% CI, 14.8-19.6%), G3b 9.8% (95% CI, 7.9-11.7%), G4 2% (95% CI, 1.1-2.9%) and G5 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2-1.2%). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for the remaining variables, CKD was associated with elderly age (OR 5.13, 95% CI, 3.15-8.35), high comorbidity (OR 3.36. 95% CI, 2.2-5.12) and presence of antihypertensive treatment (OR 2.43. 95% CI, 1.48-4.02). CKD is frequent in the diabetic population ≥ 65 years of age and is associated with elderly age, high comorbidity and with treated hypertension. No relationship has been found with gender and time in years since onset of diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C among prisoners of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Pompilio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, the number of prisoners has increased in the recent years and the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV has become more complex. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the genotypes of HCV in prisoners as well as the factors associated with this infectious disease. Thereby, 443 men and 243 women from prisons were interviewed and subjected to blood collection. Anti-HCV reactive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR and genotyped. The overall seroprevalence of HCV infection was 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4 to 6.8%. Furthermore, the prevalence was higher in: men, injecting drug users, tattooed persons, those who were more than 50 years old, individuals who have been arrested multiple times, people with previous history of sexually transmitted disease (STD, persons who received blood transfusions or those with HIV/AIDS. The prevalence of RNA HCV by PCR was 3.0% (95%CI: 1.7 to 4.2%. Moreover, the coinfection of HIV and HCV was 33.3%. In addition, genotype 1 was the most frequent (85% followed by genotype 3 (15%. The screening strategy for HCV and other infectious diseases in inmates is important as it establishes an early diagnosis, opportunity for treatment and allows the breaking of the transmission chain.

  1. Individualized prediction of lung-function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Zafar; Sin, Don D.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Vonk, Judith; Bryan, Stirling; Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, C. Martin; Khakban, Rahman; Man, S.F. Paul; Tashkin, Donald; Wise, Robert A.; Connett, John E.; McManus, Bruce; Ng, Raymond; Hollander, Zsuszanna; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rate of lung-function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies substantially among individuals. We sought to develop and validate an individualized prediction model for forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) in current smokers with mild-to-moderate COPD. Methods: Using data from a large long-term clinical trial (the Lung Health Study), we derived mixed-effects regression models to predict future FEV1 values over 11 years according to clinical traits. We modelled heterogeneity by allowing regression coefficients to vary across individuals. Two independent cohorts with COPD were used for validating the equations. Results: We used data from 5594 patients (mean age 48.4 yr, 63% men, mean baseline FEV1 2.75 L) to create the individualized prediction equations. There was significant between-individual variability in the rate of FEV1 decline, with the interval for the annual rate of decline that contained 95% of individuals being −124 to −15 mL/yr for smokers and −83 to 15 mL/yr for sustained quitters. Clinical variables in the final model explained 88% of variation around follow-up FEV1. The C statistic for predicting severity grades was 0.90. Prediction equations performed robustly in the 2 external data sets. Interpretation: A substantial part of individual variation in FEV1 decline can be explained by easily measured clinical variables. The model developed in this work can be used for prediction of future lung health in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. Trial registration: Lung Health Study — ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00000568; Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study — ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00751660 PMID:27486205

  2. Prevalence of chronic infections and susceptibility to measles and varicella-zoster virus in Latin American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yves; Santos, Lilian; Arm-Vernez, Isabelle; Mauris, Anne; Wolff, Hans; Chappuis, François; Getaz, Laurent

    2016-05-11

    Large numbers of Latin American immigrants recently arrived in Western Europe. Curative and preventive programmes need to take account of their risk of suffering and transmitting imported chronic infections and of their susceptibility to cosmopolitan infections. We aimed to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of imported chronic infections among Latin American immigrants, and their susceptibility to highly prevalent cosmopolitan infections. Adult participants were recruited in the community and in a primary health centre in Geneva in 2008. Serological tests were performed on stored sera for HIV, HBV, syphilis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trypanosoma cruzi, varicella and measles. We considered only chronic active infections in the analysis. The 1 012 participants, aged 37.2 (SD 11.3) years, were mostly female (82.5 %) and Bolivians (48 %). Overall, 209 (20.7 %) had at least one and 27 (2.7 %) two or more chronic infections. T. cruzi (12.8 %) and S. stercoralis (8.4 %) were the most prevalent chronic active infections compared to syphilis (0.4 %), HBV (0.4 %) and HIV (1.4 %). Concomitant infections affected 28.2 and 18.5 % of T. cruzi and S. stercoralis infected cases. Bolivian origin (aOR: 13.6; 95 % CI: 3.2-57.9) was associated with risk of multiple infections. Susceptibilities for VZV and measles were 0.7 and 1.4 %, respectively. Latin American immigrants are at risk of complications and possible reactivation of chronic parasitic infections but have overall low risks of chronic viral and syphilitic active infections. Systematic screening for chronic active parasitic infections is therefore necessary especially among Bolivians. The high protection rate against measles and VZV doesn't require specific preventive interventions.

  3. [Predicting individual risk of high healthcare cost to identify complex chronic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Ibern, Pere; Carreras, Marc; Pérez-Berruezo, Xavier; Inoriza, José M

    2014-01-01

    To develop a predictive model for the risk of high consumption of healthcare resources, and assess the ability of the model to identify complex chronic patients. A cross-sectional study was performed within a healthcare management organization by using individual data from 2 consecutive years (88,795 people). The dependent variable consisted of healthcare costs above the 95th percentile (P95), including all services provided by the organization and pharmaceutical consumption outside of the institution. The predictive variables were age, sex, morbidity-based on clinical risk groups (CRG)-and selected data from previous utilization (use of hospitalization, use of high-cost drugs in ambulatory care, pharmaceutical expenditure). A univariate descriptive analysis was performed. We constructed a logistic regression model with a 95% confidence level and analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Individuals incurring costs >P95 accumulated 44% of total healthcare costs and were concentrated in ACRG3 (aggregated CRG level 3) categories related to multiple chronic diseases. All variables were statistically significant except for sex. The model had a sensitivity of 48.4% (CI: 46.9%-49.8%), specificity of 97.2% (CI: 97.0%-97.3%), PPV of 46.5% (CI: 45.0%-47.9%), and an AUC of 0.897 (CI: 0.892 to 0.902). High consumption of healthcare resources is associated with complex chronic morbidity. A model based on age, morbidity, and prior utilization is able to predict high-cost risk and identify a target population requiring proactive care. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Weissman

    Full Text Available Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia.Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, identified as male at birth and self-identified/expressed as a different gender, and reported having sex with at least one male partner in past year. From six major urban centers of Cambodia, 891 transgender individuals were recruited.The majority of the 891 participants self-identified as third gender or female (94.5%, were young (median age 23, IQR [20-27], had secondary education or higher (80.5%, not married (89.7%, and employed (90.2%. The majority had first sex before 18 years (66.8%, with a male (79.9%, 37.9% having been paid or paying for this first sex. The rate of HIV positivity among participants was found to be 4.15%. Consistent condom use with male and female partners was low with all partner types, but particularly low with male partners when paying for sex (20.3%. The majority of participants reported having experienced discrimination in their lifetime (54.8% and 30.3% had been assaulted. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (adjusted OR = 14.73 [4.20, 51.67] for age 35-44 and adjusted OR = 7.63 [2.55, 22.81] for age 30-34, only having a primary school education or no schooling at all (adjusted OR = 2.62 [1.18, 5.80], being a resident of Siem Reap (adjusted OR = 7.44 [2.37, 23.29], receiving payment at first sex (adjusted OR = 2.26 [1.00, 5.11], having sex during/after using drugs (adjusted OR = 2.90 [1.09, 7.73], inconsistent condom use during last anal sex (adjusted OR = 3.84 [1.58, 9.33], and reporting low self-esteem (adjusted OR = 3.25 [1.35, 7.85] were

  5. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Chronic Hepatitis E Infection in German Renal Transplant Recipients With Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Choi, MD

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions. This retrospective study showed that prevalence of chronic HEV infection was high in our renal transplant patient cohort and was associated with significant liver impairment and the occurrence of renal injury. Ribavirin treatment was effective and should be initiated early to avoid complications, but the risk of severe hemolytic anemia makes strict monitoring essential.

  6. Effect of axillary lymph node dissection on prevalence and intensity of chronic and phantom pain after breast cancer surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegers, M.A.H.; Wolters, B.; Evers, A.W.; Strobbe, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain after breast cancer surgery is a major problem and is expected to increase in the coming years because of an increased prevalence of breast cancer coupled with better survival. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer is associated with nerve damage. The

  7. Risk factors for chronic mucus hypersecretion in individuals with and without COPD: influence of smoking and job exposure on CMH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Akkelies E; de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Groen, Harry J M; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2014-05-01

    Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is highly prevalent in smokers and associated with an accelerated lung function decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several risk factors contribute to CMH and to COPD. It is, however, unknown if risk factors for CMH are similar in persons with and without COPD. 1479 persons with and 8529 without COPD, participating in the general population-based LifeLines cohort, completed questionnaires and underwent spirometry. Occupational exposure was assessed using the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression models. In COPD, a significantly higher risk for CMH was associated with higher pack-years smoking (per 10 pack-years) (OR=1.28; 1.12 to 1.46) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (OR=2.06; 1.33 to 3.19). In non-COPD; male gender (OR=1.91; 1.51 to 2.41), higher Body Mass Index (OR=1.04; 1.01 to 1.06), higher pack-years smoking (OR=1.28; 1.14 to 1.44), current smoking (OR=1.50; 1.04 to 2.18), low and high exposure to mineral dust (OR=1.39; 1.04 to 1.87 and OR=1.60; 1.02 to 2.52), high exposure to gases & fumes (OR=2.19; 1.49 to 3.22). Significant interactions were found between COPD and exposure to gases & fumes (p=0.018) and aromatic solvents (p=0.038). A higher risk for CMH was associated with higher pack-years smoking regardless of COPD status. However, a higher risk for CMH was associated with high occupational exposure to gases & fumes in individuals without COPD only.

  8. Prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C patients in Mid Delta, Egypt: A single center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, D.H.; El Sadany, S.; Soliman, H.; Abd-Elsalam, S.; Salama, M.; Hawash, N.; Amal Selim, A.; Manal Hamisa, M.; Elsabagh, H.M.; El Sadany, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has an increasing incidence worldwide. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of HCC among HCV patients in our center in Mid Delta, Egypt. Patients and methods: During the period between April 2013 and January 2015, we screened sequentially chronic HCV patients attending inpatient wards or outpatient Clinic of Tropical Medicine Department in Tanta University Hospital for HCC. Individuals with focal lesion in Ultra- sound (US) and/or serum α -fetoprotein (AFP) level >200 ng/ml were examined by triphasic computed tomography scanning (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Among 514 HCV patients interviewed and accepted sharing in this study, 90 (17.5%), 144 (28%), and 280 (54.5%) were Child A, B, and C, respectively. We found that 108/514 patients (21%) had focal lesion detected by US. Also, 89/514 (17.3%) had elevated AFP >200, 13 of them (14.6%) had no focal lesion on US, but further work up showed HCC in 2 of them. Overall HCC diagnosis was confirmed in 103 cases, 94 of them (91.3%) were Child B or C. Occurrence of HCC was significantly higher in smokers, diabetics, patients with decompensated liver and those with positive family history of HCC. Only 20/103 (19.4%) were candidates to curative treatments, 8 of them were Child A asymptomatic and discovered accidentally during screening. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HCC in our HCV patients (22%) was mainly associated with decompensated cirrhosis. A national surveillance program for the detection of HCC in cirrhotic HCV Egyptian patients by combining ultrasound examination and AFP is highly recommended.

  9. Arm Activity During Daily Life in Individuals With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Mathur, Sunita; Romano, Julia Marie; Goldstein, Roger Samuel; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have decreased arm activity during daily life compared with healthy controls and explore the relationships between arm activity during daily life and arm functional measures in individuals with COPD. This was a prospective cross-sectional study that included 30 people with COPD and 14 healthy controls. Subjects attended a single assessment session in which measurements of arm exercise capacity, arm functional performance, self-perception of performance during activities of daily living (ADL), shoulder and elbow flexion force and biceps and triceps thickness were performed. On completion of this session, participants were issued a wrist actigraph and asked to wear the device on the dominant arm for 24 hours for 7 consecutive days. Compared with healthy controls, patients with COPD presented decreased total activity level in daily life (P = .001). When corrected for walking, the level of arm activity did not differ between individuals with COPD and healthy controls (P = .62). No correlations were found between arm activity and arm exercise capacity, arm functional performance, upper limb muscle strength, and self-perception of performance during ADL (r =-0.20 to 0.14; all P ≥ .10). Arm activity intensity in individuals with COPD did not differ from that of healthy controls when measured by a wrist actigraph. Moreover, arm activity was not associated with other clinical outcomes of arm function. Disability during ADL is multifactorial, and only limited inferences of function can be made from accelerometer data.

  10. Examining the impact of obesity on individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Samantha; Brown, Abigail; Adeoye, Samuel; Jason, Leonard A; Evans, Meredyth

    2013-07-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder affecting multiple body systems. The most commonly used definition of CFS is 6 or more months of fatigue and the presence of at least four of eight minor symptoms. In addition, many health and psychological conditions, including severe obesity-body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m(2) or greater-exclude individuals from a diagnosis of CFS. Obesity has been correlated with fatigue, sleep problems, and less satisfaction with general health, functioning, and vitality. The current study investigated weight trends over time in a community-based sample of individuals with CFS and healthy controls. The study further investigated the impact of comorbid weight issues on several health and disability outcomes in a subset of overweight individuals. Overweight and obese individuals with CFS demonstrated poorer functioning than controls who were similarly weighted. One participant was excluded because she had gained weight at a monitoring visit and her BMI was greater than 40 kg/m(2). The implications of these findings for health care workers are discussed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Individualized drug dosing using RBF-Galerkin method: Case of anemia management in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirinejad, Hossein; Gaweda, Adam E; Brier, Michael E; Zurada, Jacek M; Inanc, Tamer

    2017-09-01

    Anemia is a common comorbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is frequently associated with decreased physical component of quality of life, as well as adverse cardiovascular events. Current treatment methods for renal anemia are mostly population-based approaches treating individual patients with a one-size-fits-all model. However, FDA recommendations stipulate individualized anemia treatment with precise control of the hemoglobin concentration and minimal drug utilization. In accordance with these recommendations, this work presents an individualized drug dosing approach to anemia management by leveraging the theory of optimal control. A Multiple Receding Horizon Control (MRHC) approach based on the RBF-Galerkin optimization method is proposed for individualized anemia management in CKD patients. Recently developed by the authors, the RBF-Galerkin method uses the radial basis function approximation along with the Galerkin error projection to solve constrained optimal control problems numerically. The proposed approach is applied to generate optimal dosing recommendations for individual patients. Performance of the proposed approach (MRHC) is compared in silico to that of a population-based anemia management protocol and an individualized multiple model predictive control method for two case scenarios: hemoglobin measurement with and without observational errors. In silico comparison indicates that hemoglobin concentration with MRHC method has less variation among the methods, especially in presence of measurement errors. In addition, the average achieved hemoglobin level from the MRHC is significantly closer to the target hemoglobin than that of the other two methods, according to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test. Furthermore, drug dosages recommended by the MRHC are more stable and accurate and reach the steady-state value notably faster than those generated by the other two methods. The proposed method is highly efficient for

  12. Personality Type Influences Attentional Bias in Individuals with Chronic Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë C Franklin

    Full Text Available Attentional biases reflect an individual's selective attention to salient stimuli within their environment, for example an experience of back pain. Eysenck suggests that different personality types show different attentional biases to threatening information. This study is the first to test Eysenck's theory within a chronic back pain population by investigating the attentional biases of four different personality types using a back pain specific dot-probe paradigm. Participants were 70 volunteers (45 female recruited from a back rehabilitation program at an NHS Trust. The four groups were selected on their trait anxiety and defensiveness scores: defensive high-anxious; high-anxious; repressor and non-extreme. Participants completed a dot probe task comprising 20 practice trials and 250 experimental trials. The experimental trials contained 100 threat-neutral pairs, 100 positive-neutral pairs and 50 neutral-neutral image pairings. The threat images were taken from the Photograph Series of Daily Activities (PHODA and the neutral and positive images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS image bank. The results provided partial support for Eysenck's theory; defensive high-anxious individuals showed an attentional bias for threatening information compared to high-anxious individuals who demonstrated no bias. Repressors showed an avoidant bias to threatening images and an attentional bias to positive stimuli relative to neutral images. The clear difference in responses demonstrated by high-anxious individuals who vary in defensiveness highlight the need for separate investigation of these heterogeneous groups and help to explain the cognitive processes of defensive high-anxious individuals within a pain population. The demonstration of an attentional bias in this group to threatening information could explain why defensive high-anxious individuals are more likely to re-present for treatment.

  13. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The DOC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Sarah J; Dyson, Lisa; Clark, Laura; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J; Cooper, Brendan G; Kearney, Matt; Laughey, William; Raghunath, Raghu; Steele, Lisa; Rhodes, Rebecca; Adamson, Joy

    2018-03-13

    Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires. Current smokers aged 35 or more were invited to undertake a series of case-finding tools, which comprised lung function tests (specifically, spirometry, microspirometry, peak flow meter, and WheezoMeter) and several case-finding questionnaires. The effectiveness of these tests, individually or in combination, to identify small airways obstruction was evaluated against the gold standard of spirometry, with the quality of spirometry tests assessed by independent overreaders. The study was conducted with general practices in the Yorkshire and Humberside area, in the UK. Six hundred eighty-one individuals met the inclusion criteria, with 444 participants completing their study appointments. A total of 216 (49%) with good-quality spirometry readings were included in the analysis. The most effective case-finding tools were found to be the peak flow meter alone, the peak flow meter plus WheezoMeter, and microspirometry alone. In addition to the main analysis, where the severity of airflow obstruction was based on fixed ratios and percent of predicted values, sensitivity analyses were conducted by using lower limit of normal values. This research informs the choice of test for COPD identification; case-finding by use of the peak flow meter or microspirometer could be used routinely in primary care for suspected COPD patients. Only those testing positive to these tests would move on to full spirometry, thereby reducing unnecessary spirometric testing. © 2018 John Wiley

  15. Restoring Voluntary Grasping Function in Individuals with Incomplete Chronic Spinal Cord Injury: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy has been shown to be one of the most promising approaches for improving voluntary grasping function in individuals with subacute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: To determine the effectiveness of FES therapy, as compared to conventional occupational therapy (COT), in improving voluntary hand function in individuals with chronic (≥24 months post injury), incomplete (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] B-D), C4 to C7 SCI. Methods: Eight participants were randomized to the intervention group (FES therapy; n = 5) or the control group (COT; n = 3). Both groups received 39 hours of therapy over 13 to 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), and the secondary outcome measures were Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) self-care subscore, and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) self-care subscore. Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, after 39 sessions of therapy, and at 6 months following the baseline assessment. Results: After 39 sessions of therapy, the intervention group improved by 5.8 points on the TRI-HFT’s Object Manipulation Task, whereas the control group changed by only 1.17 points. Similarly, after 39 sessions of therapy, the intervention group improved by 4.6 points on the FIM self-care subscore, whereas the control group did not change at all. Conclusion: The results of the pilot data justify a clinical trial to compare FES therapy and COT alone to improve voluntary hand function in individuals with chronic incomplete tetraplegia. PMID:24244093

  16. Chronic Low Back Pain in Individuals with Lower-limb Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Kušljugić

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a common condition in individuals which experienced psychology and physical trauma. LBP is usually found in persons with lower-limb amputation (LLA, as the most common sign of somatisation or inappropriately made prostheses. Our goal was to investigate cases of chronic pain syndrome in persons with LLA and to determine factors, which influence their functional inability due to LBP. Pain after LLA has been studied. 37 persons, including 26 war veterans (70.2 % and 11 (29.8 % civilians with LLA due to an illness, were examined. All participants gave their informed consent and filled Oswestry index of disability due to chronic LBP, divided into 10 sections with 6 questions each, with marks in the range 0-5. The average age of 37 analyzed participants with LLA was 46.2+-10.92 years. 30 participants (81.1 % were married, 4 (10.8 % were single and 3 (8.1 % were widows. 27 (73.0 % participants had below the knee amputation, 5 (13.5 % had above the knee amputation and 5 (13.5 % had foot amputation. 33 (89.6 % participants experienced chronic LBP in the last 2-10 years and 4 (10.8 % did not have pains. According to Oswestry index for chronic pain higher level of social functionality was found in civilian amputees than in war veterans (p<0.05. Married civilian amputees have higher level of disability during seating (p<0.01, sleeping (p<0.01 and traveling (p<0.05. Higher level of social disorder among civilian amputees is due to the fact that they belong to older group of participants which usually have social integration at the lower degree. More serious problems during seating, traveling and sleeping among this group are probably due to co morbidity. Chronic LBP was found among 89.6 % of the participants. Higher level of social disorder, problems during seating, traveling and sleeping were identified in the civilian amputees and the married participants.

  17. Untying chronic pain: prevalence and societal burden of chronic pain stages in the general population - a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuser, Winfried; Wolfe, Frederik; Henningsen, Peter; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-04-13

    Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged  ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pain grade questionnaire), disease load (by self-reported comorbidity questionnaire) and societal burden (by self-reported number of doctor visits, nights spent in hospital and days of sick leave/disability in the previous 12 months, and by current unemployment). Associations between chronic pain stages with societal burden, adjusted for demographic variables and disease load, were tested by Poisson and logistic regression analyses. 2508 responses were received. 19.4% (95% CI 16.8% to 22.0%) of participants met the criteria of chronic non-disabling non-malignant pain. 7.4% (95% CI 5.0% to 9.9%) met criteria for chronic disabling non-malignant pain. Compared with no chronic pain, the rate ratio (RR) of days with sick leave/disability was 1.6 for non-disabling pain and 6.4 for disabling pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RRs increased to 1.8 and 6.8. The RR of doctor visits was 2.5 for non-disabling pain and 4.5 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.7 and 2.6. The RR of days in hospital was 2.7 for non-disabling pain and 11.7 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.5 and 4.0. Unemployment was predicted by lower educational level (Odds Ratio OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.70-6.29]), disabling pain (OR 3.30 [95% CI 1.76-6.21]) and disease load (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.41-2.05]). Chronic pain stages, but also disease load and societal inequalities

  18. Prevalence and correlates of sleep-related problems in adults receiving medical cannabis for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Arnedt, J Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Blow, Frederic C; Ilgen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=801,M age=45.8) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) for chronic pain at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed baseline measures of cannabis use, sleep, pain, and other related constructs. Over half of the sample (59%) met criteria for past 1-month sleep disturbance, defined as at least one sleep problem occurring on 15 or more nights in the past month. Most participants (86%) reported that sleep problems were due to their current pain. Approximately 80% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months to improve sleep and, among these participants, cannabis was rated as helpful for improving sleep. Sleep-related cannabis side effects were rare (35%), but sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms were relatively common (65%). Statistically significant correlates of past 1-month sleep disturbance included a) being female, b) being white, c) being on disability, d) not having a medical cannabis card, and e) frequency of using cannabis to help sleep. Sleep problems are highly prevalent and frequent in medical cannabis patients and are closely tied to pain. Sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms are relatively common but their clinical relevance is unknown. The association between frequency of cannabis use to help sleep with higher odds of sleep problems will need to be clarified by longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of and associations with allergic rhinitis in children with chronic rhinosinusitis.

