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Sample records for prevalence remained largely

  1. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed...... several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  2. Does the Prevalence of Spondylolysis and Spina Bifida Occulta Observed in Pediatric Patients Remain Stable in Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Zamora, Tomas; Cuellar, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    Cross-sectional study. To compare the prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis and spina bifida occulta (SBO) in pediatric and adult populations. The prevalence of spondylolysis reported from radiograph-based studies in children had been questioned in computed tomography (CT)-based studies in adults; however, a recent CT-based study in pediatric patients has confirmed the previously reported data in pediatric populations. SBO, which has been associated with spondylolysis, has demonstrated a decreasing prevalence with increasing age during childhood and adolescence. No studies have compared the prevalence of spondylolysis and SBO in pediatric and adult patients using CT as a screening method. We studied 228 pediatric patients (4-15 y old) and 235 adults (30-45 y old) who underwent abdominal and pelvic CT scans for reasons not related to the spine. The entire lumbosacral spine was evaluated to detect the presence of spondylolysis and SBO. We compared the prevalence of spondylolysis and SBO in pediatric patients and adults. The prevalence of spondylolysis in pediatric patients was 3.5% (1.1%-5.9%), and in adults, it was 3.8% (1.7%-6.8%), P=1. The prevalence of SBO in pediatric subjects was 41.2% (34.8%-59.2%) and dropped to 7.7% (4.3%-11.5%) in adults, P<0.01. The male prevalence of SBO in pediatric patients was 51.4%, whereas it was 32.2% in females (P<0.01); this sex difference was not significant in the adult population (P=0.8). The prevalence of lumbar spondylolysis remained constant from pediatric age through adulthood. The prevalence of SBO decreased from 41.2% in children to 7.7% in adults; this finding suggests that closure of the vertebral arch may not be completed in early childhood in a large percentage of subjects.

  3. Recent Successes and Remaining Challenges in Predicting Phosphorus Loading to Surface Waters at Large Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J.; Metson, G.; Beusen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past century humans have greatly accelerated phosphorus (P) flows from land to aquatic ecosystems, causing eutrophication and associated effects such as harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Effectively addressing this challenge requires understanding geographic and temporal distribution of aquatic P loading, knowledge of major controls on P loading, and the relative importance of various potential P sources. The Global (N)utrient (E)xport from (W)ater(S)heds) NEWS model and recent improvements and extensions of this modeling system can be used to generate this understanding. This presentation will focus on insights global NEWS models grant into past, present, and potential future P sources and sinks, with a focus on the world's large rivers. Early results suggest: 1) that while aquatic P loading is globally dominated by particulate forms, dissolved P can be locally dominant; 2) that P loading has increased substantially at the global scale, but unevenly between world regions, with hotspots in South and East Asia; 3) that P loading is likely to continue to increase globally, but decrease in certain regions that are actively pursuing proactive P management; and 4) that point sources, especially in urban centers, play an important (even dominant) role in determining loads of dissolved inorganic P. Despite these insights, substantial unexplained variance remains when model predictions and measurements are compared at global and regional scales, for example within the U.S. Disagreements between model predictions and measurements suggest opportunities for model improvement. In particular, explicit inclusion of soil characteristics and the concept of temporal P legacies in future iterations of NEWS (and other) models may help improve correspondence between models and measurements.

  4. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eGaume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown efficacy of brief intervention (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings, and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale is disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content, and exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness.We searched Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications for original research or reviews on active ingredients (or components, or mechanisms of face-to-face BIs (and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing [BMI] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among Emergency Room patients, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such.Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  5. Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Rachel M; Mooney-Somers, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds. A slight decrease in all-ages smoking over time was not reflected in the youngest age group. LBQ women who smoke have fewer economic, social and psychological resources than both women who never smoke and ex-smokers. High levels of alcohol and illicit drug use are also correlated with current smoking. Population-wide interventions have failed to address the persistently high prevalence of smoking among this sample of LBQ women. Tailored interventions may find utility focusing on personal resilience to deal with general and sexuality-specific stressors, as well as attending to poly-substance use. Acknowledgment of LBQ women as a priority group for tobacco reduction is urgently needed. We call on tobacco control agencies to consider sexuality and gender orientation in policy and partner with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community organisations to develop culturally appropriate interventions. [Deacon RM, Mooney-Somers J Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:546-554]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Aerosol pH buffering in the southeastern US: Fine particles remain highly acidic despite large reductions in sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. J.; Guo, H.; Russell, A. G.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    pH is a critical aerosol property that impacts many atmospheric processes, including biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, gas-particle phase partitioning, and mineral dust or redox metal mobilization. Particle pH has also been linked to adverse health effects. Using a comprehensive data set from the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) as the basis for thermodynamic modeling, we have shown that particles are currently highly acidic in the southeastern US, with pH between 0 and 2. Sulfate and ammonium are the main acid-base components that determine particle pH in this region, however they have different sources and their concentrations are changing. Over 15 years of network data show that sulfur dioxide emission reductions have resulted in a roughly 70 percent decrease in sulfate, whereas ammonia emissions, mainly link to agricultural activities, have been largely steady, as have gas phase ammonia concentrations. This has led to the view that particles are becoming more neutralized. However, sensitivity analysis, based on thermodynamic modeling, to changing sulfate concentrations indicates that particles have remained highly acidic over the past decade, despite the large reductions in sulfate. Furthermore, anticipated continued reductions of sulfate and relatively constant ammonia emissions into the future will not significantly change particle pH until sulfate drops to clean continental background levels. The result reshapes our expectation of future particle pH and implies that atmospheric processes and adverse health effects linked to particle acidity will remain unchanged for some time into the future.

  7. New postcranial remains of large toxodontian notoungulates from the late Oligocene of Mendoza, Argentina and their systematic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Hernández Del Pino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the Deseadan (late Oligocene Quebrada Fiera locality, Mendoza Province, Argentina, has provided a large amount of mammal remains. Taxonomic studies have shown the presence of faunal elements common with other Deseadan associations from Patagonia and lower latitudes (Salla, Bolivia, as well as endemic taxa of different groups of mammals (Notohippidae, Leontiniidae, Homalodotheriidae, Hegetotheriidae, and Metatheria and even a gastropod. In this work, we present a taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of a set of postcranial fossils of three families of the suborder Toxodontia (Notoungulata. The postcranial elements are assigned to taxa previously recognized at Quebrada Fiera, such as the leontiniid Gualta cuyana and the homalodotheriid Asmodeus petrasnerus, but also to the family Toxodontidae that is represented by Proadinotherium sp. and another larger toxodontid; a few dental remains of Proadinotherium are also included as this is the first time that toxodontids from Quebrada Fiera are described. In the case of A. petrasnerus, an almost complete calcaneum allows us to expand the diagnosis of this taxon. The bones assigned to G. cuyana enlarge the anatomical knowledge of this species. In turn, the presence of the genus Proadinotherium extends its geographic distribution in Argentina and adds to the extra-Patagonian record of P. saltoni from Salla, Bolivia. Phylogenetic results do not differ much from previous analyses using postcranial characters, and the obtained consensus trees show low node supports. The various phylogenetic analyses performed here provide a more robust framework to interpret the relationships of the studied taxa.

  8. Combining the Locator System with WinID3--identifying victims from dental remains in a large disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C; Leventhal, L

    2007-07-01

    Computer software programs are typically used at disaster sites to help identify victims from dental remains. Using a simulated disaster with 300 simulated victims and 105 simulated dental fragments, previous research compared two computer programs, WinID and CAPMI4, to a non-computer identification system--the Locator System (LS). LS performed best. LS requires dental professionals manually to sort antemortem and postmortem files into dental categories and then compare postmortem and antemortem files in the same category to find matches. We combined LS with the better of the two computer programs, WinID, to create a single method. This method was used by two teams of forensic odontologists to identify victims in the same simulated disaster employed in previous research. One team had 8 members and the other had 5 members. The 5-member team performed better than all previous teams and the 8-member team performed better than the 5-member team. The 8-member team was large enough to assign a different member to each category as a specialist. We make practical recommendations on identifying disaster victims from dental remains.

  9. Blast injury prevalence in skeletal remains: Are there differences between Bosnian war samples and documented combat-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marie Christine; Hanson, Ian; Smith, Martin J

    2017-11-01

    Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan. We also compared blast fracture injuries from Bosnia to blast fracture injuries sustained in bombings of buildings in two non-combat 'civilian' examples; the Oklahoma City and Birmingham pub bombings. A Chi-squared statistic with a Holm-Bonferroni correction assessed differences between prevalence of blast-related fractures in various body regions, where data were comparable. We found statistically significant differences between the Bosnian and combat contexts. We noted differences in the prevalence of head, torso, vertebral area, and limbs trauma, with a general trend for higher levels of more widespread trauma in the Bosnian sample. We noted that the pattern of trauma in the Bosnian cases resembled the pattern from the bombing in buildings civilian contexts. Variation in trauma patterns can be attributed to the influence of protective armour; the context of the environment; and the type of munition and its injuring mechanism. Blast fracture injuries sustained in the Bosnian sample showed patterns consistent with a lack of body armour, blast effects on people standing in enclosed buildings and the use of explosive munitions. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Children's preference for large portions: prevalence, determinants, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colapinto, Cynthia K; Fitzgerald, Angela; Taper, L Janette; Veugelers, Paul J

    2007-07-01

    Proliferation of large portions of snack and fast foods parallels dramatic increases in childhood obesity. This study investigates the prevalence, determinants, and consequences of large portions in children's diets. As part of the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School-performance Study, we surveyed 4,966 children in Nova Scotia regarding their usual portion sizes of french fries, meats, vegetables, and potato chips using three-dimensional graduated food models. We measured heights and weights and assessed dietary intake with the Harvard Youth Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire. Diet quality was summarized using the Diet Quality Index International (DQI-I). Parents were surveyed on food habits and socioeconomic background. We used multilevel regression methods to examine determinants of children's large portion size choice and to evaluate the effect of this selection on energy intake, diet quality, and overweight. Children reported preference for portions of french fries, meats, and potato chips that are larger and vegetable portions that are smaller than what is recommended. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families or who frequently eat while watching television and in fast-food restaurants preferred larger portions of french fries and potato chips. Consequences of consuming large portions of these foods included poor diet quality and increased energy intake. Consuming large portions of vegetables was associated with lower energy intake and better diet quality. Successful marketing of large portions of french fries and potato chips may be at the expense of diet quality and appropriate energy intake. Policy regulations and nutrition education emphasizing appropriate portion sizes provide opportunities to prevent overweight and improve future health.

  11. High prevalence of large trematode eggs in schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Philipp J; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Kramme, Stefanie; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large trematode eggs (LTE) resembling Fasciola spp. eggs were reportedly found in the stools of schoolchildren in Kandal province, Cambodia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of LTE in the stools of children attending the affected school, identify potential risk factors for infection and ascertain the trematode species. We performed a cross-sectional study involving an in-depth questionnaire administered to schoolchildren at the affected school, and examined cattle droppings in the surrounding area and the livers of slaughtered cattle. Three stool samples were examined per child, using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration techniques. In addition, blood serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and coprological polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted for species clarification. Cattle droppings were examined by cup sedimentation and coprological ELISA. LTE were observed in the stools of 106 schoolchildren (46.5%). Two blood serum samples from schoolchildren were positive for Fasciola hepatica in a first ELISA but were negative in a confirmation immunofluorescence antibody test. Out of 221 PCR samples, only one tested positive for Fasciola spp. and none for Fasciolopsis buski. The consumption of raw aquatic plants (odds ratio (OR)=3.3) and fermented fish sauce (OR=2.1) were significantly associated with LTE in the stool. Fasciola spp. flukes were observed in 18.3% of 191 cattle livers. The prevalence of fascioliasis in cattle droppings was 88.8%. The low prevalence of schoolchildren that tested positive for Fasciola spp. with specific molecular diagnostics and who had no diagnostic evidence of F. buski strongly indicates that the majority of microscopically observed LTE are from Echinostoma spp. Fasciola spp. transmission from cattle to human is possible and public health services need to be alerted accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance remains low in Guangxi, China, eight years after scale-up of highly-active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojian; Liang, Shujia; Harrison, Tim J; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong; Wang, Xueyan; Wu, Xinghua; Liu, Wei; Liang, Fuxiong; Feng, Liushuai; Yang, Jinye; Fang, Zhongliao

    2014-01-01

    Highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was scaled up in Guangxi, China in 2005. The number of individuals receiving free HAART increased dramatically from June 2010 under the Guangxi Government's anti-HIV programme. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV-transmitted drug resistance (TDR) of Guangxi. HIV-positive, antiretroviral-naive individuals were recruited from the east (Hezhou), south (Qinzhou), west (Baise), north (Guilin) and centre (Laibin) of Guangxi. The pol gene of the virus from the individuals was analysed. The overall prevalence of HIV TDR was 3.2% (7/216, 95% CI 0.9-5.5). The prevalence rates in Baise, Guilin, Hezhou, Qinzhou and Laibin are 4.9% (2/41, 95% CI -1.7 to 11.5), 2.3% (1/44, 95% CI -2.1 to 5.7), 4.7% (2/43, 95% CI -1.6 to 11.0), 2.6% (1/38, 95% CI -2.5 to 7.7) and 2.0% (1/50, 95% CI -1.9 to 5.9), respectively. No significant difference in the prevalence was found among them. No factors were found to be associated with TDR, including CD4 cell counts, viral loads and genotypes. The subtypes CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and B were found. Subtype CRF08_BC is the predominant subtype in Baise while CRF01_AE is the predominant subtype elsewhere in Guangxi. The prevalence of TDR in antiretroviral-naive patients in Guangxi remains low 8 years after scale-up of HAART. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Retrospective comparative ten-year study of cumulative survival rates of remaining teeth in large edentulism treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures or removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Seiya; Arakawa, Hikaru; Maekawa, Kenji; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Noda, Kinji; Minakuchi, Hajime; Sonoyama, Wataru; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the survival rates of remaining teeth between implant-supported fixed dentures (IFDs) and removable partial dentures (RPDs) in patients with large edentulous cases. The second goal was to assess the risk factors for remaining tooth loss. The study subjects were selected among those who received prosthodontic treatment at Okayama University Dental Hospital for their edentulous space exceeding at least four continuous missing teeth. Twenty-one patients were included in the IFD group and 82 patients were included in the RPD group. Survival rates of remaining teeth were calculated in three subcategories: (1) whole remaining teeth, (2) adjacent teeth to intended edentulous space, and (3) opposing teeth to intended edentulous space. The ten-year cumulative survival rate of the whole remaining teeth was significantly higher in the IFD group (40.0%) than in the RPD group (24.4%). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between two groups in the survival rate of teeth adjacent or opposing to intended edentulous space. A Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that RPD restoration and gender (male) were the significant risk factors for remaining tooth loss (whole remaining teeth). These results suggest that IFD treatment can reduce the incidence of remaining tooth loss in large edentulous cases. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 468 Prevalence of Parasitic Infections among Students in a Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Intestinal Parasitosis in pregnant women and their relationship to the infant's birth weight. Ginecologia Obstetricia de Mexico, 70 (7). 338-343. Smith, J. and Bartlett, M. (1991). Diagnostic Parasitology, Introduction and. Methods. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. World Health Organization (1987) Prevalence and control of ...

  15. The Prevalence of Standard Large Modules in Thermoelectric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J.; Bierschenk, J.

    2015-06-01

    The thermoelectric industry serves a broad range of applications using, mainly, a few standard module designs. This paper first briefly describes types of modules and two types of thermoelectric material used by the industry, after which the focus is on selected features of the standard designs and reasons for their prevalence. Whereas cost reduction and the need to maximize reliability drive the adoption of standard modules, other factors contribute to shaping the particular features of the standard thermoelectric cooling modules. These factors include the magnitude of heat loads, heat-sink performance, durability and performance expectations, and relative ease of manufacture. This discussion of the features and prevalence of standard modules relates to broader aspects of both the production and implementation of thermoelectric modules, and an estimate of current thermoelectric industry output is included.

  16. Tonic immobility in a large community sample : Prevalence and association with PTSD symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    People can be paralyzed when facing threat. Such paralysis, or “peritraumatic tonic immobility” (TI), is important as it seems associated with later PTSD development. However, the prevalence of TI is not known. This study investigated its prevalence in a large representative sample as well as its

  17. TAPHONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE BONE REMAINS FROM BUIA (DANDIERO BASIN, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA:EVIDENCE FOR LARGE MAMMAL AND REPTILE BUTCHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA FIORE

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record circa one million years old. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 led to the collection of fossil vertebrate remains now stored at the National Museum of Eritrea. Bones were recovered in different localities of the Dandiero Basin, where abundant archaeological and paleontological remains outcrop from the eroded sediments. The faunal collection of 436 animal bones from the Buia Basin, mostly derived from Uadi Aalad area, have undergone taphonomic analysis. Even though bone surfaces are poorly preserved due to abrasion, our work demonstrates carcass exploitation. Some specimens, mostly representing Hippopotamus gorgops and medium- to large-sized bovids, show traces of butchering left by stone tools. We also document, as far as we know for the first time, a single case of butchering involving a femur of a crocodile.   

  18. Hypertrophy in port-wine stains: Prevalence and patient characteristics in a large patient cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Beek, Johan F.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; van der Horst, Chantal M. A. M.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Port-wine stains (PWS) may thicken and darken with age. Little is known about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of PWS hypertrophy because of the lack of large studies. Objective: We sought to assess the prevalence and characteristics of patients with hypertrophic PWS. Methods: Medical

  19. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of Dutch nursing home patients with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, S.U.; Derksen, E.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia patients in Dutch nursing homes. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a large sample of 1322 demented patients living in 59 dementia special care units (SCUs) in The Netherlands. Symptoms were observed by licensed vocational

  20. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  1. The prevalence and correlated determinants of hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a large community-based study in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracy, M.R.; Feizi, A.; Bagherynejad, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite progress in prevention, detection, treatment and control of hypertension and diabetes, their increasing trend of prevalence remains an important public health problem. In general, only a small proportion of hypertension and diabetes is associated with an underlying disease, i.e. most cases are related to modifiable risk factors. Accordingly, as a large scale community-based study in Iran, the purpose of the present research was to evaluate the prevalence and correlated determinants of hypertension and diabetes among the general population in Isfahan. Methodology: In a cross-sectional study during 2007-2009, 3000 people aged 15-65 years were selected through multi-stage cluster random sampling from the general population in Isfahan. Total and age-sex specific prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were estimated. Multivariate logistic regression was used for studying risk factors and determining their level of association with the risk of hypertension and diabetes simultaneously. Results: The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was 22.23% and 6.5% respectively among the studied population. Sex specific prevalence of hypertension was 22.4% and 22.06% for women and men, respectively. The corresponding values were 8.27% and 4.86% for diabetes (P < 0.05). Hypertension and diabetes were most prevalent among the age groups of 55-65 years and 45-54 years, respectively. The most important determinants of having hypertension were body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), physical activity (P < 0.1) and sex (P < 0.05). Age (P < 0.01), sex (P < 0.05), BMI (P < 0.1), and family history (P < 0.01) were the major determinants of diabetes. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was high among the studied population. Furthermore, similar to previous studies, the modifiable risk factors played an important role in their incidence. Therefore, primary prevention is of high importance as a natural extension of hypertension and diabetes

  2. The prevalence of two ‘commonly’ encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Ray; Burnett, Elisabeth; Luff, Natalie; Wagner, Craig; Stinga, Georgia; Carney, Clare; Sheridan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation.\\ud \\ud Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), ...

  3. Prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism in the United States using a large claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia; Joy, Karen; Ruscio, Aimee; Lagast, Hjalmar

    2013-12-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder whose incidence and prevalence have not been well defined. This study aimed to 1) estimate the number of insured adult patients with hypoparathyroidism in the United States and 2) obtain physician assessment of disease severity and chronicity. Prevalence was estimated through calculation of diagnoses of hypoparathyroidism in a large proprietary health plan claims database over a 12-month period from October 2007 through September 2008 and projected to the US insured population. Incidence was also calculated from the same database by determining the proportion of total neck surgeries resulting in either transient (≤6 months) or chronic (>6 months) hypoparathyroidism. A physician primary market research study was conducted to assess disease severity and determine the percentage of new nonsurgical patients with hypoparathyroidism. Incidence data were entered into an epidemiologic model to derive an estimate of prevalence. The diagnosis-based prevalence approach estimated 58,793 insured patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism in the United States. The surgical-based incidence approach yielded 117,342 relevant surgeries resulting in 8901 cases over 12 months. Overall, 7.6% of surgeries resulted in hypoparathyroidism (75% transient, 25% chronic). The prevalence of chronic hypoparathyroidism among insured patients included in the surgical database was estimated to be 58,625. The physician survey found that 75% of cases treated over the past 12 months were reported due to surgery and, among all thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies and neck dissections performed in a year, 26% resulted in transient hypoparathyroidism and 5% progressed to a chronic state. In conclusion, the two claims-based methods yielded similar estimates of the number of insured patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism in the United States (~58,700). The physician survey was consistent with those calculations and confirmed the burden imposed by

  4. Prevalence of large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions in an adult Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, A M; Majamaa-Voltti, K; Kärppä, M; Moilanen, J S; Uimonen, S; Helander, H; Rusanen, H; Salmela, P I; Sorri, M; Hassinen, I E; Majamaa, K

    2005-03-22

    Large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are associated with clinical conditions such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome and chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia in adults and Pearson syndrome in children. Reported case series have suggested that deletions are not uncommon in the population, but their prevalence has not been documented. The authors ascertained patients with clinical features associated with mtDNA deletions in a defined adult population in northern Finland. Buccal epithelial samples were requested from each patient fulfilling the selection criteria, and full-length mtDNA was amplified using the long PCR method. Deletion breakpoints were identified using sequencing. Patients with deletions were examined clinically. The authors identified four patients with single large-scale mtDNA deletions. The prevalence of deletions was calculated to be 1.6/100,000 in the adult population in the province of Northern Ostrobothnia (0.0 to 3.2; 95% CI). Analysis of incident cases from a neighboring province revealed two patients with deletions and yielded a similar population frequency. The frequency of large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions is similar among populations, suggesting that there is a constant rate of new deletions.

  5. Recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack or minor ischaemic stroke: does the distinction between small and large vessel disease remain true to type? Dutch TIA Trial Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Kappelle, L J; van Latum, J C; van Swieten, J C; Algra, A; Koudstaal, P J; van Gijn, J

    1995-01-01

    The incidence and vascular type of recurrent ischaemic stroke was studied in patients with supratentorial transient ischaemic attacks or non-disabling ischaemic strokes, who were treated with aspirin (30 or 283 mg). Patients were divided into groups with small vessel disease (SVD) (n = 1216) or large vessel disease (LVD) (n = 1221) on the grounds of their clinical features and CT at baseline. Patients with evidence of both SVD and LVD (n = 180) were excluded from further analyses. During foll...

  6. [Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds in large buildings: pollution levels and remaining issues after revision of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Michihiro; Shibata, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Tamie

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify indoor air pollution levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in large buildings after revising of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002. We measured indoor air VOC concentrations in 57 (97%) out of a total of 61 large buildings completed within one year in half of the area of Nagoya, Japan, from 2003 through 2007. Airborne concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were determined with diffusion samplers and high-performance liquid chromatography, and of the other 32 VOCs with diffusion samplers and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde was detected in all samples of indoor air but the concentrations were lower than the indoor air quality standard value set in Japan (100 microg/m3). Geometric mean concentrations of the other major VOCs, namely toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene and acetaldehyde were also low. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominating VOCs in indoor air of large buildings. A few rooms in a small number of buildings surveyed showed high concentrations of 2E1H, while low concentrations were observed in most rooms of those buildings as well as in other buildings. It was estimated that about 310 buildings had high indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H, with increase during the 5 years from 2003 in Japan. Indoor air pollution levels of VOCs in new large buildings are generally good, although a few rooms in a small number of buildings showed high concentrations in 2E1H, a possible causative chemical in sick building symptoms. Therefore, 2E1H needs particular attention as an important indoor air pollutant.

  7. Impact of seasonality on the prevalence of dyslipidemia: a large population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Filipe A; Dutra-Rodrigues, Marcelo S; Cassol, Angela S; Parra, Eliane S; Zago, Vanessa H S; Panzoldo, Natalia B; Alexandre, Fernanda; Vieira, Isabela C; Vendrame, Felipe; Virginio, Vitor W; Castanho, Vera S; Danelon, Mirian R G; Nunes, Valeria S; Leança, Camila C; Saraiva, Francisco K; Coelho, Otavio R; Nakandakare, Edna; Quintão, Eder C R; de Faria, Eliana Cotta; Sposito, Andrei C

    2013-10-01

    Assessment of lipid profile parameters has been considered a cornerstone in classifying individuals and populations at risk for cardiovascular disease. Recently, however, preliminary data have raised the possibility of seasonal variations in these parameters, which may cause under- or overestimation. Biological rhythms and seasonal variation of lipid profile was investigated in 227 359 consecutive individuals who underwent health checkups in primary care centers between 2008 and 2010. Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >130 mg/dL was 8% more prevalent during winter than summer, with a larger difference among women and middle-aged adults (p 150 mg/dL were respectively 9% and 5% more prevalent during the summer (p < 0.001). Variation amplitude was 3.4 ± 0.3 mg/dL for HDL-C (p = 0.005), 7 ± 2 mg/dL for LDL-C (p = 0.047), and 12 ± 9 mg/dL for TG (p = 0.058). Based on a large population sample, this study confirms the existence of biological rhythms and seasonal variation in lipid profile. This finding must be particularly accounted for in cross-sectional analyses of relative risk, prevalence, or the rate of goal achievement for lipid parameters.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. A Large Proportion of the Mexican Population Remained Susceptible to A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection One Year after the Emergence of 2009 Influenza Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veguilla, Vic; López-Gatell, Hugo; López-Martínez, Irma; Aparicio-Antonio, Rodrigo; Barrera-Badillo, Gisela; Rojo-Medina, Julieta; Gross, Felicia Liaini; Jefferson, Stacie N; Katz, Jacqueline M; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M

    2016-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic initially affected Mexico from April 2009 to July 2010. By August 2010, a fourth of the population had received the monovalent vaccine against the pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). To assess the proportion of the Mexican population who remained potentially susceptible to infection throughout the summer of 2010, we estimated the population seroprevalence to A(H1N1)pdm09 in a serosurvey of blood donors. We evaluated baseline cross-reactivity to the pandemic strain and set the threshold for seropositivity using pre-pandemic (2005-2008) stored serum samples and sera from confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infected individuals. Between June and September 2010, a convenience sample serosurvey of adult blood donors, children, and adolescents was conducted in six states of Mexico. Sera were tested by the microneutralization (MN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays, and regarded seropositive if antibody titers were equal or exceeded 1:40 for MN and 1:20 for HI. Age-standardized seroprevalence were calculated using the 2010 National Census population. Sera from 1,484 individuals were analyzed; 1,363 (92%) were blood donors, and 121 (8%) children or adolescents aged ≤19 years. Mean age (standard deviation) was 31.4 (11.5) years, and 276 (19%) were women. A total of 516 (35%) participants declared history of influenza vaccination after April 2009. The age-standardized seroprevalence to A(H1N1)pdm09 was 48% by the MN and 41% by the HI assays, respectively. The youngest quintile, aged 1 to 22 years, had the highest the seroprevalence; 61% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56, 66%) for MN, and 56% (95% CI: 51, 62%) for HI. Despite high transmission of A(H1N1)pdm09 observed immediately after its emergence and extensive vaccination, over a half of the Mexican population remained potentially susceptible to A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. Subsequent influenza seasons with high transmission of A(H1N1)pdm09, as 2011-2012 and 2013-2014, are compatible with these

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle: First large series in Iranian people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, Abbas; Noruzi-Gangachin, Marruf [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Maryam; Mortazavi, Hamed [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of pneumatized articular tubercle or eminence among a defined group of Iranian people. Digital panoramic radiographs of 1694 patients in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hamadan Dental School, Iran were evaluated retrospectively to detect the above lesion. Finally, 1563 radiographs were selected according to inclusion criteria. Then, a review was done of 10 large case series found using a MEDLINE search of the literature. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the differences in variables such as age, gender, laterality, and locularity in our case series. The average age of our samples was 32.6±7.63 years. Pneumatized articular tubercle was found in 98 cases, representing a prevalence of 6.2% with a mean age of 22.8±7.9 and a range of 8 to 60 years. Sixty-four (65.3%) pneumatized articular tubercles were unilateral, with 30 lesions on the right and 34 on the left side. Bilateral lesions were found in 34 (34.7%) patients. 52 (53.06%) of the pneumatized articular tubercles were of the unilocular type and 46 (46.94%) were multilocular. The results showed no statistically significant differences regarding age (p=0.454), gender (p=0.634), laterality (p=0.252), or locularity (p=0.807) among the samples. Among ten large case series from other countries, the prevalence of pneumatized articular tubercle (6.2%) in Iranian patients was higher than that of all eight of the case series that used the same detection method as the present study of panoramic radiography.

  11. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in women in China: a large community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Qiufang; Yang, Dongzi; Li, Shangwei; Lu, Shulan; Wu, Xiaoke; Wei, Zhaolian; Song, Xueru; Wang, Xiuxia; Fu, Shuxin; Lin, Jinfang; Zhu, Yimin; Jiang, Yong; Feng, Huai L; Qiao, Jie

    2013-09-01

    What is the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Han Chinese women from different communities? The prevalence of PCOS in Chinese women aged 19-45 years is 5.6%. The prevalence of PCOS is reported to range from 5 to 10% but to the best of our knowledge the Han Chinese population has not been studied. A large-scale epidemiological study was carried out between October 2007 and September 2011 in 15 924 Han Chinese women of reproductive age (19-45 years) from the 10 provinces and municipalities in China. A total of 16 886 women from 152 cities and 112 villages were involved in the study. All study participants received a questionnaire and underwent a physical and transvaginal ultrasound examination. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of women (n = 3565) for analysis of metabolic markers and hormones. Based on the Rotterdam PCOS criteria, we assessed hyperandrogenism (H), chronic anovulation (O) and polycystic ovaries (P). Following diagnosis, women with PCOS were assigned to one of four different phenotypes. Finally, the prevalence and related risks of PCOS among Chinese women were estimated based on all the data sources. A total of 16 886 women were initially involved in the study and 15 924 eligible participants then completed the study; the overall response rate was 94.3% (15 924/16 886). The prevalence of PCOS in the Chinese community population was 5.6% (894/15 924). Blood samples were analyzed from 833 of these women who were assigned to the four PCOS phenotypes as follows: 19% H + O, 37% H + P, 15% O + P and 29% H + O + P. Comparing the 833 women with PCOS to 2732 women without PCOS indicated that PCOS occurs in younger women (P < 0.05) and these women were prone not only to menstrual problems, hyperandrogenism, PCO and infertility but also metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance (IR). However, there was no significant difference in the rate of hypertension or hyperlipemia between the two groups. Obese patients with PCOS had a

  12. Reconciling disparate prevalence rates of PTSD in large samples of US male Vietnam veterans and their controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottesman Irving I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two large independent studies funded by the US government have assessed the impact of the Vietnam War on the prevalence of PTSD in US veterans. The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS estimated the current PTSD prevalence to be 15.2% while the Vietnam Experience Study (VES estimated the prevalence to be 2.2%. We compared alternative criteria for estimating the prevalence of PTSD using the NVVRS and VES public use data sets collected more than 10 years after the United States withdrew troops from Vietnam. Methods We applied uniform diagnostic procedures to the male veterans from the NVVRS and VES to estimate PTSD prevalences based on varying criteria including one-month and lifetime prevalence estimates, combat and non-combat prevalence estimates, and prevalence estimates using both single and multiple indicator models. Results Using a narrow and specific set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 2.5% and 2.9% for the VES and the NVVRS, respectively. Using a more broad and sensitive set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 12.2% and 15.8% for the VES and NVVRS, respectively. Conclusion When comparable methods were applied to available data we reconciled disparate results and estimated similar current prevalences for both narrow and broad definitions of combat-related diagnoses of PTSD.

  13. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a large multi-ethnic haemodialysis cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowole, Luciana; Labbett, Wendy; Patel, Mauli; O'Riordan, Aisling; Cross, Jennifer; Davenport, Andrew; Haque, Tanzina

    2015-02-06

    Haemodialysis patients are at increased risk of exposure to blood borne viruses. To reduce transmission in the UK, all haemodialysis patients are regularly screened, and if susceptible to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, vaccinated. This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the HBV immune status in a large dialysis cohort and the prevalence of occult HBV infection, defined as the presence of anti-HBcore antibody (anti-HBcAb) and HBV DNA without detectable HB surface antigen (HBsAg). Information on HBV status was retrieved from haemodialysis patients under the care of The Royal Free Hospital, London, UK between 2009-2010. Available sera from 138 of 161 anti-HBcAb positive/HBsAg negative individuals were anonymised and tested for HBV DNA by a real time quantitative PCR. 15 (2%) of 793 patients had chronic HBV infection (HBsAg positive). 161 (20%) were anti-HBcAb positive but HBsAg negative suggesting past infection. 335 (54%) of the remaining 617 patients were considered immune following vaccination (anti-HBsAb > 10 IU/L). Three (2.2%) of the 138 anti-HBcAb positive, HBsAg negative patients had detectable HBV DNA (3, 5 and 9 IU/ml). Standard liver function tests were normal in these patients. In a large multi-ethnic London haemodialysis cohort, 20% patients had evidence of past HBV infection. Despite this, the prevalence of occult HBV was found to be low and the very low levels of HBV DNA detected are unlikely to pose a nosocomial transmission risk in the presence of robust vaccination and infection control measures.