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    Sedaghat, Ahmad R; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Cunningham, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in children has been associated with a variety of disorders including atopic disease, cystic fibrosis, immunologic disorders and ciliary dyskinesia. Although a strong association, or even cause and effect relationship, between allergic rhinitis (AR) and CRS is commonly assumed, the epidemiologic relationship between these disorders has not yet been defined in children. A retrospective review of all children diagnosed with CRS on otolaryngology or allergy office evaluation at a large tertiary-care pediatric hospital over a ten-year period was performed. Demographic data and concomitant diagnoses of AR, cystic fibrosis, immunologic disorders and primary ciliary dyskinesia were analyzed for relationships with CRS. A total of 4044 children with an average age of 8.9 years and a slight male predominance (53.8%) with CRS were identified. Of these children, 0.2% had primary ciliary dyskinesia, 4.1% had cystic fibrosis, 12.3% had an immunologic disorder, and 26.9% had AR. A concomitant asthma diagnosis was positively associated with a diagnosis of AR (OR=6.24, 95% CI: 5.27-7.39, P<0.001), whereas a concomitant cystic fibrosis diagnosis was negatively associated (OR=0.12, 95% CI: 0.06-0.26, P<0.001). AR is more prevalent than the other comorbidities combined in children with CRS, and is independently associated with the presence of asthma. Formal allergy testing, guided by clinical history and regional allergen sensitivity prevalence, should be strongly considered in all children with CRS, in particular those with reactive airway disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of Inducible Urticaria in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Amaya, Emerson; Acevedo, Ana; Celis, Ana; Caraballo, Domingo; Cardona, Ricardo

    Information on the prevalence of inducible urticaria (IU) in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and the factors affecting this prevalence is scarce in the literature. To estimate the frequency of IU in patients with CSU and to explore possible factors associated with CSU. Patients older than 12 years diagnosed with CSU and a control group with no history of urticaria were recruited from 2 different cities. All patients were questioned about triggers associated with exacerbation of urticaria, and challenge tests were performed for symptomatic dermographism, pressure, cold, water, and exercise. Atopy to mites and self-reactivity to autologous serum were evaluated using skin tests. The study population comprised 245 patients with CSU and 127 controls. Of the patients with CSU, 186 (75.9%) reported a physical trigger, although only 89 (36.3%) had a positive challenge test result. The challenge tests showed that symptomatic dermographism was the most common type of IU, affecting 24.8% of the CSU group, followed by cold, which affected 13.4%. In the control group, 3.9% of patients were positive for symptomatic dermographism. People living in Medellín city had a higher frequency of symptomatic dermographism 28.5% (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1-4.4; P = .03) and cold urticaria 16.5% (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.125-9.8; P = .02) than did people living in Bogotá (dermographism 14.4% and cold 5.2%). Atopy and self-reactivity were more frequent in patients with CSU than in the control group. Physical triggers must be verified by challenge tests to avoid unnecessary lifestyle restrictions. Environmental factors such as geographical characteristics could play a key role in the development of some types of IU, whereas atopy and self-reactivity are major risk factors for CSU. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein-energy wasting syndrome in advanced chronic kidney disease: prevalence and specific clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, Almudena; González Garcia, M Elena; San José-Valiente, Belén; Bajo Rubio, M Auxiliadora; Celadilla Diez, Olga; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Selgas, Rafael

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA). Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men) with a mean age of 66.1±16 years. The nutritional assessment consisted of: SGA, PEW criteria, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis. The prevalence of PEW was 30.1%, with significant differences between men and women (22.8 vs. 33.8%, p intake. Women had higher levels of total cholesterol, HDL and a higher body fat percentage. The characteristics of patients with PEW were low albumin levels and a low total lymphocyte count, high proteinuria, low fat and muscle mass and a high Na/K ratio. The multivariate analysis found PEW to be associated with: proteinuria (OR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.084-1.457, p=0.002), percentage of fat intake (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.893-0.983, p=0.008), total lymphocyte count (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998-0.999, p=0.001) and cell mass index (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.992-0.998). Malnutrition was identified in Spanish advanced CKD patients measured by different tools. We consider it appropriate to adapt new diagnostic elements to PEW criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactive Balance in Individuals With Chronic Stroke: Biomechanical Factors Related to Perturbation-Induced Backward Falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salot, Pooja; Patel, Prakruti; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-03-01

    An effective compensatory stepping response is the first line of defense for preventing a fall during sudden large external perturbations. The biomechanical factors that contribute to heightened fall risk in survivors of stroke, however, are not clearly understood. It is known that impending sensorimotor and balance deficits poststroke predispose these individuals to a risk of fall during sudden external perturbations. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of fall risk in survivors of chronic stroke when exposed to sudden, slip-like forward perturbations in stance. This was a cross-sectional study. Fourteen individuals with stroke, 14 age-matched controls (AC group), and 14 young controls (YC group) were exposed to large-magnitude forward stance perturbations. Postural stability was computed as center of mass (COM) position (XCOM/BOS) and velocity (ẊCOM/BOS) relative to the base of support (BOS) at first step lift-off (LO) and touch-down (TD) and at second step TD. Limb support was quantified as vertical hip descent (Zhip) from baseline after perturbation onset. All participants showed a backward balance loss, with 71% of the stroke group experiencing a fall compared with no falls in the control groups (AC and YC groups). At first step LO, no between-group differences in XCOM/BOS and ẊCOM/BOS were noted. At first step TD, however, the stroke group had a significantly posterior XCOM/BOS and backward ẊCOM/BOS compared with the control groups. At second step TD, individuals with stroke were still more unstable (more posterior XCOM/BOS and backward ẊCOM/BOS) compared with the AC group. Individuals with stroke also showed greater peak Zhip compared with the control groups. Furthermore, the stroke group took a larger number of steps with shorter step length and delayed step initiation compared with the control groups. Although the study highlights the reactive balance deficits increasing fall risk in survivors of stroke compared with healthy

  3. Active Video Games as a Training Tool for Individuals With Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stacey J; Lee, Annemarie L; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2018-02-26

    Exercise is an effective treatment for reducing symptom severity and improving quality of life for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Active video games offer a new and enjoyable way to exercise and have gained popularity in a rehabilitation setting. However, it is unclear whether they achieve comparable physiological and clinical effects as traditional exercise training. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies that included an active video game component as a form of exercise training and a comparator group in chronic respiratory disease. Two assessors independently reviewed study quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and extracted data for exercise capacity, quality of life, and preference of exercise model. Six studies were included in this review. Because of the heterogeneity of the populations, study designs, length of intervention, and outcome measures, meta-analysis could not be performed. Active video game training resulted in comparable training maximal heart rate and dyspnea levels to those achieved when exercising using a treadmill or cycle (n = 5). There was insufficient evidence (n = 3) to determine whether active video game training improved exercise capacity as measured by 6-min walk test or treadmill endurance walking. Although the quality of evidence was low, in a small number of studies active video games induced peak heart rates and dyspnea levels comparable with traditional exercise training. Larger and longer-term randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the impact of video game training for individuals with chronic respiratory diseases.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  4. The efficacy of treadmill training on balance dysfunction in individuals with chronic stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tally, Zachary; Boetefuer, Laura; Kauk, Courtney; Perez, Gabriela; Schrand, Lorraine; Hoder, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity and exercise interventions are useful in facilitating the functional recovery of those with chronic stroke and, routinely, are gait-specific. While treadmill training has proven useful in gait performance recovery post-stroke, its efficacy on balance dysfunction has not been  systematically reviewed. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of treadmill training (TT) interventions on balance dysfunction in individuals with chronic stroke. A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL was performed. Eligible randomized controlled trials were published between 2007 and 2016. Selected trials investigated TT interventions in persons with chronic stroke and implemented at least one objective balance measure. Methodological quality was assessed using PEDro criteria. Eight studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis. Studies differed in TT implementation and use of adjunctive treatments; however, all trials demonstrated improvements in balance measures that were as effective, if not more so, than conventional physical therapy treatments, including targeted balance training. This review recognized moderate evidence in favor of TT interventions in balance and stroke rehabilitation programs. With TT, intensity may be a more critical factor than specificity and may offer additional carryover to recovery parameters of postural control and balance, beyond gait performance. It is recommended that clinicians utilizing TT incorporate objective measures of balance to assess the potential for skill transference and improvements in balance. Higher quality studies and additional research are needed to denote critical parameters by which improvements in balance may be optimized.

  5. Bothersome Tics in Patients with Chronic Tic Disorders: Characteristics and Individualized Treatment Response to Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Woods, Douglas W.; Villarreal, Robert; Wilhelm, Sabine; Walkup, John T.; Peterson, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    This report examined the most frequently reported bothersome tics among individuals with chronic tic disorders and evaluated the improvement and remission of tics and their associated characteristics. Youths and adults (N = 240) were randomly assigned to receive the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) or psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, motor tics and tics with an urge were rated as more bothersome relative to vocal tics and tics without premonitory urges. The five most common bothersome tics included eye blinking, head jerks, sniffing, throat clearing, and other complex motor tics. While CBIT outperformed PST across tic type and urge presence, tics preceded by premonitory urges at baseline had higher severity at posttreatment across treatment condition. Six individual tic types had lower severity at posttreatment following CBIT relative to PST. Baseline urge presence was associated with tic remission for CBIT but not PST. Specific bothersome tics were more likely to remit with CBIT relative to PST. Findings suggest that individual tics respond and remit differently to CBIT relative to PST, with implications highlighting the negative reinforcement hypothesis in tic symptom maintenance. PMID:25988365

  6. Bothersome tics in patients with chronic tic disorders: Characteristics and individualized treatment response to behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Woods, Douglas W; Villarreal, Robert; Wilhelm, Sabine; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-07-01

    This report examined the most frequently reported bothersome tics among individuals with chronic tic disorders and evaluated the improvement and remission of tics and their associated characteristics. Youths and adults (N = 240) were randomly assigned to receive the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) or psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, motor tics and tics with an urge were rated as more bothersome relative to vocal tics and tics without premonitory urges. The five most common bothersome tics included eye blinking, head jerks, sniffing, throat clearing, and other complex motor tics. While CBIT outperformed PST across tic type and urge presence, tics preceded by premonitory urges at baseline had higher severity at posttreatment across treatment condition. Six individual tic types had lower severity at posttreatment following CBIT relative to PST. Baseline urge presence was associated with tic remission for CBIT but not PST. Specific bothersome tics were more likely to remit with CBIT relative to PST. Findings suggest that individual tics respond and remit differently to CBIT relative to PST, with implications highlighting the negative reinforcement hypothesis in tic symptom maintenance. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00218777; NCT00231985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Core stability exercises in individuals with and without chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul Wm; Desai, Imtiaz; Robbins, Daniel W

    2011-12-01

    Marshall, PWM, Desai, I, and Robbins, DW. Core stability exercises in individuals with and without chronic nonspecific low back pain. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3404-3411, 2011-The aim of this study was to measure trunk muscle activity during several commonly used exercises in individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). Abdominal bracing was investigated as an exercise modification that may increase the acute training stimulus. After an initial familiarization session, 10 patients with LBP and 10 matched controls performed 5 different exercises (quadruped, side bridge, modified push-up, squat, shoulder flexion) with and without abdominal bracing. Trunk muscle activity and lumbar range of motion (LROM) were measured during all exercises. Muscle activity was measured bilaterally during each exercise from rectus abdominis (RA), external obliques (EO), and lumbar erector spinae (ES) with pairs of surface electrodes. Recorded signals were normalized to a percentage of maximal voluntary contractions performed for each muscle. The ES activity was lower for the LBP group during the quadruped (p exercises in an inconsistent pattern when abdominal bracing was used during exercise. The LROM was no different between groups for any exercise. The lack of worsening of symptoms in the LBP group and similar LROM observed between groups suggest that all exercises investigated in this study are of use in rehabilitating LBP patients. The widespread use of abdominal bracing in clinical practice, whether it be for patients with LBP or healthy individuals, may not be justified unless symptoms of spinal instability are identified.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p<0.05. Significant difference in disability was seen between the subgroups. Conclusions. The study identified a high risk group of CP individuals whose level of personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery.

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease Awareness Among Individuals with Clinical Markers of Kidney Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Laura C.; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Jordan, Regina; Burrows, Nilka Ríos; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Yee, Jerry; Saran, Rajiv; Powe, Neil R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Awareness of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among providers and patients is low. Whether clinical cues prompt recognition of CKD is unknown. We examined whether markers of kidney disease that should trigger CKD recognition among providers are associated with higher individual CKD awareness. Design, setting, participants, & measurements CKD awareness was assessed in 1852 adults with an estimated GFR kidneys?” Participants were grouped by distribution of the following abnormal markers of CKD: hyperkalemia, acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, albuminuria, and uncontrolled hypertension. Odds of CKD awareness associated with each abnormal marker and groupings of markers were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Results Among individuals with kidney disease, only those with albuminuria had greater odds of CKD awareness (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0, P disease. Conclusions Although individuals who manifest many markers of kidney dysfunction are more likely to be aware of their CKD, their CKD awareness remains low. A better understanding of mechanisms of awareness is required to facilitate earlier detection of CKD and implement therapy to minimize associated complications. PMID:21784832

  10. Prevalência de dor crônica em adultos Prevalencia de dolor cronico en adultos Prevalence of chronic pain in adult workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Giorio Dutra Kreling

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A dor crônica é um problema de saúde pública que acarreta prejuízos pessoais e sociais. Estudos epidemiológicos de dor crônica no Brasil e no resto do mundo são escassos, principalmente em se tratando de dores não específicas e em populações não vinculadas a serviços de saúde. Foram objetivos desse estudo: identificar a prevalência de dor crônica em adultos trabalhadores; analisar a prevalência de dor crônica conforme o sexo; e analisar a prevalência de dor conforme locais do corpo. Esta pesquisa foi realizada com uma amostra de 505 funcionários da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Paraná, Brasil, considerando-se uma prevalência esperada de 50%, margem de erro de 4% na estimativa e nível de confiança de 95%. Estabeleceram-se como significativos os valores de pEl dolor crónico es un problema de salud pública que puede acarrear prejuicios personales y sociales. Estudios epidemiológicos del dolor crónico en Brasil y en el resto del mundo son escasos, máxime cuando se trata de los dolores no específicos y en poblaciones que no se vinculam a los servícios de salud. Esse estudio tuvo como objetivos: identificar la prevalencia del dolor crónico em adultos trabajadores; analizar la prevalencia del dolor conforme regiones del cuerpo. Esa investigación fue realizada con una muestra de 505 funcionarios de la Universidad Estadual de Londrina, considerándose una prevalencia esperada de 50%, margen de error de 4% em la estimativa y nivel de confianza de 95%. Se estableció como significativo los valores de pChronic pain is a public health problem which causes personal and social losses. There are few epidemiological studies of chronic pain in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, especially those dealing with non-specific pain, in general population. The objectives of this study were: to identify the prevalence of chronic pain in adult workers; to analyze the prevalence of chronic pain according to gender, and local of pain

  11. Sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease on conservative therapy: prevalence and association with mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Raíssa A; Cordeiro, Antonio C; Avesani, Carla M; Carrero, Juan J; Lindholm, Bengt; Amparo, Fernanda C; Amodeo, Celso; Cuppari, Lilian; Kamimura, Maria A

    2015-10-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), multiple metabolic and nutritional abnormalities contribute to the impairment of skeletal muscle mass and function thus predisposing patients to the condition of sarcopenia. Herein, we investigated the prevalence and mortality predictive power of sarcopenia, defined by three different methods, in non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD patients. We evaluated 287 NDD-CKD patients in stages 3-5 [59.9 ± 10.5 years; 62% men; 49% diabetics; glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 25.0 ± 15.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2)]. Sarcopenia was defined as reduced muscle function assessed by handgrip strength (HGS <30th percentile of a population-based reference adjusted for sex and age) plus diminished muscle mass assessed by three different methods: (i) midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) <90% of reference value (A), (ii) muscle wasting by subjective global assessment (B) and (iii) reduced skeletal muscle mass index (<10.76 kg/m² men; <6.76 kg/m² women) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) (C). Patients were followed for up to 40 months for all-cause mortality, and there was no loss of follow-up. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 9.8% (A), 9.4% (B) and 5.9% (C). The kappa agreement between the methods were 0.69 (A versus B), 0.49 (A versus C) and 0.46 (B versus C). During follow-up, 51 patients (18%) died, and the frequency of sarcopenia was significantly higher among non-survivors. In crude Cox analysis, sarcopenia diagnosed by the three methods was associated with a higher hazard for mortality; however, only sarcopenia diagnosed by method C remained as a predictor of mortality after multivariate adjustment. The prevalence of sarcopenia in CKD patients on conservative therapy varies according to the method applied. Sarcopenia defined as reduced handgrip strength and low skeletal muscle mass index estimated by BIA was an independent predictor of mortality in these patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA

  12. Prevalence and correlates of osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in India

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    Jyothi Hattiholi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a syndrome of progressive airflow limitation caused by the abnormal inflammatory reaction of the airway and lung parenchyma. Osteoporosis is one of the major extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD. The, prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD patients in Indian population is unknown. Objectives: To study the prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD and to define various risk factors associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD in COPD. Materials and Methods: The study was done in the department of Pulmonary Medicine of a tertiary care hospital. All the diagnosed cases of COPD according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines were included in this study. The present study was a prospective study in for a period of 1 year. A brief history of the patients was taken, especially regarding duration of illness, number of exacerbations in the past 3 years, smoking in pack years, and history of steroid use (both systemic and inhaled steroids after which cumulative dose of steroids was calculated. Spirometry was done in all these patients to stage the severity of COPD according to GOLD criteria. DEXA scan of the lumbar spine was done using bone densitometer to determine osteoporosis. A world Health Organization (WHO criterion for definition of osteoporosis was applied and patients with T-score of > –2.5 standard deviation (SD were diagnosed to have osteoporosis, –1 SD to –2.5 SD were diagnosed to have osteopenia and 3 (OR: 30.3, 95% CI: 4.74-200, P 1,000 mg (OR: 7.35, 95% CI: 0.92-58.5, P < 0.04 were observed to be significant risk factors for osteoporosis in COPD patients. Conclusions: In the present study, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 66.6% and another 19.6% had osteopenia. As the severity of COPD increased, the risk of osteoporosis increased. GOLD stage III and stage IV patient had significantly lower BMD as compared to stage I and stage II of COPD disease

  13. Prevalence and Outcomes of Left-Sided Valvular Heart Disease Associated With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Zainab; Sivak, Joseph A; Phelan, Matthew; Schulte, Phillip J; Patel, Uptal; Velazquez, Eric J

    2017-10-11

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an adverse prognostic marker for valve intervention patients; however, the prevalence and related outcomes of valvular heart disease in CKD patients is unknown. Included patients underwent echocardiography (1999-2013), had serum creatinine values within 6 months before index echocardiogram, and had no history of valve surgery. CKD was defined as diagnosis based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision or an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 . Qualitative assessment determined left heart stenotic and regurgitant valve lesions. Cox models assessed CKD and aortic stenosis (AS) interaction for subsequent mortality; analyses were repeated for mitral regurgitation (MR). Among 78 059 patients, 23 727 (30%) had CKD; of these, 1326 were on hemodialysis. CKD patients were older; female; had a higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, history of coronary artery bypass grafting/percutaneous coronary intervention, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure ≥mild AS; and ≥mild MR (all P <0.001). Five-year survival estimates of mild, moderate, and severe AS for CKD patients were 40%, 34%, and 42%, respectively, and 69%, 54%, and 67% for non-CKD patients. Five-year survival estimates of mild, moderate, and severe MR for CKD patients were 51%, 38%, and 37%, respectively, and 75%, 66%, and 65% for non-CKD patients. Significant interaction occurred among CKD, AS/MR severity, and mortality in adjusted analyses; the CKD hazard ratio increased from 1.8 (non-AS patients) to 2.0 (severe AS) and from 1.7 (non-MR patients) to 2.6 (severe MR). Prevalence of at least mild AS and MR is substantially higher and is associated with significantly lower survival among patients with versus without CKD. There is significant interaction among CKD, AS/MR severity, and mortality, with increasingly worse outcomes for CKD patients with increasing AS/MR severity. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  14. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Camiciottoli G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gianna Camiciottoli,1,2 Francesca Bigazzi,1 Chiara Magni,1 Viola Bonti,1 Stefano Diciotti,3 Maurizio Bartolucci,4 Mario Mascalchi,5 Massimo Pistolesi1 1Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, 3Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi,” University of Bologna, Cesena, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Careggi University Hospital, 5Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Background: In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema and severity (mild and severe diseases were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods: A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results: Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively. IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed

  15. Radionuclide determination of individual kidney function in the treatment of chronic renal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belis, J.A.; Belis, T.E.; Lai, J.C.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1982-01-01

    Differential radionuclide renal scans can be useful in the management of patients with chronic partial obstruction of 1 kidney. The /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid perfusion scan can be used to assess glomerular blood flow. The 131 I orthoiodohippurate renal scan provides qualitative functional information from scintigrams and quantitative evaluation of effective renal plasma flow to each kidney, as well as a total excretory index. Sequential /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and 131 I orthoiodohippurate renal scans were used to assess individual renal function before and after surgical correction of unilateral chronic renal obstruction in 31 patients. The preservation of cortical perfusion on /supb 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans indicated that potential existed for partial recovery of renal function. Effective renal plasma flow and excretory index determined in conjunction with the 131 I orthoiodohippurate scans provided a quantitative assessment of preoperative renal function, an evaluation of the effect of surgery and a sensitive method for long-term evaluation of differential renal function. Correction of ureteropelvic junction obstruction usually resulted in improvement in unilateral renal function. Neither nephrolithotomy nor extended pyelolithotomy diminished renal function in the kidney subjected to an operation and often improved it. Patients with long-standing distal ureteral obstruction had the least improvement in renal function postoperatively

  16. Prevalence of Chronic non Communicable Diseases and Risk Factors in Older Adults in Holguín

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    Pedro Enrique Miguel Soca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundation: chronic non communicable diseases and their associated risk factors constitute a health problem in the elderly. Objective: to determine the prevalence of non communicable chronic diseases and to identify their associated risk factors in the elderly in Holguín province. Method: across-sectional study was carried out with a multistage sampling of 2 085 adults from 4 municipalities in the province of Holguín. The variables analyzed were: age, weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, hip circumference, waist / hip index, waist / height index, blood pressure and laboratory complement. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of the mean with their respective 95 % confidence intervals. Results: prevalence rates of chronic diseases and associated factors were overweight: 33.7 %, obesity: 45.2 %, abdominal obesity: 68 %, waist / tall index: 91.2 %, prehypertension: 5.4 % , hypertension: 29.6 %, hypertriglyceridemia: 60.9 %, hypercholesterolemia 54.1 %, HDL-cholesterol under 43,9 %, high LDL-cholesterol 20.7 %, high plasma atherogenic index 53.4 %, metabolic syndrome 56.5 %, ischemic heart disease 24.8 %, hypothyroidism 8.5 %, smoking 17.3 % , positive C-reactive protein 6, 8 % and positive microalbuminuria 3.4 %. Conclusions: older adults presented greater deterioration of anthropometric and lipid profile measurements than non - elderly adults, with high prevalence rates of most of the non - communicable chronic diseases studied and their associated risk factors.

  17. The Platino project: methodology of a multicenter prevalence survey of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in major Latin American cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Padilla Rogelio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in many developed countries appears to be increasing. There is some evidence from Latin America that COPD is a growing cause of death, but information on prevalence is scant. It is possible that, due to the high frequency of smoking in these countries, this disease may represent a major public health problem that has not yet been recognized as such. The PLATINO study is aimed at measuring COPD prevalence in major cities in Latin America. Methods/Design A multi-country survey is being carried out in major cities in Latin America. In each metropolitan area, a population-based sample of approximately 1,000 individuals aged 40 years or older is being interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Eligible subjects are submitted to pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry, and classified according to several criteria for COPD. Anthropometric examinations are also performed. Several risk factors are being studied, including smoking, socioeconomic factors, exposure to domestic biomass pollution, occupational exposure to dust and hospital admissions due to respiratory conditions during childhood. Whether or not subjects affected by COPD are aware of their disease, and if so how it is being managed by health services, is also being investigated, as are the consequences of this condition on quality of life and work performance. Results At the present time, the study is completed in São Paulo, Mexico City and Montevideo; Chile has started the study in March 2004 and it will be followed by Venezuela; two other metropolitan areas could still join the PLATINO project. Similar sampling procedures, with stratification for socio-economic status, are being used in all sites. Strict coordination, training and standardization procedures have been used to ensure comparability of results across sites. Overall 92% of the pre-bronchodilator spirometry tests fulfilled ATS criteria of

  18. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks

  19. Prevalence and Prognostic Implications of Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Yoshitsugu Obi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an important nutrient involved in bone mineral metabolism, and vitamin D status is reflected by serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D concentrations. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and nutritional vitamin D supplementation decreases elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations in subgroups of these patients. Furthermore, vitamin D is supposed to have pleiotropic effects on various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, infectious diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Indeed, there is cumulative evidence showing the associations of low vitamin D with the development and progression of CKD, cardiovascular complication, and high mortality. Recently, genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D-binding protein have received great attention because they largely affect bioavailable 25(OHD concentrations. This finding suggests that the serum total 25(OHD concentrations would not be comparable among different gene polymorphisms and thus may be inappropriate as an index of vitamin D status. This finding may refute the conventional definition of vitamin D status based solely on serum total 25(OHD concentrations.