  14. Agro-ecosystems impact malaria prevalence: large-scale irrigation drives vector population in western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleta, Kassahun T; Hill, Sharon R; Seyoum, Emiru; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Ignell, Rickard; Tekie, Habte

    2013-10-02

    Development strategies in Ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. However, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis, in Ethiopia were investigated. In three villages in western Ethiopia practising large-scale sugarcane irrigation, traditional smallholder irrigation and non-irrigated farming, cross-sectional parasitological surveys were conducted during the short rains, after the long rains and during the dry season. Entomological surveys were undertaken monthly (February 2010-January 2011) in each village using light traps, pyrethrum spray collections and artificial pit shelters. Malaria prevalence and the risk of transmission by An. arabiensis assessed by the average human biting rate, mean sporozoite rate and estimated annual entomological inoculation rate were significantly higher in the irrigated sugarcane agro-ecosystem compared to the traditionally irrigated and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. The average human biting rate was significantly elevated by two-fold, while the mean sporozoite rate was 2.5-fold higher, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 4.6 to 5.7-fold higher in the irrigated sugarcane compared to the traditional and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. Active irrigation clearly affected malaria prevalence by increasing the abundance of host seeking Anopheles mosquitoes year-round and thus increasing the risk of infective bites. The year-round presence of sporozoite-infected vectors due to irrigation practices was found to strengthen the coupling between rainfall and risk of malaria transmission, both on- and off-season. This study demonstrates the negative impact of large-scale irrigation expansion on

  15. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 orhypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  16. Prevalence and correlates of problematic smartphone use in a large random sample of Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiang; Liu, Tie-Qiao; Liao, Yan-Hui; Qi, Chang; He, Hao-Yu; Chen, Shu-Bao; Billieux, Joël

    2016-11-17

    Smartphones are becoming a daily necessity for most undergraduates in Mainland China. Because the present scenario of problematic smartphone use (PSU) is largely unexplored, in the current study we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PSU and to screen suitable predictors for PSU among Chinese undergraduates in the framework of the stress-coping theory. A sample of 1062 undergraduate smartphone users was recruited by means of the stratified cluster random sampling strategy between April and May 2015. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire was used to identify PSU. We evaluated five candidate risk factors for PSU by using logistic regression analysis while controlling for demographic characteristics and specific features of smartphone use. The prevalence of PSU among Chinese undergraduates was estimated to be 21.3%. The risk factors for PSU were majoring in the humanities, high monthly income from the family (≥1500 RMB), serious emotional symptoms, high perceived stress, and perfectionism-related factors (high doubts about actions, high parental expectations). PSU among undergraduates appears to be ubiquitous and thus constitutes a public health issue in Mainland China. Although further longitudinal studies are required to test whether PSU is a transient phenomenon or a chronic and progressive condition, our study successfully identified socio-demographic and psychological risk factors for PSU. These results, obtained from a random and thus representative sample of undergraduates, opens up new avenues in terms of prevention and regulation policies.

  17. Prevalence of primary tooth traumatic injuries among children in a large industrial centre of Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, I; Sarapultseva, M; Sarapultsev, A

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the number of children seeking dental care for traumatic tooth injuries has increased substantially. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of primary tooth traumatic injuries (PTTI) in the paediatric populace of Ekaterinburg, a large industrial centre of the Russian Federation. Following ethical approval, an epidemiological investigation of primary dentition was conducted, evaluating 1,149 children aged 6-72 months (males 586/1,149, 51%; females 563/1,149, 49%). The average age of subjects overall was 43.9 ± 17.7 months (males 45.1 ± 17.9 months; females 42.6 ± 17.4 months). The prevalence of PTTI among paediatric residents of this region was 9.75%, with uncomplicated crown fracture (36.9%) as the chief primary dental injury. Dental visits attributable to PTTI were most frequent in the age group of 25-36 months, which clearly constitutes the period of greatest vulnerability. The findings of this study suggest that PTTI is a critical issue in children, requiring programmes that address preventive dental care and adhere to established medical treatment standards.

  18. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  19. Prevalence of intimate partner violence disclosed during routine screening in a large general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Debs; Manhire, Kathy; Marshall, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Domestic violence in its myriad shapes and forms is a crime affecting every level of society. Gaining a true understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimology allows for the meaningful provision of intervention services. To explore the prevalence of IPV disclosure during routine screening in a large general practice in provincial New Zealand. Data were collected from 13 October 2008 to 30 June 2014 from 6827 individuals screened for IPV on 10 062 occasions and were analysed relative to age, ethnicity, gender, screening outcome, screener and health centre enrolled status. Analysis indicated an overall ever-positive disclosure rate of IPV of 11.1%, lower than New Zealand studies that place ever-positive prevalence as high as 78%. Maori women disclosed an ever-positive rate of 21.6%, Pacific women 13.2%, compared to 8.9% for NZ European/Other women. Casual patients positively disclosed in 13.7% of instances as opposed to enrolled patients in 10.5%. Disclosure of past abuse was made 1.3 times more often than that of a current abusive situation. Those aged between 16 and 65 years disclosed an ever-positive rate ≥10%. While nurses screened 5.5 times more patients than doctors, the doctors facilitated a higher percentage of positive disclosures than the nurses. Disclosure rates from a general practice setting do not mirror those of population studies or administrative datasets due to differences in samples and data collection methods. Routine annual screening is effective, with both doctors and nurses providing support for approximately equal numbers of patients in immediate danger.

  20. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  1. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  2. Prevalence of learned grapheme-color pairings in a large online sample of synesthetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Witthoft

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the minimum prevalence of grapheme-color synesthetes with letter-color matches learned from an external stimulus, by analyzing a large sample of English-speaking grapheme-color synesthetes. We find that at least 6% (400/6588 participants of the total sample learned many of their matches from a widely available colored letter toy. Among those born in the decade after the toy began to be manufactured, the proportion of synesthetes with learned letter-color pairings approaches 15% for some 5-year periods. Among those born 5 years or more before it was manufactured, none have colors learned from the toy. Analysis of the letter-color matching data suggests the only difference between synesthetes with matches to the toy and those without is exposure to the stimulus. These data indicate learning of letter-color pairings from external contingencies can occur in a substantial fraction of synesthetes, and are consistent with the hypothesis that grapheme-color synesthesia is a kind of conditioned mental imagery.

  3. The prevalence of two 'commonly' encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R; Burnett, E; Luff, N; Wagner, C; Stinga, G; Carney, C; Sheridan, K

    2015-03-01

    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation. Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), pub seats (54) and cinema seats (53). Using low power stereomicroscopy, a total of 114 and 68 fibres, superficially similar to the respective black acrylic and blue polyester target fibres, were recovered from these tapings. The full range of comparative microscopical and instrumental analysis used in operational forensic laboratories was performed on the recovered fibres. No matches were found with either of the target fibres. These findings are in accordance with similar studies which show that the probability of an 'adventitious' match with a particular fibre type/colour combination is extremely low. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the current techniques and instrumentation employed by operational forensic laboratories are fit for purpose. Importantly, the findings demonstrate that databases and surveys (e.g. fibre population studies) which do not consider the analytical/comparison processes, must not be used in isolation when evaluating fibre evidence at source level. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Point Prevalence of Toxocara vitulorum in Large Ruminants Slaughtered at Multan Abattoir

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    M. Asif Raza*, Saeed Murtaza1, H. Allah Bachaya2, Abdul Qayyum3, M. Arfan Zaman4

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of Toxocara (T. vitulorum in buffalo and cattle slaughtered at Multan abattoir. Gastro-intestinal tracts of 94 buffaloes and 48 cattle were examined for T. vitulorum. Prevalence of T. vitulorum was 63.83 and 37.50% in buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Sex wise prevalence of T. vitulorum was recorded as 39.46% (30/76 in male and 72.72% (48/66 in female.

  5. Cognitive-behavioral screening reveals prevalent impairment in a large multicenter ALS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Goetz, Raymond; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Nagy, Peter L; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jessica; Woolley, Susan; Andrews, Howard; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S; Katz, Jonathan S; Barohn, Richard J; Sorenson, Eric J; Oskarsson, Björn; Fernandes Filho, J Americo M; Kasarskis, Edward J; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D; Nations, Sharon P; Swenson, Andrea J; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    To characterize the prevalence of cognitive and behavioral symptoms using a cognitive/behavioral screening battery in a large prospective multicenter study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two hundred seventy-four patients with ALS completed 2 validated cognitive screening tests and 2 validated behavioral interviews with accompanying caregivers. We examined the associations between cognitive and behavioral performance, demographic and clinical data, and C9orf72 mutation data. Based on the ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen cognitive score, 6.5% of the sample scored below the cutoff score for frontotemporal lobar dementia, 54.2% scored in a range consistent with ALS with mild cognitive impairment, and 39.2% scored in the normal range. The ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen behavioral subscale identified 16.5% of the sample scoring below the dementia cutoff score, with an additional 14.1% scoring in the ALS behavioral impairment range, and 69.4% scoring in the normal range. This investigation revealed high levels of cognitive and behavioral impairment in patients with ALS within 18 months of symptom onset, comparable to prior investigations. This investigation illustrates the successful use and scientific value of adding a cognitive-behavioral screening tool in studies of motor neuron diseases, to provide neurologists with an efficient method to measure these common deficits and to understand how they relate to key clinical variables, when extensive neuropsychological examinations are unavailable. These tools, developed specifically for patients with motor impairment, may be particularly useful in patient populations with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson disease, who are known to have comorbid cognitive decline. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; Villarreal-Williams, Erick; Giordano, Thomas P

    2010-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect. Screening for this condition in HIV-infected patients from susceptible ethnic groups is recommended based on expert opinion. Here we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and the occurrence of G6PD-related hemolytic events in a large cohort of patients. We identified all HIV-infected adults who presented as new patients at a single urban HIV clinic between 02/01/2007 and 01/31/2009. Demographic and laboratory data including G6PD results were collected. In addition, outpatient and inpatient medical records of G6PD deficient patients were reviewed for episodes of hemolytic anemia. A total of 1172 patients were identified and G6PD testing was performed in 1110 (94.7%). Overall, 75 (6.8%) subjects had G6PD deficiency. Rates were higher among African Americans (68/699; 9.7%) and Hispanics (5/253; 2.0%). Only one non-Hispanic White subject had G6PD deficiency (1/153; 0.7%). At baseline, hemoglobin concentrations were similar among subjects with or without G6PD deficiency. Among patients with G6PD deficiency, 40 (53.3%) were prescribed trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or dapsone. During follow-up, five (6.7%) of these patients developed acute hemolytic anemia. These results provide strong clinical evidence for recommending G6PD testing in HIV-infected subjects from susceptible ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2010 The British Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence, clinical features, and CPAP adherence in REM-related sleep-disordered breathing: a cross-sectional analysis of a large clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Walter; Patel, Bhakti; Doeing, Diana; Pamidi, Sushmita; Knutson, Kristen L; Ghods, Farbod; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2012-06-01

    Due to inconsistent definitions used in the literature, the prevalence of rapid eye movement (REM)-related sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been quite variable and its clinical significance remains unclear. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of and clinical characteristics between various criteria for defining REM-related SDB. We also investigated how frequently CPAP therapy was recommended in patients with REM-related SDB and if they had lower CPAP adherence compared to non-stage-specific SDB. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated 1,019 consecutive adults referred for a polysomnogram for suspicion of SDB. The prevalence of REM-related SDB was calculated based on "traditional criteria" commonly reported in the literature and a "strict criteria" that minimized the contribution of SDB during non-REM sleep. The prevalence of REM-related SDB ranged from 13.5% to 36.7%. There were no clinically significant differences between the strict definition and the traditional definition of REM-related SDB. REM-related SDB was more prevalent in women, younger individuals and African Americans. Compared to non-stage-specific obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), patients with REM-related SDB were equally symptomatic and hypersomnolent. CPAP titration was recommended in 88% of patients with REM-related SDB vs. 94% of patients with non-stage-specific OSA (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in CPAP adherence between the two groups. Regardless of how REM-related SDB is defined, it was highly prevalent in our large clinical cohort. Compared to non-stage-specific OSA, these patients were equally hypersomnolent and adherent to CPAP therapy despite having overall significantly milder OSA. Further research is needed to better establish whether these patients will derive any benefit from long-term CPAP therapy.

  8. Prevalence and correction of hypothyroidism in a large cohort of patients referred for dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, T.; Lansberg, P. J.; Kastelein, J. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of hypercholesterolemia can reduce the risk of developing premature atherosclerosis. The hypercholesterolemia caused by hypothyroidism is potentially reversible by thyroid hormone replacement therapy. We determined the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients referred to a university lipid

  9. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large clinical sample of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Brazauskas, Karissa; Lindgren, Kristen; Iannuzzi, Dorothea; Van Cleave, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major pediatric public health problems in the United States; however, limited data exist on the prevalence and correlates of overnutrition in children with autism. Through a large integrated health care system's patient database, we identified 6672 children ages 2 to 20 years with an assigned ICD-9 code of autism (299.0), Asperger syndrome (299.8), and control subjects from 2008 to 2011 who had at least 1 weight and height recorded in the same visit. We calculated age-adjusted, sex-adjusted body mass index and classified children as overweight (body mass index 85th to 95th percentile) or obese (≥ 95th percentile). We used multinomial logistic regression to compare the odds of overweight and obesity between groups. We then used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with overweight and obesity in children with autism, including demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared to control subjects, children with autism and Asperger syndrome had significantly higher odds of overweight (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: autism 2.24, 1.74-2.88; Asperger syndrome 1.49, 1.12-1.97) and obesity (autism 4.83, 3.85-6.06; Asperger syndrome 5.69, 4.50-7.21). Among children with autism, we found a higher odds of obesity in older children (aged 12-15 years 1.87, 1.33-2.63; aged 16-20 years 1.94, 1.39-2.71) compared to children aged 6 to 11 years. We also found higher odds of overweight and obesity in those with public insurance (overweight 1.54, 1.25-1.89; obese 1.16, 1.02-1.40) and with co-occurring sleep disorder (obese 1.23, 1.00-1.53). Children with autism and Asperger syndrome had significantly higher odds of overweight and obesity than control subjects. Older age, public insurance, and co-occurring sleep disorder were associated with overweight or obesity in this population. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A large meta-analysis of the global prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA contamination of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qianting; Zhou, Junli; Lin, Dongxin; Bai, Chan; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Jialing; Zheng, Haoqu; Wang, Xiaojie; Ye, Jiaping; Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-07-07

    Past reports have indicated a high prevalence of milk contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA in pasteurized and boiled cow's milk, raw cow's milk, and raw Caprinae milk (raw sheep's milk and raw goat's milk) and across different periods, continents, economic conditions and purchase locations remain inconsistent. We searched relevant articles published in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science before July 2016. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement was used to evaluate the quality of 93 included studies. We observed that the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in pasteurized and boiled cow's milk, raw cow's milk, and raw Caprinae milk were 15.4% (95% CI, 6.1-27.5%), 33.5% (95% CI, 29.5-37.7%) and 25.8% (95% CI, 17.5-35.0%), respectively. The pooled prevalence rates of MRSA contamination were 4.9% (95% CI, 0.0-15.7%), 2.3% (95% CI, 1.3-3.6%), and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.5-1.8%), respectively. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination in raw cow's milk increased over time. However, the pooled prevalence of raw cow's milk contaminated with S. aureus was lowest in European studies. These findings give an indication of the consequence of better milk regulation in Europe. High S. aureus prevalence rates in raw milk collected from farms and processing companies pose a potential threat to consumers. The implementation of good hygiene practices, appropriate health knowledge, and food safety principles at the farm level, as well as the prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and heat treatment before drinking, are necessary to reduce the potential risk of S. aureus and MRSA contamination.

  11. The association between immunoglobulin concentrations and prediabetes prevalence in a large Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Song, Yanqi; Sun, Shaomei; Gao, Li; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Gu, Yeqing; Shi, Hongbin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Zhang, Qing; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-08-01

    Prediabetes has received public attention owing to the increasing prevalence worldwide. Mounting evidence has indicated that inflammation directly contributed to the etiology of glucose metabolism disorders. Although immunoglobulins play a crucial role in immune responses, little research has been done on the link between immunoglobulins and prediabetes in adults. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations between immunoglobulins levels and prevalence of prediabetes in a general adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 8856 adults (mean±standard deviation age: 48.4±10.7years) in Tianjin, China. The serum immunoglobulins concentrations were measured by the immunonephelometric technique. Prediabetes was diagnosed using the following parameters in accordance with the American Diabetes Association: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The associations between concentrations of immunoglobulins and the prevalence of prediabetes were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Overall, the prevalence of prediabetes was 37.4% (3311/8856). After controlling for confounders, compared with the lowest quintile, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of prediabetes for the highest quintile of immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A) were as follows: 1.06 (0.91-1.23), 1.31 (1.13-1.52), 0.86 (0.74-1.01), and 1.19 (1.03-1.38) (P for trend were 0.35, immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin A levels were independently and positively associated with prediabetes prevalence. There was also a trending association between immunoglobulin M concentrations and prediabetes prevalence. Further studies are necessary to clarify if there is a causal association of immunoglobulins in prediabetes or if they reflect early immunologic disturbances in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  13. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Epileptiform EEG Discharges in a Large Memory Clinic Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, M.; Stam, C.J.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Scheltens, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although EEG is not considered as standard in memory clinics, evidence indicates that epileptiform discharges are of value in diagnosing cognitive complaints as epilepsy. Objective: To determine prevalence and significance of epileptiform discharges in a memory clinic. Methods: 1,674

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADD/ADHD in a Large National Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline; Fowler, Ken

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported attention deficit disorder (ADD)/ADHD in Canadian adults. Prevalence of self-reported ADD/ADHD was examined in a large national sample of Canadians ( n = 16,957). Demographic variables, lifetime, and current psychiatric comorbidities were then compared in a group of adults with self-reported ADD/ADHD ( n = 488) and an age- and gender-matched control group ( n = 488). The prevalence of self-reported ADD/ADHD was 2.9%. Significantly higher lifetime and current prevalence rates of major depressive disorder, bipolar I and II disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders were observed in the ADD/ADHD group compared with the control group. Within the ADD/ADHD group, lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were significantly higher in women, whereas lifetime and current rates of some substance use disorders were significantly higher in men. In a national sample of Canadian adults, self-reported ADD/ADHD was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Gender differences were also noted.

  15. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Paramedics Working in a Large Hospital in Ahwaz, Southwestern Iran in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Shafizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are common among employees throughout the world, particularly in high risk groups such as nurses. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MSDs among nurses in a large hospital in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran, and to examine its correlation with gender, age, shift working, years at service and smoking. Methods: Using a self-reported questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, Nordic questionnaire for MSDs was disseminated to all inpatient hospital paramedics (n=195 in a large hospital in Ahwaz. Results: Questionnaires of 161 participants were completed and returned back for analysis (response rate of 83%. The reported prevalence of MSDs was very high in the studied paramedics so that more than 90% of them reported at least one MSD in last week. The most prevalent site affected was that of neck (64% followed by head (62.1%, knees (54.7% and wrists/hands (49.7%; the least frequent disorder was that of elbows (14.3%. MSD was more common in females and increased with age and years of service. Non-shift workers reported more neck and elbows MSDs than shift workers. Conclusion: Considering the very high prevalence of MSDs among paramedics, it is suggested that they engage in an exercise program at their work place to lower the risk of MSDs and promote working efficiency.

  16. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sleep Disturbance in a Large HIV-Infected Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allavena, C; Guimard, T; Billaud, E; De la Tullaye, S; Reliquet, V; Pineau, S; Hüe, H; Supiot, C; Chennebault, J-M; Michau, C; Hitoto, H; Vatan, R; Raffi, F

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbances in French adult HIV-infected outpatients. Patients fullfilled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behavior, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), quality of life and depression; 1354 patients were enrolled. Median sleeping time was 7 h. Poor sleep quality was observed in 47 % of the patients, and moderate to serious depressive symptoms in 19.7 %. Factors significantly associated with sleep disturbances were depression, male gender, active employment, living single, tobacco-smoking, duration of HIV infection, nevirapine or efavirenz-including regimen. Prevalence of poor sleepers is high in this HIV adult outpatient population. Associated factors seem poorly specific to HIV infection and more related to social and psychological status. Taking care of these disturbances may prove to be an effective health management strategy.

  18. Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): prevalence, user characteristics and abuse liability in a large global sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstock, Adam R; Kaar, Stephen; Borschmann, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents original research on prevalence, user characteristics and effect profile of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a potent hallucinogenic which acts primarily through the serotonergic system. Data were obtained from the Global Drug Survey (an anonymous online survey of people, many of whom have used drugs) conducted between November and December 2012 with 22,289 responses. Lifetime prevalence of DMT use was 8.9% (n=1980) and past year prevalence use was 5.0% (n=1123). We explored the effect profile of DMT in 472 participants who identified DMT as the last new drug they had tried for the first time and compared it with ratings provided by other respondents on psilocybin (magic mushrooms), LSD and ketamine. DMT was most often smoked and offered a strong, intense, short-lived psychedelic high with relatively few negative effects or "come down". It had a larger proportion of new users compared with the other substances (24%), suggesting its popularity may increase. Overall, DMT seems to have a very desirable effect profile indicating a high abuse liability that maybe offset by a low urge to use more.

  19. Prevalence and intensity of third stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae in swamp eels sold in three large markets in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Nuchprayoon, Surang; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Suwansaksri, Jamsai

    2002-01-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a common human tissue parasite in Thailand. The swamp eel is the major intermediate or paratenic host for this parasite. The high prevalence of the infective third stage larvae (L3) of this parasite in the rainy season has been noted in previous studies. During June 1999 (rainy season), we performed a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and the intensity of G. spinigerum L3s in the livers of swamp eels that were obtained from three large Bangkok markets (Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej). Of a total of 785 livers, G. spinigerum L3s were found in 97: an infection rate of 12%. The prevalence rates in Klong Toey, Pran Nok, and Tevej markets were 13%, 10% and 14% respectively. There was no significant difference in the proportion of infected eels between the markets (p > 0.05). The intensity of L3 burden in the livers ranged from 1-17 larvae, with an average of 2.60 +/- 0.24 larvae (mean +/- SE). In this study a high prevalence of G. spinigerum L3s was found; there was no significant difference in the intensity of larvae in swamp eels between markets. These findings emphasize the importance of public health education: people need to be aware of the dangers of consuming raw or undercooked food.

  20. Prevalence of coronary artery disease in Japanese patients with cerebral infarction. Impact of metabolic syndrome and intracranial large artery atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Atsushi; Enomoto, Satoko; Kawahito, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Yoshifumi; Ijichi, Toshiharu

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cerebral infarction have a high prevalence of asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) and other vascular diseases, but there is a lack of such data for Japanese patients, so the present study investigated the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Japanese patients and determined the predictors of CAD. The study group comprised 104 patients with cerebral infarction who had no history of CVD. All patients underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography, and systematic evaluation was done on the basis of the presence of other vascular diseases, CVD risk markers, and the degree of atherosclerosis. Of the total, 39 patients (37.5%) had CAD, 9 (8.7%) had carotid artery stenosis, 9 (8.7%) had peripheral artery disease of the lower limbs, and 3 (2.9%) had atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of CAD was independently associated with metabolic syndrome (odds ratio (OR) 5.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.538-16.309; p<0.01) and intracranial large artery atherosclerosis (OR 4.979, 95% CI 1.633-15.183; p<0.01). Japanese patients with cerebral infarction have a high prevalence of CVD, especially asymptomatic CAD. Both metabolic syndrome and intracranial large artery atherosclerosis may be potential predictors for identifying patients with cerebral infarction who are at the highest risk of asymptomatic CAD. (author)

  1. Auditory hallucinations in adults with hearing impairment: a large prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linszen, M M J; van Zanten, G A; Teunisse, R J; Brouwer, R M; Scheltens, P; Sommer, I E

    2018-03-20

    Similar to visual hallucinations in visually impaired patients, auditory hallucinations are often suggested to occur in adults with hearing impairment. However, research on this association is limited. This observational, cross-sectional study tested whether auditory hallucinations are associated with hearing impairment, by assessing their prevalence in an adult population with various degrees of objectified hearing impairment. Hallucination presence was determined in 1007 subjects aged 18-92, who were referred for audiometric testing to the Department of ENT-Audiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands. The presence and severity of hearing impairment were calculated using mean air conduction thresholds from the most recent pure tone audiometry. Out of 829 participants with hearing impairment, 16.2% (n = 134) had experienced auditory hallucinations in the past 4 weeks; significantly more than the non-impaired group [5.8%; n = 10/173; p music (36%), and doorbells or telephones (24%). Our findings reveal that auditory hallucinations are common among patients with hearing impairment, and increase with impairment severity. Although more research on potential confounding factors is necessary, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon, by inquiring after hallucinations in hearing-impaired patients and, conversely, assessing hearing impairment in patients with auditory hallucinations, since it may be a treatable factor.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: a large scale school based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Phil W S; Wong, William C W; Chen, W Q; Tang, Catherine S K

    2008-09-29

    Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  4. Prevalence of prehypertension and associated risk factors among Chinese adults from a large-scale multi-ethnic population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Junting; Zhu, Guangjin; Liu, Junxiu; Han, Shaomei

    2016-08-11

    Up to date, most of previous studies about Chinese prehypertension were conducted based on a small sample or in only one province, which could not represent the general population in China. Furthermore, no information on the ethnic difference in prevalence of prehypertension has been reported in China. The aim of this study is to examine the sex-specific, age-specific and ethnic-specific prevalence of prehypertension and associated risk factors in a large-scale multi-ethnic Chinese adult population. The subjects came from a large-scale population survey about Chinese physiological constants and health conditions conducted in six provinces. 47, 495 adults completed blood pressure measurement. Prehypertension was defined as not being on antihypertensive medications and having SBP of 120-139 mmHg and/or DBP of 80-89 mmHg. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) from logistic models were used to reflect the prevalence of prehypertension. The mean age of all subjects was 43.9 ± 16.8 years. The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension for all them was 29.5 and 36.4 %, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension for males (33.2 and 41.1 %, respectively) was higher than that for females (27.0 and 33.2 %, respectively), and P age of the subjects was 54.8 ± 14.0 years for hypertensive, 44.0 ± 16.0 years for prehypertensive and 35.3 ± 14.5 years for normotensive. With aging, subjects had more odds of getting prehypertension. Multivariate logistic model indicated that males (OR = 2.076, 95 % CI: 1.952-2.208), laborers with mental work (OR = 1.084, 95 % CI: 1.020-1.152), Yi (OR = 1.347, 95 %CI: 1.210-1.500) and Hui subjects (OR = 1.133, 95 % CI: 1.024-1.253), alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.147, 95 % CI: 1.072-1.228), the generally obese (OR = 2.460, 95 % CI: 2.190-2.763), the overweight (OR = 1.667, 95 % CI: 1.563-1.788), the abdominally obese (OR = 1.371, 95 % CI: 1

  5. Prevalence and complications of hypouricemia in a general population: A large-scale cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Niwa, Koichiro; Ohtahara, Akira; Hamada, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mizuta, Einosuke; Ogino, Kazuhide; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Hypouricemia was reported as a risk factor for exercise-induced acute renal injury (EIAKI) and urinary stones. However, the prevalence of kidney diseases among hypouricemic subjects has not been evaluated. This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of hypouricemia and the association of hypouricemia with kidney diseases by using a large-scale Japanese population data. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study at the Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, and Sanin Rousai Hospital, Yonago, Japan. We analyzed the medical records of 90,143 Japanese subjects at the center in St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, and 4,837 subjects in Sanin Rousai Hospital, Yonago, who underwent annual regular health check-up between January 2004 and June 2010. We defined hypouricemia as serum uric acid level of ≤2.0 mg/dL. We checked the medical history of all the study subjects and compared the rates of complications including urinary stones and kidney diseases among those with or without hypouricemia. The prevalence of hypouricemia was 0.19% in St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, and 0.58% in Sanin Rousai Hospital, Yonago. The prevalence of hypouricemia in women was larger than that in men both in Tokyo (0.31% vs 0.068%, p<0.001) and in Yonago (1.237% vs 0.318%, p<0.001). Among 172 hypouricemic subjects (30 men), the rates of previous urinary stones and kidney diseases (including nephritis/nephrosis) were 1.2% (3.3% men, 0.7% women) and 2.3% (10% men, 0.7% women), respectively. Hypouricemic men had a 9-fold higher rate of previously having kidney diseases compared to non-hypouricemic men (p<0.001). However, the rates of other diseases including urinary stones were not significantly different between the two groups. Hypouricemia was associated with a history of kidney disease especially in men.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of Axis I disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking victims of sexual abuse and incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin McElroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. Objective: This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. Method: The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434. Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts and 10 adult clinical syndromes. Results: There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. Conclusions: The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of Axis I disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking victims of sexual abuse and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Eoin; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Siobhan; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434). Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts) and 10 adult clinical syndromes. There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses.

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in a Large Insured Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Bent, Stephen; Lynch, Frances L; Coleman, Karen J; Yau, Vincent M; Pearson, Kathryn A; Massolo, Maria L; Quinn, Virginia; Croen, Lisa A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use as well as parental perceptions of CAM efficacy in a large, geographically diverse sample of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Data were obtained from a web-based survey administered to parents of children with ASD at four sites participating in the Mental Health Research Network (MHRN). The web survey obtained information about services and treatments received by children with ASD as well as the caregivers' experiences with having a child with ASD. Approximately 88% of the sample had either used CAM in the past or had recently used some type of CAM. The following characteristics were associated with CAM use: greater parental education, younger child age, a mix of regular and special classroom settings and prescription drug use in the past three months. The use of CAM was very prevalent in this large, geographically diverse sample of children with ASD. It is critical that providers be prepared to discuss the advantages and potential side effects with families to help them make well-informed health care decisions and prevent possible CAM-drug interactions.

  9. Prevalence of body-focused repetitive behaviors in three large medical colleges of karachi: a cross-sectional study

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    Siddiqui Efaza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs that include skin picking (dermatillomania, hair pulling (trichotillomania and nail biting (onychophagia, lead to harmful physical and psychological sequelae. The objective was to determine the prevalence of BFRBs among students attending three large medical colleges of Karachi. It is imperative to come up with frequency to design strategies to decrease the burden and adverse effects associated with BFRBs among medical students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 students attending Aga Khan University, Dow Medical College and Sind Medical College, Karachi, in equal proportion. Data were collected using a pre tested tool, “Habit Questionnaire”. Diagnoses were made on the criteria that a student must be involved in an activity 5 times or more per day for 4 weeks or more. Convenience sampling was done to recruit the participants aged 18 years and above after getting written informed consent. Results The overall prevalence of BFRBs was found to be 46 (22%. For those positive for BFRBs, gender distribution was as follows: females 29 (13.9% and males 17 (8.1%. Among these students, 19 (9.0% were engaged in dermatillomania, 28 (13.3% in trichotillomania and 13 (6.2% in onychophagia. Conclusions High proportions of BFRBs are reported among medical students of Karachi. Key health messages and interventions to reduce stress and anxiety among students may help in curtailing the burden of this disease which has serious adverse consequences.

  10. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...

  11. Characterizing abnormal behavior in a large population of zoo-housed chimpanzees: prevalence and potential influencing factors

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    Sarah L. Jacobson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors in captive animals are generally defined as behaviors that are atypical for the species and are often considered to be indicators of poor welfare. Although some abnormal behaviors have been empirically linked to conditions related to elevated stress and compromised welfare in primates, others have little or no evidence on which to base such a relationship. The objective of this study was to investigate a recent claim that abnormal behavior is endemic in the captive population by surveying a broad sample of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, while also considering factors associated with the origins of these behaviors. We surveyed animal care staff from 26 accredited zoos to assess the prevalence of abnormal behavior in a large sample of chimpanzees in the United States for which we had information on origin and rearing history. Our results demonstrated that 64% of this sample was reported to engage in some form of abnormal behavior in the past two years and 48% of chimpanzees engaged in abnormal behavior other than coprophagy. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the historical variables that best predicted the occurrence of all abnormal behavior, any abnormal behavior that was not coprophagy, and coprophagy. Rearing had opposing effects on the occurrence of coprophagy and the other abnormal behaviors such that mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform coprophagy, whereas non-mother-reared individuals were more likely to perform other abnormal behaviors. These results support the assertion that coprophagy may be classified separately when assessing abnormal behavior and the welfare of captive chimpanzees. This robust evaluation of the prevalence of abnormal behavior in our sample from the U.S. zoo population also demonstrates the importance of considering the contribution of historical variables to present behavior, in order to better understand the causes of these behaviors and any potential relationship to

  12. Large-scale assessment of myxomatosis prevalence in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 60years after first outbreak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Rafael; Castro, Francisca; Ramírez, Esther; Cotilla, Irene; Parra, Francisco; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Recuerda, Pilar; Rouco, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Myxomatosis is a viral disease that affects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) worldwide. In Spain, populations of wild rabbits drastically decreased in the 1950s after the first outbreak of myxomatosis. Since that first appearance, it seems to be an annual epizootic in Spain with periodic outbreaks, predominantly in summer and autumn. Taking into account rabbit population structure, abundance, and genetic lineage, this paper attempts to make a large-scale characterization of myxomatosis seroprevalence based on the immune status of 29 rabbit populations distributed throughout Spain, where O. cuniculus cuniculus and O. c. algirus, the two known rabbit subspecies, naturally inhabit. A total of 654 samples were collected between 2003 and 2009, and seroprevalence of antibodies against Myxoma virus (MYXV) was determined. Overall, our results revealed that 53% of the rabbit samples were positive to antibodies against MYXV. Newborn and juvenile rabbits were the most susceptible animals to the virus, with 19% and 16% seropositivity for newborn and juveniles, respectively, while adult rabbits were the most protected, with 65% of seropositive samples. This suggests that prevalence is negatively related to the proportion of newborn and juvenile rabbits in a population. Our results also showed that seroprevalence against MYXV tended to be higher in high-abundance populations. In contrast, no differences were detected in seroprevalence between rabbit subspecies. This study confirms that >60years since first outbreak, myxomatosis is an endemic disease in Spain. Based on the results, the establishment of a myxomatosis surveillance protocol is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep Duration, Snoring Prevalence, Obesity, and Behavioral Problems in a Large Cohort of Primary School Students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Naoko; Gozal, David; Smith, Dale L; Yang, Limin; Morimoto, Noriko; Wada, Hiroo; Maruyama, Kotatsu; Ikeda, Ai; Suzuki, Yohei; Nakayama, Meiho; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    Poor or short sleep and the presence of snoring indicative of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) have been associated with behavioral problems in school-aged children. We examined the relationship between SDB, sleep duration, obesity risk, and behavioral characteristics in Japanese elementary school students using a large-scale survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study of children enrolled in all 46 public primary schools in Matsuyama city, Japan. The children's parents or guardians completed a questionnaire that covered sleep habits, presence of SDB risk, and behavioral characteristics. In total, 24 296 responses were received (90% response rate). After excluding incomplete responses, we analyzed complete datasets for 17 769 children. Mean sleep duration decreased with age, as did the prevalence of pediatric SDB. We found an increased risk for the presence of SDB and short sleep among overweight/obese children. With SDB or short sleep, we observed significantly increased odds of restless behaviors, fidgety behaviors, and poor concentration in school. Shorter sleep duration was associated with increased risk of obesity, and in turn, obesity increased SDB risk. Both short sleep duration and SDB risk were significantly associated with behavioral problems in school. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sleep in a large, multi-university sample of college students: sleep problem prevalence, sex differences, and mental health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Jarrett, Matthew A; Luebbe, Aaron M; Garner, Annie A; Burns, G Leonard; Kofler, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A substantial minority of students endorsed sleep problems across specific sleep components. Specifically, 27% described their sleep quality as poor, 36% reported obtaining less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and 43% reported that it takes >30 minutes to fall asleep at least once per week. 62% of participants met cut-off criteria for poor sleep, though rates differed between females (64%) and males (57%). In structural regression models, both anxiety and depression symptoms were uniquely associated with disruptions in most PSQI sleep component domains. However, anxiety (but not depression) symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and sleep medication use, whereas depression (but not anxiety) symptoms were uniquely associated with increased daytime dysfunction. ADHD-IN symptoms were uniquely associated with poorer sleep quality and increased daytime dysfunction, whereas ADHD-HI symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and less daytime dysfunction. Lastly, ADHD-IN, anxiety, and depression symptoms were each independently associated with poor sleep status. This study documents a high prevalence of poor sleep among college students, some sex differences, and distinct patterns of mental health symptoms in relation to sleep problems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The state of OA: a large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowar, Heather; Priem, Jason; Larivière, Vincent; Alperin, Juan Pablo; Matthias, Lisa; Norlander, Bree; Farley, Ashley; West, Jevin; Haustein, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Despite growing interest in Open Access (OA) to scholarly literature, there is an unmet need for large-scale, up-to-date, and reproducible studies assessing the prevalence and characteristics of OA. We address this need using oaDOI, an open online service that determines OA status for 67 million articles. We use three samples, each of 100,000 articles, to investigate OA in three populations: (1) all journal articles assigned a Crossref DOI, (2) recent journal articles indexed in Web of Science, and (3) articles viewed by users of Unpaywall, an open-source browser extension that lets users find OA articles using oaDOI. We estimate that at least 28% of the scholarly literature is OA (19M in total) and that this proportion is growing, driven particularly by growth in Gold and Hybrid. The most recent year analyzed (2015) also has the highest percentage of OA (45%). Because of this growth, and the fact that readers disproportionately access newer articles, we find that Unpaywall users encounter OA quite frequently: 47% of articles they view are OA. Notably, the most common mechanism for OA is not Gold, Green, or Hybrid OA, but rather an under-discussed category we dub Bronze: articles made free-to-read on the publisher website, without an explicit Open license. We also examine the citation impact of OA articles, corroborating the so-called open-access citation advantage: accounting for age and discipline, OA articles receive 18% more citations than average, an effect driven primarily by Green and Hybrid OA. We encourage further research using the free oaDOI service, as a way to inform OA policy and practice.

  16. The state of OA: a large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Piwowar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing interest in Open Access (OA to scholarly literature, there is an unmet need for large-scale, up-to-date, and reproducible studies assessing the prevalence and characteristics of OA. We address this need using oaDOI, an open online service that determines OA status for 67 million articles. We use three samples, each of 100,000 articles, to investigate OA in three populations: (1 all journal articles assigned a Crossref DOI, (2 recent journal articles indexed in Web of Science, and (3 articles viewed by users of Unpaywall, an open-source browser extension that lets users find OA articles using oaDOI. We estimate that at least 28% of the scholarly literature is OA (19M in total and that this proportion is growing, driven particularly by growth in Gold and Hybrid. The most recent year analyzed (2015 also has the highest percentage of OA (45%. Because of this growth, and the fact that readers disproportionately access newer articles, we find that Unpaywall users encounter OA quite frequently: 47% of articles they view are OA. Notably, the most common mechanism for OA is not Gold, Green, or Hybrid OA, but rather an under-discussed category we dub Bronze: articles made free-to-read on the publisher website, without an explicit Open license. We also examine the citation impact of OA articles, corroborating the so-called open-access citation advantage: accounting for age and discipline, OA articles receive 18% more citations than average, an effect driven primarily by Green and Hybrid OA. We encourage further research using the free oaDOI service, as a way to inform OA policy and practice.

  17. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis in a large population cohort in the north of the Netherlands: A lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, E.H.; Amini, M.; Schreuder, T.C.M.A.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Faber, K.N.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Blokzijl, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing health issue, being part of the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and fibrosis and analyze biochemical characteristics in a large population-based cohort

  18. Recent Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in a Large-Scale Survey of the U.S. Air Force: Prevalences and Demographic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarr, Jeffery D.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2010-01-01

    One-year prevalences of self-reported noteworthy suicidal ideation and nonfatal suicide attempts were assessed in a large sample of U.S. Air Force active duty members (N = 52,780). Participants completed the 2006 Community Assessment, which was conducted online. Over 3% of male and 5.5% of female participants reported having experienced noteworthy…

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in a large national sample of pet dogs visiting veterinary hospitals in the United States (2003-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Glickman, Larry T; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elizabeth; Moore, George E

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of intestinal infection of dogs with Giardia spp. in the United States vary widely. Risk factors for infection in a large sample of dogs over an extended period of time have not been well characterized. A national, electronic database of medical records was used to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for Giardia spp. infection among dogs visiting Banfield Pet Hospital™ located in 43 states in the United States. The overall prevalence of Giardia spp. Infection was 0.44% (95% CI: 0.43-0.45%) in approximately 2.5 million owned dogs who had a fecal flotation test performed from January 2003 to December 2009. A steady decrease in annual prevalence was observed, from a high of 0.61% in 2003 to 0.27% in 2009. Seasonal increases in prevalence were noted during the winter and summer months. Giardia spp. prevalence was highest in the Mountain region, especially Colorado (2.63%; 95% CI: 2.53-2.73%), and in puppies ≤0.5 year of age (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.61-0.64%). It was lowest for dogs of mixed breeding compared with pure breeds. Infection risk was 25-30% greater in sexually intact dogs compared to spayed and neutered dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  1. The prevalence of sacroilitis in psoriatic arthritis: new perspectives from a large, multicenter cohort. A Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistone, M.J.; Clegg, D.O. [Division of Rheumatology, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)]|[Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Manaster, B.J. [Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Reda, D.J. [Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center, VA Hospital, Hines, IL (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis in a large population of patients with psoriatic arthritis. Patients and design. Patients were recruited from 15 clinical centers. This was part of a large, multicenter study of patients with an established diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, or reactive arthritis. For this cohort, an established diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis was required, with cutaneous manifestations and involvement of at least three appendicular joints. At entry, patients were not selected for the presence of axial involvement. Radiographs - one anteroposterior view of the pelvis and one oblique view of each sacroiliac joint - were graded using the New York classification scale by a musculoskeletal radiologist masked to the specific diagnosis and clinical symptoms. Re-evaluation of 10% of the films 3 years later quantified intraobserver variability. Results. Two hundred and two patients with psoriatic arthritis were studied. Duration of the disease averaged 12 years; all patients had psoriasis and peripheral arthritis. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis (grade 2 or higher) was 78%; 71% of these had grade 3 disease. Conclusions. Previously reported prevalence of sacroiliitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis ranges from 30% to 50%. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis in this large multicenter cohort of patients with appendicular psoriatic arthritis was substantially higher. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 tabs., 29 refs.

  2. Large increase in the prevalence of self-reported diabetes based on a nationally representative survey in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domján, Beatrix A; Ferencz, Viktória; Tänczer, Tímea; Szili-Janicsek, Zsófia; Barkai, László; Hidvégi, Tibor; Jermendy, György; Kempler, Péter; Winkler, Gábor; Gerő, László; Tabák, Adam G

    2017-04-01

    To estimate and compare the prevalence of self-reported diabetes based on nationally representative surveys of the Hungarian adult population in 2002 (published data - Hungarostudy) and a survey in 2012. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey on a stratified representative sample of community-dwelling adults (n=1000) in 2012. To describe self-reported diabetes prevalence and its temporal changes generalized linear models were used and results were compared to figures from Hungarostudy. Age standardized prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes was 11.7% (95%CI 10.0-13.8%) without gender or rural-urban differences in 2012. People with self-reported diabetes were older than controls (mean [SE]: 63.9 [0.9] vs. 45.9 [0.3] years, p<0.0001). The prevalence of diabetes sharply increased after 40 years of age and peaked at age 70 (27.7% [2.5], p age*age <0.0001). The prevalence of self-reported diabetes increased by 89% (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.53-2.32) from 6.2 to 11.7% between the two surveys with the most pronounced increase in the age group 55-64 years (from 11.6 to 24.4%). We reported an alarming increase in the prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes in the last decade that mostly affects working age people. If this trend continues, a major public health crisis in Hungary can be envisaged. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The prevalence of food addiction in a large sample of adolescents and its association with addictive substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mies, G.W.; Treur, J.L.; Larsen, J.K.; Halberstadt, J.; Pasman, J.A.; Vink, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, due to, among other factors, increased availability of highly palatable food (food high in fat, salt and/or sugar). It has been proposed that certain foods and/or eating behaviours may be addictive, to a degree comparable to substances of

  4. Severe obesity prevalence in 8- to 9-year-old Italian children: a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F L; Spinelli, A; Lazzeri, G; Lamberti, A; Mazzarella, G; Nardone, P; Pilato, V; Buoncristiano, M; Caroli, M

    2015-05-01

    Little information is available on severe obesity in childhood. This study estimates the prevalence of severe obesity in 8- to 9-year-old children resident in Italy and its association with gender, age, geographical area and parents' nutritional status and education using the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. A nationally representative sample of grade 3 Italian students was measured in 2010 (N=42,431) using standardized instruments and methodology. Severe obesity in children was assessed using definitions provided by the WHO and by the IOTF. Prevalence was estimated within categories of sociodemographic variables and their independent effects were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. The estimated prevalence of severe obesity in 2010 was 4.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.2-4.7) according to the WHO definition and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.5-2.9) with IOTF cutoffs. These values were slightly lower than those observed in 2008. The prevalence was higher in males, in 8-year-old children and in the South. Parental low education and high body mass index were strongly associated with childhood severe obesity. According to the definition used, between 30,000 and 50,000 children aged 8-9 years suffer severe obesity in Italy.

  5. Overweight and Obesity: Prevalence and Correlates in a Large Clinical Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Hill, Alison P.; Guion, Kimberly; Voltolina, Lisa; Fombonne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and childhood obesity (OBY) are rising public health concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight (OWT) and OBY in a sample of 376 Oregon children with ASD, and to assess correlates of OWT and OBY in this sample. We used descriptive statistics, bivariate, and focused multivariate analyses to…

  6. Prevalence and determinants of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in lifelines : A large Dutch population cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Eline H.; Amini, Marzyeh; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Faber, Klaas Nico; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Blokzijl, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing health issue that develops rather unnoticed with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. We investigated prevalence, determinants and associated metabolic abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the

  7. Defining sarcopenia : The impact of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of sarcopenia in a large middle aged cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A. Y.; Meskers, C. G M; Ling, C. H Y; Narici, M.; Kurrle, S. E.; Cameron, I. D.; Westendorp, R. G J; Maier, A. B.

    Sarcopenia, low muscle mass, is an increasing problem in our ageing society. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies extremely between elderly cohorts ranging from 7% to over 50%. Without consensus on the definition of sarcopenia, a variety of diagnostic criteria are being used. We assessed the degree

  8. Effectiveness of HBV vaccination in infants and prediction of HBV prevalence trend under new vaccination plan: findings of a large-scale investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-gui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a severe public health problem. Investigating its prevalence and trends is essential to prevention. METHODS: To evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination under the 1992 Intervention Program for infants and predicted HBV prevalence trends under the 2011 Program for all ages. We conducted a community-based investigation of 761,544 residents of 12 counties in Zhejiang Province selected according to their location, population density, and economic development. The HBV prevalence trends were predicted by a time-shifting approach. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and alanine amino transferase (ALT were determined. RESULTS: Of the 761,544 persons screened for HBsAg, 54,132 were positive (adjusted carrier rate 6.13%; 9,455 had both elevated ALT and a positive HBsAg test (standardized rate 1.18%. The standardized HBsAg carrier rate for persons aged ≤20 years was 1.51%. Key factors influencing HBV infection were sex, age, family history, drinking, smoking, employment as a migrant worker, and occupation. With the vaccination program implemented in 2011, we predict that by 2020, the HBsAg carrier rate will be 5.27% and that for individuals aged ≤34 years will reach the 2% upper limit of low prevalence according to the WHO criteria, with a standardized rate of 1.86%. CONCLUSIONS: The national HBV vaccination program for infants implemented in 1992 has greatly reduced the prevalence of HBV infection. The 2011 program is likely to reduce HBV infection in Zhejiang Province to a low moderate prevalence, and perinatal transmission is expected to be controlled by 2020.

  9. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  10. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus in a large nationwide working population in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviriego, Jesús; Vázquez, Luis Alberto; Goday, Albert; Cabrera, Martha; García-Margallo, María Teresa; Calvo, Eva

    2016-04-01

    To report the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes, and their association to occupational categories in a representative sample of working population in Spain. A cross-sectional study of workers who attended routine medical check-ups from January 2007 to December 2007. A structured questionnaire was completed, and physical examinations and routine serum biochemical tests were performed. IFG was defined as fasting glucose levels ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dl with no diagnosis of T1DM or T2DM; T1DM was defined as previous diagnosis of T1DM; and T2DM as previous diagnosis of T2DM, treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin or fasting glucose levels ≥126 mg/dl, according to ADA criteria. Of the 371,997 participants (median age 35 [interquartile range 29-44] years), 72.4% were male. Raw prevalence rates (95% CI) of IFG, undiagnosed (UKDM), and previously known type 2 (KDM2) and type 1 (KDM1) diabetes were 10.4% (10.3-10.5%), 1.3% (1.2-1.3%), 1.1% (1.1-1.2%), and 0.3% (0.3-0.3%), respectively. With the exception of KDM1, prevalence of these conditions increased with age and was greater among manual/blue-collar workers (12.1%, 1.5%, 1.3% and 0.3%, respectively) as compared to non-manual/white-collar workers (7.3%, 0.8%, 0.8% and 0.3%, respectively). Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of IFG, UKDM and KDM2 were 13.1%, 2.0% and 2.4%, respectively. In this sample of Spanish working population, impaired glycemic profiles were common. Prevalence rates of IFG and T2DM were high among blue-collar workers (except for T1DM). These data emphasize the need for earlier structured preventive schemes. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  12. Eradication of measles: remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by >90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demanding a >95 % vaccination rate based on two doses to avoid primary vaccine failure as well as the installation of catch-up vaccination programmes to fill immunity gaps and to achieve herd immunity, (3) the implications of sporadic cases of secondary vaccine failure, (4) organisation, acceptance and drawbacks of modern vaccination campaigns, (5) waning public attention to measles, but increasing concerns from vaccine-associated adverse reactions in societies with high socio-economic standards and (6) clinical

  13. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  14. HIV Risk Behaviors in the U.S. Transgender Population: Prevalence and Predictors in a Large Internet Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jamie; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Bockting, Walter O.

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of gender on HIV risk, a sample of the U.S. transgender population (N = 1,229) was recruited via the Internet. HIV risk and prevalence were lower than reported in prior studies of localized, urban samples, but higher than the overall U.S. population. Findings suggest that gender nonconformity alone does not itself result in markedly higher HIV risk. Sex with nontransgender men emerged as the strongest independent predictor of unsafe sex for both male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) participants. These sexual relationships constitute a process that may either affirm or problematize gender identity and sexual orientation, with different emphases for MtFs and FtMs, respectively. PMID:25022491

  15. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  16. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  17. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in lifelines: A large Dutch population cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline H van den Berg

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasing health issue that develops rather unnoticed with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. We investigated prevalence, determinants and associated metabolic abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the largest population-based cohort to date.Biochemical characteristics, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were determined in the Lifelines Cohort Study (N = 167,729, a population-based cohort in the North of the Netherlands. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as Fatty Liver Index (FLI≥60. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, immigrants, missing data to assess FLI and metabolic syndrome, excessive alcohol use, previous-diagnosed hepatitis or cirrhosis and non-fasting blood sampling.Out of 37,496 included participants (median age 44 years, 62.1% female, 8,259 (22.0% had a FLI≥60. Individuals with a FLI≥60 were more often male, older, obese, had higher levels of hemoglobinA1c, fasting glucose, liver enzymes, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein and leucocytes and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all P<0.0001. Participants with a FLI≥60 showed higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (9.3% vs. 1.4%, metabolic syndrome (54.2% vs. 6.2%, impaired renal function (20.1% vs. 8.7% and cardiovascular disease (4.6% vs. 1.6% (all P<0.0001. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that smoking, hemoglobin, leucocytes, c-reactive protein, platelets, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, impaired renal function (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.15-1.41, metabolic syndrome (OR 11.89, 95%CI 11.03-12.82 and its individual components hyperglycemia (OR 2.53, 95%CI 2.34-2.72, hypertension (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.77-2.01 and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 3.44, 95%CI 3.22-3.68 were independently associated with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (all P<0.0001.Twenty

  19. Large-scale testing of women in Copenhagen has not reduced the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H.; Kolmos, H J

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a stable, large-scale enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Chlamydia trachomatis testing situation in Copenhagen, and to estimate the impact of introducing a genomic-based assay with higher sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: Over a five-year study period, 25 305-28 505...... and negative predictive values of the Chlamydia test result, new screening strategies for both men and women in younger age groups will be necessary if chlamydial infections are to be curtailed....

  20. Prevalence and associated comorbidities of restless legs syndrome (RLS): Data from a large population-based door-to-door survey on 19176 adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Rahmani, Arash; Shafieesabet, Mahdiyeh; Soori, Mahshid; Delbari, Ahmad; Motamed, Mohammad Reza; Lökk, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Discrepancies have been reported in the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS) among different ethnic groups and geographic populations. Furthermore, there are disagreements on determinant factors and associated comorbidities of RLS. We aimed to estimate prevalence of RLS and investigate its associated comorbid conditions and risk factors in a large population-based door-to-door survey. Following a multistage random sampling from the households lived in 22 urban districts of Tehran, Iran, 19176 participants with ≥30 years of age were recruited. Trained surveyors filled study checklist consisting of baseline characteristics, risk factors and comorbidity profile and the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria through face-to-face interviews. In total, 1580 individuals were positively screened for RLS resulting in a standardized prevalence rate of 60.0/1000. There was a gradual increase in RLS prevalence by advancing age, however, sex difference disappeared after adjustment. Parkinsonism [adjusted odds' ratio (adj-OR) = 7.4 (95% CI: 5.3-10.4)], peripheral neuropathy [adj-OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.1)], subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) [adj-OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.4)], acting out dreams [adj-OR = 2.8 (95% CI: 2.5-3.2)], hyposmia [adj-OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9)], active smoking [adj-OR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9)] and additional number of cardiometabolic diseases associated with higher risk of RLS [adj-OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.3)]. Our findings showed that neuro-cognitive co-morbidities such as parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, SCI, acting out dreams and hyposmia as well as cardio-metabolic risk factors and diseases were independent determinants of RLS. It is recommended to screen individuals with either these comorbid conditions for RLS or the ones with RLS for the accompanying diseases.

  1. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Ndege

    Full Text Available To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT program in western Kenya.In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children <13 years. Included in this analysis were females aged 13-50 years, from 6 catchment areas (11/08-01/12. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to describe factors associated with HIV prevalence.There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18-34 years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2% were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62% had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5% had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%. HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3% pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49-10.44.Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved.

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancer during cross-sex hormone therapy in a large cohort of trans persons: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, K; Elaut, E; Declercq, E; Heylens, G; De Cuypere, G; Taes, Y; Kaufman, J M; T'Sjoen, G

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the short- and long-term cardiovascular- and cancer-related morbidities during cross-sex hormone therapy in a large sample of trans persons. A specialist center cross-sectional study compared 214 trans women (male-to-female transsexual persons) and 138 trans men (female-to-male trans persons) with an age- and gender-matched control population (1-3 matching). The participants were on cross-sex hormone therapy for an average of 7.4 years. We assessed physical health and possible treatment-related adverse events using questionnaires. Five percent of trans women experienced venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism during hormone therapy. Five of these adverse events occurred during the first year of treatment, while another three occurred during sex reassignment surgery. Trans women experienced more myocardial infarctions than the control women (P=0.001), but a similar proportion compared with control men. The prevalence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) was higher in trans women than in the control men (P=0.03). The rates of myocardial infarction and CVD in trans men were similar to the control male and female subjects. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher in both trans men and women than in their respective controls, whereas the rates of cancer were similar compared with the control men and women. Morbidity rate during cross-sex hormone therapy was relatively low, especially in trans men. We observed a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, CVD, and type 2 diabetes in trans women than in the control population. Morbidity rates in trans men and controls were similar, with the exception of the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Prevalence and associated comorbidities of restless legs syndrome (RLS: Data from a large population-based door-to-door survey on 19176 adults in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad

    Full Text Available Discrepancies have been reported in the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS among different ethnic groups and geographic populations. Furthermore, there are disagreements on determinant factors and associated comorbidities of RLS. We aimed to estimate prevalence of RLS and investigate its associated comorbid conditions and risk factors in a large population-based door-to-door survey.Following a multistage random sampling from the households lived in 22 urban districts of Tehran, Iran, 19176 participants with ≥30 years of age were recruited. Trained surveyors filled study checklist consisting of baseline characteristics, risk factors and comorbidity profile and the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG diagnostic criteria through face-to-face interviews.In total, 1580 individuals were positively screened for RLS resulting in a standardized prevalence rate of 60.0/1000. There was a gradual increase in RLS prevalence by advancing age, however, sex difference disappeared after adjustment. Parkinsonism [adjusted odds' ratio (adj-OR = 7.4 (95% CI: 5.3-10.4], peripheral neuropathy [adj-OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.1], subjective cognitive impairment (SCI [adj-OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.4], acting out dreams [adj-OR = 2.8 (95% CI: 2.5-3.2], hyposmia [adj-OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9], active smoking [adj-OR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.9] and additional number of cardiometabolic diseases associated with higher risk of RLS [adj-OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.3].Our findings showed that neuro-cognitive co-morbidities such as parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, SCI, acting out dreams and hyposmia as well as cardio-metabolic risk factors and diseases were independent determinants of RLS. It is recommended to screen individuals with either these comorbid conditions for RLS or the ones with RLS for the accompanying diseases.

  4. Dysphagia is prevalent in patients with CPEO and single, large-scale deletions in mtDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Hedermann; Løkken, Nicoline; Dahlqvist, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    Background  The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of subjective and objective dysphagia in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) due to single, large-scale deletions (LSDs) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Methods  Sixteen patients with CPEO and single LSDs...... and single LSDs of mtDNA had a prolonged cold-water test, including one with a PEG-tube, who was unable to perform the test, and nine patients reported subjective swallowing problems (56.3%). All mitochondrial myopathy patients in the control group had a normal duration of the cold-water test.  Conclusions......  The study shows that dysphagia is a common problem in patients with CPEO and LSDs of mtDNA. Dysphagia seems to be progressive with age as abnormal swallowing occurred preferentially in persons ≥ 45 years. The study shows that increased awareness of this symptom should be given to address appropriate...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of gout in a large cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease: the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jiaojiao; Kielstein, Jan T; Schultheiss, Ulla T; Sitter, Thomas; Titze, Stephanie I; Schaeffner, Elke S; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Kronenberg, Florian; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Köttgen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Reduced kidney function is a risk factor for hyperuricaemia and gout, but limited information on the burden of gout is available from studies of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We therefore examined the prevalence and correlates of gout in the large prospective observational German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. Data from 5085 CKD patients aged 18-74 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-patients on urate lowering therapy, 47.2% still showed hyperuricaemia. Factors associated with gout were serum urate, lower eGFR, advanced age, male sex, higher body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, higher triglyceride and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, alcohol intake and diuretics use. While lower eGFR categories showed significant associations with gout in multivariable-adjusted models (prevalence ratio 1.46 for eGFR patients with CKD and lower GFR is strongly associated with gout. Pharmacological management of gout in patients with CKD is suboptimal. Prospective follow-up will show whether gout and hyperuricaemia increase the risk of CKD progression and cardiovascular events in the GCKD study. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  7. SeqSIMLA2_exact: simulate multiple disease sites in large pedigrees with given disease status for diseases with low prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Po-Ju; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-02-15

    It is difficult for current simulation tools to simulate sequence data in a pre-specified pedigree structure and pre-specified affection status. Previously, we developed a flexible tool, SeqSIMLA2, for simulating sequence data in either unrelated case-control or family samples with different disease and quantitative trait models. Here we extended the tool to efficiently simulate sequences with multiple disease sites in large pedigrees with a given disease status for each pedigree member, assuming that the disease prevalence is low. SeqSIMLA2_exact is implemented with C++ and is available at http://seqsimla.sourceforge.net. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Prevalence, characterization and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolates in large corvid species of europe and north America between 2010 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecko, N; Čížek, A; Halová, D; Karpíšková, R; Myšková, P; Literák, I

    2015-06-01

    It is well understood that Salmonella is carried by animals and in majority of cases as asymptomatic hosts. Surveillance efforts have focused on the role of agriculture and contamination points along the food chain as the main source of human infection; however, very little attention has been paid to the contribution of wildlife in the dissemination of Salmonella and what effect anthropogenic sources have on the circulation of antibiotic resistant Salmonella serovars in wildlife species. A purposive survey was taken of large corvids roosting yearly between November and March in Europe and North America. Two thousand and seven hundred and seventy-eight corvid faecal specimens from 11 countries were submitted for Salmonella spp. culture testing. Presumptive positive isolates were further serotyped, susceptibility tested and analysed for antibiotic resistance genes. Overall, 1.40% (39/2778) (CI = 1.01, 1.90) of samples were positive for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar followed by S. Infantis, S. Montevideo and S. Typhimurium. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in the proportion of Salmonella recovered in Europe versus North America. The most variability of serovars within a site was in Kansas, USA with five different serovars recovered. European sites were significantly more likely to yield Salmonella resistant to more than one antibiotic (OR 71.5, P American sites, where no resistance was found. Resistance to nalidixic acid, a quinolone, was recovered in nine isolates from four serovars in four different sites across Europe. Large corvids contribute to the transmission and dissemination of Salmonella and resistance genes between human and animal populations and across great distances. This information adds to the knowledge base of zoonotic pathogen prevalence and antibiotic resistance ecology in wild birds. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Prevalence of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Alcohol, Cocaine, Opioid, and Cannabis Use Disorders in a Largely Substance Dependent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Kyle; Rennert, Lior; Lynch, Kevin G.; Farrer, Lindsay; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) will soon replace the DSM-IV, which has existed for nearly two decades. The changes in diagnostic criteria have important implications for research and for the clinical care of individuals with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). METHODS We used the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism to evaluate the lifetime presence of DSM-IV abuse and dependence diagnoses and DSM-5 mild, moderate, or severe SUDs for alcohol, cocaine, opioids, and cannabis in a sample of 7,543 individuals recruited to participate in genetic studies of substance dependence. RESULTS Switches between diagnostic systems consistently resulted in a modestly greater prevalence for DSM-5 SUDs, based largely on the assignment of DSM-5 diagnoses to DSM-IV “diagnostic ophans” (i.e., individuals meeting one or two criteria for dependence and none for abuse, and thus not receiving a DSM-IV SUD diagnosis). The vast majority of these diagnostic switches were attributable to the requirement that only two of 11 criteria be met for a DSM-5 SUD diagnosis. We found evidence to support the omission from DSM-5 of the legal criterion due to its limited diagnostic utility. The addition of craving as a criterion in DSM-5 did not substantially affect the likelihood of an SUD diagnosis. CONCLUSION The greatest advantage of DSM-5 appears to be its ability to capture diagnostic orphans. In this sample, changes reflected in DSM-5 had a minimal impact on the prevalence of SUD diagnoses. PMID:22884164

  10. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachakulla Hari Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs, to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009 and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p Conclusions The absence of control groups is a limitation of this study and does not allow attribution of changes in outcomes and declines in HIV and STI to the Avahan program. However, the large scale implementation, high coverage, intermediate outcomes and association of these outcomes to the Avahan program provide plausible evidence that the declines were likely associated with Avahan. Declining HIV prevalence among the general population in Andhra Pradesh points towards a combined impact of Avahan and government interventions.

  11. Prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of a large European university hospital cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Veronika; Schruckmayer, Guenter; Sam, Ines; Kemmler, Georg; Stauder, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Background Anemia in later life is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly in a well defined hospital cohort. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional, retrospective analysis included all inpatients and outpatients aged ≥64 years with complete blood counts treated at Innsbruck Medical University Hospital between October 1, 2004 and September 29, 2005 (n=19,758, median age 73 years). Results According to World Health Organization criteria, 21.1% of these patients were anemic, ie, 30.7% and 37.0% at 80+ years and 90+ years, respectively. The prevalence of anemia was significantly correlated with advanced age (r=0.21; Panemia was multifactorial, with decreased renal function (glomerular filtration rate anemia subtypes. Cytopenias and morphologic alterations suggestive of underlying myelodysplastic syndromes were found in a substantial proportion of anemic patients, including thrombocytopenia (5.4%), leukopenia (8.26%), and macrocytic alterations (18.4%). Conclusion Anemia was frequently diagnosed in this series of elderly patients. Partly treatable nutritional deficiencies, such as iron or folate deficiency, were identified as possible causes. A complex and heterogeneous interplay of chronic inflammation, functional iron deficiency, and renal impairment was identified in a large proportion of patients. A hitherto undiagnosed myelodysplastic syndrome can be assumed in a relevant proportion of patients. Morphologic classification based on mean corpuscular volume is inadequate from the standpoint of pathogenesis. New parameters are needed to differentiate the multifactorial pathogenesis of anemia in the elderly. PMID:25092968

  12. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 large genomic rearrangements in Tunisian high risk breast/ovarian cancer families: Implications for genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Aouatef; Chabouni-Bouhamed, Habiba; Kharrat, Maher

    2017-01-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA tumor suppressor genes account for a substantial proportion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. However, this contribution is lower than expected. This underestimation can partly be explained by the BRCA alterations missed by using Sanger sequencing methods. Thus, large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for 4-28% of all inherited BRCA mutations. In this study, Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay was used for detection of large rearrangements of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 36 unrelated high-risk breast/ovarian cancer patients negative for BRCA1/2 point mutations. MLPA assay for all exons of both genes and for 1100delC variant of CHEK2 gene were performed. Positive MLPA results were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Two different rearrangements in the BRCA1 gene were identified consisting of exon 5 deletion and exon 20 duplication. MLPA analysis did not reveal any large genomic rearrangements in BRCA2 gene. Overall BRCA1/2 LGRs prevalence among high-risk Tunisian patients was 5.5%. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed MPLA findings. Our results suggest the usefulness of screening for LGRs in BRCA genes in the Tunisian population. To avoid false-negative results, we suggest that MLPA should be used in genetic testing programs. These results are important for guidance counseling and clinical management of Tunisian high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence, Age Profile, and Associated Risk Factors for Hymenolepis nana Infection in a Large Population-Based Study in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez Barreto, Percy M; Gamboa, Ricardo; Santivañez, Saul; O'Neal, Seth E; Muro, Claudio; Lescano, Andrés G; Moyano, Luz-Maria; Gonzálvez, Guillermo; García, Hector H

    2017-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana , the dwarf tapeworm, is a common intestinal infection of children worldwide. We evaluated infection and risk factor data that were previously collected from 14,761 children aged 2-15 years during a large-scale program in northern Peru. We found that 1,124 of 14,761 children (7.61%) had H. nana infection, a likely underestimate given that only a single stool sample was examined by microscopy for diagnosis. The strongest association with infection was lack of adequate water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-2.48) and sanitation infrastructure in the house (aPR 1.94, 95% CI 1.64-2.29). One quarter of those tested did not have a bathroom or latrine at home, which doubled their likelihood of infection. Similarly, one quarter did not have piped public water to the house, which also increased the likelihood of infection. Continued efforts to improve access to basic water and sanitation services will likely reduce the burden of infection in children for this and other intestinal infections.