  20. Comparison of the prevalence of fructose and lactose malabsorption across chronic intestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J S; Irving, P M; Shepherd, S J; Muir, J G; Gibson, P R

    2009-07-01

    Fructose malabsorption, lactose malabsorption and an early rise in breath hydrogen after lactulose (ERBHAL) may play roles in induction of symptoms in gastrointestinal conditions. To compare prevalence and interactions of fructose malabsorption, lactose malabsorption and ERBHAL among healthy subjects and those with chronic intestinal disorders using consistent breath hydrogen testing methodologies. Consecutive series of Caucasian patients with Crohn's disease (n = 91), ulcerative colitis (56), functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) (201), coeliac disease (136) and 71 healthy volunteers underwent breath hydrogen testing using lactulose, fructose and lactose. Early rise in breath hydrogen after lactulose occurred more commonly in healthy controls (39%) than in Crohn's disease (20%) and untreated coeliac disease (14%; P Fructose malabsorption was more frequent in Crohn's disease (61%) than other groups (33-44%, P malabsorption was most common in Crohn's disease (42%) and ulcerative colitis (40%) and uncommon (10%) in 79 patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease. In Crohn's disease, concurrent Fructose malabsorption and lactose malabsorption was most common (29%), and the association of fructose malabsorption with ERBHAL seen overall (62%) was not observed (36%, P malabsorption and ERBHAL are normal physiological phenomena. The abnormal patterns observed in Crohn's disease may have pathogenic importance.

  1. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa among Saudi Patients with Chronic Renal Failure: A Case-Control Study

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    Yousry A. Hawash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls, followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls. Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05. Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.

  2. Prevalence and prognostic implications of vitamin D deficiency in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Hamano, Takayuki; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important nutrient involved in bone mineral metabolism, and vitamin D status is reflected by serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and nutritional vitamin D supplementation decreases elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations in subgroups of these patients. Furthermore, vitamin D is supposed to have pleiotropic effects on various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, infectious diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Indeed, there is cumulative evidence showing the associations of low vitamin D with the development and progression of CKD, cardiovascular complication, and high mortality. Recently, genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D-binding protein have received great attention because they largely affect bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations. This finding suggests that the serum total 25(OH)D concentrations would not be comparable among different gene polymorphisms and thus may be inappropriate as an index of vitamin D status. This finding may refute the conventional definition of vitamin D status based solely on serum total 25(OH)D concentrations.

  3. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (density-dependent, and intermediate transmission models predicted CWD incidence rates in harvested yearling deer. An intermediate transmission model, incorporating both disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  4. Efficacy of Liuzijue Qigong in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun-Mei; Zhuang, Yong-Chang

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a 6-month Liuzijue qigong (LQG) program in promoting physical and psychosocial function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Seven hospital respiratory care centers in Beijing. Individuals with COPD (N = 126; mean age 71.1 ± 2.7, range 65-85). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: LQG (n = 63) and control (n = 63). Subjects in the LQG group received a LQG program consisting of four 45-minute sessions each week and daily walking for 30 minutes for 6 months. Control subjects walked daily for 30 minutes. Data collection was performed at baseline, at 6 weeks, and at 6 months. Primary outcomes involved functional capacity, and secondary outcomes involved quality of life. The LQG group had greater improvements in the 6-minute walk test (P = .02); specific airway conductance (P = .02); monitored functional task evaluation (P = .04); Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36; general health (P < .001), mental health (P = .03)); Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (dyspnea (P = .05), emotion (P = .05), and mastery (P = .04) at 6-month follow-up. After 6 months, the control group had significant improvement only on the SF-36 mental health (P = .02). LQG promoted functional capacity and quality of life in older adults with COPD at 6 months and is a good alternative home exercise program for older adults in the rehabilitation of COPD. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection...... in Denmark using four nationwide registers. The population with undiagnosed chronic HBV infection was estimated by incorporating data from a two-year nationwide HBsAg screening programme in pregnant women. We identified 4,466 individuals with chronic HBV infection in the four registers until the end of 2007...... alive with HBV infection was 10,668 (95% CI: 10,224–16,164), corresponding to a prevalence of 0.24% (95% CI: 0.23–0.37%) in the Danish population older than 15 years. The estimated prevalence of chronic HBV infection among adults in Denmark was lower than reported from other northern European countries...

  6. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its association with tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuramalu, B G; Huliraj, N; Prashanth Kumar, S P; Ramesh Masthi, N R; Srinivasa Babu, C R

    2014-01-01

    A field survey was conducted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) epidemiology in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India, which covers a population of 44,387 to find out the prevalence of COPD in adult subjects of 35 years and above using cluster sampling technique and to determine the association of tobacco smoking, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) exposure and type of cooking fuel used with COPD. The overall prevalence of COPD was 4.36%. The prevalence among males and females were 5.32% and 3.41% respectively. The prevalence was found to be increasing with an increase in age. The tobacco smoke and exposure to ETS was significantly associated with higher odds of COPD with adjusted odds ratio 2.97 and 2.67 respectively. Thus, there was a significant association between tobacco smoking and ETS exposure with COPD.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Major Depression: A Study on 703 Individuals Referred for Sleep Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthieu; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Loas, Gwénolé; Hubain, Philippe; Linkowski, Paul

    Several studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of depression in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in major depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in a large sample of individuals with major depression. Data from 703 individuals with major depression recruited from the research database of the sleep laboratory of the Erasme Hospital were analysed. Only individuals with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes according to the diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association were included in the diabetes group. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine clinical and demographic risk factors of type 2 diabetes in major depression. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in major depression is 21.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that male sex, high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, BMI ≥30kg/m², age ≥50 years, sleep duration 12, and apnea-hypopnea index ≥5/h were significant risk factors of type 2 diabetes in major depression. Type 2 diabetes is a common condition in major depression. In this subpopulation, most of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes are reversible, which justifies better prevention and management of this disorder to avoid its negative consequences. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The prevalence of PI*S and PI*Z SERPINA1 alleles in healthy individuals and COPD patients in Saudi Arabia: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Hassan, Amina A; Hassanato, Rana; Isac, Sree R; Otaiby, Maram Al; Al-Shareef, Fadwa; Al-Maarik, Basmah; Ajeyan, Iman Al; Al-Bahloul, Khloud; Ghani, Samina; Al-Torbak, Dana

    2017-10-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase protein produced in hepatocytes. Its deficiency affects the lungs and liver. A case-control study was carried out to determine the prevalence of 2 common deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in both healthy and chronic obstructive pulmmonary disease (COPD)-affected Saudi populations and to clarify the importance of genetic tests in the screening of people at risk for COPD.One thousand blood samples from healthy individuals and 1000 from COPD-affected Saudi individuals were genotyped for the above-mentioned alleles, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with the exclusion of any other nationalities. Data were analyzed by determining the allele and genotype frequencies through gene counting and its confidence intervals. The allele frequencies, derived by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium method, were analyzed by Pearson Chi-squared tests. The confidence intervals for genotype frequencies were calculated using exploratory software for confidence intervals.Of the 1000 COPD patients included in our study, the prevalence of PI*S and PI*Z was 21.8% and 7.7%, respectively, while within the 1000 normal samples, these alleles occurred in 8.9% of patients for PI*S and 1.6% for PI*Z. The AAT deficiency genotype frequencies (PI*ZZ, PI*SS, and PI*SZ) were 6.5 per 1000 and 87 per 1000 for normal and COPD-affected Saudi individuals.Our results indicated a high prevalence of AATD alleles in the normal Saudi population and an association between AAT deficiency and pulmonary disease development. Additionally, our research confirms the importance of genetic screening to achieve early and accurate diagnosis of AATD.

  9. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (Sleep extension (468±88 days) with life-style modifications. Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39). Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02), and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001). Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74), subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (psleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (pattention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001), and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06). Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02). In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. Drop-out rate. Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population. www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898. NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036.

  10. Population modelling to compare chronic external radiotoxicity between individual and population endpoints in four taxonomic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo, Frédéric; Hertel-Aas, Turid; Real, Almudena; Lance, Emilie; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Bradshaw, Clare; Vives i Batlle, Jordi; Oughton, Deborah H.; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we modelled population responses to chronic external gamma radiation in 12 laboratory species (including aquatic and soil invertebrates, fish and terrestrial mammals). Our aim was to compare radiosensitivity between individual and population endpoints and to examine how internationally proposed benchmarks for environmental radioprotection protected species against various risks at the population level. To do so, we used population matrix models, combining life history and chronic radiotoxicity data (derived from laboratory experiments and described in the literature and the FREDERICA database) to simulate changes in population endpoints (net reproductive rate R 0 , asymptotic population growth rate λ, equilibrium population size N eq ) for a range of dose rates. Elasticity analyses of models showed that population responses differed depending on the affected individual endpoint (juvenile or adult survival, delay in maturity or reduction in fecundity), the considered population endpoint (R 0 , λ or N eq ) and the life history of the studied species. Among population endpoints, net reproductive rate R 0 showed the lowest EDR 10 (effective dose rate inducing 10% effect) in all species, with values ranging from 26 μGy h −1 in the mouse Mus musculus to 38,000 μGy h −1 in the fish Oryzias latipes. For several species, EDR 10 for population endpoints were lower than the lowest EDR 10 for individual endpoints. Various population level risks, differing in severity for the population, were investigated. Population extinction (predicted when radiation effects caused population growth rate λ to decrease below 1, indicating that no population growth in the long term) was predicted for dose rates ranging from 2700 μGy h −1 in fish to 12,000 μGy h −1 in soil invertebrates. A milder risk, that population growth rate λ will be reduced by 10% of the reduction causing extinction, was predicted for dose rates ranging from 24 μGy h −1 in

  11. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane L. Flores

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2 Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+ referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3 Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married, tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married, anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4 Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.

  12. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Four Resource-Limited Settings in Peru: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Association with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Noah G; Rattner, Adi; Schwartz, Alan R; Mokhlesi, Babak; Gilman, Robert H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-09-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent condition in high-income countries, with major consequences for cardiopulmonary health, public safety, healthcare utilization, and mortality. However, its prevalence and effect in low- and middle-income countries are less well known. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidities of SDB symptoms in four resource-limited settings. Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort, a population-based age- and sex-stratified sample. Four resource-limited settings in Peru varying in altitude, urbanization, and air pollution. There were 2,682 adults aged 35 to 92 y. Self-reported SDB symptoms (habitual snoring, observed apneas, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), sociodemographics, medical history, anthropometrics, spirometry, blood biomarkers were reported. We found a high prevalence of habitual snoring (30.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5-32.0%), observed apneas (20.9%, 95% CI 19.4-22.5%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (18.6%, 95% CI 17.1-20.1%). SDB symptoms varied across sites; prevalence and adjusted odds for habitual snoring were greatest at sea level, whereas those for observed apneas were greatest at high altitude. In multivariable analysis, habitual snoring was associated with older age, male sex, body mass index (BMI), and higher socioeconomic status; observed apneas were associated with BMI; and excessive daytime sleepiness was associated with older age, female sex, and medium socioeconomic status. Adjusted odds of cardiovascular disease, depression, and hypertension and total chronic disease burden increased progressively with the number of SDB symptoms. A threefold increase in the odds of having an additional chronic comorbid disease (adjusted odds ratio 3.57, 95% CI 2.18-5.84) was observed in those with all three versus no SDB symptoms. Sleep disordered breathing symptoms were highly prevalent, varied widely across four resource-limited settings in Peru, and exhibited strong

  13. Correlates of previous couples’ HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. B. Matovu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43% in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2. Results: Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5% had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66% were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%; of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9% reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%, middle (n=295, 41.7%, and high (n=242, 39.7% HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61. Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.08] and

  14. Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in Chinese patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease: First multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Shi, Hao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Peng, Ai; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Ni, Zhao-Hui; He, Li-Qun; Niu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Nian-Song; Mei, Chang-Lin; Xu, Xu-Dong; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Yan, Hai-Dong; Deng, Yue-Yi; Yu, Chen; Cen, Jun; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Nan

    2016-06-01

    This was the first multicenter, cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of anemia, patient awareness, and treatment status in China. Data of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; age, 18-75 years; both out- and inpatients) from 25 hospitals in Shanghai, seeking medical treatment at the nephrology department, were collected between July 1, 2012 and August 31, 2012. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in patients with nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) were assessed. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. A total of 2420 patients with ND-CKD were included. Anemia was established in 1246 (51.5%) patients: 639 (51.3%) men and 607 (48.7%) women. The prevalence of anemia increased with advancing CKD stage (χtrend = 675.14, P Anemia was more prevalent in patients with diabetic nephropathy (68.0%) than in patients with hypertensive renal damage (56.6%) or chronic glomerulonephritis (46.1%, both P anemia patients, only 7.5% received more effective and recommended intravenous supplementation. Anemia is highly prevalent in patients with ND-CKD in China, with a low target-achieving rate and poor treatment patterns. The study highlights the need to improve multiple aspects of CKD management to delay the progression of renal failure.

  15. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  16. Prevalência de dor lombar crônica na população da cidade de Salvador Chronic low back pain prevalence in the population of the city of Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Costa Guerra Barreto Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A dor lombar crônica atinge níveis epidêmicos na população geral e informações sobre o perfil das pessoas atingidas podem ajudar a direcionar investimentos para seu controle. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de dor lombar crônica na população e identificar fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em inquérito populacional, desenvolvido em setores censitários da cidade de Salvador classificados por nível socioeconômico. Foram entrevistados 2.297 indivíduos em que se avaliou a presença de dor lombar através do mapa corporal. A análise exploratória dos fatores associados foi realizada pela regressão logística. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de dor lombar crônica na população foi de 14,7%, com maior freqüência entre ex-fumantes (19,7%, pessoas com circunferência da cintura acima da normalidade (16,8% e com escolaridade baixa (17,4% em relação com as demais categorias. Fatores como atividade física, classe social, consumo excessivo de álcool, raça, sexo e ocupação na época da entrevista não estiveram associados à dor lombar. Na análise de regressão múltipla, estado civil solteiro associou-se negativamente com dor lombar crônica, enquanto associações positivas e estatisticamente significantes foram observadas entre o tabagismo atual ou no passado e a dor lombar (OR 1,47; IC95%; 1,11-1,96; p INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain has epidemic levels in the general population and profiling the individuals affected may help directing investments to control the problem. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of chronic low back pain in the population and to identify associated factors. METHODS: Transversal study based on a population survey carried out in the sectors classified by the census in the city of Salvador according to socio-economic level. 2,297 individuals were interviewed in whom low back pain was evaluated through a bodily map. Exploratory analysis of associated factors was

  17. Individual differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory: behavioral and neurochemical correlates of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, B M; Veverka, K K; Dhillon, E S; Urban, J H; Lucas, L R

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress has been shown to impair memory, however, the extent to which memory can be impaired is often variable across individuals. Predisposed differences in particular traits, such as anxiety, may reveal underlying neurobiological mechanisms that could be driving individual differences in sensitivity to stress and, thus, stress resiliency. Such pre-morbid characteristics may serve as early indicators of susceptibility to stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) are neurochemical messengers of interest implicated in modulating anxiety and motivation circuitry; however, little is known about how these neuropeptides interact with stress resiliency and memory. In this experiment, adult male rats were appetitively trained to locate sugar rewards in a motivation-based spatial memory task before undergoing repeated immobilization stress and then being tested for memory retention. Anxiety-related behaviors, among other characteristics, were monitored longitudinally. Results indicated that stressed animals which showed little to no impairments in memory post-stress (i.e., the more stress-resilient individuals) exhibited lower anxiety levels prior to stress when compared to stressed animals that showed large deficits in memory (i.e., the more stress-susceptible individuals). Interestingly, all stressed animals, regardless of memory change, showed reduced body weight gain as well as thymic involution, suggesting that the effects of stress on metabolism and the immune system were dissociated from the effects of stress on higher cognition, and that stress resiliency seems to be domain-specific rather than a global characteristic within an individual. Neurochemical analyses revealed that NPY in the hypothalamus and amygdala and ENK in the nucleus accumbens were modulated differentially between stress-resilient and stress-susceptible individuals, with elevated expression of these neuropeptides fostering anxiolytic and pro-motivation function, thus driving

  18. Altered metabolism of gut microbiota contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castellanos, J F; Serrano-Villar, S; Latorre, A; Artacho, A; Ferrús, M L; Madrid, N; Vallejo, A; Sainz, T; Martínez-Botas, J; Ferrando-Martínez, S; Vera, M; Dronda, F; Leal, M; Del Romero, J; Moreno, S; Estrada, V; Gosalbes, M J; Moya, A

    2015-07-01

    Altered interplay between gut mucosa and microbiota during treated HIV infection may possibly contribute to increased bacterial translocation and chronic immune activation, both of which are predictors of morbidity and mortality. Although a dysbiotic gut microbiota has recently been reported in HIV+ individuals, the metagenome gene pool associated with HIV infection remains unknown. The aim of this study is to characterize the functional gene content of gut microbiota in HIV+ patients and to define the metabolic pathways of this bacterial community, which is potentially associated with immune dysfunction. We determined systemic markers of innate and adaptive immunity in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals on successful antiretroviral therapy without comorbidities and in healthy non-HIV-infected subjects. Metagenome sequencing revealed an altered functional profile, with enrichment of the genes involved in various pathogenic processes, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, bacterial translocation, and other inflammatory pathways. In contrast, we observed depletion of genes involved in amino acid metabolism and energy processes. Bayesian networks showed significant interactions between the bacterial community, their altered metabolic pathways, and systemic markers of immune dysfunction. This study reveals altered metabolic activity of microbiota and provides novel insight into the potential host-microbiota interactions driving the sustained inflammatory state in successfully treated HIV-infected patients.

  19. [Social support network and health of elderly individuals with chronic pneumopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Rafael Barreto de; Morano, Maria Tereza Aguiar Pessoa; Landim, Fátima Luna Pinheiro; Collares, Patrícia Moreira Costa; Pinto, Juliana Maria de Sousa

    2012-05-01

    This study sought to analyze characteristics of the social support network of the elderly with chronic pneumopathies, establishing links with health maintenance/rehabilitation. The assumptions of Social Network Analysis (SNA) methodology were used, addressing the social support concept. A questionnaire and semi-structured interviews, both applied to 16 elderly people attended by a public hospital in Fortaleza-CE, were used for data collection. Quantitative data were processed using the UCINET 6.123, NetDraw 2.38 and Microsoft Excel software programs. In the qualitative analysis, the body of material was subjected to interpretations based on relevant and current theoretical references. Each informant brought an average of 10.37 individuals into the network. Among the 3 types of social support, there was a predominance of informational support given by health professionals. The importance of reciprocity in providing/receiving social support was also noted, as well as the participation of health professionals and the family functioning as social support. The conclusion reached was that the network of the elderly with pneumopathies is not cohesive, being restricted to the personal network of each individual, and that even so, the informants recognize and are satisfied with the social support it provides.

  20. Reliability and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures among individuals with and without chronic neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians frequently rely on subjective categorization of impairments in mobility, strength, and endurance for clinical decision-making; however, these assessments are often unreliable and lack sensitivity to change. The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability, minimum detectable change (MDC), and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures for individuals with and without chronic neck pain (NP). Methods Nineteen individuals with NP and 20 healthy controls participated in this case control study. Two physical therapists performed a 30-minute examination on separate days. A handheld dynamometer, gravity inclinometer, ruler, and stopwatch were used to quantify cervical range of motion (ROM), cervical muscle strength and endurance, and scapulothoracic muscle length and strength, respectively. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability were significantly greater than zero for most impairment measures, with point estimates ranging from 0.45 to 0.93. The NP group exhibited reduced cervical ROM (P ≤ 0.012) and muscle strength (P ≤ 0.038) in most movement directions, reduced cervical extensor endurance (P = 0.029), and reduced rhomboid and middle trapezius muscle strength (P ≤ 0.049). Conclusions Results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining objective cervicothoracic impairment measures with acceptable inter-rater agreement across time. The clinical utility of these measures is supported by evidence of impaired mobility, strength, and endurance among patients with NP, with corresponding MDC values that can help establish benchmarks for clinically significant change. PMID:23114092

  1. Motivation and Self-Management Behavior of the Individuals With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Jung; Jeong, Younhee

    2016-01-01

    Self-management behavior is an important component for successful pain management in individuals with chronic low back pain. Motivation has been considered as an effective way to change behavior. Because there are other physical, social, and psychological factors affecting individuals with pain, it is necessary to identify the main effect of motivation on self-management behavior without the influence of those factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation on self-management in controlling pain, depression, and social support. We used a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive design with mediation analysis and included 120 participants' data in the final analysis. We also used hierarchical multiple regression to test the effect of motivation, and multiple regression analysis and Sobel test were used to examine the mediating effect. Motivation itself accounted for 23.4% of the variance in self-management, F(1, 118) = 35.003, p motivation was also a significant factor for self-management. In the mediation analysis, motivation completely mediated the relationship between education and self-management, z = 2.292, p = .021. Motivation is an important part of self-management, and self-management education is not effective without motivation. The results of our study suggest that nurses incorporate motivation in nursing intervention, rather than only giving information.

  2. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Varanda Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain among elderly people of the community and to analyze associations with the self-perceived health status.METHOD: cross-sectional study with a populational sample (n=934, conducted through household interviews in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The intensity of chronic pain (existing for 6 months or more was measured using a numerical scale (0-10 and the self-perceived health through a verbal scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor. For the statistical analysis, the absolute frequency and percentage, CI (95%, Chi-square test, Odds ratio, and regression analysis were used. Significance of 5%.RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 52.8% [CI (95%:49.4-56.1]; most frequently located in the lower limbs (34.5% and lumbar region (29.5%; with high or the worst possible intensity for 54.6% of the elderly people. The occurrence of chronic pain was associated with (p<0.0001 a worse self-perception of health (OR=4.2:2.5-7.0, a greater number of chronic diseases (OR=1.8:1.2-2.7, joint disease (OR=3.5:2.4-5.1 and the female gender (OR=2.3:1.7-3.0. A lower intensity of chronic pain was associated with a better self-perception of health (p<0.0001.CONCLUSION: the majority of the elderly people of the community reported chronic pain, of a severe intensity, and located in areas related to movement activities, thus influencing the morbidity and mortality of this population.

  3. Hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of estimated prevalence in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Tiago Castro Lopes; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rauch, Andri; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening is recommended for all HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, data on epidemiologic characteristics of HCV infection in resource-limited settings are scarce. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies assessing the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected individuals in Africa and extracted data on laboratory methods used. Prevalence estimates from individual studies were combined for each country using random-effects meta-analysis. The importance of study design, population and setting as well as type of test (anti-HCV antibody tests and polymerase chain reactions) was examined with meta-regression. Three randomized controlled trials, 28 cohort studies and 121 cross-sectional analyses with 108,180 HIV-infected individuals from 35 countries were included. The majority of data came from outpatient populations (55%), followed by blood donors (15%) and pregnant women (14%). Based on estimates from 159 study populations, anti-HCV positivity prevalence ranged between 3.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-4.7) in Southern Africa and 42.3% (95% CI 4.1-80.5) in North Africa. Study design, type of setting and age distribution did not influence this prevalence significantly. The prevalence of replicating HCV infection, estimated from data of 29 cohorts, was 2.0% (95% CI 1.5-2.6). Ten studies from nine countries reported the HCV genotype of 74 samples, 53% were genotype 1, 24% genotype 2, 14% genotype 4 and 9% genotypes 3, 5 or 6. The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is high in HIV-infected patients in Africa, but replicating HCV infection is rare and varies widely across countries.

  4. Investigating relations between environmental toxins in Northern Irish soils and streams and Chronic Kidney Disease prevalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Chloe E.; McKinley, Jennifer M.; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Fogarty, Damian; Atkinson, Peter M.; Palmer, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    The unknown aetiology of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) has attracted recent attention as a result of the increasing global prevalence and recent reviews of occupational and environmental exposure to nephrotoxins. The main focus of this research is to examine the potential relationship between environmental exposure to known nephrotoxins including arsenic, cadmium and lead and the potential health risk associated with the progressive dysfunction of the kidneys in renal impaired patients with CKD across Northern Ireland. In addition to these known nephrotoxins, co-abundance with several essential elements has been found to play a role as protecting mechanisms while others increase the uptake of nephrotoxic elements as a result of similar absorption mechanisms within the body. Key elements protecting the body from toxicity include selenium and zinc, whereas those which have been attributed to enhance the uptake of arsenic, cadmium and lead include iron and calcium. The compositional nature of the soil and stream geochemical data is explored to aid in the analysis of interactions between elements. Two approaches, one data-driven and the other knowledge-driven, are explored to investigate the associations between co-abundant elements. The bioaccessibility of these elements, which is the portion of the relevant toxin absorbed within the body, is also investigated to identify areas across Northern Ireland with an increased environmental hazard and potential health risk. The study uses a combination of datasets from the United Kingdom Renal Registry (UKRR) unknown aetiology subset, the soil and stream geochemical dataset from the Tellus Survey (GSNI) with the addition of a bioaccessibility subset. Findings suggest a relationship between the presence of elevated arsenic in stream waters and impaired renal function of the kidneys. Interactions between essential elements and potentially toxic elements could explain the regional variation of CKD of uncertain aetiology across

  5. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in Nepalese individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Daya Ram; Khadka, Dipendra; Sigdel, Manoj; Yadav, Naval Kishor; Acharya, Shreedhar; Kafle, Ramchandra; Sapkota, Ravindra Mohan; Sigdel, Tara

    2017-04-04

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease among patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Timely detection and characterization of this condition help clinicians estimate future risk of cardiovascular disease and take appropriate preventive measures. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and predictors of dyslipidemia in a cohort of Nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes. We found mixed dyslipidemia as the most prevalent (88.1%) and isolated dyslipidemia (10.1%) as the least prevalent forms of dyslipidemia in our patients. The most prevalent form of single dyslipidemia was high LDL-C (73.8%) and combined dyslipidemia was high TG, high LDL-C and low HDL-C (44.7%). Prevalence of all single and mixed dyslipidemia was higher in patients with poor glycemic control and hypertension. The glycemic status of patients correlated with their fasting serum lipid profile. Dyslipidemia was associated mainly with male gender, poor glycemic control and hypertension. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated mainly with male gender, poor glycemic control and hypertension. It is highly prevalent in Nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes. Urgent lifestyle modification, sustained glycemic control and aggressive lipid lowering treatment plans are necessary to minimize the future risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

  6. Psychosocial Interventions for Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela C. Pascoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common amongst individuals with chronic kidney disease and are known to affect quality of life adversely. Psychosocial interventions have been shown to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms in various chronic diseases, but few studies have examined their efficacy in people with chronic kidney disease and no meta-analysis has been published. Thus, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial interventions on depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as quality of life in individuals diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and/or their carers.Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we included published randomized controlled trials comparing psychosocial interventions versus usual care for impacting depressive and anxiety symptoms and quality of life.Results: Eight studies were included in the systematic review and six of these were subjected to meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were associated with a medium effect size for reduction in depressive symptoms and a small effect size for improved quality of life in the in individuals with chronic-kidney-disease and their carers. Some evidence suggested a reduction in anxiety.Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions appear to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with chronic-kidney-disease and their carers and to have some beneficial impact on anxiety. However, the small number of identified studies indicates a need for further research in this field.