  14. Prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of a large European university hospital cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach V

    2014-07-01

    .4%, leukopenia (8.26%, and macrocytic alterations (18.4%. Conclusion: Anemia was frequently diagnosed in this series of elderly patients. Partly treatable nutritional deficiencies, such as iron or folate deficiency, were identified as possible causes. A complex and heterogeneous interplay of chronic inflammation, functional iron deficiency, and renal impairment was identified in a large proportion of patients. A hitherto undiagnosed myelodysplastic syndrome can be assumed in a relevant proportion of patients. Morphologic classification based on mean corpuscular volume is inadequate from the standpoint of pathogenesis. New parameters are needed to differentiate the multifactorial pathogenesis of anemia in the elderly.Keywords: anemia, elderly, prevalence, causes, myelodysplastic syndromes

  15. Identification of rare recurrent copy number variants in high-risk autism families and their prevalence in a large ASD population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori Matsunami

    Full Text Available Structural variation is thought to play a major etiological role in the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, and numerous studies documenting the relevance of copy number variants (CNVs in ASD have been published since 2006. To determine if large ASD families harbor high-impact CNVs that may have broader impact in the general ASD population, we used the Affymetrix genome-wide human SNP array 6.0 to identify 153 putative autism-specific CNVs present in 55 individuals with ASD from 9 multiplex ASD pedigrees. To evaluate the actual prevalence of these CNVs as well as 185 CNVs reportedly associated with ASD from published studies many of which are insufficiently powered, we designed a custom Illumina array and used it to interrogate these CNVs in 3,000 ASD cases and 6,000 controls. Additional single nucleotide variants (SNVs on the array identified 25 CNVs that we did not detect in our family studies at the standard SNP array resolution. After molecular validation, our results demonstrated that 15 CNVs identified in high-risk ASD families also were found in two or more ASD cases with odds ratios greater than 2.0, strengthening their support as ASD risk variants. In addition, of the 25 CNVs identified using SNV probes on our custom array, 9 also had odds ratios greater than 2.0, suggesting that these CNVs also are ASD risk variants. Eighteen of the validated CNVs have not been reported previously in individuals with ASD and three have only been observed once. Finally, we confirmed the association of 31 of 185 published ASD-associated CNVs in our dataset with odds ratios greater than 2.0, suggesting they may be of clinical relevance in the evaluation of children with ASDs. Taken together, these data provide strong support for the existence and application of high-impact CNVs in the clinical genetic evaluation of children with ASD.

  16. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  17. Extraction of DNA from Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; McMahon, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of DNA from skeletal remains can be a delicate process. With the advent of improved extraction buffers that provide complete demineralization of the osseous materials, extraction of total genomic DNA from nearly any skeletal element is possible. This chapter describes both traditional organic and more newly developed inorganic extraction methods for fresh and dried skeletal remains.

  18. EDITORIAL MALARIA DIAGNOSIS Malaria remains the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-02

    Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.

  19. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be

  20. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ulrich; Hickson, Ford; Weatherburn, Peter; Schmidt, Axel J

    2012-11-14

    Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM) is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS) were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R(2)=0.70 resp. 0.72). In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling) demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be taken into account. For most countries self-reported EMIS

  1. Peripheral nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: Prevalence, clinical and immunological characteristics, treatment and outcome of a large cohort from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Pilar; Orueta, Ramón; Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Valls-Solé, Josep; Cervera, Ricard; Espinosa, Gerard

    2017-07-01

    Disorders of peripheral nervous system in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (PNS-SLE) are a major cause of morbidity. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of PNS-SLE involvement in a large cohort of SLE patients from a single centre, to characterize such involvement, treatment modalities and outcome, and to identify the possible variables that may be associated with its presence. We performed an observational cross-sectional study that included all SLE patients being followed in our department between March and December 2015 who met at least one of the PNS-SLE case definitions proposed in 1999 by the American College of Rheumatology. Overall, 93 out of 524 (17,7%) patients presented with PNS-SLE syndrome; 90 (96.8%) of them were women with a mean age at PNS-SLE syndrome diagnosis was 44.8±14.1years and the average time from diagnosis of SLE to PNS-SLE diagnosis was 88 (range, 541-400) months. The most frequent manifestation was polyneuropathy (36.6%), followed by non-compression mononeuropathy (23.7%), cranial neuropathy and myasthenia gravis (7.5%, each), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1.1%). The most frequent electrodiagnostic tests (EDX) pattern was axonal degeneration, present in 49 patients that corresponded to 80.3% of the overall EDX patterns. Mixed sensory-motor neuropathy was the most common type of involvement accounted for 56% of cases. Thirty-six out of 90 (40%) received glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressant agents. Overall, global response (complete and/or partial) to treatments was achieved in 77.4% of patients without differences between the types of PNS-SLE involvement. Older age at SLE diagnosis (37.3±14.8 versus 30.8±12; p=0.001) and absence of hematologic involvement as cumulative SLE manifestation (11.8% versus 21.5%; p=0.034) had independent statistical significant associations with PNS-SLE development. The PNS-SLE involvement is not uncommon. Its most frequent manifestation is sensory-motor axonal

  2. Current state of and needs for hepatitis B screening: results of a large screening study in a low-prevalent, metropolitan region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bottero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In low hepatitis B virus (HBV-prevalent countries, most HBV-infected persons are unaware of their status. We aimed to evaluate whether (i previous HBV-testing, (ii physicians decision to screen, and (iii CDC's recommendations identified infected individuals and which risk-factor groups needing testing. METHODS: During a mass, multi-center HBV-screening study from September 2010-August 2011, 3929 participants were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBcAb. Questions on HBV risk-factors and testing practices were asked to participants, while participants' eligibility for HBV-testing was asked to study medical professionals. RESULTS: 85 (2.2% participants were HBsAg-positive, while 659 (16.8% had either resolved HBV infection or isolated anti-HBcAb. When comparing practices, HBV-testing was more likely to occur in HBV-infected participants if Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommendations were used (Sensitivity = 100%, 95%CI: 95.8-100 than physicians' discretion (Sensitivity = 87.1%, 95%CI: 78.0-93.4 or previous HBV-test (Sensitivity = 36.5%, 95%CI: 26.3-47.6 (p<0.0001. Nevertheless, many non-infected individuals would still have been screened using CDC-recommendations (Specificity = 31.1%, 95%CI: 29.6-32.6. Using multivariable logistic regression, HBsAg-positive status was significantly associated with the following: males, originating from high HBV-endemic region, contact with HBV-infected individual, without national healthcare, and intravenous-drug user (IDU. Of these risk-factors, physician's discretion for testing HBV was not significantly associated with participants' geographical origin or IDU. CONCLUSIONS: Missed opportunities of HBV-screening are largely due to underestimating country of origin as a risk-factor. Applying CDC-recommendations could improve HBV-screening, but with the disadvantage of many tests. Further development

  3. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    it has died," said co-author Scott Chapman, also of Cambridge University. "This means we don't have to catch the black holes in the act to witness the big impact they have." This is the first X-ray ghost ever seen after the demise of radio-bright jets. Astronomers have observed extensive X-ray emission with a similar origin, but only from galaxies with radio emission on large scales, signifying continued eruptions. In HDF 130, only a point source is detected in radio images, coinciding with the massive elliptical galaxy seen in its optical image. This radio source indicates the presence of a growing supermassive black hole. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act NASA Joins "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs "This result hints that the X-ray sky should be littered with such ghosts," said co-author Caitlin Casey, also of Cambridge, "especially if black hole eruptions are as common as we think they are in the early Universe." The power contained in the black hole eruption was likely to be considerable, equivalent to about a billion supernovas. The energy is dumped into the surroundings and transports and heats the gas. "Even after the ghost disappears, most of the energy from the black hole's eruption remains", said Fabian. "Because they're so powerful, these eruptions can have profound effects lasting for billions of years." The details of Chandra's data of HDF 130 helped secure its true nature. For example, in X-rays, HDF 130 has a cigar-like shape that extends for some 2.2 million light years. The linear shape of the X-ray source is consistent with the shape of radio jets and not with that of a galaxy cluster, which is expected to be circular. The energy distribution of the X-rays is also consistent with the interpretation of an X-ray ghost. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra

  4. Prevalence and Control of Hypertension in Different Macro-Areas in Italy: Analysis of a Large Database by the General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocci, Giuliano; Nati, Giulio; Cricelli, Claudio; Parretti, Damiano; Lapi, Francesco; Ferrucci, Andrea; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Limited data are available on the impact of hypertension in the different regions or urban areas in Italy. To evaluate hypertension prevalence and control among adult outpatients followed by general practitioners (GPs) in different regions and macro-areas in our Country. We retrospectively analysed data extracted in 2013 from the national GP Health Search-CSD database and stratified into three groups, depending on their own regions (North, Center and South). Hypertension prevalence was estimated within the overall population sample of adult individuals, whereas control was assessed in hypertensive outpatients. Hypertension diagnosis was defined according to International Classification of Diseases 9. Clinic blood pressure (BP) levels were measured according to European guidelines. BP control was defined as BP analysis demonstrates relevant differences in hypertension prevalence and control among different macro-areas and regions in Italy. Such analysis may be useful for promoting strategies aimed at ameliorating hypertension control at local levels.

  5. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  6. Prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria, arterial hypertension, retinopathy and large vessel disease in European type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gall, M A; Rossing, P; Skøtt, P

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria was determined in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, less than 76 years of age, attending a diabetic clinic during 1987. All eligible patients (n = 557) were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample for quantitative albumin analysis. Urine...

  7. Birth prevalence of Robin sequence in the Netherlands from 2000-2010 : A retrospective population-based study in a large Dutch cohort and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paes, Emma C.; van Nunen, Daan P F; Basart, Hanneke; Don Griot, J. Peter W; van Hagen, Johanna M.; van der Horst, Chantal M A M; van den Boogaard, Marie José H; Breugem, Corstiaan C.

    2015-01-01

    The birth prevalence of Robin sequence (RS) is frequently cited to be 1 in 8,500 to 14,000 live births (range: 7,1-11,8 per 100.000), which is based on just a few epidemiological studies. The objective of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge of the epidemiology of RS by determining

  8. Prevalence, clinical correlates and maternal psychopathology of deliberate self-harm in children and early adolescents: results from a large community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Simioni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH in children from low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the prevalence of DSH and its clinical and maternal psychopathological associations in Brazilian children (n=2,508, ages 6-14y in a community-based study. Methods: Participants of the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (HRC and their mothers were assessed in structured interviews. Current (last month and lifetime DSH were estimated, including analysis stratified by age groups. Logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of the children’s clinical diagnoses and maternal psychopathology on DSH prevalence estimates, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of current DSH was 0.8% (children 0.6%, adolescents 1% and lifetime DSH was 1.6% (1.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Current and lifetime DSH were more frequent in children with depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, even in multiple models accounting for demographic variables and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Maternal anxiety disorder was strongly associated with current and lifetime DSH in offspring; whereas current DSH, specifically in young children, was associated with maternal mood disorder. Conclusion: Diagnoses of depression, ADHD and ODD were consistently associated with DSH, as was having a mother with anxiety disorder.

  9. Mediterranean dietary pattern and prevalence and incidence of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: results from a large community-based prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienks, J.; Dobson, A.; Mishra, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between dietary patterns and prevalence and incidence 3 years later of depressive symptoms using data from the mid-aged cohort in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants (aged 50–55 years) completed a

  10. The EPDS-Lifetime: assessment of lifetime prevalence and risk factors for perinatal depression in a large cohort of depressed women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltzer-Brody, S.; Boschloo, L.; Jones, I.; Sullivan, P.F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal depression (PND) is a common complication of pregnancy and postpartum associated with significant morbidity. We had three goals: (1) to explore the performance of a new lifetime version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-Lifetime) to assess lifetime prevalence of PND; (2) to

  11. Twelve-month prevalence and treatment gap for common mental disorders: Findings from a large-scale epidemiological survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Rajesh; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Chandrasekaran, R; Chaudhury, Pranit K; Deswal, Balbir S; Lenin Singh, R K; Malhotra, Savita; Nizamie, S Haque; Panchal, Bharat N; Sudhakar, T P; Trivedi, J K; Varghese, Mathew; Prasad, Jagdish; Chatterji, Somnath

    2017-01-01

    Common mental disorders, such as mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, are significant contributors to disability globally, including India. Available research is, however, limited by methodological issues and heterogeneities. The present paper focuses on the 12-month prevalence and 12-month treatment for anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in India. As part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative, in India, the study was conducted at eleven sites. However, the current study focuses on the household sample of 24,371 adults (≥18 years) of eight districts of different states, covering rural and urban areas. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face using the WMH Composite International Diagnostic Interview after translation and country-specific adaptations. Diagnoses were generated as per the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th edition, Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Nearly 49.3% of the sample included males. The 12-month prevalence of common mental disorders was 5.52% - anxiety disorders (3.41%), mood disorders (1.44%), and substance use disorders (1.18%). Females had a relatively higher prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders, and lower prevalence of substance use disorders than males. The 12-month treatment for people with common mental disorders was 5.09% (range 1.66%-11.55% for individual disorders). The survey revealed a huge treatment gap of 95%, with only 5 out of 100 individuals with common mental disorders receiving any treatment over the past year. The survey provides valuable data to understand the mental health needs and treatment gaps in the Indian population. Despite the 12-month prevalence study being restricted to selected mental disorders, these estimates are likely to be conservative due to under-reporting or inadequate detection due to cultural factors.

  12. Exploring DSM-5 ADHD criteria beyond young adulthood: phenomenology, psychometric properties and prevalence in a large three-decade birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, E S; Bau, C H D; Salum, G A; Horta, B L; Quevedo, L; Barros, F C; Pinheiro, R T; Kieling, C; Rohde, L A; Grevet, E H

    2017-03-01

    There are still uncertainties on the psychometric validity of the DSM-5 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) criteria for its use in the adult population. We aim to describe the adult ADHD phenotype, to test the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 ADHD criteria, and to calculate the resulting prevalence in a population-based sample in their thirties. A cross-sectional evaluation using the DSM-5 ADHD criteria was carried out in 3574 individuals from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort. Through receiver operator curve, latent and regression analyses, we obtained parameters on construct and discriminant validity. Still, prevalence rates were calculated for different sets of criteria. The latent analysis suggested that the adult ADHD phenotype is constituted mainly by inattentive symptoms. Also, inattention symptoms were the symptoms most associated with impairment. The best cut-off for diagnosis was four symptoms, but sensitivity and specificity for this cut-off was low. ADHD prevalence rates were 2.1% for DSM-5 ADHD criteria and 5.8% for ADHD disregarding age-of-onset criterion. The bi-dimensional ADHD structure proposed by the DSM demonstrated both construct and discriminant validity problems when used in the adult population, since inattention is a much more relevant feature in the adult phenotype. The use of the DSM-5 criteria results in a higher prevalence of ADHD when compared to those obtained by DSM-IV, and prevalence would increase almost threefold when considering current ADHD syndrome. These findings suggest a need for further refinement of the criteria for its use in the adult population.

  13. Low Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among HIV-Positive Patients: Data From a Large-Scale Cohort Study in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ozlem Altuntas; Yemisen, Mucahit; Karaosmanoglu, Hayat Kumbasar; Sargin, Fatma; Gunduz, Alper; Ceylan, Bahadir; Mete, Bilgul; Ozgunes, Nail; Sevgi, Dilek Yildiz; Ozaras, Resat; Tabak, Fehmi

    2014-08-01

    Rate of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies in different countries. This may be attributable to common transmission routes as well as social, economic, and cultural factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of HCV infection among HIV-positive patients in Istanbul, Turkey. Since January 2006 to November 2013, 949 HIV-positive patients that were enrolled in this study by ACTHIV-IST (Action Against HIV in Istanbul) Study Group, which consists of five centers to follow up HIV-positive patients in Istanbul. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected retrospectively from medical records and were transferred to an HIV database system. Among 949 patients, 84% were men and the mean age was 37.92 ± 11.54 years (range, 17-79). The most frequent route of transmission was heterosexual intercourse (48.8%), followed by men having sex with men (30.5%). Only nine patients (0.9%) had history of injection drug use (IDU). The prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection was 0.9% (9:949). The IDU rate was 44.4% (4:9) in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection (three of them were not Turkish citizens), whereas this rate was only 0.6% (5:881) in patients with only HIV infection (P < 0.01). Genotypes 1b, 2a/2c, and 3 were determined in five, one, and two patients, respectively. Genotype could not be determined in one patient. History of residence in a foreign country (P < 0.01) and imprisonment (P < 0.01) were also considered as risk factors in terms of HIV/HCV coinfection. Prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection is considerably low in Turkey. The extremely rare prevalence of IDU might have a role in this low prevalence.

  14. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  15. Essential Qualities of Math Teaching Remain Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    According to a new federal report, the qualities of an effective mathematics teacher remain frustratingly elusive. The report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel does not show what college math content and coursework are most essential for teachers. While the report offered numerous conclusions about math curriculum, cognition, and…

  16. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  17. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  18. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  19. Forensic dentistry: 1. Identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A

    2007-12-01

    For many forensic dentists the identification of found human remains will comprise the majority of their case work. However, there is rarely a typical dental identification. The resilience of teeth and their supporting tissues to peri- and post-mortem assaults provides a wealth of information for those interested in the identity of the deceased. Chemical attack, burning, burial, submersion, and even severe head and neck trauma are all withstood by the dentition to an extent where identification is possible. The lack of a tentative identification or failure to locate dental or similar ante-mortem records is a more common reason for an odontological investigation to fail. The purpose of this review is to describe the techniques employed by forensic dentists to identify human remains and also to provide details of some of the novel developments within this area.

  20. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  1. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  2. Assessing the prevalence of non-medical prescription opioid use in the Canadian general adult population: evidence of large variation depending on survey questions used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shield Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morbidity and mortality related to Prescription Opioid Analgesics (POAs have been rising sharply in North America. Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use (NMPOU in the general population is a key indicator of POA-related harm, yet the role of question item design for best NMPOU prevalence estimates in general population surveys is unclear, and existing NMPOU survey data for Canada are limited. Methods We tested the impact of different NMPOU question items by comparing an item in the 2008 and 2009 (N = 2,017 samples of the CAMH Monitor surveys – an Ontario adult general population survey – with a newly developed item used in the 2010 (N = 2,015 samples of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH Monitor surveys. To control for a potential difference in the population demographics between surveys, we adjusted for gender, age, region, income, prescription opioid use, cigarette smoking, weekly binge drinking, cannabis use in the past three months, and psychological distress in our analyses. Results The prevalence of NMPOU as measured by the 2008 and 2009 CAMH monitor (2.0% [95% CI: 1.2% to 2.8%] was significantly different when compared to the prevalence of NMPOU as measured by the 2010 CAMH monitor (7.7% [95% CI: 6.3% to 9.2%] (p  Conclusion It is highly unlikely that the extensive NMPOU prevalence differences observed from the different survey items reflect an actual increase of NMPOU or changes in NMPOU determinants, but rather point to measurement effects. It appears that we currently do not have accurate estimates of NMPOU in the Canadian general population, even though these estimates are needed to guide and implement targeted interventions. Given the current substantial morbidity and mortality impact of NMPOU, there is an urgent need to systematically develop, validate and standardize NMPOU items for future general population surveys in Canada.

  3. Alarmingly high prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension in North India-results from a large cross-sectional STEPS survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    Full Text Available The study was primarily aimed at estimating the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension and the risk factors of hypertension in the North Indian state of Punjab. It also aimed at assessing the magnitude of undiagnosed cases of hypertension in the community and ascertaining the blood pressure control status of those on treatment.A non-communicable disease risk factor survey (based on WHO-STEPS approach was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals. The study subjects were administered the WHO STEPS-questionnaire and also underwent anthropometric and blood pressure measurements.Overall prevalence of HTN among the study participants was found out to be 40.1% (95% CI: 38.8-41.5% whereas prevalence of pre-hypertension, isolated diastolic and isolated systolic hypertension were 40.8% (39.5-42.2%, 9.2% (8.4-10.0% and 6.5% (5.9-7.2% respectively. Age group (45-69 years, male gender, social group, marital status, alcohol use, obesity and salt intake (> = 5 gms/day were the risk factors significantly associated with HTN. Among all persons with HTN, only 30.1% were known case of HTN or on treatment, among whom nearly 61% had controlled blood pressure. Patients with uncontrolled BP were more frequently male, obese patients, with sedentary lifestyle and patients with diabetes.The study reported alarmingly high prevalence of hypertension, especially of undiagnosed or untreated cases amongst the adult population, a significant proportion of whom have uncontrolled blood pressure levels. This indicates the need for systematic screening and awareness program to identify the undiagnosed cases in the community and offer early treatment and regular follow up.

  4. Combat and peacekeeping operations in relation to prevalence of mental disorders and perceived need for mental health care: findings from a large representative sample of military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Cox, Brian J; Afifi, Tracie O; Stein, Murray B; Belik, Shay-Lee; Meadows, Graham; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2007-07-01

    Although military personnel are trained for combat and peacekeeping operations, accumulating evidence indicates that deployment-related exposure to traumatic events is associated with mental health problems and mental health service use. To examine the relationships between combat and peacekeeping operations and the prevalence of mental disorders, self-perceived need for mental health care, mental health service use, and suicidality. Cross-sectional, population-based survey. Canadian military. A total of 8441 currently active military personnel (aged 16-54 years). The DSM-IV mental disorders (major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and alcohol dependence) were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a fully structured lay-administered psychiatric interview. The survey included validated measures of self-perceived need for mental health treatment, mental health service use, and suicidal ideation. Lifetime exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations and witnessing atrocities or massacres (ie, mutilated bodies or mass killings) were assessed. The prevalences of any past-year mental disorder assessed in the survey and self-perceived need for care were 14.9% and 23.2%, respectively. Most individuals meeting the criteria for a mental disorder diagnosis did not use any mental health services. Deployment to combat operations and witnessing atrocities were associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders and perceived need for care. After adjusting for the effects of exposure to combat and witnessing atrocities, deployment to peacekeeping operations was not associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders. This is the first study to use a representative sample of active military personnel to examine the relationship between deployment-related experiences and mental health problems. It provides

  5. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance S. Ballester

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973 were linked to state taxes (n = 41, state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily. There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001 and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001. Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  6. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in men with urethritis in a large public hospital in Brussels, Belgium: An observational, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Agnès; Hallin, Marie; Crucitti, Tania; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) is a cause of urethritis. While resistance to azithromycin is increasing, routine detection of MG is not performed in Belgium, where its prevalence is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of MG in men with urethritis. An "in-house" amplification assay detecting MG was performed on urine of men with complaints of urethritis who consulted the emergency unit or the Sexually Transmitted Infection clinic of our public hospital in Brussels. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) were tested on the same sample. A total of 187 men were tested. Prevalence of MG was 9% (95% Confidence Interval: 5 to 13.2%). CT was detected in 20%, NG in 22% and 56% of samples were negative for these three pathogens. Neither age, ethnic origin, sexual orientation nor HIV infection were associated with MG urethritis. M. genitalium was identified in 9% of men with complaints of urethritis indicating that amplification assay detecting MG should be implemented in routine testing for those patients.

  7. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001-2011, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S; Auchincloss, Amy H; Robinson, Lucy F; Mayne, Stephanie L

    2017-03-20

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001-2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores ( n = 2973) were linked to state taxes ( n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  8. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Robinson, Lucy F.; Mayne, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered. PMID:28335533

  9. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for COPD in greenhouse farmers: a large, cross-sectional survey of 5,880 farmers from northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuo Liu,1 Yangang Ren,1 Deliang Wen,1 Yu Chen,2 Donghong Chen,1 Liyun Li,3 Xuhua Zhang,1 Yibing Zhang,4 Shuang Fu,5 Zhenhua Li,3 Shuyue Xia,6 Dongliang Wang,7 Hong Chen,8 Jian Zhao,9 Xiaoge Wang1 1The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, 2The Second Affiliated Hospital, 3The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, 4The Shenyang Military General Hospital, Shenyang, 5The General Hospital of Fushun Mining Bureau, Fushun, 6Fengtian Hospital, Shenyang Medical College, 7202nd Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Shenyang, 8The First People’s Hospital of Kazuo, Chaoyang, 9205th Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Jinzhou, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is one of the most common chronic diseases, and more and more farmers who were frequently exposed to greenhouse environments were diagnosed with COPD. However, little information is available on the prevalence of COPD among the greenhouse farmers. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of COPD and investigate the potential risk factors for COPD among the Chinese greenhouse farmers.Methods: Cross-sectional studies involving a sample of greenhouse farmers living in northeast China were performed via stratified-cluster-random sampling. All subjects were interviewed using a uniform questionnaire and underwent pulmonary function tests between 2006 and 2009, based on the diagnostic criteria of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the risk factors for COPD.Results: Of the 5,880 greenhouse farmers from northeast China who were originally selected for this study, 5,420 questionnaires were completed. The overall prevalence of COPD in greenhouse farmers was 17.5%. The COPD prevalence was significantly higher in elderly subjects (≥50 years, current smokers, in those with lower body mass index (≤18.5 kg/m2 and less education, in those who were exposed to mushroom, flowers and

  11. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scalese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  13. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  14. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  15. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carma Karam

    Full Text Available Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs changes over the years in an untreated population-based study.Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated.The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002 and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001. The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001 and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113. The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001.Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population.

  16. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  17. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  18. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  19. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  20. Prevalence and clinical implications of epstein-barr virus infection in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ok, Chi Young; Li, Ling; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV(+)) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is a variant of DLBCL with worse outcome that occurs most often in East-Asian countries and is uncommon in the Western hemisphere. We studied the largest cohort of EBV(+) DLBCL, independent of age...

  1. Recovery of human remains after shark attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; James, Ross A; Heath, Karen J

    2006-09-01

    Two cases of fatal shark attack are reported where the only tissues recovered were fragments of lung. Case 1: An 18-year-old male who was in the sea behind a boat was observed by friends to be taken by a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias). The shark dragged him under the water and then, with a second shark, dismembered the body. Witnesses noted a large amount of blood and unrecognizable body parts coming to the surface. The only tissues recovered despite an intensive beach and sea search were 2 fragments of lung. Case 2: A 19-year-old male was attacked by a great white shark while diving. A witness saw the shark swim away with the victim's body in its mouth. Again, despite intensive beach and sea searches, the only tissue recovered was a single piece of lung, along with pieces of wetsuit and diving equipment. These cases indicate that the only tissue to escape being consumed or lost in fatal shark attacks, where there is a significant attack with dismemberment and disruption of the integrity of the body, may be lung. The buoyancy of aerated pulmonary tissue ensures that it rises quickly to the surface, where it may be recovered by searchers soon after the attack. Aeration of the lung would be in keeping with death from trauma rather than from drowning and may be a useful marker in unwitnessed deaths to separate ante- from postmortem injury, using only relatively small amounts of tissues. Early organ recovery enhances the identification of human tissues as the extent of morphologic alterations by putrefactive processes and sea scavengers will have been minimized. DNA testing is also possible on such recovered fragments, enabling confirmation of the identity of the victim.

  2. Resistance remains a problem in treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Martin; Ehret, Robert; Wienbreyer, Andreas; Walter, Hauke; Berg, Thomas; Baumgarten, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Proven resistance against HIV drugs, either by phenotyping or genotyping is a rare event in clinical trials. The overall assumption of drug resistance disappearing is additionally driven by the recommendations to screen for transmitted drug resistance, leading to large numbers of examinations with relatively low rates of resistance. Goal of our analysis was to assess if drug resistance in treatment failure is also decreasing outside of clinical trials. The MIB database at timepoint of analysis consists of data from 2876 HIV infected patients. Besides various laboratory parameters, clinical data and treatment history is included. HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences were analyzed using the HIV-GRADE drug resistance algorithm. As in only a small number of patients genotypic resistance testing for integrase inhibitors was performed, mainly due to reimbursement reasons, it was assumed that failing treatment on a previous integrase inhibitor containing regimen is equate to resistance. Of the 2876 patients in the database, 220 had a treatment change due to treatment failure between 2009 and 2012, a genotypic resistance testing at an appropriate timepoint of maximum four weeks before treatment change and a treatment duration of at least six months before treatment failure. In 2009, 61% of patients showed no drug resistance while 39% showed resistance against one or more drug classes (two or more drug classes: 19.5%; three or more drug classes: 2.4%, four drug classes 2.4%). In 2012, no resistance was found in 52% of patients while resistance against three or more drug classes was found in nearly 14% of patients (one or more: 48%; two or more 23%; four classes: 4.5%). Treatment failure with viral load sufficiently high for drug resistance testing was not frequently observed in our database. Nevertheless, treatment failure was often associated with drug resistance against at least one drug class. With more use of the newer drug classes, resistance against

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of monochorionic diamniotic twinning after assisted reproduction: A six-year experience base on a large cohort of pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Wei, Zhao-Lian; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xue; He, Xiao-Jin; Wu, Huan; Zhou, Ping; Cao, Yun-Xia

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the incidence and risk factors for monochorionic diamniotic(MC-DA) twinning after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Retrospective population-based study. The study was conducted in China; Department of Reproductive Medicine Center at The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University. A cohort of 8860 clinical pregnancies after embryo transfer (ET) carried out in our center between 2011 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed for the incidence of MC-DA twinning. Logistic regression was used to model the effect on the incidence of MC-DA twinning after ART. Different clinical data (maternal age) and laboratory procedures (type of ET (fresh versus frozen), insemination (IVF or ICSI)), embryo stage at time of ET (cleavage or blastocyst)) on the incidence of MC-DA twinning were evaluated. Monochorionic-diamniotic pregnancies were identified when more than one fetal poles was visualized in one gestational sac via trans-vaginal ultrasound at early first-trimester (7 to 8 weeks). The overall MC-DA twinning rate was 2.55% (226/8860). Eighty one MC-DA twinnings occurred in the fresh cycles and 145 in the frozen cycles (2.67% vs. 2.49%). MC-DA twinning incidence showed no significant difference whether ICSI was performed or not (2.79% vs. 2.44%). The MZT that resulted from single embryo transfer (SET) cycles (1.99%) was slightly lower than multiple embryo transfer cycles (2.61%),but with non-significance. However, women women ≥35 years old (1.16%). Blastocyst transfer was associated with a significantly increase in MC-DA twinning incidence than cleavage-stage embryos transfer (2.79% VS 2.02%, P = 0.008). In the results of logistic regression analysis, blastocyst transfer is a major risk factor of MZT in the fresh cycles (P = 0.044), while maternal age plays a more important role in the frozen cycles (P = 0.004). There is an elevated prevalence of MC-DA twinning after ART. Both maternal age and blastocyst transfer are risk factors of monozygotic

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of monochorionic diamniotic twinning after assisted reproduction: A six-year experience base on a large cohort of pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Song

    Full Text Available To characterize the incidence and risk factors for monochorionic diamniotic(MC-DA twinning after assisted reproductive technologies (ART.Retrospective population-based study.The study was conducted in China; Department of Reproductive Medicine Center at The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University.A cohort of 8860 clinical pregnancies after embryo transfer (ET carried out in our center between 2011 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed for the incidence of MC-DA twinning.Logistic regression was used to model the effect on the incidence of MC-DA twinning after ART. Different clinical data (maternal age and laboratory procedures (type of ET (fresh versus frozen, insemination (IVF or ICSI, embryo stage at time of ET (cleavage or blastocyst on the incidence of MC-DA twinning were evaluated.Monochorionic-diamniotic pregnancies were identified when more than one fetal poles was visualized in one gestational sac via trans-vaginal ultrasound at early first-trimester (7 to 8 weeks.The overall MC-DA twinning rate was 2.55% (226/8860. Eighty one MC-DA twinnings occurred in the fresh cycles and 145 in the frozen cycles (2.67% vs. 2.49%. MC-DA twinning incidence showed no significant difference whether ICSI was performed or not (2.79% vs. 2.44%. The MZT that resulted from single embryo transfer (SET cycles (1.99% was slightly lower than multiple embryo transfer cycles (2.61%,but with non-significance. However, women <35 years displayed a significant higher rate (2.81% than women ≥35 years old (1.16%. Blastocyst transfer was associated with a significantly increase in MC-DA twinning incidence than cleavage-stage embryos transfer (2.79% VS 2.02%, P = 0.008. In the results of logistic regression analysis, blastocyst transfer is a major risk factor of MZT in the fresh cycles (P = 0.044, while maternal age plays a more important role in the frozen cycles (P = 0.004.There is an elevated prevalence of MC-DA twinning after ART. Both maternal age and

  5. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  6. Middle Paleolithic and Uluzzian human remains from Fumane Cave, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Bailey, Shara E; Peresani, Marco; Mannino, Marcello A; Romandini, Matteo; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The site of Fumane Cave (western Lessini Mountains, Italy) contains a stratigraphic sequence spanning the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic. During excavations from 1989 to 2011, four human teeth were unearthed from the Mousterian (Fumane 1, 4, 5) and Uluzzian (Fumane 6) levels of the cave. In this contribution, we provide the first morphological description and morphometric analysis of the dental remains. All of the human remains, except for Fumane 6, are deciduous teeth. Based on metric data (crown and cervical outline analysis, and lateral enamel thickness) and non-metric dental traits (e.g., mid-trigonid crest), Fumane 1 (lower left second deciduous molar) clearly belongs to a Neandertal. For Fumane 4 (upper right central deciduous incisor), the taxonomic attribution is difficult due to heavy incisal wear. Some morphological features observed in Fumane 5 (lower right lateral deciduous incisor), coupled with the large size of the tooth, support Neandertal affinity. Fumane 6, a fragment of a permanent molar, does not show any morphological features useful for taxonomic discrimination. The human teeth from Fumane Cave increase the sample of Italian fossil remains, and emphasize the need to develop new methods to extract meaningful taxonomic information from deciduous and worn teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  8. Fossil human remains from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Quam, Rolf; Carretero, José Miguel; Barciela González, Virginia; Blasco, Ruth; Cuartero, Felipe; Sañudo, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Systematic excavations carried out since 1989 at Bolomor Cave have led to the recovery of four Pleistocene human fossil remains, consisting of a fibular fragment, two isolated teeth, and a nearly complete adult parietal bone. All of these specimens date to the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene (MIS 7-5e). The fibular fragment shows thick cortical bone, an archaic feature found in non-modern (i.e. non-Homo sapiens) members of the genus Homo. Among the dental remains, the lack of a midtrigonid crest in the M(1) represents a departure from the morphology reported for the majority of Neandertal specimens, while the large dimensions and pronounced shoveling of the marginal ridges in the C(1) are similar to other European Middle and late Pleistocene fossils. The parietal bone is very thick, with dimensions that generally fall above Neandertal fossils and resemble more closely the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca (SH) adult specimens. Based on the presence of archaic features, all the fossils from Bolomor are attributed to the Neandertal evolutionary lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  10. Dentognathic remains of an Afropithecus individual from Kalodirr, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossie, James B; MacLatchy, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We describe here the well-preserved dentognathic remains of an Afropithecus individual from the early Miocene site of Kalodirr in northern Kenya. The specimen includes a nearly complete dentition in which most of the crowns are undamaged and unworn. The new information gleaned from this specimen adds to our knowledge of this genus in several ways. Afropithecus exhibits an atypical pattern of canine dimorphism, and is probably more easily sexed by the pattern of variation in its upper premolars. Both phenomena are likely related to the modification of its antemolar dentition for the purpose of sclerocarp harvesting. The new fossils clarify the role in this adaptation of the premolars, which appear specialized for initiating and propagating cracks in large food items bearing protective coats. Comparison with other Miocene apes suggests that the closest known relative of Afropithecus is Nacholapithecus, to which Equatorius is more distantly related. Morotopithecus shares some primitive traits with Afropithecus, but lacks the derived features shared by the latter and Nacholapithecus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  12. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis, classification...

  13. Determining postmortem interval using glycoproteinous adhesion deposits by Balanus improvisus on human skeletal and dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytheway, Joan A; Pustilnik, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    An anthropological analysis was conducted on skeletal and dental remains brought to the Galveston County Medical Examiner's office. The skeletal remains were dry, fragmented, and absent of typical fluvial characteristics. During microscopic examination, semitransparent, circular objects were discovered on the dentition, the mandible, tibial plateau, and distal femur. The objects were glycoproteinous adhesions deposited by the acorn barnacle, Balanus improvisus. B. improvisus is an intertidal barnacle found in estuaries in Galveston Bay. Basal diameter of the adhesions on the dentition were significantly smaller than those found on the postcranial bones (p = 0.010), indicating two consecutive cohorts adhered to the bone and dentition. As settlement typically occurs once a year, this would indicate that the remains were in the fluvial environment for at least 375-410 days. It is important in geographic areas that have prevalent fluvial environments that human remains, particularly dentition, are microscopically examined for marine life evidence. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of occult hepatitis B virus among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Significance of hepatitis B core antibodies screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbedewy, T.A.; Elashtokhy, H.A.; Rabee, E.S.; Kheder, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA in the liver and/or serum, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Anti-HBc is the most sensitive marker of previous HBV. HBV reactivation in patients under immunosuppressive treatment is life-threatening, occurring in both overt and occult HBV especially in hematological malignancies. Aim of the work: To evaluate the prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of OBI among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and to determine the significance of anti-HBc screening among this group of patients before receiving chemotherapy. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 72 DLBCL patients negative for HBsAg, HBsAb and hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV). Patients were subjected to investigations including anti-HBc. All patients underwent alanine transaminase (ALT) monitoring before each cycle of chemotherapy and monthly for 12 months after the end of chemotherapy. Patients with suspected OBI were tested for HBV-DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Anti-HBc was detected in 10 of 72 HBsAg negative sera (13.89%) (95% confidence interval 6.9-22.2%). Five of the 10 anti-HBc positive patients in this study had OBI reactivation. Conclusion: The study concluded that anti-HBc screening is mandatory before chemotherapy. HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients should be closely observed for signs of HBV reactivation through the regular monitoring of ALT. Prophylaxis lamivudine is recommended for anti-HBc positive patients before chemotherapy.

  15. Large Nc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E.

    2009-12-01

    The 1/Nc expansion of QCD with Nc = 3 has been successful in explaining a wide variety of QCD phenomenology. Here I focus on the contracted spin-flavor symmetry of baryons in the large-Nc limit and deviations from spin-flavor symmetry due to corrections suppressed by powers of 1/Nc. Baryon masses provide an important example of the 1/Nc expansion, and successful predictions of masses of heavy-quark baryons continue to be tested by experiment. The ground state charmed baryon masses have all been measured, and five of the eight ground state bottom baryon masses have been found. Results of the 1/Nc expansion can aid in the discovery of the remaining bottom baryons. The brand new measurement of the Ωb- mass by the CDF collaboration conflicts with the original D0 discovery value and is in excellent agreement with the prediction of the 1/Nc expansion.

  16. Large Nc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E.

    2009-01-01

    The 1/N c expansion of QCD with N c = 3 has been successful in explaining a wide variety of QCD phenomenology. Here I focus on the contracted spin-flavor symmetry of baryons in the large-N c limit and deviations from spin-flavor symmetry due to corrections suppressed by powers of 1/N c . Baryon masses provide an important example of the 1/N c expansion, and successful predictions of masses of heavy-quark baryons continue to be tested by experiment. The ground state charmed baryon masses have all been measured, and five of the eight ground state bottom baryon masses have been found. Results of the 1/N c expansion can aid in the discovery of the remaining bottom baryons. The brand new measurement of the Ω b - mass by the CDF collaboration conflicts with the original D0 discovery value and is in excellent agreement with the prediction of the 1/N c expansion.

  17. Bird remains from the Maastrichtian type area (Late Cretaceous)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Schulp, A. S.; Jagt, J. W M

    2008-01-01

    Remains of Late Cretaceous birds are rare, which is especially true for Europe and the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium) in particular. In the present paper, we record new remains (isolated tarsometatarsus and radius) that document the presence of both

  18. Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... prevalence rate from age < 20 to the age group 50-59 year-olds. High BP prevalence rates remained high when overweight and hyperglycaemia prevalence rates decreased from the age of 60. Prevalence rate relationships between age, obesity, total high BP and hyperglycaemia for females are indicated ...

  19. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  20. Micro-distribution and mechanical characteristics analysis of remaining oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the water drive reservoir enters extra high water cut stage (greater than 80%, remaining oil distribution becomes increasingly dispersed. Research on micro residual oil in pore appears particularly important for reservoir development at extra high water cut stage. Oil occurrence characteristics recognition helps to understand the distribution of remaining oil and the mechanical characteristics of oil is the guide for tapping the remaining oil. On the basis of pore scale oil–water two phase flow experiments, micro distribution of remaining oil is divided into four occurrence states in accordance with oil features at different stage of water flooding, the flake of remaining oil, oil column, oil droplet and oil film. A quantitative characterization method of remaining oil occurrence states is established. By using micro numerical simulation method, change rules of four occurrence states of remaining oil during the process of water displacement and the mechanical characteristics of different occurrence state of remaining oil are analyzed. Results show that the continuous oil phase gradually transforms to discontinuous phase and even to dispersed phases during the water flooding process. At extra high water cut stage, most of remaining oil are dispersed oil columns, oil droplets and oil films, which are the main target of remaining oil to be tapped. By changing water flow direction or increasing the displacement pressure gradient, the surface adsorption force acting on oil columns are overcome, and then the oil columns begin to move and finally to be produced out. Oil droplets in pore-throat center are scoured and carried out by water as the increase of the injection volume, while the oil droplets in blind ends and the oil films are extracted out by adding chemicals to reduce the interfacial tension, so as to enhance oil recovery. For water flooding reservoir, the corresponding tapping measures for four types of oil occurrence states brought

  1. Method for recovering elemental silicon from cutting remains.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulset, Torgeir; Julrud, Stein; Cassayre, Laurent; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Taxil, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for recovering elemental silicon cutting remains containing silicon particles, wherein the method comprises manufacturing solid anodes from the cutting remains, arranging one or more manufactured anode (s) in an electrolytic cell with a molten salt electrolyte and one or more cathode (s), and applying a potential difference between the one or more anode (s) and cathode (s) to obtain an oxidation of metallic silicon in the one or more anode (s), tran...

  2. Farmer's lung in Ireland (1983-1996) remains at a constant level.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, D S

    2012-02-03

    A prospective study was undertaken by the Departments of Respiratory Medicine and Medical Microbiology at the Cork University Hospital, a. to investigate the epidemiology of Farmer\\'s Lung (F.L.) in the Republic of Ireland (pop. 3.5 million), with special reference to the South Western Region of this country (pop. 536,000) and b. to assess any relationship between the prevalence\\/incidence of F.L. with climatic factors in South West Ireland, between 1983 and 1996. F.L. incidence remained constant throughout the 13 yrs studied both on a national and a regional basis. A significant relationship was also found between total rainfall each summer and F.L. incidence and prevalence over the following yr (p < 0.005) in South-West Ireland. The persistence of F.L. in Ireland at a constant level suggests that farmers\\' working environment and farm practices need to be improved.

  3. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth loss than did other groups in Korean adults. Participants had more anterior and premolar teeth on mandible, but they had more molars on maxilla. In addition, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. PMID

  4. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased prevalence of hypertension in haemophilia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Putte, Dietje E. Fransen; Fischer, Kathelijn; Makris, Michael; Tait, R. Campbell; Collins, Peter W.; Meijer, Karina; Roosendaal, Goris; Chowdary, Pratima; Schutgens, Roger E. G.; Mauser-Bunschoten, Eveline P.

    2012-01-01

    An increased prevalence of hypertension is reported in haemophilia patients, but data from large, unbiased studies are lacking. The aim of our study was to cross-sectionally assess the prevalence of hypertension in a large cohort of 701 haemophilia patients. Blood pressure (BP) measurements

  6. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  7. The Big Boom Is Over, but Growth Remains Strong and Inflation Calms Down

    OpenAIRE

    Vasily Astrov; Vladimir Gligorov; Peter Havlik; Mario Holzner; Gabor Hunya; Sebastian Leitner; Zdenek Lukas; Anton Mihailov; Olga Pindyuk; Leon Podkaminer; Josef Pöschl; Waltraut Urban; Hermine Vidovic

    2008-01-01

    After a period of exceptionally high growth in the whole region of Central, East and Southeast Europe in the past two years, there has been some slowdown in GDP growth. Nevertheless growth remains largely robust. In particular the new member states of the EU (NMS) appear to be largely decoupled from negative global impacts, experiencing only a moderate slowdown in growth, except for the Baltics. The NMS feel, of course, the effects of external price or supply shocks. These effects should howe...

  8. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... in Greenland either fossil or extant. The fossil fauna includes the weevil Rutidosoma globulus which is at present extremely rare in Greenland. Its rarity might indicate that it is a recent immigrant, but the fossil finds provide a minimum date for its arrival at around 5840 cal. years B. P. Other remains...

  9. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  10. Ziegler–Natta Polymerization and the Remaining Challenges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1954. In this article, I will briefly explain this reaction and how it marked the beginning of a material that we come across ev- ery day in our daily lives. I will quickly review the progress made since this discovery and what has been achieved in the last seven decades, the current state-of-the-art, and the remain- ing challenges.

  11. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  12. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  13. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  14. Measurement of remaining storage, rate of siltation, and rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    To determine, how much water is still available in the impounding reservoir after many years of siltation, the authors embarked a boat and measured the remaining storage of the reservoir as 349,911 m3. Thereafter calculated rate of siltation between years 1966 and 2009 as 6,600 m3/y, rate of erosion in the drainage basin ...

  15. Five reasons why South African librarianship remains untransformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article identifies five reasons why South African librarianship remains untransformed. These reasons are the result of misunderstandings by librarians about the historical process, social change, political change, professional change and the intellectual roles of librarians. Suggestions for dealing with these ...

  16. Fossil remains of fungi, algae and other organisms from Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Fungal remains and other fossils from Cainophytic strata of Jamaica have been compared with species described in mycological and algological publications. Only in a few cases morphologically related taxons have been encountered. The stratigraphie significance of these Jamaican fossils is unknown as

  17. Palmar, Patellar, and Pedal Human Remains from Pavlov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinkaus, E.; Wojtal, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Sázelová, Sandra; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, June (2017), s. 73-101 ISSN 1545-0031 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * human remains * isolated bones * anatomically modern human s * Upper Paleolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170073.pdf

  18. Who wants to conserve remaining forest fragments in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increasing number of international projects are therefore trying to preserve remaining forests and to transfer the management of these for- ests to local communities. However, it is not known how impor- tant the preservation of forest fragments are to local people. We therefore explore the importance of forest fragments as ...

  19. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  20. More fossil bear remains in some Dutch collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Seven fossil specimens, inscribed in five different Dutch collections, are identified as remains of brown bears, Ursus arctos L. Three items are postcranial skeletal parts, two are isolated teeth and two are mandibular fragments. Five fossils have been collected from the North Sea bottom in the

  1. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the ...

  2. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  3. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  4. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, E; Calhoun, D A

    2014-08-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of > or =3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires > or =4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. In studies where pseudo-resistant hypertension cannot be excluded (for example, 24-h ambulatory BP not obtained), the term apparent resistant hypertension has been used to identify 'apparent' lack of control on > or =3 medications. Large, well-designed studies have recently reported the prevalence of resistant hypertension. Pooling prevalence data from these studies and others within North America and Europe with a combined sample size of >600,000 hypertensive participants, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is 14.8% of treated hypertensive patients and 12.5% of all hypertensives. However, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled both by office and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with confirmed medication adherence, may be more meaningful in terms of identifying risk and estimating benefit from newer therapies like renal denervation. Rates of cardiovascular events and mortality follow mean 24-h ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension, and true resistant hypertension represents the highest risk. The prevalence of true resistant hypertension has not been directly measured in large trials; however, combined data from smaller studies suggest that true resistant hypertension is present in half of the patients with resistant hypertension who are uncontrolled in the office. Our pooled analysis shows prevalence rates of 10.1% and 7.9% for uncontrolled resistant hypertension among

  5. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  6. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  7. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  8. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Kl; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-07-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  9. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  11. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  12. The 'fishery' in South Africa's remaining coastal stonewall fish traps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishing takes place on pre-dawn, new-moon spring low tides. Fishers have replaced traditional spears with monofilament gillnets to remove fish from the vywers. Catches were and still are dominated by hardersLiza richardsonii, but occasional large harvests of elf Pomatomus saltatrix, white musselcracker Sparodon ...

  13. Plant macro remains from Early Historic Vessel, Gilund, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S Naik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The macrobotanical remains were recovered from the Early Historic vessel from Gilund, Rajasthan by employing dry and wet sieving techniques in the Palaeobotany laboratory. The retrieved archaeobotanical material was in carbonized and semi-carbonized state. It involves cultivated barley grains, a single cut grain of rice and a seeds of weed plant along with a bulk of wood charcoal pieces. These could survive in the carbonized state by being exposed to heat or fire. The impressions of grass leaves were found on well backed brickbats occurred in the vessel. Few molluscan shells were also retrieved during wet sieving.

  14. Remaining teeth, cardiovascular morbidity and death among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Gamborg, M

    2008-01-01

    disease was increased by 50% (HR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.02-2.19). Risk for coronary heart disease was increased by 31%, but was not significant, after the adjustment for education, age, smoking, diabetes, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (HR= 1.31; 95% CI: 0.74-2.31). Associations were......OBJECTIVE: To examine if number of remaining teeth was associated with development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over 5-12 years. METHODS: Prospective observational study among 1474 men and 1458 women born 1922, 1932, 1942 or 1952 from The Danish MONICA follow up study (MONItoring...

  15. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  16. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  17. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  18. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  19. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us.

  20. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  1. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  2. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  3. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  4. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room

  7. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE DRUM REMAINING LIFETIME IN THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav M Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analysis of stress and thermal-elastic-plastic strain of the drum is performed. Influence of modified thickness, yield stress and finite element model of welded joint between pipe and drum on assessment of the remaining lifetime of the drum in the thermal power plant is analyzed. Two analyses are compared. In the first, drum is modeled by shell and by 3D finite elements with projected geometrical and material data of drum. Then, the drum is modeled by shell and by 3D finite elements with modified thickness and yield stress. The analysis show that detailed modeling of stress concentration zones is necessary. Adequate modeling gives lower maximal effective plastic strain and increased number of cycles and, in that case, 3D finite elements are better comparing to shell finite elements.

  9. TMI in perspective: reactor containment stands up, difficult decisions remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Co. is increasing its commitment to nuclear energy after reviewing the performance of the Three Mile Island reactor containment systems. Both the reactor vessel and the secondary containment remained intact and no radiation was reported in the soil or water. The public discussion of energy options which followed the accident will benefit both the public and technical community even if there is a temporary slowdown in nuclear power development. The realities of energy supplies have become evident; i.e., that nuclear and coal are the only available options for the short-term. The discussion should also lead to better personnel training, regulatory reforms, risk-sharing insurance, and international standards. The public hysteria triggered by the accident stemmed partly from the combination of unfortunate incidents and the media coverage, which led to hasty conclusions

  10. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  11. Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: basic questions remain unanswered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudin, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Birgegard and Sohlberg recently implied that the interchange between them and Fudin in 1999 to 2000 resolved methodological issues in subliminal psychodynamic activation research. There remain, however, unresolved problems, both logical and empirical, which impair interpretations of findings in this area. These issues include questions concerning the value of the presentation of partial vs complete messages and the parameters involved in the information processing of such stimuli. The pursuit of solutions to these problems would be most efficacious if such research were brought more in line with experimental principles and established procedures used in the presentation of subliminal stimuli. In the absence of these efforts, research in subliminal psychodynamic activation will probably continue to tend toward circular reasoning and the production of ambiguous results that will never reach a wide audience.

  12. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  13. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  14. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  15. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  16. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  17. Iraq`s significant hydrocarbon potential remains relatively undeveloped

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Gailani, M. [GeoDesign Ltd., Kingston-upon-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-29

    Iraq is probably one of the least explored countries in the Middle East, despite the fact that it possesses one of the richest hydrocarbon basins in the world almost on a par to Saudi Arabia`s potential, if not more. The aim of this article is to state the facts about Iraq and focus on the huge but untapped and undeveloped hydrocarbon resources to the international oil community. Perhaps it is best to start by describing briefly the sedimentary and tectonic elements responsible for accumulating such large hydrocarbon resources. The paper describes the basin, tectonic elements, structural anomalies, deep drilling, source rocks, reservoir rocks, characteristics, and new reserves.

  18. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  19. TANYSTROPHEUS (ARCHOSAUROMORPHA, PROLACERTIFORMES) REMAINS FROM THE TRIASSIC OF THE NORTHERN FRIULI (NE ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    MARCO DALLA VECCHIA, FABIO

    2000-01-01

    The first diagnostic remains of the large prolacertiform Tanystropheus are reported from northeastern Italy. They include a proximal caudal vertebra from the Middle Triassic of Aupa valley (Udine, Friuli) and a cervical vertebra from the Carnian of Fusea (Udine). The cervical vertebra represents the first record of Tanystropheus in the Carnian and is the geologically youngest occurrence other than the Norian T. fossai. Tanystropheus lived along the coasts of the northwestern Tethys during the...

  20. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  1. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  2. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  3. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  4. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Current status and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Dekel, Dario R.; Page, Miles; Bae, Chulsung; Yan, Yushan; Zelenay, Piotr; Kim, Yu Seung

    2018-01-01

    The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) is an attractive alternative to acidic proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which to date have required platinum-based catalysts, as well as acid-tolerant stack hardware. The AEMFC could use non-platinum-group metal catalysts and less expensive metal hardware thanks to the high pH of the electrolyte. Over the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving the performance and durability of the AEMFC through the development of new materials and the optimization of system design and operation conditions. In this perspective article, we describe the current status of AEMFCs as having reached beginning of life performance very close to that of PEMFCs when using ultra-low loadings of Pt, while advancing towards operation on non-platinum-group metal catalysts alone. In the latter sections, we identify the remaining technical challenges, which require further research and development, focusing on the materials and operational factors that critically impact AEMFC performance and/or durability. These perspectives may provide useful insights for the development of next-generation of AEMFCs.

  5. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  6. Canonical Wnt signaling in the oligodendroglial lineage--puzzles remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Sohn, Jiho; Hammond, Elizabeth; Chang, Marcello; Pleasure, David

    2015-10-01

    The straightforward concept that accentuated Wnt signaling via the Wnt-receptor-β-catenin-TCF/LEF cascade (also termed canonical Wnt signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling) delays or blocks oligodendrocyte differentiation is very appealing. According to this concept, canonical Wnt signaling is responsible for remyelination failure in multiple sclerosis and for persistent hypomyelination in periventricular leukomalacia. This has given rise to the hope that pharmacologically inhibiting this signaling will be of therapeutic potential in these disabling neurological disorders. But current studies suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays distinct roles in oligodendrogenesis, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and myelination in a context-dependent manner (central nervous system regions, developmental stages), and that Wnt/β-catenin signaling interplays with, and is subjected to regulation by, other central nervous system factors and signaling pathways. On this basis, we propose the more nuanced concept that endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity is delicately and temporally regulated to ensure the seamless development of oligodendroglial lineage cells in different contexts. In this review, we discuss the role Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oligodendrocyte development, focusing on the interpretation of disparate results, and highlighting areas where important questions remain to be answered about oligodendroglial lineage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prenatally diagnosed severe CDH: mortality and morbidity remain high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Megan A; Werner, Nicole L; Gajarski, Robert; Gadepalli, Samir; Hirschl, Ronald; Barks, John; Treadwell, Marjorie C; Ladino-Torres, Maria; Kreutzman, Jeannie; Mychaliska, George B

    2016-07-01

    This study sought to evaluate prenatal markers' ability to predict severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia(CDH) and assess this subgroup's morbidity and mortality. A retrospective review was performed between 2006 and 2014. Prenatal criteria for severe CDH included: liver herniation, lung-to-head ratio (LHR) CDH met severe criteria. Mean LHR: 1.04±0.35, o/eLHR: 31±10% and o/eTLV: 20±7%. Distribution was 72% LCDH, 24% R-CDH. Overall survival: 38%. ECMO requirement: 92%. Patch rate: 91%. Mean ventilator-free days in 60: 7.1±14. Supplemental oxygen at discharge was required in 27%. In this prenatally diagnosed severe cohort, 58%(15/26) had persistent PHtn post-ECMO requiring inhaled nitric oxide±epoprostenol. Comparing patients with and without PHtn: mean ECMO duration 18±10 days versus 9±7 days (p=0.01) and survival 20% versus 72% (p=0.006). A combination of prenatal markers accurately identified severe CDH patients. Outcomes of this group remain poor and persistent PHtn contributes significantly to mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis of Data Remaining on Second Hand ADSL Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Szewczyk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In theory an ADSL router is capable of providing immense security capabilities including but not limited to wireless encryption, denial of service prevention through firewall rule sets, and logging facilities for review or analysis of network events. However, most laymen may be unaware of the intricacies of the security measures available to them. As a result a vast array of information could remain on ADSL routers once the device is sold, including the users’ approach to security, Internet usage habits, or more importantly confidential user or account information. This paper presents the findings of data acquired from second hand ADSL routers purchased during the first quarter of 2011. The outcomes demonstrate that individuals are not removing their identity adequately and are leaving confidential data which may lead to detrimental outcomes if misused. The paper also demonstrates that the overall security of these devices is alarmingly low, and thus many consumers may fall victim to new and emergent Internet based crimes.

  10. Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding Marijuana Use Among Adolescents Over the Past Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard; Johnston, Lloyd; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2017-12-01

    Adolescent marijuana prevalence has not increased since 2005 despite a substantial decrease in the percentage of adolescents who believe marijuana use leads to great risk of harm. This finding calls into question the long-standing, inverse connection between marijuana prevalence and perceived risk of use, a connection central to many arguments opposing marijuana legalization. We tested 2 hypotheses for why marijuana prevalence did not increase after 2005: (1) decreases in adolescent use of cigarettes and alcohol reduced risk for marijuana use and counteracted the expected risk in marijuana prevalence, and/or (2) perceived risk of harm now plays a smaller role in marijuana use. Data came from the annual, nationally-representative Monitoring the Future study from 1991 to 2016, in which 1 100 000 US students in eighth, 10th, and 12th grade were surveyed. The entire sample was stratified into 3 mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups on the basis of cigarette and alcohol use. Within each of the 3 groups, marijuana prevalence increased from 2005 to 2016. Paradoxically, when the 3 groups were combined into 1 analysis pool, overall marijuana prevalence did not increase. The seeming paradox results from a decline in the percentage of adolescents who used cigarettes; as this group grew smaller, so too did its disproportionately large contribution to overall marijuana prevalence. Perceived risk of harm from marijuana remained a strong indicator of use throughout 2005 to 2016. Perceived risk of marijuana remains tightly associated with use, and adolescent marijuana prevalence today would be at or near record highs if cigarette use had not declined since 2005, according to study projections. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  12. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  13. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  14. Work-related factors influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa

    Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.

  15. Prevalence of Prostatitis-Like Symptoms and Outcomes of NIH-CPSI in Outpatients with Lifelong and Acquired PE: Based on a Large Cross-Sectional Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daofang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, which were associated with prostatitis-like symptoms (PLS. We intended to explore the prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms and outcomes of National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI scores in outpatients with lifelong (LPE and acquired premature ejaculation (APE. From December 2013 to December 2015, a total of 498 consecutive heterosexual men with PE and 322 male healthy subjects without PE were enrolled. Each of them completed a detailed questionnaire on demographics information, sexual and medical histories, and the NIH-CPSI. Assessment of NIH-CPSI and definition of PLS and PE were used to measure the PLS and NIH-CPSI scores and ejaculatory function for all subjects. Finally, a total of 820 subjects (including 498 men in PE group and 322 men in control group were enrolled in our study. The mean ages were significantly different between PE and no PE groups. Men with PE reported worse PLS and higher NIH-CPSI scores (P < 0.001 for all. Similar findings were also observed between men with LPE and APE. Men with APE also reported higher rates of PLS and scores of NIH-CPSI (P < 0.001 for all. Multivariate analysis showed that PLS and NIH-CPSI scores were significantly associated with PE.

  16. Pigment Cell Progenitors in Zebrafish Remain Multipotent through Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Dinwiddie, April; Mahalwar, Prateek; Schach, Ursula; Linker, Claudia; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2016-08-08

    The neural crest is a transient, multipotent embryonic cell population in vertebrates giving rise to diverse cell types in adults via intermediate progenitors. The in vivo cell-fate potential and lineage segregation of these postembryonic progenitors is poorly understood, and it is unknown if and when the progenitors become fate restricted. We investigate the fate restriction in the neural crest-derived stem cells and intermediate progenitors in zebrafish, which give rise to three distinct adult pigment cell types: melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores. By inducing clones in sox10-expressing cells, we trace and quantitatively compare the pigment cell progenitors at four stages, from embryogenesis to metamorphosis. At all stages, a large fraction of the progenitors are multipotent. These multipotent progenitors have a high proliferation ability, which diminishes with fate restriction. We suggest that multipotency of the nerve-associated progenitors lasting into metamorphosis may have facilitated the evolution of adult-specific traits in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Dumont, Elizabeth R.; Holloway, Waymon L.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Rahantarisoa, Lydia J.; Kemp, Addison D.; Andriamialison, Haingoson

    2014-11-01

    Previously known only from isolated teeth and lower jaw fragments recovered from the Cretaceous and Palaeogene of the Southern Hemisphere, the Gondwanatheria constitute the most poorly known of all major mammaliaform radiations. Here we report the discovery of the first skull material of a gondwanatherian, a complete and well-preserved cranium from Upper Cretaceous strata in Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supports its placement within Gondwanatheria, which are recognized as monophyletic and closely related to multituberculates, an evolutionarily successful clade of Mesozoic mammals known almost exclusively from the Northern Hemisphere. The new taxon is the largest known mammaliaform from the Mesozoic of Gondwana. Its craniofacial anatomy reveals that it was herbivorous, large-eyed and agile, with well-developed high-frequency hearing and a keen sense of smell. The cranium exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features, the disparity of which is extreme and probably reflective of a long evolutionary history in geographic isolation.

  18. [Patentability of DNA sequences: the debate remains open].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Uranga, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    The patentability of human genes was from the beginning of the discussion concerning the Directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, an issue that provoked debates among politicians, scientists, lawyers and civil society itself. Although Directive 98/44 tried to settle the matter by stating that to support the patentability of human genes, it should know what role they fulfill, which protein they encode, all of this as an essential requirement to test its industrial application. However, following the judgment of 13 June 2013 (Supreme Court of the United States of America in the case of Association for Molecular Pathology et al. versus Myriad Genetics Inc.) the debate on this issue has been reopened. There are several issues to be considered, taking into account that the patents on DNA & Gene Sequences have played an important incentive to increase the interest in biotechnology applied to human health. On the other hand, this is a paradigm shift in the R & D of biopharmaceutical companies, and it has moved from an in house research model to a model of open innovation, a model of collaboration between large corporations with biotech SMEs and public and private research centers. This model of innovation, impacts on the issue of the industrial property, and therefore it will be necessary to clearly define what each party brings to the relationship and how they are expected to share the results. But all of this, with the ultimate goal that the patients have access to treatments and medications most innovative, safe and effective.

  19. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  20. Thermal behavior remains engaged following exercise despite autonomic thermoeffector withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Nicole T; Chapman, Christopher L; Sackett, James R; Abdul-Rashed, Jabril; McBryde, Muhamed; Johnson, Blair D; Gathercole, Rob; Schlader, Zachary J

    2018-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that thermal behavior during the exercise recovery compensates for elevated core temperatures despite autonomic thermoeffector withdrawal. In a thermoneutral environment, 6 females and 6 males (22 ± 1 y) cycled for 60 min (225 ± 46 W metabolic heat production), followed by 60 min passive recovery. Mean skin and core temperatures, skin blood flow, and local sweat rate were measured continually. Subjects controlled the temperature of their dorsal neck to perceived thermal comfort using a custom-made neck device. Neck device temperature provided an index of thermal behavior. Mean body temperature, calculated as the average of mean skin and core temperatures, provided an index of the stimulus for thermal behavior. To isolate the independent effect of exercise on thermal behavior during recovery, data were analyzed post-exercise the exact minute mean body temperature recovered to pre-exercise levels within a subject. Mean body temperature returned to pre-exercise levels 28 ± 20 min into recovery (Pre: 33.5 ± 0.2, Post: 33.5 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.20), at which point, mean skin temperature had recovered (Pre: 29.6 ± 0.4, Post: 29.5 ± 0.5 °C, P = 0.20) and core temperature (Pre: 37.3 ± 0.2, Post: 37.5 ± 0.3 °C, P = 0.01) remained elevated. Post-exercise, skin blood flow (Pre: 59 ± 78, Post: 26 ± 25 PU, P = 0.10) and local sweat rate (Pre: 0.05 ± 0.25, Post: 0.13 ± 0.14 mg/cm 2  min -1 , P = 0.09) returned to pre-exercise levels, while neck device temperature was depressed (Pre: 27.4 ± 1.1, Post: 21.6 ± 7.4 °C, P = 0.03). These findings suggest that thermal behavior compensates for autonomic thermoeffector withdrawal in the presence of elevated core temperatures post-exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias in a previously unscreened population--a pooled analysis from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Bhaumik, Suchismita; Mandal, Shyam Sunder; Samaddar, Anusree; Ray, Chinmayi; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Biswas, Jaydip; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2013-04-01

    Population prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) is an important indicator to judge the disease burden in the community, to monitor the performance of cervical cancer screening program and to assess the impact of HPV vaccination program. India being a country without any cervical cancer screening program has no published data on the population prevalence of CIN and only a few large community-based studies to report the high-risk HPV prevalence. The objective of our study was to study HPV and CIN prevalence in a previously unscreened population. We pooled together the results of three research studies originally designed to assess the performance of visual inspection after acetic acid application and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC 2). Nearly 60% of the screened women had colposcopy irrespective of their screening test results. The diagnosis and grading of cervical neoplasias were based on histology. The age standardized prevalence of HPV by HC 2 test was 6.0%. Age-adjusted prevalence of CIN1 and CIN2 was 2.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of CIN3 was 0.4% and that of invasive cancer was 0.2%. The prevalence of high-risk HPV was relatively low in the population we studied, which is reflected in the low prevalence of high-grade CIN. The prevalence of CIN3 remained constant across age groups due to absence of screening. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  2. The 3-month readmission rate remains unacceptably high in a large North American cohort of patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Reddy, K Rajender; Tandon, Puneeta; Wong, Florence; Kamath, Patrick S; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Maliakkal, Benedict; Biggins, Scott W; Thuluvath, Paul J; Fallon, Michael B; Subramanian, Ram M; Vargas, Hugo; Thacker, Leroy R; O'Leary, Jacqueline G

    2016-07-01

    In smaller single-center studies, patients with cirrhosis are at a high readmission risk, but a multicenter perspective study is lacking. We evaluated the determinants of 3-month readmissions among inpatients with cirrhosis using the prospective 14-center North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease cohort. Patients with cirrhosis hospitalized for nonelective indications provided consent and were followed for 3 months postdischarge. The number of 3-month readmissions and their determinants on index admission and discharge were calculated. We used multivariable logistic regression for all readmissions and for hepatic encephalopathy (HE), renal/metabolic, and infection-related readmissions. A score was developed using admission/discharge variables for the total sample, which was validated on a random half of the total population. Of the 1353 patients enrolled, 1177 were eligible on discharge and 1013 had 3-month outcomes. Readmissions occurred in 53% (n = 535; 316 with one, 219 with two or more), with consistent rates across sites. The leading causes were liver-related (n = 333; HE, renal/metabolic, and infections). Patients with cirrhosis and with worse Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score or diabetes, those taking prophylactic antibiotics, and those with prior HE were more likely to be readmitted. The admission model included Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and diabetes (c-statistic = 0.64, after split-validation 0.65). The discharge model included Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, proton pump inhibitor use, and lower length of stay (c-statistic = 0.65, after split-validation 0.70). Thirty percent of readmissions could not be predicted. Patients with liver-related readmissions consistently had index-stay nosocomial infections as a predictor for HE, renal/metabolic, and infection-associated readmissions (odds ratio = 1.9-3.0). Three-month readmissions occurred in about half of discharged patients with cirrhosis, which were associated with cirrhosis severity, diabetes, and nosocomial infections; close monitoring of patients with advanced cirrhosis and prevention of nosocomial infections could reduce this burden. (Hepatology 2016;64:200-208). © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Prevalence of congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as tone deafness) is a lifelong musical disorder that affects 4% of the population according to a single estimate based on a single test from 1980. Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. On the basis of three objective tests and a questionnaire, we show that (a) the prevalence of congenital amusia is only 1.5%, with slightly more females than males, unlike other developmental disorders where males often predominate; (b) self-disclosure is a reliable index of congenital amusia, which suggests that congenital amusia is hereditary, with 46% first-degree relatives similarly affected; (c) the deficit is not attenuated by musical training and (d) it emerges in relative isolation from other cognitive disorder, except for spatial orientation problems. Hence, we suggest that congenital amusia is likely to result from genetic variations that affect musical abilities specifically.