  7. Effect of Individually Tailored Biopsychosocial Workplace Interventions on Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and Stress Among Laboratory Technicians: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Hansen, Klaus; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Schraefel, M C; Sjogaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent among laboratory technicians and work-related stress may aggravate the problem. This study investigated the effect of a multifaceted worksite intervention on pain and stress among laboratory technicians with chronic musculoskeletal pain using individually tailored physical and cognitive elements. This trial uses a single-blind randomized controlled design with allocation concealment in a 2-armed parallel group format among laboratory technicians. The trial "Implementation of physical exercise at the Workplace (IRMA09)--Laboratory technicians" was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov prior to participant enrolment. The study was conducted at the head division of a large private pharmaceutical company's research and development department in Denmark. The study duration was March 2014 (baseline) to July 2014 (follow-up). Participants (n = 112) were allocated to receive either physical, cognitive, and mindfulness group-based training (PCMT group) or a reference group (REF) for 10 weeks at the worksite. PCMT consisted of 4 major elements: 1) resistance training individually tailored to the pain affected area, 2) motor control training, 3) mindfulness, and 4) cognitive and behavioral therapy/education. Participants of the REF group were encouraged to follow ongoing company health initiatives. The predefined primary outcome measure was pain intensity (VAS scale 0-10) in average of the regions: neck, shoulder, lower and upper back, elbow, and hand at 10 week follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was stress assessed by Cohen´s perceived stress questionnaire. In addition, an explorative dose-response analysis was performed on the adherence to PCMT with pain and stress, respectively, as outcome measures. A significant (P < 0.0001) treatment by time interaction in pain intensity was observed with a between-group difference at follow-up of -1.0 (95%CI: -1.4 to -0.6). No significant effect on stress was observed (treatment by time P = 0

  8. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  9. Risk factors for symptomatic urinary tract infections in individuals with chronic neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, J; Wöllner, J; Pannek, J

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective investigation. To investigate the association of patient and injury characteristics, as well as bladder management, with the occurrence of patient-reported, symptomatic urinary tract infection(s) UTI(s) in patients with chronic neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). Tertiary urologic referral center. The patient database was screened for patients with chronic (>12 months) NLUTD who had presented between 2008 and 2012. Patient characteristics, bladder evacuation management, the annual number of patient-reported, symptomatic UTIs and the type of prophylactic treatment to prevent UTIs were collected. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of the investigated risk factors on the occurrence of symptomatic UTI(s) and recurrent symptomatic UTIs (⩾3 annual UTIs). The data of 1104 patients with a mean NLTUD duration of 20.3±11.6 years were investigated. The evacuation method was a significant (P⩽0.004) predictor for the occurrence of symptomatic UTI and recurrent symptomatic UTIs. The greatest annual number of symptomatic UTIs was observed in patients using transurethral indwelling catheters, and the odds of experiencing a UTI and recurrent UTIs were increased more than 10- and 4-fold, respectively. The odds of a UTI or recurrent UTIs were also increased significantly (P⩽0.014) in patients using intermittent catheterization (IC). Botulinum toxin injections into the detrusor increased the odds of a UTI ~10-fold (P=0.03). The bladder evacuation method is the main predictor for symptomatic UTIs in individuals with NLUTD. Transurethral catheters showed the highest odds of symptomatic UTI and should be avoided whenever possible.

  10. Prevalence of paediatric chronic suppurative otitis media and hearing impairment in rural Malawi: A cross-sectional survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Luke; Mulwafu, Wakisa; Knott, Victoria; Ndamala, Chifundo; Naunje, Andrew W; Dewhurst, Sam; Hall, Andrew; Mortimer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of World Health Organization-defined chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and mild hearing impairment in a population representative sample of school-entry age children in rural Malawi. A secondary objective was to explore factors associated with CSOM in this population. We performed a community-based cross-sectional study of children aged 4-6 years in Chikhwawa District, Southern Malawi, utilising a village-level cluster design. Participants underwent a structur...

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) and Associated Hearing Impairment Among School-aged Children in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Muftah, Salem; Mackenzie, Ian; Faragher, Brian; Brabin, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is one of the leading causes of preventable disabling hearing impairment (DHI) in developing countries. Early detection and management complements advances made in other survival programs, improves work capacity, and enhances learning opportunities for school children. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CSOM and associated DHI among school children aged six to 16 years in Socotra Island, Yemen. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectiona...

  12. Age-related prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps and their relationships with asthma onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ha-Kyeong; Kim, Young-Chan; Kang, Min-Gyu; Park, Han-Ki; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Song, Woo-Jung

    2018-02-09

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a major disease condition with high morbidity, and may influence lower airway disease status in adults. However, its associations with adult asthma onset and activity have not been examined in detail in a general adult population. To investigate the relationships between CRS with nasal polyps and asthma characteristics. A cross-sectional dataset from 17,506 adult participants (age≥18 years) in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012 was analyzed. CRS was defined using structured questionnaires according to the international guideline, and presence of nasal polyps was objectively assessed using nasal endoscope. Presence of asthma and its onset and current activity were asked using structured questionnaires. CRS was significantly related with asthma, but the relationships were distinct by CRS and asthma status. CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) was significantly associated with adult-onset asthma (onset after 18 years) or late-onset asthma (onset after 40 years), whereas CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) were related to childhood-onset asthma (onset before 18 years) or early-onset asthma (onset before 40 years) in adults. Both CRS subgroups showed significant associations with current asthma but not with past asthma. However, comorbid asthma rate was less than 10% among subjects with CRS. This study found distinct age-related patterns of CRSwNP and asthma and demonstrated their significant associations in a general population. However, low prevalence of asthma in CRSwNP is in sharp contrast to the findings in Western populations, which warrants further investigation for ethnic or regional difference in CRSwNP-asthma relationships. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Higher prevalence of chronic endometritis in women with endometriosis: a possible etiopathogenetic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicinelli, Ettore; Trojano, Giuseppe; Mastromauro, Marcella; Vimercati, Antonella; Marinaccio, Marco; Mitola, Paola Carmela; Resta, Leonardo; de Ziegler, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the association between endometriosis end chronic endometritis (CE) diagnosed by hysteroscopy, conventional histology, and immunohistochemistry. Case-control study. University hospital. Women with and without endometriosis who have undergone hysterectomy. Retrospective evaluation of 78 women who have undergone hysterectomy and were affected by endometriosis and 78 women without endometriosis. CE diagnosed based on conventional histology and immunohistochemistry with anti-syndecan-1 antibodies to identify CD138 cells. The prevalence of CE was statistically significantly higher in the women with endometriosis as compared with the women who did not have endometriosis (33 of 78, 42.3% vs. 12 of 78, 15.4% according to hysteroscopy; and 30 of 78, 38.5% vs. 11 of 78, 14.1% according to histology). The women were divided into two groups, 115 patients without CE and 41 patients with CE. With univariate analysis, parity was associated with a lower risk for CE, and endometriosis was associated with a statistically significantly elevated risk of CE. Using multivariate analysis, parity continued to be associated with a lower incidence of CE, whereas endometriosis was associated with a 2.7 fold higher risk. The diagnosis of CE is more frequent in women with endometriosis. Although no etiologic relationships between CE and endometriosis can be established, this study suggests that CE should be considered and if necessary ruled out in women with endometriosis, particularly if they have abnormal uterine bleeding. Identification and appropriate treatment of CE may avoid unnecessary surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Family caregiving during 1-year follow-up in individuals with advanced chronic organ failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakken, Nienke; Spruit, Martijn A.; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; Janssen, Daisy J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Family caregivers already have a paramount role in daily care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic heart failure (CHF), or chronic renal failure (CRF). To date, it remains unknown whether and to what extent the experience of caregiving changes over time.

  15. Prevalence and global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease group distribution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease detected by preoperative pulmonary function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Choi

    Full Text Available Despite being a major public health problem, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains underdiagnosed, and only 2.4% COPD patients are aware of their disease in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD detected by spirometry performed as a preoperative screening test and to determine the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD group distribution and self-awareness of COPD.We reviewed the medical records of adults (age, ≥ 40 years who had undergone spirometry during preoperative screening between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of 40 years who had undergone spirometry as a preoperative screening test, 474 (15.6%; 404 men; median age, 70 years; range, 44-93 years were diagnosed with COPD. Only 26 (5.5% patients reported previous diagnosis of COPD (2.1%, emphysema (0.8%, or chronic bronchitis (2.5%. The GOLD group distribution was as follows: 63.3% in group A, 31.2% in group B, 1.7% in group C, and 3.8% in group D.The prevalence of COPD diagnosed by preoperative spirometry was 15.6%, and only 5.5% patients were aware of their disease. Approximately one-third of the COPD patients belonged to GOLD groups B, C, and D, which require regular treatment.

  16. Transport of mucoid mucus in healthy individuals and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lima Afonso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize and compare the in vitro transport properties of respiratory mucoid secretion in individuals with no lung disease and in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchiectasis. Methodology: Samples of mucus were collected from 21 volunteers presenting no lung disease who had undergone surgery, from 10 patients presenting chronic COPD, and from 16 patients with bronchiectasis. Mucociliary transport (MCT, transport by cough (SCM, and contact angle (CAM were evaluated. Results: MCT was found to be greater in healthy individuals (1.0 ± 0.19 than in COPD (0.91 ± 0.17 and bronchiectasis (0.76 ± 0.23 patients (p < 0.05, whereas SCM was greater in COPD patients (16.31 ± 7.35 cm than in patients with bronchiectasis (12.16 ± 6.64 cm and healthy individuals (10.50 ± 25.8 cm (p < 0.05. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding CAM. Conclusion: Mucus from healthy individuals allows better mucociliary transport compared to that from patients with lung diseases. However, the mucus from COPD patients allows a better transport by coughing, demonstrating that these individuals have adapted to a defence mechanism compared to patients with bronchiectasis, who have impairment in their ciliary and cough transport mechanisms. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar e comparar as propriedades de transporte in vitro da secreção respiratória de aspeto mucoide (M de indivíduos sem doença respiratória e de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC e bronquiectasias estáveis. Métodos: Foram avaliadas 21 amostras de indivíduos sem doença pulmonar submetidos a processos cirúrgicos, 10 amostras de pacientes com DPOC e 16 amostras de pacientes com bronquiectasias quanto ao transporte mucociliar (TMC, deslocamento na máquina simuladora de tosse (MST e ângulo de contacto (AC. Resultados: Maior TMC das amostras de indivíduos sem doença respiratória (1,0

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of flare-ups of chronic nonspecific back pain in primary care: a telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Saunders, Kathleen W; Von Korff, Michael

    2012-09-01

    To describe the prevalence and characteristics of flare-ups of chronic nonspecific back pain (CNSBP) among primary care patients, and to examine associations with measures of pain severity and psychosocial factors. Six hundred thirty-four participants with nonspecific back pain were interviewed by telephone 2 years after an initial primary care visit for back pain. Participants experiencing flare-ups in the last 6 months reported on frequency, duration, and other characteristics of flare-ups. Using bivariate and multivariate analyses, we compared individuals with and without CNSBP flare-ups with respect to demographic characteristics, measures of pain severity, and psychosocial factors. Approximately 51% of the participants reported flare-ups. Physical activities, including lifting and bending, were the most common perceived triggers of flare-ups. Participants with flare-ups experienced greater levels of pain intensity, disability, opioid medication use, and psychosocial comorbidities. After adjustment for demographic factors, pain intensity, and pain frequency, participants with flare-ups were more disabled than those without [mean (95% confidence interval) disability score 4.2 (3.9-4.4) vs. 3.3 (2.9-3.6); Pups of CNSBP are common among primary care patients, and are independently associated with higher levels of pain intensity, disability, and passive coping. The presence of flare-ups and the perception of activity as a trigger may predispose patients with flare-ups to experience disability not explained by pain intensity alone. Further longitudinal studies are required to better characterize CNSBP flare-ups and determine their clinical implications.

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Flare-ups of Chronic Non-specific Back Pain in Primary Care: A Telephone Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Saunders, Kathleen W.; Von Korff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and characteristics of flare-ups of chronic non-specific back pain (CNSBP) among primary care patients, and to examine associations with measures of pain severity and psychosocial factors. Methods Six hundred and thirty-four subjects with nonspecific back pain were interviewed by telephone 2 years after an initial primary care visit for back pain. Subjects experiencing flare-ups in the last 6 months reported on frequency, duration, and other characteristics of flare-ups. Using bivariate and multivariate analyses, we compared individuals with and without CNSBP flare-ups with respect to demographic characteristics, measures of pain severity, and psychosocial factors. Results 51% of subjects reported flare-ups. Physical activities, including lifting and bending, were the most common perceived triggers of flare-ups. Subjects with flare-ups experienced greater levels of pain intensity, disability, opioid medication use, and psychosocial comorbidities. After adjustment for demographic factors, pain intensity, and pain frequency, subjects with flare-ups were more disabled than those without (mean [95% confidence interval] disability score 4.2 [3.9– 4.4] vs. 3.3 [2.9– 3.6]; p ups of CNSBP are common among primary care patients, and are independently associated with higher levels of pain intensity, disability, and passive coping. The presence of flare-ups and the perception of activity as a trigger may predispose patients with flare-ups to experience disability not explained by pain intensity alone. Further longitudinal studies are required to better characterize CNSBP flare-ups and determine their clinical implications. PMID:22699128

  19. Contribution of facet joints to chronic low back pain in postlumbar laminectomy syndrome: a controlled comparative prevalence evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, L; Pampati, V; Baha, A G; Fellows, B; Damron, K S; Barnhill, R C

    2001-04-01

    Postlumbar laminectomy syndrome, or pain following operative procedures of the lumbar spine, is increasingly a common entity in modern medicine. Multiple causes proposed for recurrence of pain after lumbar laminectomy are: epidural fibrosis, recurrent disc herniation, instability, and facet joints. Even though the prevalence of persistent low back pain secondary to the involvement of lumbosacral facet joints has been described in controlled studies from 15% to 45%, the prevalence of facet joint mediated pain in postlumbar laminectomy syndrome has not been studied. This prospective, randomized, controlled comparative evaluation was performed to determine the prevalence of facet joint mediated pain in persistent low back pain in postlumbar laminectomy patients with a comparative non-surgical group. One hundred patients with fifty patients in each group were randomly assigned with group I consisting of fifty patients without history of previous surgery and group II consisting of fifty patients with history of previous surgery. Results showed that the prevalence of facet joint mediated pain in non-surgical patients was 44% compared to 32% in post surgical patients determined by comparative controlled local anesthetic blocks utilizing lidocaine and bupivacaine. This study also showed a false positive rate of 36% in non-surgical group and 24% in post-surgical group. In conclusion, this study shows that facet joint mediated symptomatology in chronic low back pain is prevalent, both in non-surgical as well as post-surgical patients even though prevalence was somewhat higher in the non-surgical group compared to post-surgical group.

  20. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A Lucassen

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals.To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility.Prospective cohort study.Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center.A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (<6.5 h/night obese (BMI 30-55 kg/m(2 men and pre-menopausal women.Sleep extension (468±88 days with life-style modifications.Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration.At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39. Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02, and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001. Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74, subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (p<0.001, self-reported sleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (p<0.001 and by 4% by diaries (p = 0.04, and daytime sleepiness tended to improve (p = 0.10. Global cognitive function and attention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001, and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06. Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02. In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function.Drop-out rate.Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population.www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898

  1. Relationship between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Valerie A; Fisher, Thomas; Schmid, Arlene A; Crabtree, Jeffrey; Page, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke. Using a cross-sectional study design, this study correlated factors related to hand sensation and activity performance in individuals with chronic stroke. The Touch Test Evaluators and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used. Correlations were used to determine the relationships between touch sensation of the affected hand and individuals' performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities. There was a good to excellent relationship between sensation and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities for individuals with intact touch sensation of the affected hand who scored higher on the COPM. There was little to no relationship between touch sensation of the affected hand and performance of valued activities for individuals with impaired sensation. This is the first study to relate touch sensation of the affected hand and performance and satisfaction with performance of valued activities in individuals with stroke. The findings suggest that rehabilitation therapists need to continue to address sensory function in evaluation and intervention as it relates to performance in valued activities. This study serves as a foundation for future research in sensation and performance of valued activities in individuals with chronic stroke.

  2. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  3. Urbanization and Daily Exposure to Biomass Fuel Smoke Both Contribute to Chronic Bronchitis Risk in a Population with Low Prevalence of Daily Tobacco Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Johnson, Caroline M; Diette, Gregory B; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors beyond tobacco smoking associated with chronic bronchitis are not well understood. We sought to describe the prevalence and risk factors of chronic bronchitis across four distinct settings in Peru with overall low prevalence of tobacco smoking yet varying degrees of urbanization, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and living at high altitude. We analyzed data of 2,947 participants from rural and urban Puno, Lima and Tumbes including spirometry, blood samples, anthropometry and administered questionnaires about respiratory symptoms. We used multivariable Poisson regression to assess biologic, socioeconomic and environmental risk factors associated with chronic bronchitis. Overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 5.9% (95%CI 5.1%-6.9%) with variation by setting: prevalence was lower in semi-urban Tumbes (1.3%) vs. highly urbanized Lima (8.9%), urban Puno (7.0%) and rural Puno (7.8%; p urbanization (PR = 3.34, 95%CI 2.18-5.11) and daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke (PR = 2.00, 95%CI 1.30-3.07) were all associated with chronic bronchitis. We found important variations in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis across settings. Prevalence increased with both urbanization and with daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke. Having chronic bronchitis was also associated with worse patient-centered outcomes including dyspnea, hospitalization and missed workdays.

  4. Urbanization and daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke both contribute to chronic bronchitis risk in a population with low prevalence of daily tobacco smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Johnson, Caroline M; Diette, Gregory B; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Objective Risk factors beyond tobacco smoking associated with chronic bronchitis are not well understood. We sought to describe the prevalence and risk factors of chronic bronchitis across four distinct settings in Peru with overall low prevalence of tobacco smoking yet varying degrees of urbanization, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and living at high altitude. Methods We analyzed data of 2,947 participants from rural and urban Puno, Lima and Tumbes including spirometry, blood samples, anthropometry and administered questionnaires about respiratory symptoms. We used multivariable Poisson regression to assess biologic, socioeconomic and environmental risk factors associated with chronic bronchitis. Results Overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 5.9% (95%CI 5.1%–6.9%) with variation by setting: prevalence was lower in semi-urban Tumbes (1.3%) vs. highly urbanized Lima (8.9%), urban Puno (7.0%) and rural Puno (7.8%; purbanization (PR=3.34, 95%CI 2.18–5.11) and daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke (PR=2.00, 95%CI 1.30–3.07) were all associated with chronic bronchitis. Conclusions We found important variations in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis across settings. Prevalence increased with both urbanization and with daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke. Having chronic bronchitis was also associated with worse patient-centered outcomes including dyspnea, hospitalization and missed workdays. PMID:26552585

  5. Modelling the propagation of effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation from individuals to populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, F. [Laboratory of Environmental Modelling, DEI/SECRE/LME, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache, Building 159, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr; Hertel-Aas, T. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Gilek, M. [School of Life Sciences, Soedertoern University College, 14189 Huddinge (Sweden); Gilbin, R. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Oughton, D.H. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing gamma dose rate (up to 0.6 generation times at 11 mGy h{sup -1}). Population extinction was predicted at 43 mGy h{sup -1}. In the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing alpha dose rate (up to 0.8 generation times at 15.0 mGy h{sup -1}), only after two successive generations were exposed. The study examined population effects of changes in different individual endpoints (including survival, number of offspring produced and time to first reproduction). Models showed that the two species did not respond equally to equivalent levels of change, the fast growing daphnids being more susceptible to reduction in fecundity or delay in reproduction than the slow growing earthworms. This suggested that susceptibility of a population to ionising radiation cannot be considered independent of the species' life history.