  4. Community-based short-course treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in a developing nation. Initial report of an eight-month, largely intermittent regimen in a population with a high prevalence of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, F; Tan, F; Sbarbaro, J A; Iseman, M D

    1990-12-01

    A community-based tuberculosis case-finding and short-course chemotherapy program was conducted in a suburb of Manila and featured 1 month of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) followed by 7 months of twice-weekly, high dose, directly observed INH + EMB + PZA. Church-affiliated lay workers obtained 1,990 sputum specimens from subjects who complained of chronic cough or wasting symptoms; 207 of the specimens were positive on Ziehl-Neelsen smears. On culture, 176 yielded a significant growth of M. tuberculosis. Of these 176 patients, 144 were selected to enter the study; 10 were lost because of withdrawal or death and four (2.7%) because of drug toxicity. This left 130 patients who were followed long-term. Remarkably, 80% (104) were initially shedding drug-resistant organisms; 26% (34) were resistant to one drug, 30% (40) were resistant to two drugs, and 24% (30) were resistant to three or more drugs. Responses to therapy corresponded closely to the extent of drug resistance: 80% (48 of 60) of patients with drug-susceptible or single resistance had a favorable outcome; 43% (28 of 65) were resistant to two or three drugs, and 0% (0 of 5) of those were resistant to four or more drugs. Notable findings of this study were the success of a community-based program in conducting prolonged, directly observed treatment, the unexpectedly high prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant organisms in this population, and the inadequacy of INH + PZA + EMB during the continuation phase of therapy in this setting.

  5. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Eiji; Sasaki, Shizuka; Chiba, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nawata, Atsushi; Tsuda, Eiichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (ptorque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  6. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  7. Large N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this lecture, the 1/N expansion technique is illustrated for the case of the large-N sigma model. In large-N gauge theories, the 1/N expansion is tantamount to sorting the Feynman diagrams according to their degree of planarity, that is, the minimal genus of the plane onto which

  8. Paving the Road to Success: Reflecting Critically on Year One of an Undergraduate Student Support Programme at a Large South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Danie; Spark, Linda; Jones, Andrew; Maleswena, Tshepiso

    2017-01-01

    Student success, faculty and university throughput, and the need for adequate and appropriate student support remain prevalent issues in the South African and global higher education sectors. Subsequently, the Faculty of Commerce, Law, and Management at a large South African university applied for Teaching and Development Grant funding in order to…

  9. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  10. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains and associated funerary... the human remains was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...

  11. Why does Bangladesh remain so poor? Part II: eight answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1985-01-01

    East Asian countries have virtually propelled themselves into a more dynamic economic situation simply do not exist in Bangladesh. Yet, by taking a long view of Bangladesh and its human history, some aspects appear bright. If the human population and the land resources are brought into a better equilibrium, the potential for a very large population to be supported on the land almost indefinitely, and without destroying the resource base, is much greater than in most parts of the world. The expressive culture and complex network of personal relations will continue to make life rich despite material poverty. The individualism which impedes the growth of stable institutions is beginning to exert itself in entrepreneurship. Finally, the government and the aid agencies are now on a track of "development" that is consistent with the realities of the Bengali peasant tradition.

  12. New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, John; Elliott, Marina; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Roberts, Eric M; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; Delezene, Lucas K; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick; Kivell, Tracy L; Laird, Myra F; Tawane, Gaokgatlhe; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Bailey, Shara E; Brophy, Juliet K; Meyer, Marc R; Skinner, Matthew M; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Campbell, Timothy L; Kuhn, Brian; Kruger, Ashley; Tucker, Steven; Gurtov, Alia; Hlophe, Nompumelelo; Hunter, Rick; Morris, Hannah; Peixotto, Becca; Ramalepa, Maropeng; van Rooyen, Dirk; Tsikoane, Mathabela; Boshoff, Pedro; Dirks, Paul HGM; Berger, Lee R

    2017-01-01

    The Rising Star cave system has produced abundant fossil hominin remains within the Dinaledi Chamber, representing a minimum of 15 individuals attributed to Homo naledi. Further exploration led to the discovery of hominin material, now comprising 131 hominin specimens, within a second chamber, the Lesedi Chamber. The Lesedi Chamber is far separated from the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave system, and represents a second depositional context for hominin remains. In each of three collection areas within the Lesedi Chamber, diagnostic skeletal material allows a clear attribution to H. naledi. Both adult and immature material is present. The hominin remains represent at least three individuals based upon duplication of elements, but more individuals are likely present based upon the spatial context. The most significant specimen is the near-complete cranium of a large individual, designated LES1, with an endocranial volume of approximately 610 ml and associated postcranial remains. The Lesedi Chamber skeletal sample extends our knowledge of the morphology and variation of H. naledi, and evidence of H. naledi from both recovery localities shows a consistent pattern of differentiation from other hominin species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24232.001 PMID:28483039

  13. New fossil remains ofHomo naledifrom the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, John; Elliott, Marina; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; Ruiter, Darryl J de; Roberts, Eric M; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; Delezene, Lucas K; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick; Kivell, Tracy L; Laird, Myra F; Tawane, Gaokgatlhe; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Bailey, Shara E; Brophy, Juliet K; Meyer, Marc R; Skinner, Matthew M; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Campbell, Timothy L; Kuhn, Brian; Kruger, Ashley; Tucker, Steven; Gurtov, Alia; Hlophe, Nompumelelo; Hunter, Rick; Morris, Hannah; Peixotto, Becca; Ramalepa, Maropeng; Rooyen, Dirk van; Tsikoane, Mathabela; Boshoff, Pedro; Dirks, Paul Hgm; Berger, Lee R

    2017-05-09

    The Rising Star cave system has produced abundant fossil hominin remains within the Dinaledi Chamber, representing a minimum of 15 individuals attributed to Homo naledi . Further exploration led to the discovery of hominin material, now comprising 131 hominin specimens, within a second chamber, the Lesedi Chamber. The Lesedi Chamber is far separated from the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave system, and represents a second depositional context for hominin remains. In each of three collection areas within the Lesedi Chamber, diagnostic skeletal material allows a clear attribution to H. naledi . Both adult and immature material is present. The hominin remains represent at least three individuals based upon duplication of elements, but more individuals are likely present based upon the spatial context. The most significant specimen is the near-complete cranium of a large individual, designated LES1, with an endocranial volume of approximately 610 ml and associated postcranial remains. The Lesedi Chamber skeletal sample extends our knowledge of the morphology and variation of H. naledi , and evidence of H. naledi from both recovery localities shows a consistent pattern of differentiation from other hominin species.

  14. Motivation for entry, occupational commitment and intent to remain: a survey regarding Registered Nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Kathleen M

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between Registered Nurses' motivation for entering the profession, occupational commitment and intent to remain with an employer until retirement. Identifying and supporting nurses who are strongly committed to their profession may be the single most influential intervention in combating the nursing shortage. An understanding of the characteristics these individuals possess could lead to a decline in the high attrition rates plaguing the profession. Using a survey design, Registered Nurses enrolled at the school of nursing and/or employed at the associated university medical centre of a large, not-for-profit state university were polled in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine how the variables of motivation for entry and occupational commitment could indicate intent to remain. The strongest indicators of intent to remain were normative commitment and age, with a 70% average rate of correctly estimating retention. Exp(B) values for normative commitment (1·09) and age (1·07) indicated that for each one-point increase on the normative commitment scale or one-point increase in age, the odds of remaining with an employer until retirement increased by 1·1%. Transformational changes in healthcare environments and nursing schools must be made to encourage loyalty and obligation, the hallmarks of normative commitment. Retention strategies should accommodate mature nurses as well as promote normative commitment in younger nurses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Frank den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory and applications of large deviations, a branch of probability theory that describes the probability of rare events in terms of variational problems. By focusing the theory, in Part A of the book, on random sequences, the author succeeds in conveying the main ideas behind large deviations without a need for technicalities, thus providing a concise and accessible entry to this challenging and captivating subject. The selection of modern applications, described in Part B of the book, offers a good sample of what large deviation theory is able to achieve

  16. Socio-economic gradients in prevalent tuberculosis in Zambia and the Western Cape of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tom A; Ayles, Helen; Leacy, Finbarr P; Schaap, A; Boccia, Delia; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Floyd, Sian

    2018-04-01

    To describe the associations between socio-economic position and prevalent tuberculosis in the 2010 ZAMSTAR Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey, one of the first large tuberculosis prevalence surveys in Southern Africa in the HIV era. The main analyses used data on 34 446 individuals in Zambia and 30 017 individuals in South Africa with evaluable tuberculosis culture results. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent TB by two measures of socio-economic position: household wealth, derived from data on assets using principal components analysis, and individual educational attainment. Mediation analysis was used to evaluate potential mechanisms for the observed social gradients. The quartile with highest household wealth index in Zambia and South Africa had, respectively, 0.55 (95% CI 0.33-0.92) times and 0.70 (95% CI 0.54-0.93) times the adjusted odds of prevalent TB of the bottom quartile. College or university-educated individuals in Zambia and South Africa had, respectively, 0.25 (95% CI 0.12-0.54) and 0.42 (95% CI 0.25-0.70) times the adjusted odds of prevalent TB of individuals who had received only primary education. We found little evidence that these associations were mediated via several key proximal risk factors for TB, including HIV status. These data suggest that social determinants of TB remain important even in the context of generalised HIV epidemics. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  19. The Prevalence of Tic Disorders and Clinical Characteristics in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Specht, Matthew; Page, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Prevalence is a simple statement about the frequency of a disease in the population. For many medical conditions, including Tourette syndrome, there are true cases that have not been previously diagnosed due to problems of access to appropriate clinical services. Therefore, to obtain a trustworthy estimate of prevalence, it is necessary to go beyond cases identified in clinical settings and evaluate community samples. Method We reviewed 11 community surveys in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) published since 2000. We also examined the frequency of co-occurring psychiatric conditions in community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples. Results Transient tics are relatively common affecting as many as 20% of school-age children. The 11 studies reviewed here offer a wide range of estimates from 2.6 to 38 per 1000 children for TS. Six studies provide estimates in a narrower range from 4.3 to 7.6 per 1000, but the confidence interval around this narrower range remains wide. Six studies provided results on chronic tic disorders ranging from 3 to 50 per 1000 for Chronic Motor Tic Disorder and 2.5 to 9.4 per 1000 for Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder. Community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples consistently show high rates of ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety disorders in children with TS. Conclusions The wide range of prevalence estimates for TS and chronic tic disorders is likely due to differences in sample size and assessment methods. The best estimate of prevalence for TS in school-age children is likely to fall between 4 and 8 cases per 1000. Clinical assessment of children with chronic tic disorders warrants examination of other problems such as ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety. PMID:25436183

  20. The Prevalence of Tic Disorders and Clinical Characteristics in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Specht, Matthew; Page, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Prevalence is a simple statement about the frequency of a disease in the population. For many medical conditions, including Tourette syndrome, there are true cases that have not been previously diagnosed due to problems of access to appropriate clinical services. Therefore, to obtain a trustworthy estimate of prevalence, it is necessary to go beyond cases identified in clinical settings and evaluate community samples. We reviewed 11 community surveys in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) published since 2000. We also examined the frequency of co-occurring psychiatric conditions in community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples. Transient tics are relatively common affecting as many as 20% of school-age children. The 11 studies reviewed here offer a wide range of estimates from 2.6 to 38 per 1000 children for TS. Six studies provide estimates in a narrower range from 4.3 to 7.6 per 1000, but the confidence interval around this narrower range remains wide. Six studies provided results on chronic tic disorders ranging from 3 to 50 per 1000 for Chronic Motor Tic Disorder and 2.5 to 9.4 per 1000 for Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder. Community samples and large clinically-ascertained samples consistently show high rates of ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety disorders in children with TS. The wide range of prevalence estimates for TS and chronic tic disorders is likely due to differences in sample size and assessment methods. The best estimate of prevalence for TS in school-age children is likely to fall between 4 and 8 cases per 1000. Clinical assessment of children with chronic tic disorders warrants examination of other problems such as ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety.

  1. Twenty-one novel mutations in the GLB1 gene identified in a large group of GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients: possible common origin for the prevalent p.R59H mutation among gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Raül; Chabás, Amparo; Coll, Maria Josep; Miranda, Clara Sa; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by beta-galactosidase deficiency due to mutations in the GLB1 gene. Three major clinical forms of GM1-gangliosidosis have been established on the basis of age of onset and severity of symptoms: infantile, late infantile/juvenile, and adult. We performed mutation analysis on 30 GM1-gangliosidosis and five Morquio B patients, mainly of Spanish origin, and all the causative mutations were identified. Thirty different mutations were found, 21 of which were novel. With the exception of two adults and one juvenile patient, all the GM1-gangliosidosis patients were affected by the infantile form. Clinical findings are presented for all patients. We report the association of the novel mutations p.T420K and p.L264S with the adult form and the juvenile form, respectively. In addition, the novel mutation p.Y83C was associated with Morquio B disease. Among the 30 GM1-gangliosidosis patients, 6 were of Gypsy origin (Roma). Moreover, those six Gypsy patients shared not only the same mutation (p.R59H) but also a common haplotype. This observation indicates a possible founder effect in this group and suggests that screening of the p.R59H mutation may be appropriate in GM1-gangliosidosis patients of Gypsy origin. This is the first exhaustive mutational analysis performed in a large group of Iberian GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients.

  2. TANYSTROPHEUS (ARCHOSAUROMORPHA, PROLACERTIFORMES REMAINS FROM THE TRIASSIC OF THE NORTHERN FRIULI (NE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIO MARCO DALLA VECCHIA

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The first diagnostic remains of the large prolacertiform Tanystropheus are reported from northeastern Italy. They include a proximal caudal vertebra from the Middle Triassic of Aupa valley (Udine, Friuli and a cervical vertebra from the Carnian of Fusea (Udine. The cervical vertebra represents the first record of Tanystropheus in the Carnian and is the geologically youngest occurrence other than the Norian T. fossai. Tanystropheus lived along the coasts of the northwestern Tethys during the Late Triassic while it disappeared in Central Europe where continental environments were prevailing. 

  3. Salmonella enterica isolated from infections in Australian livestock remain susceptible to critical antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam; Groves, Mitchell D; Trott, Darren J; Chapman, Toni A; Turner, Bernadette; Hornitzky, Michael; Jordan, David

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen causing a variety of diseases in humans and animals. Many countries are reporting an increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. enterica in food animals. The aim of this study was to determine whether S. enterica isolated from livestock in New South Wales, Australia, have similar resistance traits to those reported internationally. Salmonella enterica (n=165) from clinical infections in food animals between 2007 and 2011 were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. Also, 22 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), 3 integrons and 18 plasmid replicon types were screened for using PCR. Most isolates (66.1%) remained susceptible to all antimicrobials; 8.5% of the isolates were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. Antimicrobials with the highest prevalence of resistance were sulfafurazole (28.5%), ampicillin (17.0%), tetracycline (15.8%) and trimethoprim (8.5%). There was no resistance to fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins. The most common ARGs were blaTEM (15.2%), sul2 (10.3%), tetB (9.1%), tetA (5.5%), aphA1 (4.8%) and dhfrV (4.8%). Class 1 integrons (7.9%) and IncFIIA (69.7%) were the most commonly detected integron and plasmid replicon types, respectively. Class 1 integrons were positively associated with MDR phenotypes and ARG carriage (P≤0.001). Internationally prominent MDR serovars associated with severe disease in humans (e.g. AmpC-positive Salmonella Newport) were not detected. Overall, the comparatively favourable resistance status of S. enterica in Australian livestock represents minimal public health risk associated with MDR strains and supports a conservative approach to the registration of antimicrobial drug classes in food-producing animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  5. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Bisgaard, Thue

    2013-01-01

    Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undert...... was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair....

  6. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual partnerships in South Africa’s language groups: An ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kenyon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA. Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the spread of HIV, but its effect on differential HIV transmission within SA’s language groups has not been investigated quantitatively. Objective. This ecological analysis was intended to explore the degree to which the variation in HIV prevalence according to language group can be explained by differential concurrency rates. Method. Linear regression was used to assess the association between each language group’s HIV prevalence and four risk factors: the prevalence of concurrency, multiple sexual partners in the preceding year, circumcision, and condom utilisation. Results. In multivariate analysis, only the point prevalence of concurrency remained associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion. There is evidence of a high prevalence of point concurrency in sexual partnerships in SA’s most HIV-affected language groups. Together with evidence that relatively small decreases in concurrency can lead to large declines in HIV incidence, this provides impetus for interventions to promote having only one sexual partner at a time. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:25-28. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.884

  7. Fish and other faunal remains from a Late Iron Age site on the Letaba River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Plug

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish remains from Late Iron Age sites in the Transvaal are relatively scarce. It seems as if the people did not utilize the riverine resources extensively. Therefore the unique assemblage of large numbers of fish bones on a Late Iron Age site, provides some insight into the fish population of a section of the Letaba River a few hundred years ago. The presence of other faunal remains provides some information on prehistoric utilization of the environment in general. Hunting strategies and aspects of herding can also be deduced from the faunal remains.

  8. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Schwartz

    Full Text Available Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet" yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd c. BCE and Diodorus Siculus (1(st c. BCE], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human

  9. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising Remains Prominent in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Garg, Apurva; Stepanov, Irina; Gupta, Prakash C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Gota, Vikram; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    In India, a 2003 law ("COPTA") banned tobacco advertising with the exception of "point of sale" and "on-pack" advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources. Descriptive epidemiologic techniques were used to characterize the data. Overall, 95% of participants were men and 5% were women (mean age=49 years). All were current tobacco users or quit using all forms of tobacco in the last 60 days. Participants' responses revealed that PoS tobacco advertising had been encountered in the last 30 days for cigarettes (61%), bidis (54%), and smokeless tobacco (59%). Other forms of tobacco advertising were virtually non-existent. PoS tobacco advertising remains prominent and highly visible to consumers in Mumbai, India, indicating corporate exploitation of a loophole in the COPTA legislation. Given the observed compliance with the currently imposed bans, revisions of COPTA to include all forms of tobacco promotion and advertising would be impactful.

  10. Sleep-wake disorders persist 18 months after traumatic brain injury but remain underrecognized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, Lukas L; Büchele, Fabian; Valko, Philipp O; Li, Tongzhou; Maric, Angelina; Stover, John F; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mica, Ladislav; Werth, Esther; Baumann, Christian R

    2016-05-24

    This study is a prospective, controlled clinical and electrophysiologic trial examining the chronic course of posttraumatic sleep-wake disturbances (SWD). We screened 140 patients with acute, first-ever traumatic brain injury of any severity and included 60 patients for prospective follow-up examinations. Patients with prior brain trauma, other neurologic or systemic disease, drug abuse, or psychiatric comorbidities were excluded. Eighteen months after trauma, we performed detailed sleep assessment in 31 participants. As a control group, we enrolled healthy individuals without prior brain trauma matched for age, sex, and sleep satiation. In the chronic state after traumatic brain injury, sleep need per 24 hours was persistently increased in trauma patients (8.1 ± 0.5 hours) as compared to healthy controls (7.1 ± 0.7 hours). The prevalence of chronic objective excessive daytime sleepiness was 67% in patients with brain trauma compared to 19% in controls. Patients significantly underestimated excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep need, emphasizing the unreliability of self-assessments on SWD in trauma patients. This study provides prospective, controlled, and objective evidence for chronic persistence of posttraumatic SWD, which remain underestimated by patients. These results have clinical and medicolegal implications given that SWD can exacerbate other outcomes of traumatic brain injury, impair quality of life, and are associated with public safety hazards. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Health Benefits In 2016: Family Premiums Rose Modestly, And Offer Rates Remained Stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Long, Michelle; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Foster, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2016, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,435 for single coverage and $18,142 for family coverage. The family premium in 2016 was 3 percent higher than that in 2015. On average, workers contributed 18 percent of the premium for single coverage and 30 percent for family coverage. The share of firms offering health benefits (56 percent) and of workers covered by their employers' plans (62 percent) remained statistically unchanged from 2015. Employers continued to offer financial incentives for completing wellness or health promotion activities. Almost three in ten covered workers were enrolled in a high-deductible plan with a savings option-a significant increase from 2014. The 2016 survey included new questions on cost sharing for specialty drugs and on the prevalence of incentives for employees to seek care at alternative settings. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Stroke prevalence amongst sickle cell disease patients in Nigeria: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stroke is a life-changing, debilitating complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). Previous studies had recorded high stroke prevalence amongst this group of patients. Nigeria has a large population of people affected by this condition and this study aims to assess the stroke prevalence in this large population.

  13. Neonatal hypoglycaemia: prevalence and clinical manifestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is associated with significant long term neuro-developmental sequelae. The signs and symptoms are often non-specific. Some are completely asymptomatic. Many cases therefore remain undiagnosed. This study was therefore designed to determine the prevalence, obstetric and ...

  14. Explained and unexplained racial and regional inequality in obesity prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Keumseok; Elder, Todd E; Grady, Sue C; Darden, Joe T; Vojnovic, Igor

    2018-02-22

    There are substantial racial and regional disparities in obesity prevalence in the United States. This study partitioned the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and obesity prevalence rate gaps between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites into the portion attributable to observable obesity risk factors and the remaining portion attributable to unobservable factors at the national and the state levels in the United States (U.S.) in 2010. This study used a simulated micro-population dataset combining common information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the U.S. Census data to obtain a reliable, large sample representing the adult populations at the national and state levels. It then applied a reweighting decomposition method to decompose the black-white mean BMI and obesity prevalence disparities at the national and state levels into the portion attributable to the differences in distribution of observable obesity risk factors and the remaining portion unexplainable with risk factors. We found that the observable differences in distribution of known obesity risk factors explain 18.5% of the mean BMI difference and 20.6% of obesity prevalence disparities between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites. There were substantial variations in how much the differences in distribution of known obesity risk factors can explain black-white gaps in mean BMI (-67.7% to 833.6%) and obesity prevalence (-278.5% to 340.3%) at the state level. The results from this study demonstrate that known obesity risk factors explain a small proportion of the racial, ethnic and between-state disparities in obesity prevalence in the United States. Future etiologic studies are required to further understand the causal factors underlying obesity and racial, ethnic and geographic disparities.

  15. Postnatal depressive symptoms among Pacific mothers in Auckland: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W; Williams, Maynard M

    2006-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for postnatal depressive symptoms in a cohort of mothers of Pacific Island infants in Auckland, New Zealand. The data were gathered as part of the Pacific Island Families Study, in which 1376 mothers were interviewed when their babies were 6 weeks old. The interview included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). 16.4% of mothers were assessed as probably experiencing depression. Prevalence rates varied from 7.6% for Samoans to 30.9% for Tongans. In addition to ethnicity, risk factors identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression included low Pacific Island acculturation, first birth, stress due to insufficient food, household income less than dollar 40,000, difficulty with transport, dissatisfaction with pregnancy, birth experience, baby's sleep patterns, partner relationship and home. A large prevalence difference between Tongans and other groups remained when the effects of other risk factors were controlled statistically. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among Pacific mothers is at the upper end of the range typically reported. Focus on the overall rate, however, obscures substantial variation between groups. Risk factors are generally similar to those identified in previous research. The findings have implications for prevention and treatment and caution against assuming homogeneity within ethnic categories. Further research is required to explain differences in prevalence between Tongan and other Pacific Island groups.

  16. Prevalence of Parasitic Infections among Students in a Large Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general effects of the parasites on the infected students was constant absenteeism reduced mental ability, general weakness resulting in low grades in school examinations. Health education conducted included advice on the provision of modern toilet facilities and borehole water in the study area and immediate ...

  17. Worldwide prevalence of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A; van den Heijkant, M; Baumann, S

    2016-06-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. Surgical repair and management of the long-term consequences require a substantial amount of socioeconomic resources. It is generally accepted that genetic and environmental factors play a major role in the etiology of hypospadias. There have been contradictory reports on rising hypospadias rates, and regional and ethnical differences. The exact prevalence of hypospadias is of major interest for healthcare providers, clinical medicine, and research. To review the literature regarding the worldwide prevalence of hypospadias. Pubmed, EMBASE and Google were systematically screened for: hypospadias, congenital malformation, anomaly, incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology. Exclusion criteria were surgical and risk-factor studies. To give an additional comprehensive overview, prevalence data were harvested from the Annual Report of the International Clearinghouse Centre for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Prevalence was reported as per 10,000 live births. Data were available from 1910 to 2013. The median study period was 9 years (range: 1-36 years). Approximately 90,255,200 births have been screened in all studies. The mean prevalence were: Europe 19.9 (range: 1-464), North America 34.2 (6-129.8), South America 5.2 (2.8-110), Asia 0.6-69, Africa 5.9 (1.9-110), and Australia 17.1-34.8. There were major geographical, regional, and ethnical differences, with an extreme heterogeneity of published studies. Numerous studies showed an increasing prevalence; on the other hand, there were a lot of contradictory data on the prevalence of hypospadias. The summary table shows contradictory data from the five largest international studies available. There was huge literature available on the prevalence of hypospadias. Most data derived from Europe and North America. Many methodological factors influenced the calculation of an accurate prevalence, and even more of the true changes in prevalence over time (no generally accepted

  18. Ecological correlates of feather mite prevalence in passerines

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between host ecology and feather mite prevalence was analysed in birds. Feather mites are small arthropods (fam. Pterolichoidea and Analgoidea) commonly found on birds, although the nature of their interactions with the host (commensalism, mutualism or parasitism), still remains unclear. Host body mass and migratory behaviour were unrelated to feather mite prevalence. Contrary to expecta- tion, there was no differences in mite prevalence between colonial and so...

  19. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Hypertension Among Traders at A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide which often remains undiagnosed and subsequently untreated. Data from diverse populations on the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension therefore become imperative. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors of ...

  20. Investigating Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence in elite athletics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Ina; van der Worp, Henk; Hensing, Sjoerd; Zwerver, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Although injury surveillance in athletics is routinely conducted, discipline-specific Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore discipline-specific tendinopathy prevalence and identify whether injury-specific risk factors differed in

  1. High Prevalence of Esophageal Dysmotility in Asymptomatic Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Côté-Daigneault

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important health problem affecting >500 million people worldwide. Esophageal dysmotility is a gastrointestinal pathology associated with obesity; however, its prevalence and characteristics remain unclear. Esophageal dysmotilities have a high prevalence among obese patients regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma and chronic wounds: remaining fibronectin may influence matrix remodeling and regeneration success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Andrei; Deffune, Elenice

    2013-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma has been largely used as a therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic wounds of different etiologies. The enhanced regeneration observed after the use of platelet-rich plasma has been systematically attributed to the growth factors that are present inside platelets' granules. We hypothesize that the remaining plasma and platelet-bound fibronectin may act as a further bioactive protein in platelet-rich plasma preparations. Recent reports were analyzed and presented as direct evidences of this hypotheses. Fibronectin may directly influence the extracellular matrix remodeling during wound repair. This effect is probably through matrix metalloproteinase expression, thus exerting an extra effect on chronic wound regeneration. Physicians should be well aware of the possible fibronectin-induced effects in their future endeavors with PRP in chronic wound treatment. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish Remains from Excavations near the Riverfront at Newcastle upon Tyne, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Nicholson

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The City of Newcastle, situated some 10 miles inland on the River Tyne in north-east England, is not now an important fishing port. Most of the fresh fish marketed in the city has been landed at the nearby coastal ports of North and South Shields. Excavations at two sites behind the present Quayside in Newcastle, however, have yielded quantities of fish bones, representing a wide variety of species. This is in contrast to excavations in other parts of the city, where few fish remains have been recovered, and suggests that the quayside in Newcastle was an important centre for the fishing industry during the medieval period. It seems likely that most of the fish remains represent waste from landing and processing fish on or near the quayside. Yet, when taphonomic factors are taken into account, the limitations of using even large bone assemblages to interpret processing activities is demonstrated. As always, the need for a programme of on-site sieving to obtain representative samples of fish bone is evident.

  4. Mortality among homeless women who remain unclaimed after death: An insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Aayushi; Behera, Chittaranjan; Chopra, Saurav; Bhardwaj, D N

    2016-01-01

    Some homeless people remain unclaimed after death. Although women constitute a minor proportion among the homeless, they represent a more vulnerable section. We reviewed the major autopsy characteristics and causes of death among women whose bodies remained unclaimed after death. We analysed the autopsy records and inquest papers of unclaimed bodies of women for the period 2006-12 at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Most women whose bodies were unclaimed were 21 to 60 years old with a mean age of 45 years. Natural events (53.5%), largely attributable to acute/chronic lung diseases, were identified as the most common cause of death. Accidental deaths were predominant among the unnatural causes. Most bodies of women were found on the footpath besides the road (56.1%). The problems of physical/sexual abuse, acute chest infections and road traffic accidents are all aggravated in the situation of homelessness. More affordable shelters are needed to preferentially accommodate women. Also, awareness about the existing medical facilities needs to be increased.

  5. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains... made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  6. Vaccine prevention of meningococcal disease in Africa: Major advances, remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Harrison, Lee H

    2017-12-06

    Africa historically has had the highest incidence of meningococcal disease with high endemic rates and periodic epidemics. The meningitis belt, a region of sub-Saharan Africa extending from Senegal to Ethiopia, has experienced large, devastating epidemics. However, dramatic shifts in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease have occurred recently. For instance, meningococcal capsular group A (NmA) epidemics in the meningitis belt have essentially been eliminated by use of conjugate vaccine. However, NmW epidemics have emerged and spread across the continent since 2000; NmX epidemics have occurred sporadically, and NmC recently emerged in Nigeria and Niger. Outside the meningitis belt, NmB predominates in North Africa, while NmW followed by NmB predominate in South Africa. Improved surveillance is necessary to address the challenges of this changing epidemiologic picture. A low-cost, multivalent conjugate vaccine covering NmA and the emergent and prevalent meningococcal capsular groups C, W, and X in the meningitis belt is a pressing need.

  7. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  8. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the “Tophet”) yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3rd c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  10. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  11. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted to a large population through blood transfusion or by exposure to other body fluids. HBV is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae and also a DNA virus. In this study, the prevalence of hepatitis B infection ...

  13. Incidence, prevalence, and trends of general practitioner-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy in England, 2001 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Daniel; Simpson, Colin R; Sheikh, Aziz

    2011-03-01

    Previous descriptions of the epidemiology of peanut allergy have mainly been derived from small cross-sectional studies. To interrogate a large national research database to provide estimates for the incidence, prevalence, and trends of general practitioner (GP)-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy in the English population. Version 10 of the QRESEARCH database was used with data from 2,958,366 patients who were registered with 422 United Kingdom general practices in the years 2001 to 2005. The primary outcome was a recording of clinician-diagnosed peanut allergy. The age-sex standardized incidence rate of peanut allergy in 2005 was 0.08 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 0.07-0.08), and the prevalence rate was 0.51 per 1000 patients (95% CI, 0.49-0.54). This translated into an estimated 4000 incident cases (95% CI, 3500-4600) and 25,700 prevalent cases (95% CI, 24,400-27,100) of GP-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy in England in 2005. During the study period, the incidence rate of peanut allergy remained fairly stable, whereas the prevalence rate doubled. In those under 18 years of age, the crude lifetime prevalence rate was higher in males than females. A significant inverse relationship between prevalence and socioeconomic status was found. These data on GP-recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy from a large general practice database suggest a much lower prevalence in peanut allergy than has hitherto been found. This difference may in part be explained by underrecording of peanut allergy in general practice. Further research is needed to assess the true frequency of peanut allergy in the population and whether there has been a true increase in recent years. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

    2014-06-30

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Digital imaging methods as an aid in dental identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, C Michael; Johansen, Raymond J

    2002-03-01

    The physical comparison of known (K) and questioned (Q) evidence samples is an accepted tool in numerous forensic identification disciplines (1). A subset of this process is the use of antemortem and postmortem dental radiographs to identify unidentified human remains. This method has been generally accepted for decades (2). The outcome is performed with a considerable degree of accuracy, due in part to a finite pool of possible candidates for identification derived via the NCIC database, passenger lists, and law enforcement Missing Persons reports. This paper describes a dental identification comparison protocol that incorporated digital imaging technology in this process. The computer was used to create digital exemplars of the K and Q evidence that were spatially and quantitatively compared (3). The digital mode allowed direct metric and morphologic comparison through the aid of a digital camera, desktop computer, monitor, and printer. The well-known computer program Adobe Photoshop 5.0 (4) was used to process the digital information in two forensic cases described in this paper. It is a commercially available digital imaging editing program that is operated on laptop and desktop computers possessing sufficient chip speed and RAM (Pentium II or equivalent and at least 76MB RAM) to open the large-size files generated by high-resolution digital capture devices. This program accepts raster-based image formats (e.g. .JPG, .BMP). Photoshop is noted for its diverse imaging functions, which allow the computer monitor to be used as a comparison microscope when Q and K sample images are tiled side-by-side and/or superimposed. Two and three-dimensional Q and K evidence samples can be individually digitized and then independently resized to allow two-dimensional comparison. The investigator also has the ability to create magnified images (200% to 300%) when the original digital image has been captured at near photoquality resolution (300 dpi). The visual comparison of

  16. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide.

  17. Prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal....... RESULTS: Of the 5,602,628 Danish citizens on January 1, 2013, 1622 patients were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy and were alive and living in Denmark, corresponding to a prevalence of 1:3,454. In 28% of cases the eye condition was part of a syndrome, while the remaining 72% had eye...... disease only. Aside from simplex cases (45%), the most common hereditary pattern was autosomal recessive (23%). CONCLUSION: This epidemiological survey demonstrates that the prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population is 1:3454. Many of the dystrophies are the subjects of clinical...

  18. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Forni Ogna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. Methods. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin’s Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. Results. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h, which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]. Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]. Conclusions. Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered.

  19. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary objects in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository professional staff in consultation with...

  20. Remaining useful life prediction based on noisy condition monitoring signals using constrained Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Junbo; Zhou, Shiyu; Sankavaram, Chaitanya; Du, Xinyu; Zhang, Yilu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical prognostic method to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of individual units based on noisy condition monitoring signals is proposed. The prediction accuracy of existing data-driven prognostic methods depends on the capability of accurately modeling the evolution of condition monitoring (CM) signals. Therefore, it is inevitable that the RUL prediction accuracy depends on the amount of random noise in CM signals. When signals are contaminated by a large amount of random noise, RUL prediction even becomes infeasible in some cases. To mitigate this issue, a robust RUL prediction method based on constrained Kalman filter is proposed. The proposed method models the CM signals subject to a set of inequality constraints so that satisfactory prediction accuracy can be achieved regardless of the noise level of signal evolution. The advantageous features of the proposed RUL prediction method is demonstrated by both numerical study and case study with real world data from automotive lead-acid batteries. - Highlights: • A computationally efficient constrained Kalman filter is proposed. • Proposed filter is integrated into an online failure prognosis framework. • A set of proper constraints significantly improves the failure prediction accuracy. • Promising results are reported in the application of battery failure prognosis.

  1. Estimating the remaining potential of the Reconcavo basin, Brazil: a basin modeling and material balance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Thamy C.S.D.; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Bedregal, Ricardo P.; Cuinas Filho, Elio P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    The existence of a petroleum system requires a number of essential elements (traps and source, reservoir and seal rocks) and processes (HC generation and migration and trap formation) besides an adequate timing among the elements and processes and a positive balance between the HC generation and losses due to (re)migration. Due to the complexity of petroleum systems dynamics, the basin modeling technique is the only one that allows the integration of all geological, geophysical and geochemical data as well as the simulation of the involved phenomena in a physically consistent way, providing an integrated view of the geologic history of the processes and elements of the petroleum system. The main objectives of this work are to show a reconstruction of the thermal and maturity evolution of the sedimentary section of the Reconcavo Basin using a multi-1D (pseudo 3D) approach, to model petroleum generation and expulsion, and the evolution of the pod(s) of source rock through time and space using the pseudo 3D approach, simulate petroleum migration along the main carrier-beds, accumulation and remigration from the potential traps. The advanced exploratory stage (mature), the geologic context (an intracratonic rift that resembles a close system) and the availability of large amounts of public data, make the Reconcavo Basin an excellent place to perform a study that can provide basis to an estimate of the remaining petroleum potential in analogous petroleum systems. (author)

  2. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  3. Variations in the prevalence of childhood asthma and wheeze in MeDALL cohorts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora P. Uphoff

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While there is evidence for variations in prevalence rates of childhood wheeze and asthma between countries, longitudinal, individual-level data are needed to understand these differences. The aim of this study was to examine variations in prevalence rates of childhood asthma, wheeze and wheeze with asthma in Europe. We analysed datasets from 10 MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy cohorts in eight countries, representing 26 663 children, to calculate prevalence rates of wheeze and asthma by child age and wheeze with asthma at age 4 years. Harmonised variables included outcomes parent-reported wheeze and parent-reported doctor-diagnosed asthma, and covariates maternal education, parental smoking, pets, parental asthma, doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, doctor-diagnosed eczema and wheeze severity. At age 4 years, asthma prevalence varied from 1.72% in Germany to 13.48% in England and the prevalence of wheeze varied from 9.82% in Greece to 55.37% in Spain. Adjusted estimates of the proportion of 4-year-old children with wheeze diagnosed with asthma remained highest in England (38.14%, 95% CI 31.38–44.90% and lowest in Spain (15.94%, 95% CI 6.16–25.71%. The large differences in prevalence rates of asthma, wheeze and wheeze with asthma at age 4 years between European cohorts may indicate that childhood asthma is more readily diagnosed in some countries while going unrecognised elsewhere.

  4. Effects of the economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Ghislandi, Simone; Muttarak, Raya

    2015-01-01

    Scanty and controversial information is available on the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on smoking behaviour. No study has quantified the effects of fiscal crises on smoking prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 2007-2008 economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA. Using data from the repeated Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys in pre-crisis (2005-2007) and post-crisis (2009-2010) periods on a total of 1,981,607 US adults, we separated the expected (after allowance for the demographic growth of the US population, secular smoking prevalence trends and changes in sociodemographic characteristics) from the unexpected (assumed attributable to the economic crisis) changes in the number of smokers across different employment statuses. Joinpoint regression analysis revealed no significant changes in smoking prevalence trends over the period 2005-2010. The crisis resulted in an increase in the number of smokers in the US by 0.6 million. This is largely due to an unexpected decrease of 1.7 million smokers among employed and an increase of 2.4 million smokers among unemployed individuals, whose smoking prevalence also remains extremely high in the post-crisis period (32.6%). The 2008 financial crisis had a weak effect on smoking prevalence. The pro-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a lower number of smokers) found among the employed is offset by the counter-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a higher number of smokers) found among unemployed individuals. Public health interventions should specifically target those in unemployment, particularly in hard times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes of a survey conducted at a large mining organisation in South Africa. ... These baseline prevalence data also provide an opportunity for monitoring of proposed interventions using cross-sectional surveys at designated intervals in the future. South African ...

  6. Large vessel vasculitis and spondyloarthritis: coincidence or associated diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D; Baerlecken, N T; Schmidt, R E; Witte, T

    2014-01-01

    Although cardiac complications have been reported in established spondyloarthritis (SpA), little is known about peripheral axial SpA in large vessel vasculitis (LVV). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of SpA in patients with newly diagnosed LVV. Retrospective single-centre analysis of all newly diagnosed LVV patients was performed between January 2011 and December 2012. Vasculitides were confirmed on thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Patients completed a standardized questionnaire incorporating the Berlin criteria to assess inflammatory back pain. Existing scans were reassessed for sacroiliitis and ferritin antibodies measured in all patients. Fifteen patients exhibiting new LVV were identified. Diagnosis was confirmed using MRI in nine patients and FDG-PET/CT in six. Six patients (40%) fulfilled American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), and nine PMR only. Four patients fulfilled the Berlin criteria for inflammatory back pain, with three demonstrating sacroiliitis on imaging. All remaining patients demonstrated no sacroiliitis. One further patient with LVV lacking features of inflammatory back pain had known psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Patients with coexisting SpA were younger (mean age 57 years vs. 66 years) and had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (200 mg/L vs. 85 mg/L) at presentation. Four SpA patients and seven out of nine patients with isolated LVV had ferritin antibodies. We have demonstrated a higher than anticipated prevalence of SpA in LVV, given the reported 0.5-1% prevalence in the general population. Coexisting SpA should be considered in LVV patients exhibiting inflammatory back pain despite steroid initiation. Ferritin antibodies demonstrated a similarly high prevalence in aortitis and SpA as reported previously in untreated GCA and PMR.

  7. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  8. The prevalence and natural history of complex sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Shahrokh; Smith, Jason; Chung, Eugene

    2009-06-15

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) may occasionally occur in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during titration with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. To determine the prevalence and the natural history of CPAP-emergent CSA. This is a retrospective study of 1286 patients with a diagnosis of OSAwho underwent titration with a positive airway device during a 1-year period. Patients were seen in consultation and underwent full-night attended polysomnography followed by full-night attended CPAP titration. Four weeks after CPAP therapy, patients returned to the clinic for follow-up, and objective adherence to CPAP was recorded. In patients who had CSA on CPAP, a second full-night attended CPAP titration was recommended. Eighty-four of the 1286 patients developed a central apnea index (CAI) of 5 or greater per hour while on CPAP. The incidence of CSA varied from 3% to 10% monthly, with an overall incidence of 6.5%. Forty-two of the 84 patients returned for a second CPAP titration. In 33 patients, CSA was eliminated. In each of the remaining 9 patients, the CAI remained at 5 or greater per hour, with an average of 13 per hour. These patients characteristically had the most severe OSA, and 5 had a CAI of 5 or more per hour at baseline. Two of the 9 patients were on opioids In this large retrospective study of 1286 patients with a diagnosis of OSA, 6.5% had CPAP-emergent or persistent CSA. However, CPAP-emergent CSA was generally transitory and was eliminated within 8 weeks after CPAP therapy. The prevalence of CPAP-persistent CSA was about 1.5%. Severity of OSA, a CAI of 5 or greater per hour, and use of opioids were potential risk factors.

  9. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  10. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  11. Myopia: Prevalence and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    D~ L LL Myopia Prevalence and Progression DTIC ELECTE ! SEP 19 1989 C _ _ ’ l A 9 ,3 /5i MYOPIA: PREVALENCE AND PROGRESSION Working Group on Myopia... WALLMAN , Department of Biology, City University of New York AC"esiOf) For NTtSCF& DTjC T;,jE 0 ey ____ (:3 1U: or iii COMMITTEE ON VISION ANTHONY J. ADAMS...provided by Carol Metcalf and Gora P. Lerma, for which the working group is grateful. Christine L . McShane, editor of the Commission on Behavioral and

  12. The penalty points system in Ireland - Does it remain effective 14 years on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, C; Donnelly, M

    2017-05-23

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are the leading cause of trauma related mortality in Ireland. The penalty points system (PPS) was introduced in Ireland in 2002 to incentivise safer driving and reduce injury. Its early effect was studied previously 1 which concluded that there was a slight reduction in RTA related femoral shaft fractures (a sensitive indicator of high energy trauma) and a dramatic reduction in RTA related discharges. We hypothesized that over the following 14 years, the penalty points system might lose its effectiveness. Data was again collected from the same HIPE departments from six Dublin teaching hospitals and also University Hospital Waterford (to represent both an urban and a more rural population cohort respectively) examining RTA related femoral shaft fractures over an identical 6 month period (October-April). RTA related discharge data over an identical 6 month period was again acquired and analysed from Beaumont Hospital, Dublin (identical data source to previous study). These results were compared with the identical 6 month period in 2001/02 & 2002/03 (October-April). The total number of RTA related femoral shaft fracture discharges in Dublin decreased from 16 post introduction of PPS in the 2002/03 6-month period to 7 in 2015/16 6-month period. The number remained the same in the Waterford region (n = 5). The total RTA related discharges in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin decreased from 70 post PPS introduction to 57 in the 2015/16 6-month period. This represents an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 discharges (vs 6.9 post introduction) which was a statistically significant reduction (p = 0.014). The mean length of stay for these patients reduced from 13 to 7.7 days. There were consistent reductions in head injury (major & minor), lower limb fracture and facial fracture since the introduction of the PPS. The upper limb, pelvic/acetabular and thoracic injuries remained largely unchanged. Whilst RTA related spinal and abdominal injuries decreased

  13. Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough's Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Parfitt, Simon A

    2015-05-01

    A recurring theme of late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian human bone assemblages is the remarkable rarity of primary burials and the common occurrence of highly-fragmentary human remains mixed with occupation waste at many sites. One of the most extensive Magdalenian human bone assemblages comes from Gough's Cave, a sizeable limestone cave set in Cheddar Gorge (Somerset), UK. After its discovery in the 1880s, the site was developed as a show cave and largely emptied of sediment, at times with minimal archaeological supervision. Some of the last surviving remnants of sediment within the cave were excavated between 1986 and 1992. The excavations uncovered intensively-processed human bones intermingled with abundant butchered large mammal remains and a diverse range of flint, bone, antler, and ivory artefacts. New ultrafiltrated radiocarbon determinations demonstrate that the Upper Palaeolithic human remains were deposited over a very short period of time, possibly during a series of seasonal occupations, about 14,700 years BP (before present). The human remains have been the subject of several taphonomic studies, culminating in a detailed reanalysis of the cranial remains that showed they had been carefully modified to make skull-cups. Our present analysis of the postcrania has identified a far greater degree of human modification than recorded in earlier studies. We identify extensive evidence for defleshing, disarticulation, chewing, crushing of spongy bone, and the cracking of bones to extract marrow. The presence of human tooth marks on many of the postcranial bones provides incontrovertible evidence for cannibalism. In a wider context, the treatment of the human corpses and the manufacture and use of skull-cups at Gough Cave have parallels with other Magdalenian sites in central and western Europe. This suggests that cannibalism during the Magdalenian was part of a customary mortuary practice that combined intensive processing and consumption of the bodies with

  14. Social phobia in obsessive-compulsive disorder: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Melissa Chagas; Costa, Daniel Lucas da Conceição; de Mathis, Maria Alice; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Torres, Albina Rodrigues

    2012-12-20

    Social Phobia (SP) is an anxiety disorder that frequently co-occurs with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); however, studies that evaluate clinical factors associated with this specific comorbidity are rare. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of SP in a large multicenter sample of OCD patients and compare the characteristics of individuals with and without SP. A cross-sectional study with 1001 patients of the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders using several assessment instruments, including the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Univariate analyses were followed by logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence of SP was 34.6% (N=346). The following variables remained associated with SP comorbidity after logistic regression: male sex, lower socioeconomic status, body dysmorphic disorder, specific phobia, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, Tourette syndrome and binge eating disorder. The cross-sectional design does not permit the inference of causal relationships; some retrospective information may have been subject to recall bias; all patients were being treated in tertiary services, therefore generalization of the results to other samples of OCD sufferers should be cautious. Despite the large sample size, some hypotheses may not have been confirmed due to the small number of cases with these characteristics (type 2 error). SP is frequent among OCD patients and co-occurs with other disorders that have common phenomenological features. These findings have important implications for clinical practice, indicating the need for broader treatment approaches for individuals with this profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean liver cancer study group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines compared with other guidelines and remaining issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Won [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed 'washout' in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  16. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  17. Prevalence. Ascice. faotic dogs.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    reproduction. body weight evaluation and other existing ph}siological and pathological condn1ons. REFERE:\\CES. Datong. P. G. (2003). Seasonal Prevalence of Ascites in Dogs. '\\atonal Diploma project in. Animal I lealth and production Technology. FCAHPT. I'\\\\ RI. Vom .. Plateau State Pp 1-. 28. Gourley. I. M., and Vasseur ...

  18. Prevalence of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    esophagus. It is not known whether the trend is similar locally. Objective: To describe the prevalence and clinicopathological characteristics of adenocarcinoma of .... which is in keeping with trends observed in other regions of the world. Most of the patients present late with severe degrees of dysphagia, with wasting seen in.

  19. The 2007 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, increasingly use computers and other devices that contain computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Individual home users also increasingly use computers and other devices containing computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their private, personal affairs. It continues to be clear that the majority of organisations and individual home users still remain ignorant or misinformed of the volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks that these devices contain and have not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or to people with criminal intent.This is the third study in an ongoing research effort that is being conducted into the volume and type of information that remains on computer hard disks offered for sale on the second hand market.  The purpose of the research has been to gain an understanding of the information that remains on the disk and to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information fell into the wrong hands.  The study examines disks that have been obtained in a number of countries to determine whether there is any detectable national or regional variance in the way that the disposal of computer disks is addressed and to compare the results for any other detectable regional or temporal trends.The first study was carried out in 2005 and was repeated in 2006 with the scope extended to include additional countries. The studies were carried out by British Telecommunications, the University of Glamorgan in the UK and Edith Cowan University in Australia. The basis of the research was to acquire a number of second hand computer disks from various sources and then determine whether they still contained information relating to a

  20. Influence of country-level differences on COPD prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron SD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shawn D Aaron,1 Andrea S Gershon,2 Yuan Gao,1 Jenna Yang,1 GA Whitmore1,3 On behalf of the Canadian Respiratory Research Network 1Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 2Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, ON, 3Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Purpose: Studies suggest that COPD prevalence may vary between countries. We conducted an ecological study of data from COPD prevalence articles to assess the influence of differences in country-level risk factors on COPD prevalence. Patients and methods: Our study covered English language articles published during 2003–2014. Qualified articles used spirometry to assess COPD prevalence and used representative samples from national or subnational populations. Stepwise binomial regression was used to analyze associations between study- and country-level factors and COPD prevalence. Results: Eighty articles provided 1,583 measures of COPD prevalence for subjects in different sex, age, and smoking categories for 112 districts in 41 countries. Adjusted prevalence rates for COPD were significantly lower for Australia/New Zealand and the Mediterranean and significantly higher for Latin America, compared to North America, Southeast Asia, and Northern Europe. Country-level socioeconomic development variables had an uneven and mixed association with COPD prevalence. High elevation above sea level was shown to be a protective factor for COPD. Study-level variables for the established risk factors of sex, age, and smoking explained 64% of variability in COPD prevalence. Country-level risk factors raised the explanatory power to 72%. Approximately 28% of worldwide variability in COPD prevalence remained unexplained. Conclusion: Our study suggests that COPD prevalence varies across world regions, even after adjustment for established risk factors. Major country-level risk factors contributing to the worldwide epidemic of COPD remain

  1. Run-of-River Impoundments Can Remain Unfilled While Transporting Gravel Bedload: Numerical Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work at run-of-river (ROR) dams in northern Delaware has shown that bedload supplied to ROR impoundments can be transported over the dam when impoundments remain unfilled. Transport is facilitated by high levels of sand in the impoundment that lowers the critical shear stresses for particle entrainment, and an inversely sloping sediment ramp connecting the impoundment bed (where the water depth is typically equal to the dam height) with the top of the dam (Pearson and Pizzuto, in press). We demonstrate with one-dimensional bed material transport modeling that bed material can move through impoundments and that equilibrium transport (i.e., a balance between supply to and export from the impoundment, with a constant bed elevation) is possible even when the bed elevation is below the top of the dam. Based on our field work and previous HEC-RAS modeling, we assess bed material transport capacity at the base of the sediment ramp (and ignore detailed processes carrying sediment up and ramp and over the dam). The hydraulics at the base of the ramp are computed using a weir equation, providing estimates of water depth, velocity, and friction, based on the discharge and sediment grain size distribution of the impoundment. Bedload transport rates are computed using the Wilcock-Crowe equation, and changes in the impoundment's bed elevation are determined by sediment continuity. Our results indicate that impoundments pass the gravel supplied from upstream with deep pools when gravel supply rate is low, gravel grain sizes are relatively small, sand supply is high, and discharge is high. Conversely, impoundments will tend to fill their pools when gravel supply rate is high, gravel grain sizes are relatively large, sand supply is low, and discharge is low. The rate of bedload supplied to an impoundment is the primary control on how fast equilibrium transport is reached, with discharge having almost no influence on the timing of equilibrium.

  2. The 2006 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, use computers for the storage and processing of information relating to their business or services, their employees and their customers. A large proportion of families and individuals in their homes now also use personal computers and, both intentionally and inadvertently, often store on those computers personal information. It is clear that most organisations and individuals continue to be unaware of the information that may be stored on the hard disks that the computers contain, and have not considered what may happen to the information after the disposal of the equipment.In 2005, joint research was carried out by the University of Glamorgan in Wales and Edith Cowan University in Australia to determine whether second hand computer disks that were purchased from a number of sources still contained any information or whether the information had been effectively erased. The research revealed that, for the majority of the disks that were examined, the information had not been effectively removed and as a result, both organisations and individuals were potentially exposed to a range of potential crimes.  It is worthy of note that in the disposal of this equipment, the organisations involved had failed to meet their statutory, regulatory and legal obligations.This paper describes a second research project that was carried out in 2006 which repeated the research carried out the previous year and also extended the scope of the research to include additional countries.  The methodology used was the same as that in the previous year and the disks that were used for the research were again supplied blind by a third party. The research involved the forensic imaging of the disks which was followed by an analysis of the disks to determine what information remained and whether it could be easily recovered using publicly available tools and techniques.

  3. Violent video game effects remain a societal concern: Reply to Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepes, Sven; Bushman, Brad J; Anderson, Craig A

    2017-07-01

    A large meta-analysis by Anderson et al. (2010) found that violent video games increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior and decreased empathic feelings and helping behavior. Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder (2017) reanalyzed the data of Anderson et al. (2010) using newer publication bias methods (i.e., precision-effect test, precision-effect estimate with standard error, p-uniform, p-curve). Based on their reanalysis, Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder concluded that experimental studies examining the effect of violent video games on aggressive affect and aggressive behavior may be contaminated by publication bias, and these effects are very small when corrected for publication bias. However, the newer methods Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder used may not be the most appropriate. Because publication bias is a potential a problem in any scientific domain, we used a comprehensive sensitivity analysis battery to examine the influence of publication bias and outliers on the experimental effects reported by Anderson et al. We used best meta-analytic practices and the triangulation approach to locate the likely position of the true mean effect size estimates. Using this methodological approach, we found that the combined adverse effects of outliers and publication bias was less severe than what Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder found for publication bias alone. Moreover, the obtained mean effects using recommended methods and practices were not very small in size. The results of the methods used by Hilgard, Engelhardt, and Rouder tended to not converge well with the results of the methods we used, indicating potentially poor performance. We therefore conclude that violent video game effects should remain a societal concern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  5. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  6. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  7. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumogola Yusufu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population.

  8. Back pain prevalence in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J; Müller, S; Stoll, J; Fröhlich, K; Otto, C; Mayer, F

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to investigate back pain (BP) prevalence in a large cohort of young athletes with respect to age, gender, and sport discipline. BP (within the last 7 days) was assessed with a face scale (face 1-2 = no pain; face 3-5 = pain) in 2116 athletes (m/f 61%/39%; 13.3 ± 1.7 years; 163.0 ± 11.8 cm; 52.6 ± 13.9 kg; 4.9 ± 2.7 training years; 8.4 ± 5.7 training h/week). Four different sports categories were devised (a: combat sports, b: game sports; c: explosive strength sport; d: endurance sport). Analysis was described descriptively, regarding age, gender, and sport. In addition, 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. About 168 (8%) athletes were allocated into the BP group. About 9% of females and 7% of males reported BP. Athletes, 11-13 years, showed a prevalence of 2-4%; while prevalence increased to 12-20% in 14- to 17-year olds. Considering sport discipline, prevalence ranged from 3% (soccer) to 14% (canoeing). Prevalences in weight lifting, judo, wrestling, rowing, and shooting were ≥10%; in boxing, soccer, handball, cycling, and horse riding, ≤6%. 95% CI ranged between 0.08-0.11. BP exists in adolescent athletes, but is uncommon and shows no gender differences. A prevalence increase after age 14 is obvious. Differentiated prevention programs in daily training routines might address sport discipline-specific BP prevalence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. “Why We Stay”: Immigrants’ motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R.; Valentine, Jessa L.; Padilla, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy reduces incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community in spite of the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants’ intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants’ changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed. PMID:23875853

  10. [Prevalence of arterial hypertension in Cushing's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D; Barros, L; Ruas, L; Gomes, L; Geraldes, E; Ruas, M C

    1997-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypertension (HT) in patients with Cushing's syndrome. We studied 23 patients with Cushing's syndrome, 17 women (mean +/- SD age = 42.8 +/- 15.6 years) and 6 men (mean +/- SD age = 34.8 +/- 10.2 years). The etiologies were: 16-Cushing's disease, 3-suprarenal adenoma, 2-suprarenal carcinoma and 2-iatrogenic. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at least three times and we consider hypertension when systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg. The prevalence of HT, at diagnosis, was 73.9% (64.7% in women and 100% in men) and the mean BP was 163 +/- 25/100 +/- 16 mmHg (158 +/- 26/97 +/- 15 mmHg in women and 182 +/- 5/114 +/- 10 mmHg in men). From the 16 patients with Cushing's disease, 13 (81%) had HT; all the patients (n = 3) with suprarenal adenoma had HT; none with suprarenal carcinoma (n = 2) had HT and only 1 of the 2 patients with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome had HT. After treatment, 14 patients entered remission, 6 persisted with active disease and 1 was missed during the follow-up. In the group of patients that entered remission, the prevalence of HT at diagnosis was 78.5% (n = 11), 57.1% (n = 8) being after treatment. In this study, we found a high prevalence of HT at diagnosis (73.9%). After treatment and in the patients that entered remission, the prevalence of HT remained high (78.5% vs 57.1%). The high prevalence of HT in Cushing's syndrome, suggests its importance as a morbidity factor and also as an important diagnostic indicator, when present.

  11. Observations on food remains in faeces of elephant, leopard and crabeater seals

    OpenAIRE

    Green, K.; Williams, R.

    1986-01-01

    Faecal material of leopard, crabeater and elephant seals was collected from the vicinity of Davis station, Antarctica. Very few identifiable remains were found in elephant seal droppings. Fish remains, mainly of Pleuragramma antarcticum, were found in both leopard and crabeater seal droppings. The mysid Antarctomysis maxima was also found in crabeater seal droppings and amphipods and decapod crustaceans in leopard seal droppings.

  12. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  13. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  14. Disordered Gambling Prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    of detectable risk with these corrections, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.......We study Danish adult gambling behavior with an emphasis on discovering patterns relevant to public health forecasting and economic welfare assessment of policy. Methodological innovations include measurement of formative in addition to reflective constructs, estimation of prospective risk...... for developing gambling disorder rather than risk of being falsely negatively diagnosed, analysis with attention to sample weights and correction for sample selection bias, estimation of the impact of trigger questions on prevalence estimates and sample characteristics, and distinguishing between total...

  15. [Fracture of implant abutment screws and removal of a remaining screw piece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, S.M. van den; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    Fracture of the implant abutment screws is a complication which can render an implant useless. The prevalence of abutment screw fracture does not exceed 2.5% after 10 years. Causes are loosening of implant abutment screw, too few, too short or too narrow implants, implants not inserted perpendicular

  16. Prevalence and Characteristics of Discogenic Pain in Tertiary Practice: 223 Consecutive Cases Utilizing Lumbar Discography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrills, Paul; Nowesenitz, Gillian; Barnard, Adele

    2015-08-01

    Between 26% and 42% of chronic low back pain is attributed to internal disc disruption of lumbar intervertebral discs. These prevalence estimates and data characterizing discogenic pain originate largely from research at elite practices, conducted 20 years ago. With few studies since, their concordance with rates in community practice has rarely been addressed. To assess the prevalence and key features of discogenic pain within community-based tertiary practice, and to evaluate the accuracy and clinical utility of discography. This prospective, three-year study of 223 consecutive cases of chronic low back pain used image-guided lumbar discography to identify symptomatic and flanking asymptomatic discs. A subset of patients (n = 195) had previously undergone posterior column blocks to investigate spinal facet and/or sacroiliac joints as contributing pain sources. A total of 644 discs were tested without infection or complication. Positive discograms were recorded in 74% of patients, with 22.9% negative and 3.1% assessed as indeterminate. Among patients receiving both discography and diagnostic blocks, 63% had proven discogenic pain, 18% had pain of mixed etiology and 14% remained undiagnosed. Taking into account all low back pain cases during this study (n = 756), discogenic pain prevalence was 21.8% (95% CI: 17-26%). The prevalence of discogenic pain in this community practice is below the range, but within confidence intervals, previously reported. Prevalence is considerably elevated, however, among well-selected patients and discography enabled a firm diagnosis in most such cases. These findings are broadly in keeping with those reached in key publications and support the clinical utility of discography. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prevalence of food allergies and intolerances documented in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Warren W; Plasek, Joseph M; Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Lai, Kenneth H; Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Goss, Foster R; Slight, Sarah P; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2017-12-01

    Food allergy prevalence is reported to be increasing, but epidemiological data using patients' electronic health records (EHRs) remain sparse. We sought to determine the prevalence of food allergy and intolerance documented in the EHR allergy module. Using allergy data from a large health care organization's EHR between 2000 and 2013, we determined the prevalence of food allergy and intolerance by sex, racial/ethnic group, and allergen group. We examined the prevalence of reactions that were potentially IgE-mediated and anaphylactic. Data were validated using radioallergosorbent test and ImmunoCAP results, when available, for patients with reported peanut allergy. Among 2.7 million patients, we identified 97,482 patients (3.6%) with 1 or more food allergies or intolerances (mean, 1.4 ± 0.1). The prevalence of food allergy and intolerance was higher in females (4.2% vs 2.9%; P food allergen groups were shellfish (0.9%), fruit or vegetable (0.7%), dairy (0.5%), and peanut (0.5%). Of the 103,659 identified reactions to foods, 48.1% were potentially IgE-mediated (affecting 50.8% of food allergy or intolerance patients) and 15.9% were anaphylactic. About 20% of patients with reported peanut allergy had a radioallergosorbent test/ImmunoCAP performed, of which 57.3% had an IgE level of grade 3 or higher. Our findings are consistent with previously validated methods for studying food allergy, suggesting that the EHR's allergy module has the potential to be used for clinical and epidemiological research. The spectrum of severity observed with food allergy highlights the critical need for more allergy evaluations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging of the optic disk in caring for patients with glaucoma: ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, George L; Reddy, Swathi C

    2014-01-01

    Optic disk imaging is integral to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with glaucoma. We discuss the various forms of imaging the optic nerve, including ophthalmoscopy, photography, and newer imaging modalities, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (HRT), and scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), specifically highlighting their benefits and disadvantages. We argue that ophthalmoscopy and photography remain the gold standard of imaging due to portability, ease of interpretation, and the presence of a large database of images for comparison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Human remains in museums: research, preservation and communication. The experience of Turin University Museum of Anthropology and Etnography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, Rosa; Grilletto, Renato; Rabino Massa, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The creation of large scientific collections has been an important development for anthropological and paleopathological research. Indeed the biological collections are irreplaceable reference systems for the biological reconstruction of past population. They also assume the important role of anthropological archives and, in the global description of man, permit the integration of historical data with those from bio-anthropolgical research. Thinking about the role of mummies and bones as scientific resources, best practice of preservation of ancient specimens should be of high priority for institution and researchers. By way of example, the authors mention their experience regarding ancient human remains preserved in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography at the University of Turin.

  20. Prevalence of nutrient deficiencies in bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Seok Yee; Zarshenas, Nazy; Jorgensen, John

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies in patients who present for bariatric surgery, assess nutritional status after surgery, and compare these with preoperative levels. A retrospective study was conducted to identify preoperative and 1-year postoperative nutrition deficiencies in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. The screening included serum ferritin, vitamin D, vitamin B(12), homocysteine, folate, red blood cell folate, and hemoglobin. Results were available for 232 patients preoperatively and 149 patients postoperatively. Two-tailed chi(2) tests and paired-sample t tests were used. Preoperatively, vitamin D deficiency was noted at 57%. The prevalence of abnormalities 1 year after roux-en-Y gastric bypass was higher compared with preoperative levels (P surgery, anemia was detected in 17%, elevated homocysteine levels (women only) in 29%, low ferritin in 15%, low vitamin B(12) in 11%, and low RBC folate in 12%. Mean hemoglobin, ferritin, and RBC folate levels deteriorated significantly but remained well within normal ranges. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies decreased, but not significantly. In sleeve gastrectomy patients, mean ferritin levels decreased (P deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is common among morbidly obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. Because the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies persists or worsens postoperatively, routine nutrition screening, recommendation of appropriate supplements, and monitoring adherence are imperative in this population.

  1. Human Remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition of Southwest China Suggest a Complex Evolutionary History for East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren; Xueping, Ji; Herries, Andy I. R.; Kanning, Bai; Taçon, Paul S. C.; Zhende, Bao; Fink, David; Yunsheng, Zhu; Hellstrom, John; Yun, Luo; Cassis, Gerasimos; Bing, Su; Wroe, Stephen; Shi, Hong; Parr, William C. H.; Shengmin, Huang; Rogers, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Background Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province). We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province) to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia. PMID:22431968

  2. Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of southwest China suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Curnoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province. We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia.

  3. Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of southwest China suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren; Xueping, Ji; Herries, Andy I R; Kanning, Bai; Taçon, Paul S C; Zhende, Bao; Fink, David; Yunsheng, Zhu; Hellstrom, John; Yun, Luo; Cassis, Gerasimos; Bing, Su; Wroe, Stephen; Shi, Hong; Parr, William C H; Shengmin, Huang; Rogers, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province). We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province) to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia.

  4. Geomagnetic and geoelectrical prospection for buried archaeological remains on the Upper City of Amorium, a Byzantine city in midwestern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Balkaya, Çağlayan; Şeren, Aysel; Kaya, Mehmet Ali; Lightfoot, Christopher Sherwin

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of geophysical imaging surveys, including geomagnetic and geoelectrical resistivity, possible archaeological remains and their spatial parameters (i.e., location, extension, depth and thickness) were explored to provide useful data for future excavations on the Upper City of the ancient Amorium site, which comprises a large prehistoric man-made mound. The surveys were performed very close to the main axis of the Basilica, and the derived geophysical traces indicated some subsurface structures that appear to confirm that more-substantial brick and masonry buildings lie near the present-day surface of the mound. Analyzing the local gradients by total horizontal derivatives of pseudogravity data enhanced the edges of the magnetic sources. Additionally, a profile curvature technique, which has rarely been applied to potential field data sets, dramatically improved the magnetic-source body edges and the lineaments that may be associated with buried archaeological remains. The depths of these possible anthropogenic remains were estimated by applying the Euler deconvolution technique to the geomagnetic data set. The Euler solutions on tentative indices indicated that the depths of the source bodies are not more than about 3 m. Moreover, geoelectrical resistivity depth slices produced from the results of two- and three-dimensional linearized least-squares inversion techniques revealed high-resistivity anomalies within a depth of about 3 m from the ground surface, which is in close agreement with those obtained by applying the Euler deconvolution technique to the magnetic data. Based on the existence of some archaeological remains in the vicinity of the surveyed area, these geophysical anomalies were thought to be the possible traces of the buried remains and were suggested as targets for excavations. This study also emphasized that the data-processing techniques applied in this investigation should be suitable for providing an insight into the layout of the

  5. The prevalence of adult congenital heart disease, results from a systematic review and evidence based calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bom, Teun; Bouma, Berto J.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) has been reported with a high degree of variability. Prevalence estimates have been calculated using birth rate, birth prevalence, and assumed survival and derived from large administrative databases. To report more robust

  6. Trends in the Prevalence of Dementia in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Hiroko H.; Buracchio, Teresa J.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Meguro, Kenichi; Tanizaki, Yumihiro; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1) summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2) compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3) assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus vascular dementia (VaD) over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes. PMID:23091769

  7. Trends in the Prevalence of Dementia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko H. Dodge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data regarding trends in dementia and its subtype prevalence in Japan. Our aims in the current paper are to: (1 summarize epidemiological studies of dementia in Japan including relevant details of study protocol and diagnostic criteria, (2 compare the age-specific prevalence of all-cause dementia among studies, and (3 assess the trends in Alzheimer's disease (AD versus vascular dementia (VaD over time. We reviewed diagnostic criteria, all-cause dementia prevalence, and the AD/VaD ratio from 8 large population studies of dementia in Japan. Compared with the Okinawa 1992 study, studies conducted in 1994, 1998, 2005, and 2008 had a higher prevalence of all-cause dementia using Poisson regression models, after controlling for age and sex. In contrast to the US and some European countries, all-cause dementia prevalence is increasing in Japan. The prevalence of AD as opposed to VaD seems to be increasing over time, but large variability in diagnostic criteria, possible regional variability, and differences in prevalence of subtypes of dementia between men and women make it difficult to draw a conclusion about this trend at the national level. Further studies, for example, comparing the population attributable risk of vascular diseases to the prevalence and incidence of dementia could help to clarify the regional variations in etiological subtypes.