  6. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  7. Overview of the prevalence, impact, and management of depression and anxiety in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagioti M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panagioti,1 Charlotte Scott,1 Amy Blakemore,1,2 Peter A Coventry31National Institute for Health Research School for Primary Care Research, Centre for Primary Care, Institute of Population Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, 2Department of Psychiatry, Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Manchester Royal Infirmary, 3National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – Greater Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: More than one third of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD experience comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. This review aims to provide an overview of the burden of depression and anxiety in those with COPD and to outline the contemporary advances and challenges in the management of depression and anxiety in COPD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD lead to worse health outcomes, including impaired health-related quality of life and increased mortality risk. Depression and anxiety also increase health care utilization rates and costs. Although the quality of the data varies considerably, the cumulative evidence shows that complex interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation interventions with or without psychological components improve symptoms of depression and anxiety in COPD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also an effective intervention for managing depression in COPD, but treatment effects are small. Cognitive behavioral therapy could potentially lead to greater benefits in depression and anxiety in people with COPD if embedded in multidisciplinary collaborative care frameworks, but this hypothesis has not yet been empirically assessed. Mindfulness-based treatments are an alternative option for the management of depression and anxiety in people with long-term conditions, but their efficacy is unproven in

  8. The prevalence and patient characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers in Vietnam and Indonesia: An observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Viet, Nhung; Yunus, Faisal; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Anh; Dao Bich, Van; Damayanti, Triya; Wiyono, Wiwien Heru; Billot, Laurent; Jakes, Rupert W; Kwon, Namhee

    2015-05-01

    An estimated 25-40% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have never smoked. We investigated the prevalence and patient characteristics of COPD in non-smokers from Vietnam and Indonesia. This population-based cross-sectional survey of participants from urban and rural Vietnam and Indonesia used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design, with sample and population weights applied to ensure representativeness. Participants were female or male (recruited in the ratio 2:1) non-smokers, 40 years or older and able to perform a spirometry test. Spirometry was performed at a single study visit. Other clinical information was collected via standardized questionnaires. The 1506 evaluable participants were approximately equally distributed between Vietnam and Indonesia, and rural and urban areas. Overall prevalence of COPD was found to be 6.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7-8.3), with almost three times higher prevalence in men than women (12.9% (95% CI: 9.1-18.0) vs 4.4% (95% CI: 3.0-6.5)). We found higher rates of COPD in Vietnam than Indonesia (8.1% (95% CI: 5.8-11.3) vs 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8-8.3)), with a particularly high prevalence in urban Vietnam (11.1% (95% CI: 8.1-15.1)). Very few participants (6%) diagnosed to have COPD during the study had been previously diagnosed with COPD. Respiratory symptoms and lower health-related quality of life were more common in participants with COPD. The prevalence of COPD in non-smoking individuals from rural and urban Vietnam and Indonesia was 6.9%, of which a significant proportion (94%) were previously undiagnosed. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Effects of attention on the control of locomotion in individuals with chronic low back pain

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    Kerckhoff Frederick

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from low back pain (LBP exhibit an abnormal gait pattern, characterized by shorter stride length, greater step width, and an impaired thorax-pelvis coordination which may undermine functional walking. As a result, gait in LBP may require stronger cognitive regulation compared to pain free subjects thereby affecting the degree of automaticity of gait control. Conversely, because chronic pain has a strong attentional component, diverting attention away from the pain might facilitate a more efficient walking pattern. Methods Twelve individuals with LBP and fourteen controls participated. Subjects walked on a treadmill at comfortable speed, under varying conditions of attentional load: (a no secondary task, (b naming the colors of squares on a screen, (c naming the colors of color words ("color Stroop task", and (d naming the colors of words depicting motor activities. Markers were attached to the thorax, pelvis and feet. Motion was recorded using a three-camera SIMI system with a sample frequency of 100 Hz. To examine the effects of health status and attention on gait, mean and variability of stride parameters were calculated. The coordination between thoracic and pelvic rotations was quantified through the mean and variability of the relative phase between those oscillations. Results LBP sufferers had a lower walking speed, and consequently a smaller stride length and lower mean thorax-pelvis relative phase. Stride length variability was significantly lower in the LBP group but no significant effect of attention was observed. In both groups gait adaptations were found under performance of an attention demanding task, but significantly more so in individuals with LBP as indicated by an interaction effect on relative phase variability. Conclusion Gait in LBP sufferers was characterized by less variable upper body movements. The diminished flexibility in trunk coordination was aggravated under the influence of an

  10. Prevalence of Candida species in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydia Rajakumari, M; Saravana Kumari, P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Candida in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry, India and to analyse the antifungal susceptibility profile of the selected isolates. A total of 400 buccal samples, 200 each from diabetic and non-diabetic healthy individuals were included in the study. Sabouraud's dextrose agar was used for isolation of Candida species. Identification was performed through microscopy, germ tube test, sugar fermentation test, sugar assimilation test and by using Hichrome agar. Distinct and phenotypically representative colonies were selected and subjected to ITS analysis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing for the isolated Candida species was performed using E-test. Results revealed that the prevalence of Candida species in diabetic individuals was higher when compared with non-diabetic healthy individuals. The most predominantly isolated species in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals from buccal cavity was Candida albicans. C. tropicalis was predominant among the non-albicans Candida isolated from both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Among denture wearers C. glabrata was predominant. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing shows that ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were effective against the isolated Candida species. The rate of candidal carriage in diabetic individuals is higher. Different species of Candida are present in the oral cavity of diabetic individuals. There may be a positive correlation between glycemic control and candidal colonization. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candia species are required for proper management and treatment of candidal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Different prevalence and clinical characteristics of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome according to accepted criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Suk; Lee, Jinwoo; Yoon, Ho Il; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    A unified definition of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is not available, which makes it difficult to evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of patients with ACOS. To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ACOS according to the updated widely accepted diagnostic criteria. Participants were enrolled from a prospective cohort study conducted between April 2013 and November 2016 in South Korea. We adopted 4 criteria of ACOS: modified Spanish, American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable criteria, the Latin American Project for the Investigation of Obstructive Lung Disease (PLATINO), and the Global Initiative for Asthma/Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GINA/GOLD) criteria. The prevalence, clinical characteristics, and exacerbations of ACOS were investigated. Among 301 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 31.3%, 11.9%, 48.3%, and 46.15% were diagnosed with ACOS according to the modified Spanish, ATS Roundtable criteria, PLATINO, and GINA/GOLD criteria, respectively. Compared with other criteria, patients with ACOS diagnosed according to the modified Spanish criteria had better exercise capacity and lung function at baseline but higher risk of moderate to severe (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.41; P = .01) and total (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-3.31; P < .01) exacerbations during at least a 1-year follow-up period than patients without ACOS. The prevalence of ACOS varied according to the diagnostic criteria. Among the different criteria, the modified Spanish criteria could identify patients with more asthmatic features and higher risk of exacerbation. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02527486. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in clinical and biological characteristics and prevalence of chronic complications related to aging in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta-Alario, María Luisa; Ferri, Jordi; Civera, Miguel; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Ascaso, Juan Francisco; Real, José Tomás

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, highly prevalent disease that increases with age. Because of this, and due to its chronic complications, T2DM causes high human, social, and financial costs. In addition, the elderly population with T2DM has a marked clinical heterogeneity. Therefore, our main objective was to analyze the relationship of age with the clinical and biological manifestations of the disease and the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with T2DM. A cross-sectional study of a large population with T2DM (n=405) randomly selected from a Diabetes Unit and 2 health care centers (60%). The clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical variables of the subjects were collected using standard methods to assess the effect of age on the clinical and biochemical phenotype of patients with T2DM. We have noted that patients with T2DM > 70 years old have a clinical and biochemical phenotype different from younger subjects (diabetes onset, higher diastolic blood pressure levels, and lower body mass index (BMI) values. As regards to biological variables, these patients have lower triglyceride levels, impaired kidney function, and lower HbA1c values. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is lower in patients with T2DM > 70 years of age. Age was inversely related to parameters associated to metabolic syndrome (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels). We have defined the clinical and biochemical profile of patients with T2DM > 70 years attending health care centers. In addition, the prevalence of stroke, kidney disease, and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is higher in patients with T2DM >70 years as compared to younger patients (<60 years). Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Why harmless sensations might hurt in individuals with chronic pain: About heightened prediction and perception of pain in the mind

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    Tanja Hechler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In individuals with chronic pain harmless bodily sensations can elicit anticipatory fear of pain resulting in maladaptive responses such as taking pain medication. Here, we aim to broaden the perspective taking into account recent evidence that suggests that interoceptive perception is largely a construction of beliefs, which are based on past experience and that are kept in check by the actual state of the body. Taking a Bayesian perspective, we propose that individuals with chronic pain display a heightened prediction of pain (prior probability p(pain, which results in heightened pain perception (posterior probability p(pain|sensation due to an assumed link between pain and a harmless bodily sensation (p(sensation│pain. This pain perception emerges because their mind infers pain as the most likely cause for the sensation. When confronted with a mismatch between predicted pain and a (harmless bodily sensation, individuals with chronic pain try to minimize the mismatch most likely by active inference of pain or by an attentional shift. The active inference results in activities that produce a stronger sensation that will match with the prediction, allowing subsequent perceptual inference of pain. Here, we depict heightened pain perception in individuals with chronic pain by reformulating and extending the assumptions of the interoceptive predictive coding model from a Bayesian perspective. The review concludes with a research agenda and clinical considerations.

  14. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  15. WHO systematic review of prevalence of chronic pelvic pain: a neglected reproductive health morbidity

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    Gülmezoglu Metin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care planning for chronic pelvic pain (CPP, an important cause of morbidity amongst women is hampered due to lack of clear collated summaries of its basic epidemiological data. We systematically reviewed worldwide literature on the prevalence of different types of CPP to assess the geographical distribution of data, and to explore sources of variation in its estimates. Methods We identified data available from Medline (1966 to 2004, Embase (1980 to 2004, PsycINFO (1887 to 2003, LILACS (1982 to 2004, Science Citation index, CINAHL (January 1980 to 2004 and hand searching of reference lists. Two reviewers extracted data independently, using a piloted form, on participants' characteristics, study quality and rates of CPP. We considered a study to be of high quality (valid if had at least three of the following features: prospective design, validated measurement tool, adequate sampling method, sample size estimation and response rate >80%. We performed both univariate and multivariate meta-regression analysis to explore heterogeneity of results across studies. Results There were 178 studies (459975 participants in 148 articles. Of these, 106 studies were (124259 participants on dysmenorrhoea, 54 (35973 participants on dyspareunia and 18 (301756 participants on noncyclical pain. There were only 19/95 (20% less developed and 1/45 (2.2% least developed countries with relevant data in contrast to 22/43 (51.2% developed countries. Meta-regression analysis showed that rates of pain varied according to study quality features. There were 40 (22.5% high quality studies with representative samples. Amongst them, the rate of dysmenorrhoea was 16.8 to 81%, that of dyspareunia was 8 to 21.8%, and that for noncyclical pain was 2.1 to 24%. Conclusion There were few valid population based estimates of disease burden due to CPP from less developed countries. The variation in rates of CPP worldwide was due to variable study quality. Where

  16. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHONG, Baoliang; XIANG, Yutao; CAO, Xiaolan; LI, Yan; ZHU, Junhong; CHIU, Helen F. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Aim Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. Methods We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. Results The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I2 =95%, p<0.001). Men had a higher prevalence than women (44% vs. 21%), and injection heroin users had higher prevalence than those who smoked heroin (44% vs. 27%). Studies that were methodologically stronger had higher reported prevalence of ASPD among heroin dependent individuals. Conclusions There are substantial methodological problems in the available literature about ASPD in Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians

  17. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Green, Michelle L; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Novakofski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, politically unpalatable, and erodes public support for agencies responsible for wildlife management. We addressed the functional differences between hunting and government culling programs for managing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer by comparing prevalence over a 10-year period in Illinois and Wisconsin. When both Illinois and Wisconsin were actively culling from 2003 - 2007, there were no statistical differences between state CWD prevalence estimates. Wisconsin government culling concluded in 2007 and average prevalence over the next five years was 3.09 ± 1.13% with an average annual increase of 0.63%. During that same time period, Illinois continued government culling and there was no change in prevalence throughout Illinois. Despite its unpopularity among hunters, localized culling is a disease management strategy that can maintain low disease prevalence while minimizing impacts on recreational deer harvest. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Cam and Pincer Deformities in the X-Rays of Asymptomatic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Thier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The presence of radiological signs of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI is not necessarily associated with symptoms. Hence, the prevalence of cam and pincer deformities in the overall population may be underestimated. The purpose of this study was to screen an unselected cohort of people without hip symptoms for native radiological signs of cam and pincer deformities to determine their actual prevalence. Materials and Methods. 110 asymptomatic patients had AP pelvis X-rays and cross-table hip X-rays performed. We evaluated the images for the presence of cross-over signs and measured lateral center edge (LCE angles, alpha angles (α-angles, and femoral offset ratios. Results. Positive cross-over signs were seen in 34%; LCE angles > 40° in 13%; and femoral offset ratios 50°. Male patients showed significantly higher α-angles, lower offset ratios, and a higher prevalence of cross-over signs. In contrast, female patients had significantly higher LCE angles. Conclusion. According to our data, radiological signs of cam and pincer deformities are common in asymptomatic people. In clinical practice, patients presenting with hip pain and radiological signs of FAI should undergo further diagnostic evaluation. However, in asymptomatic patients, no further evaluation is recommended.

  19. Microscopic colitis : prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, WJ; van Baarlen, J; Kleibeuker, JH; Kolkman, JJ

    Background: Microscopic colitis presents with chronic diarrhoea with or without abdominal pain. Microscopic colitis is an important cause of chronic diarrhoea. It can be distributed throughout the colon, as well as limited to the right colon. Microscopic colitis is associated with coeliac disease.

  20. Prevalence of Chronic Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Autism and Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Cynthia A.; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 137 children (ages 24-96 months) classified as having autism, 24% had a history of at least one chronic gastrointestinal symptom. The most common symptom was diarrhea, which occurred in 17%. There was no association between chronic gastrointestinal symptoms and a history of developmental regression. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  1. Chronic kidney disease prevalence in Rivas, Nicaragua: use of a field device for creatinine measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnings, Kailey; Kerns, Eric; Fiore, Melissa; Fiore, Madeline; Parekh, Rulan S; DuBois, Jeff; Isbell, T Scott; Ferguson, Ryan; Fiore, Louis

    2015-04-01

    An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been identified in Pacific coastal regions of Central America, and screening in the field in these low income countries remains logistically problematic. We tested the performance characteristics of a point of care creatinine analyzer compared to standardized serum creatinine measurements. Measurements were conducted in 100 persons from a local health center (n=34) and hospital (n=66) in Rivas, Nicaragua using both a point-of-care analyzer (StatSensor Xpress, Nova Biomedical) and serum creatinine by Jaffe kinetic method with a Roche Cobas Integra 400 analyzer. Percent coefficient of variation, sensitivity and specificity of the StatSensor Xpress were determined. The average coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.28% for the serum creatinine and CV for the StatSensor Xpress analyzer was 6.8%. The median intra-individual creatinine results obtained with the StatSensor Xpress device were 0.32 mg/dL higher than those by serum creatinine by Jaffe kinetic method. The sensitivity and specificity of the StatSensor Xpress device for identifying subjects with abnormal creatinine (defined as >1.2 mg/dL) was 100% and 79%, respectively. Point of care testing for creatinine demonstrated acceptable repeatability, excellent sensitivity (100%) and modest specificity (79%). Using the point of care testing will allow for generalized screening in the field in low income countries; however, confirmation for elevated levels >1.2 mg/dL will require a second laboratory test confirmation. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  3. Individualized Health Care Plans: Supporting Children With Chronic Conditions in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Amanda F.; Hughes, Mary-alayne

    2016-01-01

    Due to the major advances in technology and the sciences, advances in the medical treatment options for children with chronic conditions are being made at an astonishing rate. In the health care field, "children with chronic conditions" is a generic phrase that typically refers to children with physical, developmental, behavioral, or…

  4. Protein-energy wasting syndrome in advanced chronic kidney disease: Prevalence and specific clinical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Pérez-Torres

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Protein-energy wasting (PEW is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men with a mean age of 66.1 ± 16 years. The nutritional assessment consisted of: SGA, PEW criteria, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric parameters and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis. Results: The prevalence of PEW was 30.1%, with significant differences between men and women (22.8 vs. 33.8%, p < 0.005, while 27.9% of SGA values were within the range of malnutrition. No differences were found between the 2 methods. Men had higher proteinuria, percentage of muscle mass and nutrient intake. Women had higher levels of total cholesterol, HDL and a higher body fat percentage. The characteristics of patients with PEW were low albumin levels and a low total lymphocyte count, high proteinuria, low fat and muscle mass and a high Na/K ratio.The multivariate analysis found PEW to be associated with: proteinuria (OR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.084–1.457, p = 0.002, percentage of fat intake (OR: 0.903; 95% CI: 0.893–0.983, p = 0.008, total lymphocyte count (OR: 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998–0.999, p = 0.001 and cell mass index (OR: 0.995; 95% CI: 0.992–0.998. Conclusion: Malnutrition was identified in Spanish advanced CKD patients measured by different tools. We consider it appropriate to adapt new diagnostic elements to PEW criteria. Resumen: Introducción: El desgaste proteico energético (DPE se asocia a mayor mortalidad y difiere dependiendo del estadio de la enfermedad renal y de la técnica de diálisis. Su prevalencia en pacientes sin di

  5. Prevalence and correlates of gout in a large cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease: the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jiaojiao; Kielstein, Jan T; Schultheiss, Ulla T; Sitter, Thomas; Titze, Stephanie I; Schaeffner, Elke S; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Kronenberg, Florian; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Köttgen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Reduced kidney function is a risk factor for hyperuricaemia and gout, but limited information on the burden of gout is available from studies of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We therefore examined the prevalence and correlates of gout in the large prospective observational German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. Data from 5085 CKD patients aged 18-74 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-patients on urate lowering therapy, 47.2% still showed hyperuricaemia. Factors associated with gout were serum urate, lower eGFR, advanced age, male sex, higher body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, higher triglyceride and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, alcohol intake and diuretics use. While lower eGFR categories showed significant associations with gout in multivariable-adjusted models (prevalence ratio 1.46 for eGFR patients with CKD and lower GFR is strongly associated with gout. Pharmacological management of gout in patients with CKD is suboptimal. Prospective follow-up will show whether gout and hyperuricaemia increase the risk of CKD progression and cardiovascular events in the GCKD study. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, James Rufus; Daniel, Breena; Paneerselvam, Dakshaini; Rajendran, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods . A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results . In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5 ± 2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1 ± 2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8 ± 1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5 ± 1.3. Conclusion . Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.

  7. Prevalence of Dental Caries, Oral Hygiene Knowledge, Status, and Practices among Visually Impaired Individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rufus John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene knowledge, status, and practices among visually impaired individuals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 visually impaired individuals in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu. Four schools were randomly selected for conducting the study. The oral hygiene status, prevalence of caries, and knowledge and attitude towards oral care among visually impaired individuals were collected and analysed. Results. In the present study, whilst 42% of individuals had fair oral hygiene status, 33% had good hygiene followed by 25% having poor oral hygiene. The overall mean number of DMFT was estimated to be 4.5±2.7. The mean number of decayed teeth was 3.1±2.2, mean number of missing teeth was 0.8±1.4, and mean number of filled teeth was 0.5±1.3. Conclusion. Whilst oral hygiene status was found to be relatively fair, there was a high rate of dental caries among the sample population. This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding oral health maintenance. Therefore, early identification of caries coupled with effective oral health promotion programs providing practical knowledge to visually impaired students would prove beneficial.

  8. [Bronchial asthma and chronic respiratory symptoms in the population of children in the Katowice voivodship--prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zejda, J E; Skiba, M; Złotkowska, R

    1996-01-01

    Respiratory questionnaire survey in first grade students attending all public primary school in the city of Sosnowiec included 79.5% of all eligible children. In 1233 girls (G) and 1293 boys (B) the cumulative prevalence of chronic cough was: G - 17.5%, B - 20.8%, chest wheezing: G - 17.4%, B - 22.3%, and of attacks of dyspnea: G - 6.4%, B - 10.7%. Physician diagnosed asthma was found in 2.1% of girls and 3.4% of boys. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed statistically significant effects of sex and family history of asthma on all respiratory symptoms and diagnosis of asthma. Symptoms of chest wheezing depended also on environmental tobacco smoke and apartment density score (person/room). In relation to chronic cough the following additional risk factors were identified: place of birth in the Voivodship, hospitalization in the first month of life and breast feeding. A relatively low cumulative prevalence of childhood asthma in Sosnowiec, in comparison with the prevalence of epidemiological signs of asthmatic tendency, suggest that the magnitude of the problem of childhood asthma could be underestimated, if assessed only on physician diagnosed cases. The findings provide background information for further research on respiratory health in children living in the region of substantial ambient air pollution.

  9. Muscle Activation During Landing Before and After Fatigue in Individuals With or Without Chronic Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kathryn A.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Gribble, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ankle instability is a common condition in physically active individuals. It often occurs during a jump landing or lateral motion, particularly when participants are fatigued. Objective: To compare muscle activation during a lateral hop prefatigue and postfatigue in individuals with or without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 physically active participants volunteered for the study. Sixteen participants with CAI (8 men, 8 women; age = 20.50 ± 2.00 years, height = 172.25 ± 10.87 cm, mass = 69.13 ± 13.31 kg) were matched with 16 control participants without CAI (8 men, 8 women; age = 22.00 ± 3.30 years, height = 170.50 ± 9.94 cm, mass = 69.63 ± 14.82 kg) by age, height, mass, sex, and affected side. Intervention(s): Electromyography of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus was measured before and after a functional fatigue protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): Activation of 4 lower extremity muscles was measured 200 milliseconds before and after landing from a lateral hop. Results: We observed no interactions. The group main effects for the peroneus longus demonstrated higher muscle activation in the CAI group (52.89% ± 11.36%) than in the control group (41.12% ± 11.36%) just before landing the lateral hop (F1,30 = 8.58, P = .01), with a strong effect size (d = 1.01). The gluteus maximus also demonstrated higher muscle activation in the CAI group (45.55% ± 12.08%) than in the control group (36.81% ± 12.08%) just before landing the lateral hop (F1,30 = 4.19, P = .049), with a moderate effect size (d = 0.71). We observed a main effect for fatigue for the tibialis anterior, with postfatigue activation higher than prefatigue activation (F1,30 = 7.45, P = .01). No differences were present between groups for the gluteus medius. Conclusions: Our results support the presence of a centralized feed

  10. Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda : FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda: FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa Worldwide, tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, in many low and middle-income

  11. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN ADULTS WITH THE METABOLIC SYNDROME IN BENIN CITY: PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenekaro Egbi

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, CKD is prevalent in patients with the metabolic syndrome and may be due to a synergistic effect of the various components of the syndrome. Diastolic blood pressure and obesity may predict CKD in MetS patients. Albuminuria may also be prevalent in MetS patients; increasing with increasing number of MetS traits.

  12. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Is Not Greater Among Individuals With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Laura Rindom; Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2015-01-01

    with asymptomatic controls would support such a mechanism. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these parasites in IBS subjects (cases) and controls and to identify risk factors associated with parasite carriage. METHODS: We performed a population-based, case-control study of an adult population from an internet...... percentage of controls carried more than 1 species of parasite (16% of controls vs 8% of cases; P = .05). D fragilis infection was associated with having children 5 to 18 years old in the household and Blastocystis infection was associated with high income (≥600,000 Danish Kroner/y, approximately $100,000 US...

  13. Prevalence and variation of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Irish health system: initial findings from the National Kidney Disease Surveillance Programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable chronic disease that is associated with adverse clinical and economic outcomes. Passive surveillance systems are likely to improve efforts for prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inform national service planning. This study was conducted to determine the overall prevalence of CKD in the Irish health system, assess period trends and explore patterns of variation as part of a novel surveillance initiative.

  14. Prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in healthy individuals in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuOdeh, Raed; Ezzedine, Sinda; Samie, Amidou; Stensvold, Christen Rune; ElBakri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis is estimated to be one of the most common parasites of the intestinal tract of humans, comprising multiple subtypes (ST). Meanwhile, the distribution of Blastocystis ST in many communities and countries remains unknown. In the present work, we aimed to identify the prevalence of Blastocystis and the ST distribution in human stool samples collected from healthy expatriates from different geographical regions and residing in Sharjah, United Arabian Emirates (UAE). A total of 133 samples were screened and subtyped using partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Fifty-nine (44.4%) samples were identified as positive. Among these, 39 were successfully sequenced and subtyped. The ST distribution was as follows: ST3, 58.9% (23/39); ST1, 28.2% (11/39); and ST2, 7.6% (3/39). No correlation between geographic origin and infection (χ(2)=11.006; P=0.528) nor gender and infection (χ(2)=1.264; P=0.261) was observed. The data were compared with those available for other Middle Eastern and North African neighboring countries. This study is the first to provide data concerning the prevalence of Blastocystis and the frequency of various STs in the UAE, confirming the absence of ST4 and the commonness of ST1, ST2, and ST3 in this geographical region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence study of compulsive buying in a sample with low individual monthly income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible impulse to acquire various items. This is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Some surveys indicate that the problem is growing in young and low-income populations. To evaluate the prevalence of compulsive buying among people with low personal monthly incomes and analyze relationships with socio-demographic data. The Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 56 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. The results indicated that 44.6% presented an average family income equal to or greater than 2.76 minimum wages. It is possible that compulsive buying is not linked to the purchasing power since it was found in a low-income population. Despite the small sample, the results of this study are important for understanding the problem in question.

  16. Prevalence study of compulsive buying in a sample with low individual monthly income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lourenço Leite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Compulsive buying can be characterized as an almost irresistible impulse to acquire various items. This is a current issue and the prevalence rate in the global population is around 5 to 8%. Some surveys indicate that the problem is growing in young and low-income populations. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of compulsive buying among people with low personal monthly incomes and analyze relationships with socio-demographic data. Methods: The Compulsive Buying Scale was administered to screen for compulsive buying and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in a sample of 56 participants. Pearson coefficients were used to test for correlations. Results: The results indicated that 44.6% presented an average family income equal to or greater than 2.76 minimum wages. It is possible that compulsive buying is not linked to the purchasing power since it was found in a low-income population. Conclusion: Despite the small sample, the results of this study are important for understanding the problem in question.

  17. [Chagas' disease in patients in chronic hemodialysis. Prevalence and risk of transmission by blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca, M; Lorca, E; Atías, A; Plubins, L

    1989-06-01

    A serologic study of Chagas disease was performed in 110 patients submitted to chronic hemodialisis and blood transfusions. Immunofluorescence antibody testing (IgG and IgM) was positive in 6 out of 62 patients receiving multiple blood transfusions (9.7%), but negative in all 48 subjects without transfusions. Thus, repeated blood transfusion is a significant risk for T cruzi infection in chronic hemodialized patients.

  18. The prevalence of chronic diabetic complications and metabolic syndrome is not associated with maternal type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Scheffel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The maternal history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM has been reported more frequently in patients with type 2 DM than paternal history. The aim of the present study was to determine if there was an association between maternal history of DM and the presence of chronic complications or metabolic syndrome (MetS in patients with type 2 DM. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1455 patients with type 2 DM. All outpatients with type 2 diabetes attending the endocrine clinics who fulfilled the eligibility criteria were included. Familial history of DM was determined with a questionnaire. Diabetic complications were assessed using standard procedures. The definition of MetS used was that of the World Health Organization and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III report criteria. Maternal history of DM was present in 469 (32.3%, absent in 713 (49.1% and unknown in 273 patients (18.7%. Paternal history of DM was positive in 255 (17.6%, negative in 927 (63.8% and unknown in 235 patients (16.1%. The frequency of microvascular chronic complications in patients with and without a positive maternal history of DM was similar: diabetic nephropathy (51.5 vs 52.5%, diabetic retinopathy (46.0 vs 41.7%, and diabetic sensory neuropathy (31.0 vs 37.1%. The prevalence of macrovascular chronic complications and MetS was also similar. Patients with type 2 DM were more likely to have a maternal than a paternal history of DM, although maternal history of DM was not associated with an increased prevalence of chronic complications or MetS.

  19. Prevalence of Hepatitis B core antibodies with negative Hepatitis B surface antigen in dialysis and chronic kidney disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nauman Tarif; Muhammad Mohsin Riaz; Omer Sabir; Rizwan Akhter; Kashif Rafique; Nabiha Rizvi

    2017-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is a potential cause of infection transmission in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dialysis-dependant patients. It is liable to be missed since the marker for OBI, hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), is not done routinely. We carried out a study to assess the prevalence of OBI in CKD Stage II–V or requiring renal replacement therapy. It was a cross-sectional study carried out at Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from May 2104 to May 2015. A tota...

  20. Headache impact of chronic and episodic migraine: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn; Manack, Aubrey; Serrano, Daniel; Reed, Michael; Varon, Sepideh; Turkel, Catherine; Lipton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure that assesses the impact of headaches on the lives of persons with migraine. Originally used in studies of episodic migraine (EM), HIT-6 is finding increasing applications in chronic migraine (CM) research. (1) To examine the headache-impact on persons with migraine (EM and CM) using HIT-6 in a large population sample; (2) to identify predictors of headache-impact in this sample; (3) to assess the magnitude of effect for significant predictors of headache-impact in this sample. The American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study is a longitudinal, population-based study that collected data from persons with severe headache from 2004 to 2009 through annual, mailed surveys. Respondents to the 2009 survey who met International Classification of Headache Disorders 2 criteria for migraine reported at least 1 headache in the preceding year, and completed the HIT-6 questionnaire were included in the present analysis. Persons with migraine were categorized as EM (average headache days per month) or CM (average ≥15 headache days per month). Predictors of headache-impact examined include: sociodemographics; headache days per month; a composite migraine symptom severity score (MSS); an average pain severity rating during the most recent long-duration headache; depression; and anxiety. HIT-6 scores were analyzed both as continuous sum scores and using the standard, validated categories: no impact; some impact; substantial impact; and severe impact. Group contrasts were based on descriptive statistics along with linear regression models. Multiple imputation techniques were used to manage missing data. There were 7169 eligible respondents (CM = 373, EM = 6554). HIT-6 scores were normally distributed. After converting sum HIT-6 scores to the standard categories, those with CM were significantly more likely to experience "severe" headache impact (72.9% vs 42.3%) and had higher odds of

  1. The impact of climatic risk factors on the prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ramesh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trachoma is the most common cause of infectious blindness. Hot, dry climates, dust and water scarcity are thought to be associated with the distribution of trachoma but the evidence is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological evidence regarding the extent to which climatic factors explain the current prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma. Understanding the present relationship between climate and trachoma could help inform current and future disease elimination. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature was conducted to identify observational studies which quantified an association between climate factors and acute or chronic trachoma and which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies that assessed the association between climate types and trachoma prevalence were also reviewed. RESULTS: Only eight of the 1751 papers retrieved met the inclusion criteria, all undertaken in Africa. Several papers reported an association between trachoma prevalence and altitude in highly endemic areas, providing some evidence of a role for temperature in the transmission of acute disease. A robust mapping study found strong evidence of an association between low rainfall and active trachoma. There is also consistent but weak evidence that the prevalence of trachoma is higher in savannah-type ecological zones. There were no studies on the effect of climate in low endemic areas, nor on the effect of dust on trachoma. CONCLUSION: Current evidence on the potential role of climate on trachoma distribution is limited, despite a wealth of anecdotal evidence. Temperature and rainfall appear to play a role in the transmission of acute trachoma, possibly mediated through reduced activity of flies at lower temperatures. Further research is needed on climate and other environmental and behavioural factors, particularly in arid and savannah areas. Many studies did not

  2. Prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovic T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonci Brkovic,1 Eliana Burilovic,2 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Split, 3Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Objectives: Understanding the epidemiology of pain in patients on hemodialysis (HD is crucial for further improvement in managing pain. The aim of this study was to systematically review available evidence on the prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent HD. Materials and methods: We carried out a systematic review of the literature and developed a comprehensive search strategy based on search terms on pain and HD. We searched the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from the earliest date of each database to July 24, 2014. Manuscripts in all languages were taken into consideration. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author. The quality of studies was estimated using the STROBE checklist and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.Results: We included 52 studies with 6,917 participants. The prevalence of acute and chronic pain in HD patients was up to 82% and 92%, respectively. A considerable number of patients suffered from severe pain. Various locations and causes of pain were described, with most of the studies reporting pain in general, pain related to arteriovenous access, headache, and musculoskeletal pain.Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review indicate high prevalence of pain in HD patients and considerable gaps and limitations in the available evidence. Pain in this population should be recognized as a considerable health concern, and the nephrology community should promote pain management in HD patients as a clinical and research priority to improve patients’ quality of life and pain

  3. Prevalence of prescription opioid use disorder among chronic opioid therapy patients after health plan opioid dose and risk reduction initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Korff, Michael; Walker, Rod L; Saunders, Kathleen; Shortreed, Susan M; Thakral, Manu; Parchman, Michael; Hansen, Ryan N; Ludman, Evette; Sherman, Karen J; Dublin, Sascha

    2017-08-01

    No studies have assessed the comparative effectiveness of guideline-recommended interventions to reduce risk of prescription opioid use disorder among chronic opioid therapy (COT) patients. We compared the prevalence of prescription opioid use disorder among COT patients from intervention clinics that had implemented opioid dose and risk reduction initiatives for more than 4 years relative to control clinics that had not. After a healthcare system in Washington State implemented interventions to reduce opioid dose and risks, we surveyed 1588 adult primary care COT patients to compare the prevalence of prescription opioid use disorder among COT patients from the intervention and control clinics. Intervention clinics managed COT patients at lower COT doses and with more consistent use of risk reduction practices. Control clinics cared for similar COT patients but prescribed higher opioid doses and used COT risk reduction practices inconsistently. Prescription opioid use disorder was assessed with the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders. The prevalence of prescription opioid use disorder was 21.5% (95% CI=18.9% to 24.4%) among COT patients in the intervention clinics and 23.9% (95% CI=20.5% to 27.6%) among COT patients in the control clinics. The adjusted relative risk of prescription opioid use disorder was 1.08 (95% CI=0.89, 1.32) among the control clinic patients relative to the intervention clinic patients. Long-term implementation of opioid dose and risk reduction initiatives was not associated with lower rates of prescription opioid use disorder among prevalent COT patients. Extreme caution should be exercised by clinicians considering COT for patients with chronic non-cancer pain until benefits of this treatment and attendant risks are clarified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousides, Theodore; Matsuzawa, Yuka; Lebowitz, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    To examine use of Facebook among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify barriers preventing Facebook use. An online survey was developed assessing frequency and barriers to use of Facebook. The survey was distributed electronically to individuals with TBI through four state brain injury associations. Ninety-six individuals with TBI completed the survey (60% female, age range: 23-70). The relative majority of respondents (60%) reported using Facebook on a regular basis. Among those who reported not using Facebook, the most commonly reported barriers were security concerns and cognitive deficits. Approximately half of non-users indicated interest in learning to use the site, with 70% reporting that they would use it more if they were more knowledgeable about it. Both users and non-users indicated that they would be interested in receiving training to learn how to use Facebook better. Social networking sites are increasingly important in creating and maintaining social networks. A significant number of survey respondents expressed interest in further training on Facebook use. Increased use of social networking may have important implications for social integration among individuals with TBI.

  5. Mapping progress in chronic hepatitis B: geographic variation in prevalence, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Jennifer; Allard, Nicole; Carville, Kylie; Haynes, Katelin; Cowie, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    To measure progress towards Australia's National Hepatitis B Strategy 2014-17 targets, and assess geographic variation in disease burden and access to care for those living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Data were generated from routinely collected sources, including risk-group prevalence and population data, infectious diseases notifications, Medicare records, and immunisation registry data, and assessed nationally and according to geographic area for 2013-15. CHB prevalence in 2015 was 239,167 (1.0%), with 62% of those affected having been diagnosed (target 80%). Treatment uptake was 6.1% (target 15%), and only 15.3% of people with CHB received guideline-based care. CHB prevalence ranged within Australia's 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs) from 1.77% (NT) to 0.56% (Grampians & Barwon South West VIC). No PHN reached the 15% treatment target, with uptake highest in South Western Sydney (13.7%). Immunisation coverage reached the 95% target in three PHNs. The CHB burden in Australia is significant and highly geographically focused, with notable disparities in access to care across Australia. Implications for public health: Efforts to improve progress toward National Strategy targets should focus on priority areas where the prevalence of CHB is substantial but access to treatment and care remains low. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Clarithromycin resistance and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulent genotypes in patients from Southern México with chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Millán, Judit; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc Mariano; Castañón-Sánchez, Carlos Alberto; De Sampedro-Reyes, José; Cruz-Del Carmen, Iván; Betancourt-Linares, Reyes; Román-Román, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    In developing countries, clarithromycin resistance and frequency of re-infection are factors that contribute to high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this research was determine the prevalence of clarithromycin resistance and its relation with A2142G, A2142C and A2143G mutations in the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori isolates in patients from Southern Mexico with chronic gastritis. Another purpose of this work was to study the prevalence of virulent genotypes and distribution of resistant strains according to the vacA/cagA/babA2 H. pylori genotypes. One hundred forty-four patients with chronic gastritis were studied. Forty-five H. pylori strains were isolated and clarithromycin susceptibility was determined by the disk-diffusion method. The 82.2% of the strains had the combination of alleles vacA s1 m1 and the cagA gene was detected in 77.8% and 40% of the strains were babA2 positive. The vacA s1 m1 genotype was detected more frequently in cagA(+) strains, vacA s1m1/cagA(+)/babA2(-) genotype was more frequent than vacA s1m1/cagA(+)/babA2(+), 37.8% and 33.3%, respectively. Eight strains were clarithromycin resistant, in three of these, point mutations were identified, but only in one strain the A2143G mutation associated with clarithromycin resistance was found. Other point mutations (A1821G, G1826A, T1830C, A2089G, T1600C, C1601T, C1602T, T1610C, A1611C and T1633G) that have not been associated with clarithromycin resistance were identified. The highest proportion of resistant strains was vacA s1m1/cagA(+) (62.5%). In patients from southern Mexico with chronic gastritis, the prevalence of clarithromycin resistance is within internationally accepted range (17.8%) and allows continued use of triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. However, it is necessary to monitor the evolution of clarithromycin resistance in this area. The largest proportion of resistant H. pylori strains is not harboring the A2142G, A2142C and A2143G mutations

  7. Prevalence of osteoporosis in community-dwelling individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Robert G; Porter, Laura Lynn; Shapiro, Jamie L; Prater, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    Measure central bone mineral density (BMD) in community-dwelling individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. A cross-sectional study. A regional center providing outpatient medical, residential, and day activity services for individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Documented BMD results were obtained for 298 community-dwelling individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. BMD by central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on the participant's spine, converted into T-scores categories using CDC guidelines (T T or = -1.0 [normal]). Comparisons were made using multiple regression to determine significant independent risk factors for low BMD. Significant predictors were noted in the rates of osteoporosis attributable to subject age, race, and level of ambulation. No gender differences were noted for the rate of osteoporosis in this community sample of individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities, nor were any differences noted for varying levels of mental retardation. Diagnostic differences were significant only for those individuals with a diagnosis of metabolic error, who had a significantly lower rate of osteoporosis than the rest of the study population. This study's findings regarding age, race, and level of ambulation are consistent with those of previous studies using an intellectually and/or developmentally disabled population as well as the general population at large. Our finding that the rate of osteoporosis among disabled males is higher than for males in the general population suggests a possible case-finding deficit for asymptomatic males in the general population. It is also interesting that the only diagnostic category observed to be statistically different from the group in general was metabolic error, a finding that warrants further investigation.

  8. Prevalence of Drug Resistance Associated Mutations Among the Anti Retroviral Therapy Exposed HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Manipur, Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhikumar Sharma, Adhikarimayum; Ramsing Singh, Thiyam; Ranjana Devi, Khuraijam; Shanjukumar Singh, Lisam

    2016-01-01

    Manipur is one of the highest HIV prevalence states of India because of its geographical location at the international border near the golden triangle of South-East Asia, but no study on drug resistance associated mutations (DRAMs) has been reported yet. A population-based study on DRAMs of HIV-1 among the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) exposed HIV-1 infected individuals of Manipur was conducted. 110 HIV-1 positive individuals who had initially exposed to first line anti-HIV drugs were recruited for the surveillance of DRAMs. Reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-1 were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Significant prevalence of DRAMs of HIV-1 was found among the ART exposed HIV-1 infected individuals of Manipur. The results revealed that 37%, 29% and 7% individuals harbor HIV-1 strains mutated at the target sites of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors respectively. Predominant DRAMs at RT genes were M184V, T215Y, M41L and V108I and H221Y while at PR genes were M46I and I47V. Among the high risk groups, intravenous drug users have the highest number of DRAMs followed by heterosexual individuals. Analysis of viral subtype based on pol gene revealed 83% subtype C, 11.8% recombinant forms and 5.2% subtype B. DRAMs at the target sites of reverse transcriptase inhibitors are high and these were found to have developed resistance to the primary ART drugs that are used in Manipur. The findings of this study will help the clinicians to guide patients during the course of ART treatment regimes.

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with dental erosion in individuals aged 12–30 years in a northeastern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano LC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Luanda Cristina O Luciano,1 Meire Coelho Ferreira,2 Marco Aurelio Paschoal2 1Dentistry Program, Facimp Devry, Imperatriz, 2Post Graduate Program in Dentistry, CEUMA University, São Luís, Brazil Background/Purpose: Dental erosion in young individuals has increased significantly in recent years, due to changes in lifestyle. Thus, the present study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with dental erosion in individuals aged 12–30 years in the city of Imperatriz of Maranhão, Brazil.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 335 individuals who answered a questionnaire consisting of variables related to dental erosion. Afterwards, the individuals were subjected to clinical examinations and the basic erosive wear examination index was used to classify their teeth according to the presence and severity of dental erosion.Results: Descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, Poisson univariate and multivariate regression were performed at 5% level of significance. The sample was characterized by 204 females (60.9%, the majority of whom were from 12 to 19 years of age (78.5%, among whom 28.7% ­presented dental erosion. Their monthly family income was from 1 to 3 minimum wages (56.4%. The variables that were significantly associated with the outcome were family income, chewing gum, and consumption of soft-drinks/juices before going to sleep (p=0.03, p=0.001, and p=0.04, respectively. Individuals who chewed chewing gum were 2.27 times (95% CI =1.43–3.60 more likely to present dental erosion than those who did not chew gum. Individuals who ingested soft drinks or juices were 2.30 times (95% CI =1.30–4.10 more likely to present dental erosion.Conclusion: The prevalence of erosion reflected the need for programs of prevention and guidance for patients about the etiological factors of the disease. Keywords: young adults, dental erosion, prevalence, factors, tooth wear, life style

  10. Human parvovirus 4 prevalence among HTLV-1/2 infected individuals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Svetoslav Nanev; Otaguiri, Katia Kaori; Smid, Jerusa; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva; Casseb, Jorge; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria; Kashima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), a Tetraparvovirus, has been largely found in HIV, HBV, or HCV infected individuals. However, there is no data for the PARV4 occurrence in Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infected individuals, despite similar transmission routes. Here, PARV4 viremia was evaluated in 130 HTLV infected patients under care of a Brazilian HTLV outpatient clinic. PARV4 viremia was detected in 6.2% of the HTLV-1 infected patients. Most PARV4 positives showed no evidence for parenterally transmitted infections. It is suggested that in Brazil, transmission routes of PARV4 are more complex than in Europe and North America and resemble those in Africa. J. Med. Virol. 89:748-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Intervention Mapping to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based intervention for chronic pain tailored to individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Young, Sarah R; Johnson, Mallory O; Saag, Michael; Demonte, William; Kerns, Robert; Bair, Matthew J; Kertesz, Stefan; Turan, Janet M; Kilgore, Meredith; Clay, Olivio J; Pekmezi, Dorothy; Davies, Susan

    2018-06-01

    Chronic pain is an important comorbidity among individuals with HIV. Behavioral interventions are widely regarded as evidence-based, efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions for chronic pain in the general population. An accepted principle in behavioral science is that theory-based, systematically-developed behavioral interventions tailored to the unique needs of a target population are most likely to be efficacious. Our aim was to use Intervention Mapping to systematically develop a Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based intervention for chronic pain tailored to individuals with HIV that will improve pain intensity and pain-related functional impairment. Our Intervention Mapping process was informed by qualitative inquiry of 24 patients and seven providers in an HIV primary care clinic. The resulting intervention includes group and one-on-one sessions and peer and staff interventionists. We also developed a conceptual framework that integrates our qualitative findings with SCT-based theoretical constructs. Using this conceptual framework as a guide, our future work will investigate the intervention's impact on chronic pain outcomes, as well as our hypothesized proximal mediators of the intervention's effect.

  12. Locomotor step training with body weight support improves respiratory motor function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terson de Paleville, Daniela; McKay, William; Aslan, Sevda; Folz, Rodney; Sayenko, Dimitry; Ovechkin, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    This prospective case-controlled clinical study was undertaken to investigate to what extent the manually assisted treadmill stepping locomotor training with body weight support (LT) can change respiratory function in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Pulmonary function outcomes (forced vital capacity /FVC/, forced expiratory volume one second /FEV1/, maximum inspiratory pressure /PImax/, maximum expiratory pressure /PEmax/) and surface electromyographic (sEMG) measures of respiratory muscles activity during respiratory tasks were obtained from eight individuals with chronic C3-T12 SCI before and after 62±10 (mean±SD) sessions of the LT. FVC, FEV1, PImax, PEmax, amount of overall sEMG activity and rate of motor unit recruitment were significantly increased after LT (prespiratory muscles preserved after injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Higher prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in deeper periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis in Japanese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Kato

    Full Text Available Periodontitis, a complex chronic inflammatory disease caused by subgingival infection, is among the most prevalent microbial diseases in humans. Although traditional microbiological research on periodontitis has focused on putative bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, the herpes virus is proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis because bacterial etiology alone does not adequately explain various clinical aspects. In this study, we established for the first time, more Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA is found deeper in periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis in Japanese patients. Subgingival samples were collected from 85 patients with chronic periodontitis having two periodontal sites with probing depths (PD of ≤ 3 mm (shallow or ≥ 5 mm (deep and were subjected to a nested polymerase chain reaction. EBV DNA was more frequently detected in patients with deeper PD sites (66% than in those with shallow PD sites (48% or healthy controls (45%. Coexistence of EBV DNA and P. gingivalis was significantly higher in patients with deeper PD sites (40% than in those with shallow PD sites (14% or healthy controls (13%. Although no difference in clinical index for periodontitis, the odds ratio of EBV DNA in patients with deeper PD sites was 2.36, which was 2.07-fold higher than that in those with shallow PD sites. Interestingly, the odds of acquiring chronic periodontitis (PD ≥ 5 mm were higher in the presence of both EBV DNA and P. gingivalis compared with either EBV DNA or P. gingivalis only. In addition, we also observed that EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER in positive cells of human gingival tissues. These results would suggest that EBV DNA may serve as a pathogenic factor leading to chronic periodontitis among Japanese patients.

  14. Social Processes That Can Facilitate and Sustain Individual Self-Management for People with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kendall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent shifts in health policy direction in several countries have, on the whole, translated into self-management initiatives in the hope that this approach will address the growing impact of chronic disease. Dominant approaches to self-management tend to reinforce the current medical model of chronic disease and fail to adequately address the social factors that impact on the lives of people with chronic conditions. As part of a larger study focused on outcomes following a chronic disease, this paper explores the processes by which a chronic disease self-management (CDSM course impacted on participants. Five focus groups were conducted with participants and peer leaders of the course in both urban and rural regions of Queensland, Australia. The findings suggested that outcomes following CDSM courses depended on the complex interplay of four social factors, namely, social engagement, the development of a collective identity, the process of building collaborative coping capacity, and the establishment of exchange relationships. This study highlights the need for an approach to self-management that actively engages consumers in social relationships and addresses the context within which their lives (and diseases are enacted. This approach extends beyond the psychoeducational skills-based approach to self-management into a more ecological model for disease prevention.

  15. Self-Care Self-Efficacy Correlates with Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living in Individuals with Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Yael; Weingarden, Harold; Zeilig, Gabi; Nota, Ayala; Rand, Debbie

    2015-07-01

    (1) To characterize the self-care self-efficacy (SCSE) of community dwelling individuals with chronic stroke and (2) to determine the contribution of SCSE to the independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL) and the participation of individuals with chronic stroke. SCSE is the confidence in one's own ability to perform self-care activities. This cross-sectional study included fifty community-dwelling individuals mean (SD) age 59.8 (9.3) years, mean (SD) 3.1 (1.7) years post-stroke who were able to walk at least 10 meters. SCSE was assessed using the Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ), BADL was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) (interview), the IADL questionnaire assessed IADL and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) assessed participation. Correlation and regression analyses were performed after controlling for grip strength, executive functions and gait speed, factors known to influence independence in daily living. The mean SCSE level was moderate-high (70%). Significant moderate correlations were found between SCSE to independence in BADL (r = .596, P < .001), IADL (r = .567, P < .001) and participation (r = .340, P < .005). SCSE of our cohort explained 7.4% of the variance of the individual's independence in BADL after controlling for executive functions and gait speed, but did not contribute to their independence in IADL and participation. Higher SCSE of individuals with chronic stroke contributes to more independence in BADL. Additional questionnaires regarding self efficacy for IADL should be developed and investigated. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and reasons for intentional use of complementary and alternative medicine as an adjunct to future visits to a medical doctor for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Agnete E; Stub, Trine; Musial, Frauke; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Lillenes, Ola; Norheim, Arne Johan

    2018-03-27

    Intentional use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has previously only been researched in small, possibly biased, samples. There seems to be a lack of scientific information regarding healthy individual's attitudes and presumed use of CAM. The aim of this study is to describe prevalence and characteristics of participants who intend to see a CAM provider compared to participants who intend to see a medical doctor (MD) only when suffering from a chronic, non- life-threatening disease and in the need of treatment. Further to describe differences between the groups regarding expected reasons for CAM use and expected skills of CAM providers. The survey was conducted in January 2016 as part of the "TNS Gallup Health policy Barometer". In total, 1728 individuals aged 16-92 years participated in the study, constituting an overall response rate of 47%. The survey included questions regarding opinions and attitudes towards health, health services and health politics in Norway. The majority of the participants (90.2%) would see a MD only if they were suffering from a chronic, non- life-threatening disease and were in the need of treatment. Men over the age of 60 with a university education tended to see a MD only. Only 9.8% of all respondents would in addition visit a CAM provider. Being an intentional user of a MD + CAM provider was associated with being a woman under the age of 60. The respondents believed that CAM providers have professional competence based on formal training in CAM. They also believed that individuals seeing a CAM provider have poor health and are driven by the hope of being cured. Further, that they have heard that others have good experience with such treatment. Intentional use of CAM is associated with positive attitudes, trustworthiness, and presumed positive experiences in the CAM-patient-setting. Intentional CAM users also have the impression that CAM providers have professional competence based on formal training in alternative

  17. Risk of latent TB infection in individuals employed in the healthcare sector in Germany: a multicentre prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harling Melanie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare workers are still recognised as a high-risk group for latent TB infection (LTBI. Therefore, the screening of people employed in the healthcare sector for active and LTBI is fundamental to infection control programmes in German hospitals. It was the aim of the study to determine the prevalence and putative risk factors of LTBI. Methods We tested 2028 employees in the healthcare sector with the QuantiFERON-Gold In-tube (QFT-IT test between December 2005 and May 2009, either in the course of contact tracing or in serial testing of TB high-risk groups following German OSH legislation. Results A positive IGRA was found in 9.9% of the healthcare workers (HCWs. Nurses and physicians showed similar prevalence rates (9.7% to 9.6%. Analysed by occupational group, the highest prevalence was found in administration staff and ancillary nursing staff (17.4% and 16.7%. None of the individuals in the trainee group showed a positive IGRA result. In the different workplaces the observed prevalence was 14.7% in administration, 12.0% in geriatric care, 14.2% in technicians (radiology, laboratory and pathology, 6.5% in admission ward staff and 8.3% in the staff of pulmonary/infectious disease wards. Putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>55 years: OR14.7, 95% CI 5.1-42.1, being foreign-born (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.4-2.8, TB in the individual's own history (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.99-12.3 and previous positive TST results (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.4-4.98. We observed no statistically significant association with gender, BCG vaccination, workplace or profession. Conclusion The prevalence of LTBI in low-incidence countries depends on age. We found no positive IGRA results among trainees in the healthcare sector. Incidence studies are needed to assess the infection risk. Pre-employment screening might be helpful in this endeavour.

  18. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasites among Institutionalized Mentally Disabled Individuals in Rasht, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin SAEIDINIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single  stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2-57 (25.69±11.56 yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5% cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8% individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2% cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6% with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3% of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%, Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2% and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%. Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6% individuals.Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared.

  19. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found...... among the 31 seronegative high-risk subjects, either by virus isolation of by PCR (97.5% confidence limits, 0-11). Our results indicate that ongoing HIV infection in seronegative persons at high risk of infection is a rare event....

  20. Prevalence of GJB2 Mutations in Affected Individuals from United Arab Emirates with Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Abdelaziz; Al Mutery, Abdullah; Kamal Eddine Ahmad Mohamed, Walaa; Mahfood, Mona; Hadj Kacem, Hassen

    2017-11-01

    Mutations in the gap junction protein beta 2 (GJB2) gene are responsible for more cases of nonsyndromic recessive hearing loss than any other gene. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of GJB2 mutations among affected individuals from United Arab Emirates (UAE). There were 50 individuals diagnosed with hereditary hearing loss and 120 healthy individuals enrolled in the study. The Sanger sequencing method was used to screen the GJB2 coding region in all affected individuals. The c.-1G>A variant was determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in normal individuals. Nine cases with bi-allelic mutations and three cases with mono-allelic mutations were detected in 12 out of 50 patients (24%). The homozygous mutation c.35delG was identified as the cause of hearing loss in six participants (12%). The mutation c.506G>A was identified in three affected individuals (6%). The allelic frequency (14%) and low percentage of individuals that were homozygous (2%) for the c.35delG mutation suggest that there are other genes responsible for nonsyndromic deafness in the UAE population. The results reported here are a preliminary step in collecting epidemiological data regarding autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss related to GJB2 gene mutations among the UAE population. The c.35delG mutation of the GJB2 gene is the most frequently seen causative mutation in the UAE and is followed by the p.Cys169Tyr mutation.

  1. Improvement in balance using a virtual reality-based stepping exercise: a randomized controlled trial involving individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloréns, Roberto; Gil-Gómez, José-Antonio; Alcañiz, Mariano; Colomer, Carolina; Noé, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    To study the clinical effectiveness and the usability of a virtual reality-based intervention compared with conventional physical therapy in the balance recovery of individuals with chronic stroke. Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient neurorehabilitation unit. A total of 20 individuals with chronic stroke. The intervention consisted of 20 one-hour sessions, five sessions per week. The experimental group combined 30 minutes with the virtual reality-based intervention with 30 minutes of conventional training. The control group underwent one hour conventional therapy. Balance performance was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the trial using the Berg Balance Scale, the balance and gait subscales of the Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment, the Brunel Balance Assessment, and the 10-m Walking Test. Subjective data of the virtual reality-based intervention were collected from the experimental group, with a feedback questionnaire at the end of the trial. The results revealed a significant group-by-time interaction in the scores of the Berg Balance Scale (p Virtual reality interventions can be an effective resource to enhance the improvement of balance in individuals with chronic stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Prevalence of Suspected Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hispanic/Latino Individuals Differs by Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallwitz, Eric R.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Allison, Matthew A.; Emory, Kristen T.; Zhao, Lihui; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Chen, Jinsong; Gouskova, Natalia; Pirzada, Amber; Talavera, Gregory A.; Youngblood, Marston E.; Cotler, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was shown to disproportionally affect Hispanic persons. We examined the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in Hispanic/Latino persons with diverse backgrounds. Methods We studied the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among 12,133 persons included in The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We collected data on levels of aminotransferase, metabolic syndrome (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines), demographics, and health behaviors. Suspected NAFLD was defined based on increased level of aminotransferase in the absence of serologic evidence for common causes of liver disease or excessive alcohol consumption. In multivariate analyses, data were adjusted for metabolic syndrome, age, acculturation, diet, physical activity, sleep, and levels of education and income. Results In multivariate analysis, compared to persons of Mexican heritage, persons of Cuban (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.85), Puerto Rican (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52–0.87), and Dominican backgrounds (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54–0.93) had lower rates of suspected NAFLD. Persons of Central American and South American heritage had a similar prevalence of suspected NAFLD compared to persons of Mexican heritage. NAFLD was less common in women than men (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.40–0.60). Suspected NAFLD associated with the metabolic syndrome and all 5 of its components. Conclusion Based on an analysis of a large database of health in Latino populations, we found the prevalence of suspected NAFLD among Hispanic/Latino individuals to vary by region of heritage. PMID:25218670

  3. Inverse association between altitude and obesity: A prevalence study among Andean and low-altitude adult individuals of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Castillo, Oscar A.; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between altitude and obesity in a nationally representative sample of the Peruvian adult population. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available data from the Food and Nutrition National Center (CENAN, Peru), period 2009-2010. Prevalence ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was determined as a measure of association. Obesity and abdominal obesity were diagnosed based on direct anthropometric measurements. Results The final dataset consisted of 31,549 individuals ≥20 years old. The prevalence ratio of obesity was as follows: 1.00 between 0–499 m (reference category), 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.16) between 500–1,499 m, 0.74 (0.63-0.86) between 1,500–2,999, and 0.54 (0.45-0.64) at ≥3,000 m, adjusting for age, sex, self-reported physical activity, out-migration rate, urbanization, poverty, education, and geographical latitude and longitude. In the same order, the adjusted prevalence ratio of abdominal obesity was 1.00, 1.01 (0.94-1.07), 0.93 (0.87-0.99), and 0.89 (0.82-0.95), respectively. We found an interaction between altitude and sex and between altitude and age (Pobesity and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Among Peruvian adult individuals, we found an inverse association between altitude and obesity, adjusting for multiple covariates. This adjusted association varied by sex and age. PMID:26935008

  4. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and infrastructure for its diagnosis in Madagascar: implication for the WHO's elimination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Olive, Marie-Marie; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Razanajatovo, Iony Manitra; Andrianinarivomanana, Tsarasoa Malala; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Rogier, Christophe; Héraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-08-04

    WHO developed a global strategy to eliminate hepatitis B by 2030 and set target to treat 80% of people with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection eligible for antiviral treatment. As a first step to achieve this goal, it is essential to conduct a situation analysis that is fundamental to designing national hepatitis plans. We therefore estimated the prevalence of chronic HBV infection, and described the existing infrastructure for HBV diagnosis in Madagascar. We conducted a stratified multi-stage serosurvey of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in adults aged ≥18 years using 28 sentinel surveillance sites located throughout the country. We obtained the list of facilities performing HBV testing from the Ministry of Health, and contacted the person responsible at each facility. A total of 1778 adults were recruited from the 28 study areas. The overall weighted seroprevalence of HBsAg was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.6-8.6). Populations with a low socio-economic status and those living in rural areas had a significantly higher seroprevalence of HBsAg. The ratio of facilities equipped to perform HBsAg tests per 100,000 inhabitants was 1.02 in the capital city of Antananarivo and 0.21 outside the capital. There were no facilities with the capacity to perform HBV DNA testing or transient elastography to measure liver fibrosis. There are only five hepatologists in Madagascar. Madagascar has a high-intermediate level of endemicity for HBV infection with a severely limited capacity for its diagnosis and treatment. Higher HBsAg prevalence in rural or underprivileged populations underlines the importance of a public health approach to decentralize the management of chronic HBV carriers in Madagascar by using simple and low-cost diagnostic tools.

  5. Prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease seen in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureo, Juan Carlos; Arévalo, Jose Carlos; Antón, Joaquín; Adrados, Gaspar; Jiménez Morales, Jose Luis; Robles, Nicolás Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the elderly population, few data are available on the frequency of secondary hyperparathyroidism in the Spanish population affected by this problem. We undertook a study on this issue in patients attending the internal medicine departments in our area. An observational, cross-sectional survey performed at internal medicine departments on 415 patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. Clinical history and risk factors were collected using a standardized protocol. Serum creatinine, phosphate, calcium, intact parathormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25-OH-vitD) levels were measured in all patients. Among stage 3 patients, 62.9% had PTH levels ≥70pg/mL and 32.7% levels ≥110pg/mL. Median PTH level in stage 4 patients was 120pg/mL (p Hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease which is not associated to detectable changes in serum calcium and phosphate levels. It is therefore advisable to measure PTH levels in all patients with decreased glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence, clinical predictors, and prognostic impact of chronic renal insufficiency in very old Chinese patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shihui; Yi, Shuangyan; Zhu, Bing; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Liang; Bai, Yongyi; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming

    2013-08-01

    An aging population leads to the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Nevertheless, the prevalence, clinical predictors, and prognostic impact of CRI in very old Chinese patients with CAD are unclear. Baseline characteristics were obtained from 1,050 old patients with CAD. The endpoint was all-cause mortality during the mean follow-up period of 417 days. The median age of the subjects was 86 years (range 60-104 years). CRI was present in 372 patients (35.4%). Age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.032, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.010-1.054], chronic heart failure (CHF) (HR 2.361, 95% CI 1.747-3.191), hypertension (HR 1.878, 95% CI 1.291-2.731), hemoglobin (HR 0.973, 95% CI 0.965-0.981), serum albumin (HR 0.954, 95% CI 0.912-0.995), HDL-C (HR 0.371, 95% CI 0.238-0.580), and LDL-C levels (HR 0.795, 95% CI 0.656-0.965) were independent predictors of CRI (all P acute myocardial infarction (AMI; HR 1.795, 95% CI 1.239-2.602), CHF New York Heart Association class IV (HR 1.691, 95% CI 1.187-2.410), heart rate (HR 1.019, 95% CI 1.011-1.026), hemoglobin (HR 0.982, 95% CI 0.975-0.990), and serum albumin levels (HR 0.905, 95% CI 0.874-0.938) were also independently related to mortality in CAD patients (all P < 0.05). A high prevalence of CRI with a high associated mortality rate existed in very old Chinese patients with CAD. CRI was an independent risk factor of adverse prognosis for these patients, and multiple predictors could be used to identify CAD patients at increased risk for CRI or poor survival.

  7. Measuring health outcomes of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with chronic environmental conditions using an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Fox

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Roy Fox1, Tara Sampalli1, Jonathan Fox11Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre, Fall River, NS, CanadaAbstract: The Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre is a treatment facility for individuals with chronic environmental conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic respiratory conditions and in some cases chronic pain. The premise of care is to provide a patient-centred multidisciplinary care approach leading to self-management strategies. In order to measure the outcome of the treatment in these complex problems, with overlapping diagnoses, symptoms in many body systems and suspected environmental triggers, a detailed symptoms questionnaire was developed specifically for this patient population and validated. Results from a pilot study in which an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire based on the top reported symptoms captured in previous research was used to measure the efficacy of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity are presented in this paper. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, type and patterns of changes over time in the top reported symptoms with treatment measured using the abbreviated symptoms questionnaire. A total of 183 active and 109 discharged patients participated in the study where the health status was measured at different time periods of follow up since the commencement of treatment at the Centre. The findings from this study were successful in generating an initial picture of the nature and type of changes in these symptoms. For instance, symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, sinus conditions and tiredness showed early improvement, within the first 6 months of being in treatment, while others, such as fatigue, hoarseness or loss of voice, took longer while others showed inconsistent changes warranting further enquiry. A controlled longitudinal study is planned to confirm the findings of the pilot study

  8. Brain control of volitional ankle tasks in people with chronic stroke and in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, L D; Massé-Alarie, H; Brouwer, B; Schneider, C

    2014-03-15

    This study explored the relationships between motor cortical control of ankle dorsiflexors and clinical impairments of volitional ankle dorsiflexion in people with chronic stroke. Eighteen persons with stroke and 14 controls were evaluated. Clinical tools were used to assess ankle dorsiflexion amplitude and isometric strength. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) tested the functional integrity of cortical circuits controlling the tibialis anterior (TA). All clinical scores and most TMS outcomes were impaired in people with chronic stroke. The lower clinical scores were related to the reduction of the strength of corticospinal projections onto spinal motoneurons. Concurrent TMS and clinical testing in chronic stroke provided original data demonstrating relationships between the integrity of cortical and corticospinal components of TA motor control and volitional ankle tasks. Our study proposes that volitional ankle mobilization in chronic stroke may be explained by the residual abnormal M1 circuits which may be responsive for rehabilitation intervention. This should be confirmed in longitudinal studies with larger samples to determine whether TMS outcomes associated with lower limb muscles are predictive of clinical changes or vice versa. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sarcopenia in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis: Analysis of the prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dílmerson; Barbosa, Sérgio Ribeiro; Corrêa, José Otávio do Amaral; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Mansur, Henrique Novais; Fernandes, Natália Maria da Silva; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sarcopenia is a chronic condition that is associated with aging and characterized by a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and function. Sarcopenia is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as cardiovascular complications. Objectives To investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with CKD not yet on dialysis and its correlation with clinical and laboratory variables and inflammatory markers. Methods A total of 100 patients of both sexes aged over 18 were evaluated. Sarcopenia was defined using the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project. Sociodemographic and clinical data, activities of daily living, functional capacity, and physical activity were also evaluated. Inflammation was assessed by the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin (IL) 4 and 6. Results The prevalence of sarcopenia was 11.9% and 28.7% using the EWGSOP and FNIH criteria, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent in the more advanced stages of CKD (34.5% in stages 2 and 3A; and 65.5% in stages 3B, 4, and 5) and associated with worse performance in activities of daily living (p = 0.049), lower walking speeds (p sarcopenia had lower functional capacity (p = 0.012) and higher prevalence of physical inactivity (p = 0.041) compared with patients without sarcopenia. After adjustment for confounding variables, sarcopenia was still significantly correlated with walking speed (p = 0.004) and BMI (p = 0.002). HsCRP levels were inversely correlated with appendicular lean mass adjusted for BMI (p = 0.007) and were also positively associated with BMI (p = 0.001). IL4 levels were positively correlated with walking speed (p = 0.007) and lean mass in the lower limbs (p = 0.022). Conclusions Sarcopenia is common in patients with CKD, particularly in the

  10. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among patients with a chronic nonspecific lung disease in five ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Wilco; Snijder, Marieke B; Schene, Aart H; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies found chronic nonspecific lung disease (CNSLD) to be associated with depressive symptoms. We aimed to assess whether the association between CNSLD and depressive symptoms varies between ethnic groups. We used questionnaire data from 10916 participants of the HELIUS study in Amsterdam from six different ethnic groups. We applied logistic regression analysis to determine the association between CNSLD and depressive symptoms and interaction terms to test whether this association varied between ethnic groups. CNSLD prevalence was higher among South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccans (10.1% to 12.5%) than African Surinamese, Dutch and Ghanaians (4.8% to 6.3%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher among participants with CNSLD (28.4% vs. 13.7%). This association was not significantly different between ethnic groups. The absolute prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher among the CNSLD patients from ethnic minority groups (19.2 % to 35.6%) as compared with the Dutch-origin majority group (11.2%). CNSLD is associated with a high risk of depressive symptoms, especially among the five ethnic minority groups. These results imply a need to monitor the mental health of CNSLD patients in particular when a patient is from an ethnic minority group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence, classification, and etiology of pain in Parkinson's disease: association between Parkinson's disease and fibromyalgia or chronic widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Katsuhiro; Harada, Toshihide

    2010-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by resting tremor, slow and decreased movement (hypokinesia and akinesia), rigidity, postural instability, problems with gait, and coordination. The prevalence of PD is between 0.1% and 0.3% in the general population and between 1% and 2% in persons 65 years of age or older. Patients with PD are more likely to suffer from pain. Indeed, the chief complaint of patients with severe motor disturbance and severe pain is pain rather than motor disturbance. Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined by widespread pain (pain in the left and right sides of the body, pain above the waist, pain below the waist, and axial skeletal pain) for more than 3 months and the presence of at least 11 of the 18 specified tender points. FM and chronic widespread pain (CWP), which is usually an incomplete form of FM, cause pain in the musculoskeletal region, but their etiologies are unknown. Therefore, it is almost impossible to determine whether or not pain in the musculoskeletal region is in the musculoskeletal origin. We suspect that dysfunction or degeneration of the nerves that control pain, mind, and movement in the brain causes FM, depression, and PD, respectively. When pain in PD is discussed, FM and CWP should be considered because their prevalence is high. Patients with PD may be likely to suffer from FM and CWP; however, the prevalence of FM and CWP in patients with PD has not been reported. Here, we discuss the relationship between PD and FM or CWP.

  12. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in independent community-dwelling older adults: The Fujiwara-kyo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tomoda, Koichi; Fujita, Yukio; Yamauchi, Motoo; Osa, Takao; Uyama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    As the Japanese population ages, the number of older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to increase, but the prevalence of COPD in patients aged ≥80 years remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in independent community-dwelling older adults aged ≥80 years. We investigated the prevalence of COPD in 2862 independent community-dwelling older adults (1504 men, 1358 women, mean age 77.7 ± 7.0 years) who underwent spirometry in the Fujiwara-kyo study, a study of successful aging in older adults. Those participants with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity dwelling older adults aged ≥80 years. However, the benefits of the spirometric screening and treatment for these patients needs to be determined. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2421-2426. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Prevalence and prognostic significance of hyponatraemia in outpatients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Louise; Schou, Morten; Videbæk, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Hyponatraemia has been reported to be a potent predictor of poor outcome in patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and prognostic significance of hyponatraemia in a large cohort of HF outpatients followed in clinics participating...... in the Danish Heart Failure Clinics Network....

  14. High prevalence of alpha-thalassemia among individuals with microcytosis and hypochromia without anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borges

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the contribution of alpha-thalassemia to microcytosis and hypochromia, 339 adult outpatients seen at Unicamp University Hospital (with the exception of the Clinical Hematology outpatient clinics, who showed normal hemoglobin (Hb levels and reduced mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, were analyzed. Ninety-eight were Blacks (28.9% and 241 were Caucasians (71.1%. In all cases, Hb A2 and F levels were either normal or low. The most common deletional and nondeletional forms of alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, --MED, -(alpha20.5, alphaHphIalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI and alphaTSAUDI] were investigated by PCR and restriction enzyme analyses. A total of 169 individuals (49.9% presented alpha-thalassemia: 145 (42.8% were heterozygous for the -alpha3.7 deletion (-alpha3.7/aa and 18 (5.3% homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7, 5 (1.5% were heterozygous for the nondeletional form alphaHphIalpha (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.3% was a --MED carrier (--MED/aa. Among the Blacks, 56 (57.1% showed the -alpha3.7/aa genotype, whereas 12 (12.2% were -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 and 1 (1.0% was an alphaHphIalpha carrier; among the Caucasians, 89 (36.9% were -alpha3.7/aa, 6 (2.5% had the -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 genotype, 4 (1.7% presented the nondeletional form (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.4% was a --MED carrier. These results demonstrate that alpha-thalassemia, mainly through the -alpha3.7 deletion, is an important cause of microcytosis and hypochromia in individuals without anemia. These data are of clinical relevance since these hematological alterations are often interpreted as indicators of iron deficiency.

  15. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L; McGowan, Justine; Wagner, Glenn J

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among "key populations." To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Long-chain referral sampling was used to recruit 53 participants for completion of a behavioural survey and optional free rapid HIV tests. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify demographic determinants of HIV risk behaviour. Fifty-seven percent of participants reported condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) with male partner(s) in the last three months, 40% of whom reported not knowing the HIV status of the partner(s). Of the participants tested for HIV as part of the study or via self-report, four (10%) were HIV positive; 13 declined HIV testing. Forty percent of the sample had no prior history of HIV testing. A history of trauma such as sexual abuse/assault was reported by almost half of the participants (49%). Sixty-eight percent reported experiencing physical violence and 32% police arrest, because of gender identity or presentation. A staggering 98% reported having experienced gender identity or gender presentation-related discrimination. Sixty-six percent of the sample reported current sex work; sex work was correlated with CRAI but was not significant in multivariate analysis. In regression analysis, "openness"/"outness" about transgender identity at work or school was significantly associated with CRAI. Surprisingly, a history of sexual abuse/assault was negatively correlated with CRAI, suggesting the need for further inquiry. The results of this study provide implications for how to address sexual health among trans feminine

  16. Prevalence and predictors for compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease (c-ACLD) in patients with chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Ingrid; Victoria, Marilu; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Rodrigues, Lorena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Lacerda, Marcus; Victoria, Flamir; Perazzo, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictor factors for compensated advanced chronic liver disease (c-ACLD) in patients with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection. This cross-sectional study included consecutive HDV-infected patients defined by positive anti-HDV. Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions that limit liver (LSM) or spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) were excluded. Blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, SSM and LSM by transient elastography (FibroScan®) were performed at the same day. Alcohol consumption was quantified using the AUDIT score and c-ACLD was defined by LSM ≥ 15 kPa performed by an experimented operator blinded for clinical and laboratory data. 101 patients were eligible and few patients were excluded due to negative anti-HDV (n = 7), hepatitis C coinfection (n = 2), liver transplantation (n = 10) and limitation for LSM or SSM (n = 5). Therefore, 77 patients [61% male, age = 43 (IQR,36-52) years] were included. The prevalence of c-ACLD was 57% (n = 44/77). Patients with c-ACLD had a higher rate of detectable HBV viral load (p = 0.039), higher levels of transaminases, GGT, alkaline phosphatases, total bilirubin and INR (p0.001 for both) compared to those without c-ACLD. Patients with c-ACLD had higher SSM [65.2 (IQR,33.8-75.0) vs 21.8 (16.5-32.0) kPa; p10 UI/ml), alkaline phosphatase (per IU/L) and GGT levels (per IU/L) were independently associated with c-ACLD in all multivariate models. Splenic volume [per cm3,OR = 1.01 (95%CI,1.01-1.02);p = 0.002], SSM [per kPa, OR = 1.04 (1.01-1.07);p = 0.012] and splenomegaly [yes vs no,OR = 28.45 (4.42-182.95);pc-ACLD. The prevalence of c-ACLD was high in patients with chronic HDV infection in western Amazon basin. HBV viral load, liver enzymes and splenic features can be used to predict severe liver disease in HDV-infected patients.

  17. Prevalence and predictors for compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease (c-ACLD in patients with chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Couto

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictor factors for compensated advanced chronic liver disease (c-ACLD in patients with hepatitis Delta virus (HDV infection.This cross-sectional study included consecutive HDV-infected patients defined by positive anti-HDV. Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions that limit liver (LSM or spleen stiffness measurement (SSM were excluded. Blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, SSM and LSM by transient elastography (FibroScan® were performed at the same day. Alcohol consumption was quantified using the AUDIT score and c-ACLD was defined by LSM ≥ 15 kPa performed by an experimented operator blinded for clinical and laboratory data.101 patients were eligible and few patients were excluded due to negative anti-HDV (n = 7, hepatitis C coinfection (n = 2, liver transplantation (n = 10 and limitation for LSM or SSM (n = 5. Therefore, 77 patients [61% male, age = 43 (IQR,36-52 years] were included. The prevalence of c-ACLD was 57% (n = 44/77. Patients with c-ACLD had a higher rate of detectable HBV viral load (p = 0.039, higher levels of transaminases, GGT, alkaline phosphatases, total bilirubin and INR (p0.001 for both compared to those without c-ACLD. Patients with c-ACLD had higher SSM [65.2 (IQR,33.8-75.0 vs 21.8 (16.5-32.0 kPa; p10 UI/ml, alkaline phosphatase (per IU/L and GGT levels (per IU/L were independently associated with c-ACLD in all multivariate models. Splenic volume [per cm3,OR = 1.01 (95%CI,1.01-1.02;p = 0.002], SSM [per kPa, OR = 1.04 (1.01-1.07;p = 0.012] and splenomegaly [yes vs no,OR = 28.45 (4.42-182.95;p<0.001] were independently associated with c-ACLD.The prevalence of c-ACLD was high in patients with chronic HDV infection in western Amazon basin. HBV viral load, liver enzymes and splenic features can be used to predict severe liver disease in HDV-infected patients.

  18. The tradition algorithm approach underestimates the prevalence of serodiagnosis of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Peng, Xiuming; Xie, Tiansheng; Jin, Changzhong; Liu, Fumin; Wu, Nanping

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient) was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.

  19. Impact of Shoulder Abduction Loading on Brain-Machine Interface in Predicting Hand Opening and Closing in Individuals With Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Sheaff, Clay; Carmona, Carolina; Dewald, Julius P A

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with moderate and severe stroke are unable to use their paretic hand. Currently, the effect of conventional therapy on regaining meaningful hand function in this population is limited. Efforts have been made to use brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control hand function. To date, almost all BMI classification algorithms are designed for detecting hand movements with a resting arm. However, many functional movements require simultaneous movements of the arm and hand. Arm movement will possibly affect the detection of intended hand movements, specifically for individuals with chronic stroke who have muscle synergies. The most prevalent upper-extremity synergy-flexor synergy-is expressed as an abnormal coupling between shoulder abductors and elbow/wrist/finger flexors. We hypothesized that because of flexor synergy, shoulder abductor activity would affect the detection of the hand-opening (a movement inhibited by flexion synergy) but not the hand-closing task (a movement facilitated by the flexion synergy). We evaluated the accuracy of a BMI classification algorithm in detecting hand-opening versus closing after reaching a target with 2 different shoulder-abduction loads in 6 individuals with stroke. We found a decreased accuracy in detecting hand opening when an individual with stroke intends to open the hand while activating shoulder abductors. However, such decreased accuracy with increased shoulder loading was not shown while detecting a hand-closing task. This study supports the idea that one should consider the effect of shoulder abduction activity when designing BMI classification algorithms for the purpose of restoring hand function in individuals with moderate to severe stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Pediatric Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in a Specialized Liver Unit: Prevalence, Profile, Outcome, and Predictive Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Seema; Lal, Bikrant B; Sood, Vikrant; Rawat, Dinesh

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, profile, outcome, and predictive factors of pediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). All children 3 months to 18 years satisfying the Asia Pacific Association for the Study of Liver Diseases definition of ACLF were included. Data were both extracted from records (January 2011 to December 2014) and prospectively collected (January to October 2015). Successful outcome was defined as survival with native liver at 90 days, whereas poor outcome included those who died or received liver transplantation. Of the 499 children with chronic liver disease (CLD), 56 (11.2%) presented as ACLF, with a mean age of 9.35 (±4.39) years. Wilson disease and autoimmune hepatitis were the commonest underlying CLDs accounting for 24 (42.8%) and 18 (32.1%) cases, respectively. The most frequent events precipitating ACLF were a flare up of the underlying disease in 27 (48.2%) and acute viral hepatitis in 17 (30%). Poor outcome occurred in 22 (39.3%) children: 17 (30.4%) died and 5 (8.9%) received liver transplantation. Poor outcome was associated with grades 3 to 4 hepatic encephalopathy, bilirubin ≥17.5, international normalized ratio ≥3.5, and presence of 2 or more organ failures. On multivariate analysis, a Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score ≥10 best predicted mortality (odds ratio 20.45, 95% confidence interval 3.9-106.7). ACLF is present in 11.2% of childhood CLD, with a 90-day native liver survival of 61%. A Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of ≥10 best predicts mortality at day 90.

  1. Redefining the Chronic-Wound Microbiome: Fungal Communities Are Prevalent, Dynamic, and Associated with Delayed Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Kalan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nonhealing wounds have been heralded as a silent epidemic, causing significant morbidity and mortality especially in elderly, diabetic, and obese populations. Polymicrobial biofilms in the wound bed are hypothesized to disrupt the highly coordinated and sequential events of cutaneous healing. Both culture-dependent and -independent studies of the chronic-wound microbiome have almost exclusively focused on bacteria, omitting what we hypothesize are important fungal contributions to impaired healing and the development of complications. Here we show for the first time that fungal communities (the mycobiome in chronic wounds are predictive of healing time, associated with poor outcomes, and form mixed fungal-bacterial biofilms. We longitudinally profiled 100, nonhealing diabetic-foot ulcers with high-throughput sequencing of the pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 locus, estimating that up to 80% of wounds contain fungi, whereas cultures performed in parallel captured only 5% of colonized wounds. The “mycobiome” was highly heterogeneous over time and between subjects. Fungal diversity increased with antibiotic administration and onset of a clinical complication. The proportions of the phylum Ascomycota were significantly greater (P = 0.015 at the beginning of the study in wounds that took >8 weeks to heal. Wound necrosis was distinctly associated with pathogenic fungal species, while taxa identified as allergenic filamentous fungi were associated with low levels of systemic inflammation. Directed culturing of wounds stably colonized by pathogens revealed that interkingdom biofilms formed between yeasts and coisolated bacteria. Combined, our analyses provide enhanced resolution of the mycobiome during impaired wound healing, its role in chronic disease, and impact on clinical outcomes.

  2. The tradition algorithm approach underestimates the prevalence of serodiagnosis of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST, T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA, and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p < 0.0001. Compared to the reverse algorithm, the traditional algorithm also had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 42.8%. The total percentages of agreement and corresponding kappa values of tradition and ECDC algorithm compared with those of reverse algorithm were as follows: 89.4%,0.668; 99.8%, 0.994. There was a very good strength of agreement between the reverse and the ECDC algorithm. Our results supported the reverse (or ECDC algorithm in screening of syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.

  3. Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, K J; Pereira, R A; Popkin, B M

    2013-08-01

    Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil. Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ≥ 10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 0600-1000 hours; Lunch, 1200-1500 hours; Dinner, 1800-2100 hours); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percentage of persons consuming snacks, number of daily snacks and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/day, kcal/snack and % of daily energy from snacks). In all, 74% of Brazilians (≥ 10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/day. Also, 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥ 3 snacks/day). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared with non-snackers (1548 kcal/day), light (1-2 snacks/day) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/day, respectively). Taking into account time of day, the largest percentage of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (1501-1759 hours, 47.7%). Sweetened coffee and tea, sweets and desserts, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages, and high-calorie salgados (fried/baked dough with meat/cheese/vegetable) were the top five most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for sugar-sweetened beverages. Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars. The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration.

  4. Physiological Responses to Arm Activity in Individuals With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Compared With Healthy Controls: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vanessa Pereira; Iamonti, Vinicius C; Velloso, Marcelo; Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania

    The mechanisms underlying physiological limitations during arm activity in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to describe cardiorespiratory responses, symptoms, chest wall kinematics, muscle activity, and lung volumes during arm activity in individuals with COPD relative to the responses of healthy controls. Original research articles that compared cardiorespiratory responses, symptoms, muscle activity, chest wall kinematics, and lung function during arm activity between individuals with COPD and healthy controls were identified after searches of 5 electronic databases and reference lists of pertinent articles. Two reviewers performed the electronic and manual searches with 1 screening title and abstracts. Two investigators screened the full texts to determine eligibility for inclusion. One reviewer performed the data extraction and tabulation using a standardized form with a second reviewer double-checking the data extracted. Of the 54 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 6 met the inclusion criteria. Reduced cardiorespiratory responses during peak arm exercise in individuals with COPD compared with healthy controls were evident. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with COPD had increased dyspnea and hyperinflation during peak arm exercise. Increased effort of the trapezius muscle during arm activities was also found in persons with COPD compared with healthy controls. There is limited evidence describing physiological responses during arm activity in individuals with COPD. Findings of this systematic review suggest that individuals with COPD have decreased cardiorespiratory responses during peak arm exercise compared with controls but increased dyspnea, hyperinflation, and arm muscle effort.

  5. Evaluation of differences in brain neurophysiology and morphometry associated with hand function in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borich, Michael R; Neva, Jason L; Boyd, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation interventions need to be optimized to maximize therapeutic effects and minimize stroke-related disability. However, a comprehensive understanding of the neural substrates underlying recovery is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between brain anatomy, physiology and hand motor function in individuals with chronic stroke. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches were used to evaluate cortical excitability and brain structural morphometry in individuals with chronic stroke. Hemispheric differences and relationships between these measures and hand dexterity were evaluated. Hemispheric differences were observed for TMS and MRI measures. Bilateral hand dexterity correlated with TMS resting motor threshold and precentral gyral thickness. Transcallosal inhibition across hemispheres was positively associated with midcallosal white matter volume. Regression modeling results demonstrated that combining TMS and MRI measures predicted unique amounts of variance in hand dexterity. RESULTS confirm and extend findings showing differences in brain structure and function after stroke. RESULTS suggested a structure-function relationship underlying interhemispheric connectivity in chronic stroke. The utility of combined TMS and MRI measures to predict motor function can be used in future investigations to aid identifying optimal biomarkers of stroke recovery to predict response to rehabilitation to maximize treatment outcomes.

  6. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Williamson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years traumatic brain injury (TBI.  The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills.  Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play.  Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication.  Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.               

  7. Metacognitions Are Associated with Subjective Memory Problems in Individuals on Sick Leave due to Chronic Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Henrik B; Aasvik, Julie K; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Landrø, Nils I; Stiles, Tore C

    2016-01-01

    Subjective cognitive impairments are frequent, but poorly understood in patients with chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs at baseline were associated with baseline subjective cognitive impairments, that they predict subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, and that a reduction in maladaptive metacognitive beliefs was associated with less subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, independent of changes in fatigue, pain, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. In this non-controlled study, patients (n = 137) on sick leave due to chronic fatigue received a 3.5-week inpatient RTW rehabilitation program. Of these patients 69 (50.4%) was referred with a ICPC-2 diagnosis of chronic fatigue. Patients completed questionnaires about metacognitive beliefs, somatic complaints, psychological complaints, and cognitive impairments before and after treatment. To test the hypotheses we performed paired t-tests of change, as well as seven hierarchical linear regressions. RESULTS showed that baseline maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were significantly associated with subjective cognitive impairments at baseline, controlling for symptoms. Score on baseline metacognitive beliefs did not predict impairments post-treatment. Testing specific maladaptive beliefs, pre-treatment scores on cognitive confidence were associated with subjective cognitive impairments both pre and post-treatment, controlling for symptoms. Post-treatment metacognitive beliefs and post-treatment cognitive confidence were associated with post-treatment subjective cognitive impairments, controlling for pre-treatment impairments and pre-treatment metacognitive beliefs, as well as pre and post-scores on symptom measures. This study reports associations between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and subjective cognitive impairments in patients with chronic fatigue. Targeting metacognitive beliefs could prove an effective therapeutic intervention for

  8. Individual and relational correlates of pain-related empathic accuracy in spouses of chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Nathalie; Thibault, Pascal; Sullivan, Michael J L

    2008-10-01

    This study aims to investigate correlates of pain-related empathic accuracy in spouses of chronic pain patients. Specifically, analyses addressed: (1) the correlates of pain-related empathic accuracy, (2) the relation between pain-related empathic accuracy, and patient and spouse adaptational outcomes, and (3) the relation between pain-related empathic accuracy and relational outcomes. Fifty-eight chronic pain patients (28 women and 30 men) were filmed while participating in a simulated occupational lifting task. Patients were asked to report their level of pain while lifting canisters partially filled with sand. Spouses were later asked to view the video record of their partner's performance and to estimate their partner's level of pain. Empathic accuracy was defined in terms of the overall discrepancy between patients' pain ratings and spouses' pain estimates, and by the degree of covariation between patients' pain ratings and spouses' pain estimates across trials. Analysis revealed that patients' pain severity, catastrophizing, fear of pain, and level of disability were significant correlates of empathic accuracy. Higher levels of pain-related empathic accuracy were associated to negative adaptational outcomes for chronic pain patients. With regard to the spouse, empathic accuracy was associated with the spouses' perceiving that they express less punitive responses when the patient is in pain. Empathic accuracy was not significantly related to relational outcomes. The results of this study suggest that empathic accuracy is associated with negative outcomes for the patient, and might not be an important correlate of marital satisfaction in couples in which one of the partners is suffering from chronic pain.

  9. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Morbidly Obese Japanese and the Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Kotaro; Seki, Yosuke; Kasama, Kazunori; Uno, Kohei; Hashimoto, Kenkichi; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kurokawa, Yoshimochi

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Japanese morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the impact of bariatric surgery on their renal function has not previously been investigated. The aims were to assess the prevalence of CKD patients who underwent bariatric surgery in our institution and to elucidate the impact of bariatric surgery on their kidney function as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate by Cystatin-C (eGFRcys). The setting of the study was in a single private hospital. Two hundred fifty-four consecutive Japanese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the prevalence of CKD. The eGFRcys was calculated to assess the change in the kidney function for 1 year after surgery. The preoperative prevalence of CKD was as follows: G1, 45.3%; G2, 47.2%; G3, 6.5%; and G4, 0.9%. The eGFRcys values before and after surgery were compared; the G1 and G2 patients showed significantly improved eGFRcys values after surgery (G1 101 [94-108] vs 114 [103-127]; G2 79 [74-84] vs 97 [87-104] ml/min/1.73 m 2 ; p surgery (44 [42-47] vs 45 [43-63] ml/min/1.73 m 2 ; p = 0.08), successful weight loss was achieved (36.1 ± 6.3 vs 26.6 ± 3.6 kg/m 2 ; p Bariatric surgery resulted in the significant improvement in the eGFRcys values of Japanese patients with morbid obesity, particularly those with pre-CKD (eGFRcys ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ), while the eGFRcys values of CKD patients (surgery.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Constipation Among Women Aged 50 Years and Older in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Jiang, Huihong; Zhu, Maoling; Wang, Baocai; Tong, Minsi; Li, Huaguang; Lin, Mou-Bin; Li, Li

    2017-05-31

    BACKGROUND Chronic constipation (CC) is a major public health problem worldwide, especially in elderly women. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CC among women aged 50 years and older in Shanghai, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1950 women aged 50 years and older, randomly sampled in Yangpu District of Shanghai from April to October 2015. Information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, medical history, and defecation situation was collected through in-person interviews. CC was defined according to Rome III criteria. The data were analyzed by chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The response rate to the survey was 80.4%. Of the 1568 participants, 77 were diagnosed with CC, with a prevalence of 4.9%. Moreover, the prevalence increased with advancing age. Multiple logistic analyses showed that body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m², non-manual occupation, premenopausal period, no delivery history, poor sleep quality, meat-based diet, and less physical exercise were significant risk factors for CC in the population of women aged 50 years and older. CONCLUSIONS CC was a common health problem among women aged 50 years and older in Shanghai, and the prevalence was positively associated with BMI ≥25.0 kg/m², non-manual occupation, premenopausal period, no delivery history, poor sleep quality, meat-based diet, and less physical exercise. Further studies are needed to identify the risk factors and potential interventions for CC.

  11. Prevalence and social burden of active chronic low back pain in the adult Portuguese population: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of active chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the adult Portuguese population; to compare the active CLBP population with the population without CLBP; and to explore factors associated with active CLBP. The present study was conducted under the scope of EpiReumaPt a population-based study. Active CLBP was self-reported and considered if present on the day of the interview and for ≥90 days. Prevalence estimates were calculated. Association of active CLBP with quality of life, functional ability and healthcare consumption were evaluated. Factors associated with active CLBP were identified through logistic regression. Among 10.661 EpiReumaPt subjects, 1487 self-reported active CLBP. The prevalence of active CLBP was 10.4 % (95 % CI 9.6; 11.9 %). After adjustment, active CLBP subjects had a higher likelihood for anxiety symptoms (OR 2.77), early retirement due to disease (OR 1.88) and more physician visits (β = 2.65). Factors significantly and independently associated with the presence of active CLBP were: female gender (OR 1.34), overweight/obesity (OR 1.27), presence of self-reported rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) (OR 2.93), anxiety symptoms (OR 2.67), age (OR 1.02) and higher number of self-reported comorbidities (OR 1.12). Active CLBP is highly prevalent in the Portuguese population and is associated with disability and with a high consumption of healthcare resources. Female gender, older age, anxiety symptoms, overweight/obesity, the presence of other RMD and the number of comorbidities were independently associated with the presence of active CLBP. These factors should be taken into account when new cohort prospective studies will be developed.

  12. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad

    2015-01-01

    for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders......, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1...... the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated...

  13. Prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Chinese individuals receiving treatment for heroin dependence: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Baoliang; Xiang, Yutao; Cao, Xiaolan; Li, Yan; Zhu, Junhong; Chiu, Helen F K

    2014-10-01

    Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I(2) =95%, ptreatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians' awareness of this issue; to compare the pathogenesis, treatment responsiveness and recidivism of those with and without ASPD; and to develop and test targeted interventions for this difficult-to-treat subgroup of individuals with heroin dependence.

  14. Prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis in a population of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnhorst, Idar; Jawad, Samir; Lange, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    and anterior/posterior rhinoscopy results. Sinonasal-related quality of life was assessed by using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22). These results were compared with those of a population-based control group examined for CRS in the same way. RESULTS: The prevalence of CRS among patients with GERD......-related quality of life is decreased in patients with CRS who also suffer from GERD....

  15. Prevalence of Negative Life Events and Chronic Adversities in European Pre- and Primary-School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods: As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childho...... demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities....

  16. Prevalence of chronic kidney diseases in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: assessment based on glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine and cystatin C levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Yoshizawa,1,2 Kazuyoshi Okada,3 Sachiko Furuichi,1,2 Toshihiko Ishiguro,1 Akitaka Yoshizawa,1 Toshiki Akahoshi,2 Yasuhiro Gon,2 Tsuneto Akashiba,2 Yoshifumi Hosokawa,1,2 Shu Hashimoto2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Kanamecho Hospital, Toshima-ku, 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 3Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and depression are identified comorbidities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but there have been few reports of chronic kidney disease (CKD as a comorbidity of COPD. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CKD in COPD patients using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR based on creatinine (Cr and cystatin C (Cys levels. Methods: The prevalence of CKD and the values of various CKD-related parameters were compared between 108 stable COPD outpatients (COPD group and a non-COPD control group consisting of 73 patients aged 60 years or more without a history of COPD or kidney disease. CKD was defined as an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: The Cr level was significantly higher in the COPD group, but eGFR based on serum Cr (eGFRCr was not significantly different between the two groups (73.3±25.3 vs 79.7±15.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. The Cys level was significantly higher and eGFR based on serum Cys (eGFRCys was significantly lower in the COPD group (60.0±19.4 vs 74.0±13.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, P<0.0001. The prevalence of CKD evaluated based on eGFRCr was 31% in the COPD group and 8% in the non-COPD group with an odds ratio of 4.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.94–12.46, P=0.0008, whereas the evaluated prevalence based on eGFRCys was 53% in the COPD group and 15% in the non-COPD group with an odds ratio of 6.30 (95% confidence interval, 2.99–13.26, P<0.0001, demonstrating a higher prevalence of

  17. The prevalence and overlap of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: results of the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology male study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Anne M; Berry, Sandra H; Ewing, Brett A; Elliott, Marc N; Suttorp, Marika J; Clemens, J Quentin

    2013-01-01

    As part of the RICE (RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology) study, we developed validated case definitions to identify interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome in women and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men. Using population based screening methods, we applied these case definitions to determine the prevalence of these conditions in men. A total of 6,072 households were contacted by telephone to screen for men who had symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. An initial 296 men screened positive, of whom 149 met the inclusionary criteria and completed the telephone interview. For interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome 2 case definitions were applied (1 with high sensitivity and 1 with high specificity), while for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome a single case definition (with high sensitivity and specificity) was used. These case definitions were used to classify subjects into groups based on diagnosis. The interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome weighted prevalence estimates for the high sensitivity and high specificity definitions were 4.2% (3.1-5.3) and 1.9% (1.1-2.7), respectively. The chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome weighted prevalence estimate was 1.8% (0.9-2.7). These values equate to 1,986,972 (95% CI 966,042-2,996,924) men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and 2,107,727 (95% CI 1,240,485-2,974,969) men with the high specificity definition of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome in the United States. The overlap between men who met the high specificity interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome case definition or the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome case definition was 17%. Symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome are widespread among men in the United States. The prevalence of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain

  18. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of complications of chronic kidney disease in children: the Taiwan Pediatric Renal Collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsin-Hsu; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Tain, You-Lin; Wang, Yi-Fan; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chiou, Yuan-Yow

    2016-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the clinical characteristics and prevalence of complications in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in early disease stages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and prevalence of complications in children with predialytic CKD. This multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled children at all stages of predialytic CKD. Children who were between the ages of 1 year and 18 years and who fulfilled the clinical criteria of CKD were included in the study. Baseline demographic data, previous history, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data were collected. A total of 757 children were included in the study. The median age at the time of enrollment was 10.6 years; 397 patients (52.4 %) were males. A total of 39.0 % of the patients were in CKD stage 1, 37.6 % were in stage 2, 14.8 % were in stage 3, 3.0 % were in stage 4, and 5.5 % were in stage 5. Nonglomerular renal diseases were the primary cause of CKD, comprising 51.9 % of the patients with CKD. The age at disease onset, gender, CKD stage distribution, and proportion of co-morbidities varied between the glomerular and nonglomerular CKD cases. Anemia, hyperlipidemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia were more prevalent in patients with glomerular CKD. The overall prevalence of complications was as follows: uncontrolled blood pressure, 44.1 %; anemia, 34.2 %; hyperlipidemia, 44.9 %; short stature, 10.3 %; and failure to thrive, 8.2 %. Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), anemia, and hyperlipidemia were common, even in the early CKD stages. The prevalence of CKD complications generally increased with the worsening stage of CKD. This study reveals differences in CKD etiology and prevalence of specific complications according to the stage of CKD. Early recognition and awareness of complications are mandatory for clinicians during the follow-up visits of children with CKD.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J.; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. Results 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. Conclusion The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis

  2. Spirituality, Religion, and Health: The Role of Communication, Appraisals, and Coping for Individuals Living with Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Katherine A; Billig, Ashley K; Mosack, Katie E

    2015-10-01

    Currently, 10% of Americans are living with a chronic illness. One coping mechanism for individuals living with chronic illness is religion and/or spiritual (R/S). To better explicate the relationship among R/S and psychological well-being, we conceptualize R/S as an interpersonal process involving conversations that may facilitate positive reappraisals. We use a mixed-method approach from data collected from 106 participants, involving a content analysis of R/S conversations and test Burleson and Goldsmith's (Handbook of communication and emotion: research, theory, applications, and contexts, Academic Press, San Diego, pp 245-280, 1998) appraisal-based comforting model. Partial support for the model was found. In addition, the majority of R/S conversations were considered positive, helpful, and supportive. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. High prevalence of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum among relatives of affected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Ingles, Sue Ann; Wilson, Melissa; Wang, Wei; MacGibbon, Kimber; Romero, Roberto; Goodwin, Thomas M

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy/hyperemesis gravidarum among relatives of affected individuals. Family history data were obtained on 1224 self-reported cases of hyperemesis gravidarum. Cases completed an online survey administered by the Hyperemesis Education and Research Foundation between 2003 and 2006. Approximately 28% of cases reported their mother had severe nausea and vomiting or hyperemesis gravidarum while pregnant with them. Of the 721 sisters with a pregnancy history, 137 (19%) had hyperemesis gravidarum. Among the most severe cases, those requiring total parenteral nutrition or nasogastric feeding tube, the proportion of affected sisters was even higher, 49/198 (25%). Nine percent of cases reported having at least two affected relatives including sister(s), mother, grandmother, daughters, aunt(s), and cousin(s). There is a high prevalence of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy/hyperemesis gravidarum among relatives of hyperemesis gravidarum cases in this study population. Because the incidence of hyperemesis gravidarum is most commonly reported to be 0.5%, this study provides strong but preliminary evidence for a genetic component to extreme nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  4. High Prevalence of Severe Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy and Hyperemesis Gravidarum among Relatives of Affected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Ingles, Sue Ann; Wilson, Melissa; Wang, Wei; Macgibbon, Kimber; Romero, Roberto; Goodwin, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Severe Nausea and Vomiting of pregnancy/Hyperemesis Gravidarum among relatives of affected individuals. STUDY DESIGN Family history data were obtained on 1224 self-reported cases of hyperemesis gravidarum. Cases completed an online survey administered by the Hyperemesis Education and Research Foundation between 2003–2006. RESULTS Approximately 28% of cases reported their mother had severe nausea and vomiting or hyperemesis gravidarum while pregnant with them. Of the 721 sisters with a pregnancy history, 137 (19%) had hyperemesis gravidarum. Among the most severe cases, those requiring total parenteral nutrition or nasogastric feeding tube, the proportion of affected sisters was even higher, 49/198 (25%). Nine percent of cases reported having at least 2 affected relatives including sister(s), mother, grandmother, daughters, aunt(s), and cousin(s). CONCLUSION There is a high prevalence of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy/hyperemesis gravidarum among relatives of hyperemesis gravidarum cases in this study population. Because the incidence of hyperemesis gravidarum is most commonly reported to be 0.5%, this study provides strong but preliminary evidence for a genetic component to extreme nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. PMID:18752885

  5. Metabolic syndrome components as markers to prognosticate the risk of developing chronic kidney disease: evidence-based study with 6492 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorrodian, Davoud; Khajavi-Rad, Abolfazl; Avan, Amir; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Nematy, Mohsen; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Emamian, Marzieh; Sadeghzade, Mahsa; Mirhafez, Seyed Reza; Mohammadi, Maryam; Mousavi, Mina; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Moohebati, Mohsen; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2015-06-01

    The global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) appears to be increasing and the impact of this condition on potential comorbid