  8. [Monitoring the prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Due, P.; Hansen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has proposed a model to monitor the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Denmark. The model should make it possible to assess whether different initiatives reduce the prevalence of obesity and to gain knowledge on how to prevent obesity. The prevalence...

  9. New craniodental remains of Thylacinus potens (Dasyuromorphia: Thylacinidae), a carnivorous marsupial from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of central Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    New craniodental specimens that are referrable to the thylacinid marsupial, Thylacinus potens, are described from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia. The remains include a largely complete maxilla and dentary, showing for the first time the anterior dentition of the dentary. The new remains indicate that Th. potens was a more variable species than previously recognised. The dentary, in particular, is more gracile, than other specimens referred to this sp...

  10. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... to have a relationship of shared group identity with the particular human remains and associated...

  11. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  12. Predictors of patients remaining anovulatory during clomiphene citrate induction of ovulation in normogonadotropic oligoamenorrheic infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe diagnostic criteria used to identify patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome remain controversial. The present prospective longitudinal follow-up study was designed to identify whether certain criteria assessed during standardized initial

  13. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  14. Geotechnical research on Jiangnan Tu-Dun tomb historical remains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Onitsuka, Katsutada

    2004-03-01

    Geotechnical research on historical remains can provide new data and distinctive viewpoint for research on soil mechanics. Two Jiangnan Tu-Dun tombs historical remains were investigated by means of in situ and laboratory geotechnical tests. In the present paper the geotechnical properties of these man-made earthworks, especially ageing effect on consolidation and direct shear, and compaction properties of earth fill are discussed.

  15. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  16. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean a...

  17. Silicosis prevalence and risk factors in semi-precious stone mining in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Tamires P; Watte, Guilherme; Gusso, Alaíde M; Souza, Rafaela; Moreira, José da S; Knorst, Marli M

    2017-06-01

    Underground mining generates large amounts of dust and exposes workers to silica. This study aims to determine the prevalence and predictor factors for the development of silicosis among semi-precious-stone mineworkers in southern Brazil working in a self-administered cooperative. In a cross-sectional study of 348 current workers and retirees, demographic data, medical, and occupational history were collected through an interview performed by a nurse and medical record review. Risk factor associations were studied by Poisson multivariate regression. The overall prevalence of silicosis was 37%, while in current miners it was 28%. Several risk factors for silicosis were identified in the univariate analysis. Inadequate ventilation in the underground galleries combined with dry drilling, duration of silica exposure, and (inversely) education remained significant in the multivariate analysis (P cooperative with limited resources. The prevalence of silicosis was very high. A number of recommendations are made-including technical support for worker cooperatives, surveillance of silica exposure and silicosis, exposure reduction measures, and benefits allowing impaired miners to leave the industry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infection among rural malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huat, Lim Boon; Mitra, Amal K; Jamil, Noor Izani Noor; Dam, Pim Chau; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Wan

    2012-01-01

    Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders). A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. Out of 79 samples, 29 (37%) were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less) (P=0.015), eating raw salad (P=0.03), and no physical activities (P=0.03) were found independent risk factors for the child's helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019). In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02) and eating raw salad (P=0.04) remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother's poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.

  19. Breastfeeding in the first hour of life and modern technology: prevalence and limiting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pillegi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence and limiting factors ofbreastfeeding in the first hour of life at the Maternity Center of HospitalIsraelita Albert Einstein, where the predominant model of childbirthcare is largely based on the use of modern technology. Methods: Aretrospective study with quantitative analysis in a middle and upperclass population of different cultural backgrounds. Data were obtainedfrom the delivery record book in a total of 12,350 births from January2004 to December 2007. Results: Of 12,350 births, 3,277 (26.9%were excluded because of contraindications to breastfeeding in thefirst hour of life such as: prematurity, respiratory distress, adverseeffects of anesthesia, obstetric conditions, congenital malformation,and others. Other 180 cases were excluded due to missing data.Of the remaining 8,893 cases, 2,279 (18.7% were not breastfedbecause of limiting factors that require improvement actions: highdelivery turnover, patient refusal, medical refusal, tiredness due toprolonged labor, loss of data recording. Cesarean delivery and the useof anesthesia did neither prevent breastfeeding in the first hour of lifenor skin-to-skin contact. The prevalence was 74.3%. Conclusions:The use of technology and the hospital practices interfere inbreastfeeding, but are not factors that prevent it. The identificationof the prevalence and limiting factors contributes to the evaluationof the care provided and elaboration of nursing interventions forcontinuous improvement of the care practice. Improvement actionsshould include prenatal care and delivery itself.

  20. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  1. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  2. Cremated human and animal remains of the Roman period--microscopic method of analysis (Sepkovcica, Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincak, Zdravka; Mihelić, Damir; Bugar, Aleksandra

    2007-12-01

    Human and animal cremated osteological remains from twelve graves of Roman Period from archaeological site Sepkovcica near Velika Gorica (Turopolje region, NW Croatia) were analysed. Beside the content of urns and grave pits, fillings of grave vessels like bowls, pots and amphoras from twentytwo grave samples were included in this study. The preservation of osteological and dental remains of human and animal origin was very poor, majority of fragments hardly reach lengths of 10 mm. Weight of each specimen barely exceeds 100 g per person. Apart from traditional macroscopic methods of analysing cremated remains, microscopic method for determination of age at death was also tested. Fragments of femoral bone diaphysis of eighteen persons whose remains had been found on the site were analysed. Person's age at death was presented in the range of five or ten years, and the long bone fragments of a child (infants) were detected. Taxonomic position for each analysed specimen was determined by microscopic analysis of animal cremated bones. Analysis results confirm validity of microscopic method in determination of age at death for human remains and taxonomic qualification of cremated animal remains from archaeological sites.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  4. Seven and up: individual differences in male voice fundamental frequency emerge before puberty and remain stable throughout adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Meddy; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Mathevon, Nicolas; Reby, David

    2016-10-01

    Voice pitch (the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency, F0) varies considerably even among individuals of the same sex and age, communicating a host of socially and evolutionarily relevant information. However, due to the almost exclusive utilization of cross-sectional designs in previous studies, it remains unknown whether these individual differences in voice pitch emerge before, during or after sexual maturation, and whether voice pitch remains stable into adulthood. Here, we measured the F0 parameters of men who were recorded once every 7 years from age 7 to 56 as they participated in the British television documentary Up Series. Linear mixed models revealed significant effects of age on all F0 parameters, wherein F0 mean, minimum, maximum and the standard deviation of F0 showed sharp pubertal decreases between age 7 and 21, yet remained remarkably stable after age 28. Critically, men's pre-pubertal F0 at age 7 strongly predicted their F0 at every subsequent adult age, explaining up to 64% of the variance in post-pubertal F0. This finding suggests that between-individual differences in voice pitch that are known to play an important role in men's reproductive success are in fact largely determined by age 7, and may therefore be linked to prenatal and/or pre-pubertal androgen exposure.

  5. Malnutrition in Hospitals: It Was, Is Now, and Must Not Remain a Problem!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, Peter C.; Herrmann, Hans J.; Schink, Kristin; Neurath, Markus F.; Zopf, Yurdagül

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is an under-recognized problem in hospitalized patients. Despite systematic screening, the prevalence of malnutrition in the hospital did not decrease in the last few decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition and to determine the explicit daily calorie intake of hospitalized patients, to identify the risk factors of developing malnutrition during hospitalization and the effect on the financial reimbursement according to the German DRG-system. Material/Methods 815 hospitalized patients were included in this study. The detection of malnutrition was based on the nutritional-risk-screening (NRS) and subjective-global-assessment (SGA) scores. A trained investigator recorded the daily calorie and fluid intake of each patient. Furthermore, clinical parameters, and the financial reimbursement were evaluated. Results The prevalence of malnutrition was 53.6% according to the SGA and 44.6% according the NRS. During hospitalization, patients received on average 759.9±546.8 kcal/day. The prevalence of malnutrition was increased in patients with hepatic and gastrointestinal disease and with depression or dementia. The most important risk factors for malnutrition were bed rest and immobility (OR=5.88, 95% CI 2.25–15.4). In 84.5% of patient records, malnutrition was not correctly coded, leading to increased financial losses according to the DRG-system (94.908 Euros). Conclusions Hospitalized patients suffer from inadequate nutritional therapy and the risk for developing malnutrition rises during the hospital stay. The early screening of patients for malnutrition would not only improve management of nutritional therapy but also, with adequate coding, improve financial reimbursement according to the DRG-system. PMID:26431510

  6. Impact of population aging on trends in diabetes prevalence: A meta-regression analysis of 160,000 Japanese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Goto, Maki; Inoue, Machiko; Heianza, Yoriko; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito; Nakagami, Tomoko; Song, Xin; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To provide age- and sex-specific trends, age-standardized trends, and projections of diabetes prevalence through the year 2030 in the Japanese adult population. Materials and Methods In the present meta-regression analysis, we included 161,087 adults from six studies and nine national health surveys carried out between 1988 and 2011 in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes using a recorded history of diabetes or, for the population of individuals without known diabetes, either a glycated hemoglobin level of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or the 1999 World Health Organization criteria (i.e., a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). Results For both sexes, prevalence appeared to remain unchanged over the years in all age categories except for men aged 70 years or older, in whom a significant increase in prevalence with time was observed. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates based on the Japanese population of the corresponding year showed marked increasing trends: diabetes prevalence was 6.1% among women (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5–6.7), 9.9% (95% CI 9.2–10.6) among men, and 7.9% (95% CI 7.5–8.4) among the total population in 2010, and was expected to rise by 2030 to 6.7% (95% CI 5.2–9.2), 13.1% (95% CI 10.9–16.7) and 9.8% (95% CI 8.5–12.0), respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized diabetes prevalence using a fixed population appeared to remain unchanged. Conclusions This large-scale meta-regression analysis shows that a substantial increase in diabetes prevalence is expected in Japan during the next few decades, mainly as a result of the aging of the adult population. PMID:26417410

  7. Prevalence and description of selective mutism in a school-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R Lindsey; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James T

    2002-08-01

    To examine the prevalence of selective mutism (SM) in a public school sample and compare the functioning and symptoms of children with SM to age- and gender-matched unaffected children. Kindergarten, first, and second grade teachers in a large district were asked to identify pupils who met DSM-IV criteria for SM and to complete ratings of speaking behavior, social anxiety, other internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and overall functioning for these and comparison youngsters. Teachers completed the same ratings on the SM children 6 months later. A participation rate of 94% (125 of 133 teachers) was obtained, and the prevalence of SM was .71% (16/2,256). Measures were completed for 12 (75%) of 16 identified children. Compared with peers, children with SM were more symptomatic on measures of frequency of speech, social anxiety, and other internalizing symptoms. As a group, children with SM had improved 6 months later but remained impaired and symptomatic when compared with the comparison group. SM may not be as rare as previously thought. The functioning of children with SM is impaired, and although there is some improvement over time, notable impairment remains, suggesting that intervention is preferable to waiting for SM to remit spontaneously.

  8. Prevalence of infectious keratitis in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The baseline data pertaining to the national epidemiological survey of infectious keratitis remain scarce in China, and currently there is no corneal blindness control strategy developed by the nation. Methods Geographically defined cluster sampling was used to randomly select a cross-section of residents from representative urban and rural populations in Hubei Province. Participants were selected from village registers, followed by door-to-door household visits. The assessment items included a structured interview, visual acuity testing, external eye examination, and anterior segment examination using slit lamp. Causes and sequelae of corneal disease were identified according to uniform customized protocol. Results The prevalence of presenting corneal diseases was 0.8% (211/26 305), while the prevalence of infectious keratitis was 0.148% (39/26 305). The prevalences of viral, bacterial, and fungal keratitis were 0.065, 0.068, and 0.015%, respectively. There were no significant differences found between the prevalences of viral (accounting for 43.6%) and bacterial (accounting for 46.2%) corneal ulcers. cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis were not found. Infectious keratitis was the leading cause of corneal blindness (85.7%), and the prevalence of blindness in at least one eye resulting from infected corneas was 0.091% (95% CI: 0.067-0.127%). Conclusions Viral and bacterial mechanisms constitute the most important risk factors for infectious corneal ulcers in Central China. To reduce the rate and severity of infectious keratitis, he public health care policy should be focused on designing cost-effective strategies and operational programs for the prevention and prompt treatment of infectious corneal ulcers. PMID:24690368

  9. CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Hallan, Stein; Völzke, Henry; Ärnlöv, Johan; Kastarinen, Mika; Guessous, Idris; Vinhas, José; Stengel, Bénédicte; Brenner, Hermann; Chudek, Jerzy; Romundstad, Solfrid; Tomson, Charles; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Bello, Aminu K.; Ferrieres, Jean; Palmieri, Luigi; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Van Biesen, Wim; Zoccali, Carmine; Gansevoort, Ron; Navis, Gerjan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Nitsch, Dorothea; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.

    2016-01-01

    CKD prevalence estimation is central to CKD management and prevention planning at the population level. This study estimated CKD prevalence in the European adult general population and investigated international variation in CKD prevalence by age, sex, and presence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. We collected data from 19 general-population studies from 13 European countries. CKD stages 1–5 was defined as eGFR30 mg/g, and CKD stages 3–5 was defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. CKD prevalence was age- and sex-standardized to the population of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU27). We found considerable differences in both CKD stages 1–5 and CKD stages 3–5 prevalence across European study populations. The adjusted CKD stages 1–5 prevalence varied between 3.31% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.30% to 3.33%) in Norway and 17.3% (95% CI, 16.5% to 18.1%) in northeast Germany. The adjusted CKD stages 3–5 prevalence varied between 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.3%) in central Italy and 5.9% (95% CI, 5.2% to 6.6%) in northeast Germany. The variation in CKD prevalence stratified by diabetes, hypertension, and obesity status followed the same pattern as the overall prevalence. In conclusion, this large-scale attempt to carefully characterize CKD prevalence in Europe identified substantial variation in CKD prevalence that appears to be due to factors other than the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PMID:26701975

  10. Nurses' clinical decision-making for preserving nursing home residents' remaining abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Mi So; Kim, Su Jin; Chang, Sung Ok

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to clarify and conceptualise nurses' clinical decision-making for preserving the remaining abilities of nursing home residents suffering from physical-cognitive functional decline. Older adults experience physical, psychological and social changes, but their remaining abilities differ across individuals. This study used a qualitative research to gain a deeper understanding of nursing homes nurses' clinical decision-making. In-depth interviews with 32 experienced nurses were undertaken. The data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Six categories and 58 subcategories of nursing practice related to managing the remaining abilities of residents with physical-cognitive functional decline were generated. The results of this study revealed five themes: (1) seeing residents' potential, (2) physical, emotional and psychosocial care in daily routines, (3) keeping personalised charts, (4) encouraging, promoting and physical and emotional support and (5) preparing residents for more independent living. The results were categorised into nurses' personal strategies based on their experience, practical nursing knowledge, nursing interventions and nursing evaluation criteria. The themes reflected positive views on the residents' functional abilities and the nursing homes nurses' perception that their goal was to help residents achieve their highest level of independence. Preserving nursing home residents' remaining abilities represents nurses' optimistic view of residents' functional status. Routine care tailored for preserving the remaining abilities of individual nursing home residents with physical-cognitive functional decline is needed. Preserving the remaining abilities of nursing home resident is supported by therapeutic interactions including close contact as well as physical and emotional support. Nurses' main goal in working with residents with remaining abilities is improving their independence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of thyroid antibodies and benign disease prevalence among young adults exposed to 131I more than 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Kimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident exposed a large number of inhabitants to internal 131I radiation. The associations between internal 131I exposure and thyroid autoimmunity and benign thyroid diseases remain controversial in the population living in the contaminated area around the CNNP. In this study, we evaluate the association of 131I with benign thyroid diseases. Methods. We compared the prevalence of Anti-Thyroid Autoantibodies (ATAs, thyroid function, and prevalence of thyroid ultrasound finding outcomes in 300 residents of the contaminated area of Ukraine who were 0–5 years of age at the time of the CNPP accident (group 1 and 300 sex-matched residents who were born after the accident (group 2. Results. We did not find any differences of the prevalence of Antithyroglobulin Antibodies (TGAb positive, Antithyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPOAb positive, and TGAb and/or TPOAb positive between the study groups. (11.7% vs 10.3%; p = 0.602, 17.3% vs 13.0%; p = 0.136, 21.0% vs 17.3%; p = 0.254, respectively; after adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence was not associated with the 131I exposure status in the study groups. The prevalence of subclinical and overt hypothyroidism cases was not significantly different (p = 0.093 and p = 0.320 in the two groups, nor was the prevalence of goiter (p = 0.482. On the other hand, the prevalence of nodules was significantly higher in group 1 (p = 0.003, though not significantly so after adjustment for age and sex. Discussion. Working 26–27 years after the CNNP accident, we found no increased prevalence of ATAs or benign thyroid diseases in young adults exposed to 131I fallout during early childhood in the contaminated area of Ukraine. Long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the effects of radiation exposure on autoimmunity reaction in the thyroid.

  12. The prevalence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS use in non-clinical populations: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Khaled

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availability for purchase on the internet and in so called “head shops.” Yet, the extent of their global use remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of NPS use in non-clinical populations. Methods This is a systematic review of observational studies. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, Scopus, Global Health, PsychINFO, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization (WHO regional databases will be searched for eligible prevalence studies published between 2010 and 2016. Data from cross-sectional studies that report the prevalence of NPS use (one or more types in participants (of any age from censuses or probabilistic or convenience samples will be included. Data will be extracted from eligible publications, using a data extraction tool developed for this study. Visual and statistical approaches will be adopted instead of traditional meta-analytic approaches. Discussion This review will describe the distributions of various types of prevalence estimates of NPS use and explore the impact of different population groups and study-related and tempo-geographical variables on characteristics of these distributions over the period of 2010 to 2016. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016037020

  13. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults: 2010-2012 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency.This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status.The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth loss than did other groups in Korean adults. Participants had more anterior and premolar teeth on mandible, but they had more molars on maxilla. In addition, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status.

  14. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  15. Prevalence of intellectual disabilities in Norway: Domestic variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Nøttestad, J A; Lauvrud, C

    2010-02-01

    Based on national registers, the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in Norway is estimated to be 0.44 per 100 inhabitants. This study aimed to examine geographic and urban-rural differences in the prevalence of ID in Norway. Methods A survey based on the national register. Financial transfers intended to provide equal services to people with ID are based on these reports. Results A higher prevalence was found in the North region of Norway. A negative correlation between the population density and the prevalence of ID was also found. Conclusion There was considerable geographic and urban-rural differences in the prevalence of ID, which may be attributable to not only the large diversity of services, but also some other factors. The results were discussed with respect to the deinstitutionalisation progress, resource-intensive services and costs. Differences also reflect some problems in diagnosing ID in people having mild ID.

  16. Prevalence of Domestic Violence Among Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Orouji, Tahereh; Pandit, Viraj; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter; Davis, James W

    2015-12-01

    Domestic violence is an extremely underreported crime and a growing social problem in the United States. However, the true burden of the problem remains unknown. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A 6-year (2007-2012) retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained National Trauma Data Bank. Trauma patients who experienced domestic violence and who presented to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes (995.80-995.85, 995.50, 995.52-995.55, and 995.59) and E codes (E967.0-E967.9). Patients were stratified by age into 3 groups: children (≤18 years), adults (19-54 years), and elderly patients (≥55 years). Trend analysis was performed on April 10, 2014, to assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence over the years. Trauma patients presenting to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A total of 16 575 trauma patients who experienced domestic violence were included. Of these trauma patients, 10 224 (61.7%) were children, 5503 (33.2%) were adults, and 848 (5.1%) were elderly patients. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (20.6), the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score was 10.9 (9.6), and 8397 (50.7%) were male patients. Head injuries (46.8% of patients) and extremity fractures (31.2% of patients) were the most common injuries. A total of 12 515 patients (75.1%) were discharged home, and the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 980). The overall reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients was 5.7 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges. The prevalence of domestic violence increased among children (14.0 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2007 to 18.5 case per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2012; P = .001) and adults (3.2 cases per 1000 discharges in 2007 to 4.5 cases per

  17. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  18. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  19. Remaining useful life prediction of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance: Application to draught fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Hua; Si, Xiao-Sheng; Zio, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    Current degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction studies share a common assumption that the degrading systems are not maintained or maintained perfectly (i.e., to an as-good-as new state). This paper concerns the issues of how to model the degradation process and predict the remaining useful life of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance activities, which can restore the health condition of a degrading system to any degradation level between as-good-as new and as-bad-as old. Toward this end, a nonlinear model driven by Wiener process is first proposed to characterize the degradation trajectory of the degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, where negative jumps are incorporated to quantify the influence of imperfect maintenance activities on the system's degradation. Then, the probability density function of the remaining useful life is derived analytically by a space-scale transformation, i.e., transforming the constructed degradation model with negative jumps crossing a constant threshold level to a Wiener process model crossing a random threshold level. To implement the proposed method, unknown parameters in the degradation model are estimated by the maximum likelihood estimation method. Finally, the proposed degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction method are applied to a practical case of draught fans belonging to a kind of mechanical systems from steel mills. The results reveal that, for a degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, our proposed method can obtain more accurate remaining useful life predictions than those of the benchmark model in literature.

  20. Orders Of Healthier Children's Items Remain High More Than Two Years After Menu Changes At A Regional Restaurant Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Mueller, Megan P; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Harelick, Linda; Economos, Christina D

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study we showed that customers ordered healthier food following the April 2012 implementation of a healthier children's menu at Silver Diner, a regional restaurant chain. In this study we used newly available data to assess orders of children's menu items both one and two years after our last assessment. Previous assessments took place in September 2011-March 2012 and in September 2012-March 2013, before and after implementation of the new menu, respectively. Orders were abstracted from the restaurant's central database. We found that the overarching changes from the previous study were sustained during the two follow-up periods, with some small fluctuations (for example, the prevalence of healthy side dish orders changed from 38 percent of children's meals ordered to 74 percent, then 76 percent, and then 75 percent in the successive study periods). Ordering patterns at follow-up remained healthier than before the menu change and in some cases continued to improve. Similar interventions have the potential to promote sustainable healthier ordering patterns and inform policy. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, M S; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Bodner, D

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experts opinions consensus. OBJECTIVE: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use...... of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information about the status of a person's autonomic function. METHODS: Based on this deficiency, the American Spinal Injury...... Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) commissioned a group of international experts to develop a common strategy to document the remaining autonomic neurologic function. RESULTS: Four subgroups were commissioned: bladder, bowel, sexual function and general autonomic function. On...

  3. Detecting and quantifying ongoing decay of organic archaeological remains - a discussion of different approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In situ preservation is increasingly a preferred option for managing archaeological remains, as there is a wish to preserve some undisturbed remains for later generations to investigate using new methods and asking new questions. However, in situ preservation is only a viable option if the remains...... are well protected and are not undergoing rapid decay, and it requires a detailed knowledge of decay processes and rates. For instance it is well established that the presence of water is of paramount importance for the preservation of organic material, and there are several examples where archaeological....... Thus, for the management of archaeological sites it is necessary to develop tools and methods that allow us to discover ongoing decay as fast as possible. Furthermore, in order to prioritize between excavation, in situ preservation and mitigation the decay rate should be evaluated on a quantitative...

  4. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  5. Tic disorders: administrative prevalence and co-occurrence with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a German community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlander, M; Schwarz, O; Rothenberger, A; Roessner, V

    2011-09-01

    Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7-12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13-18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of the potential for exploitation of the remaining reserves of coal in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodarski, K.; Bijanska, J.

    2014-01-01

    In mining areas belonging to the Polish mining companies, there is a significant amount of coal, contained in remaining reserves, that have not been exploited so far. For years, the mines have been evaluating the possibility of its exploitation, since it would expand its resource base and would extend its useful life. In addition, exploitation of the remaining reserves can minimize stress concentration zones in the soil, the rebel y improving conditions for maintenance of excavations and limiting the risk of shock rock. (Author)

  7. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jarillo, M; Caravaca-Sánchez, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, C; Luna, A

    2016-10-01

    This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  8. Remaining lifetime determination and refurbishment of gas turbine components. Methods, measuring data acquisition and data assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattheij, Sjef; Gooren, Luc; Gun, Marius van der [Sulzer TS Venlo B.V. (Sulzer Elbar B.V.), Venlo (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    Hot section components of gas turbines are expensive consumables. In the past, repair and reconditioning of gas turbine components was predominantly focussing on the repair of mechanical damage. Today the focus is shifting to assessing the remaining life time expectancy in parallel with rejuvenation of base material and recoating of components. The presentation will use a number of examples to demonstrate the methods and measuring technologies that are used for the remaining lifetime analysis like 3D dimensional inspection, base material condition determination, wall thickness measurement technologies and others. (orig.)

  9. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  10. The prevalence and association of low testosterone levels in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study confirms the high prevalence of low testosterone levels in diabetic male patients in a tertiary setting. Universal screening remains controversial owing to uncertainty regarding the risks and benefits of testosterone therapy in this population group. Predictors of low testosterone levels were identified.

  11. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  12. Prevalence and antibiogram of Shigella and Salmonella spp. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Salmonella and Shigella species are among the leading causes of diarrhea in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in children less ...

  13. Prevalence, predisposing factors and antibiogram of swine skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These drugs therefore remain effective for first-line postsurgical chemotherapy in the management of swine skin abscess except Chloramphenicol which is banned in food animal therapy. Running title: Prevalence, Predisposing Factors and Antibiogram of Swine Skin Abscess. Keywords: Abscess, Antibiogram, Ibadan, ...

  14. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and impact of Albendazole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    This study assessed the actual prevalence of geohelminths and the impact of albendazole on parasitic indices in Kotto Barombi and ... These results suggest that geohelminths infections remain a serious health problem in school children in Kotto ... These villages belong to the equatorial forest zone,. Cameroon-type climate ...

  15. The Prevalence Of Trypanosome Infection In Trade Cattle, Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... affect infection rates. Although the prevalence rate of trypanosomiasis in cattle, goats and sheep appeared low compared with the previous works, natural trypanosomiasis remains economically importance in cattle, goats and sheep in Nigeria. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 10 (1) 2009: pp.

  16. Current prevalence of cattle trypanosomiasis and of its vector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock diseases especially cattle trypanosomiasis remains a challenge and a call for concern. A Cross sectional study was carried out on the entomological and parasitological prevalence of cattle trypanosomiasis, in the tsetse fly infested zone-Alme in Faro and Deo division, Adamaoua region Cameroon. The aim of this ...

  17. Trends in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus remains a major global health challenge. Nigeria is committed to reaching universal access targets as well as meeting the MDG goal of halting and reversing the spread of the HIV epidemic by 2015. The Nigerian National HIV Sero-prevalence Sentinel Survey ...

  18. Prevalence And Factors Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy, A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains one of the major causes of vision loss and blindness in young adults despite the availability of effective treatment. Objective: To determine the prevalence of DR among adult diabetic patients attending primary health care centers in Kuwait and to identify factors that could be ...

  19. Soil contamination rate, prevalence, intensity of infection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections remain an important public health problem in the tropics. This study aimed to evaluate the soil contamination rate and prevalence of infestations of geohelminth among residents in Bazou. Methods: Four hundred (400) soil samples and 182 stool specimens were ...

  20. Early sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Abstract. Background: Early adolescent sexual activity remains a recurring problem with negative psychosocial and health outcomes. The age at sexual debut varies from place to place and among different individuals and is associated with varying factors. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk ...

  1. Prevalence of nickel allergy in Europe following the EU Nickel Directive - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    Nickel contact allergy remains a problem in EU countries, despite the EU Nickel Directive. To study the prevalence of nickel allergy in EU countries following the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive, we performed a systematic search in PubMed for studies that examined the prevalence of nickel...... allergy in EU countries published during 2005-2016. We identified 46 studies: 10 in the general population and 36 in patch tested dermatitis patients. A significantly lower prevalence of nickel allergy after than before the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive was found in women aged 18-35 years (11......, and generally remained high, affecting 8-18% of the general population. A consistent pattern of decreasing prevalence of nickel allergy in some EU countries was observed, although the prevalence among young women remains high. Steps should be taken for better prevention of nickel allergy in EU countries....

  2. High prevalence of the amphibian chytrid pathogen in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rayna C; Gata Garcia, Adriana V; Stuart, Bryan L; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2011-03-01

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) that is implicated in the worldwide decline and extinction of amphibians. Africa has been proposed as a potential source for the global expansion of Bd, yet the distribution of Bd across the continent remains largely unexplored. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we screened for the presence of Bd in 166 adult anurans from two national parks in Gabon (Monts de Cristal and Ivindo). Bd was detected in 20 of the 42 species and was present at all three sites surveyed (two in Monts de Cristal, and one in Ivindo) with high prevalence (19.6%-36.0%). Both national parks were Bd-positive at all elevations and across habitat types, though no dead or dying frogs were encountered. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence of Bd in Gabon and the first record of infection for 19 of the 20 species that were Bd-positive. Documenting the distribution and virulence of Bd across Africa will be essential for understanding the dynamics of amphibian chytridiomycosis across the globe.

  3. Estimating the prevalence of female genital mutilation in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A L; Lisboa, M

    2016-10-01

    Due to globalized migratory processes, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has spread to other countries, including countries in Europe, where, with a few exceptions, it remains a concealed problem. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first national extensive study to estimate the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal. Prevalence estimation. Using extrapolation of country-of-origin prevalence data and the 2011 Census data, this study estimated: the prevalence of FGM/C in Portugal among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and among all women aged ≥15 years; and the number of girls aged females who have undergone or are at risk of undergoing FGM/C. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence in elite athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ina; van der Worp, Henk; Hensing, Sjoerd; Zwerver, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Although injury surveillance in athletics is routinely conducted, discipline-specific Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore discipline-specific tendinopathy prevalence and identify whether injury-specific risk factors differed in athletes. Elite athletes were recruited and provided information on their sport training including Achilles and patellar tendon pain history. In order to ascertain whether between-discipline differences existed, data were categorized into discipline groups. Middle-distance athletes reported the highest prevalence of Achilles tendinopathy and the combined athletes reported the highest patellar tendinopathy prevalence. Greater calf stiffness was reported in athletes who experienced Achilles tendinopathy compared to those who did not. A substantial portion of athletes believed their performance decreased as a result of their tendon pain. In order to develop discipline-specific evidence-based injury prevention programmes, further discipline-specific research is required to quantify the mechanism for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy development in elite athletics.

  5. Between Theory and History: "The Remains of the Day" in the International Relations Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Anthony F., Jr.; Lang, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Recommends using Kazuo Ishiguro's "The Remains of the Day" to teach international relations by focusing on the normative elements of international relations, the importance of history, and the relationship between theory and history. Explores the use of one theory, feminism, in the novel and provides suggestions for other novels. (CMK)

  6. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit status...

  7. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  8. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work? : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna; van den Heuvel, Swenneke; Geuskens, Goedele; Ybema, Jan Fekke; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Robroek, Suzan

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  9. Remaining Challenges for the Use of RtI with Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire E.; Rollins, Karen; Johnsen, Susan K.; Pereles, Daphne A.; Omdal, Stuart; Baldwin, Lois; Brown, Elissa F.; Abernethy, Sherry H.; Coleman, Mary Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the challenges that might be faced if gifted education moves toward an RtI (Response to Intervention) approach. The challenges they share can be used as discussion points for planning and reflection. In spite of the remaining challenges, the authors conclude that RtI is certainly changing the face of education and that gifted…

  10. Beyond Race and Gender: Motivating Enlisted Personnel to Remain in Today's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    ... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...

  11. Detection Method of the Remaining Files Based on Logs Regarding Changed Directory and Hash Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    There are a lot of information leakages because the files are copied from the removable storage medium and are left in the storage unit of personal computer without deleting. In order to prevent human mistakes, this paper proposes a method for detecting the remaining files copied from the removable storage medium. The proposed method records logs regarding changed information registering in a directory that is management list of files in storage unit and the hash values of file contents. The remaining files are detected when the removable storage medium removes from the personal computer, and they are displayed on the monitor. The detection processing works in five steps. First, copy operation toward file is detected by tracing the sequence of logs. Secondly, files copied from the removable storage medium are distinguished based on hash values. Thirdly, file operation and folder operation to copied files are distinguished. Fourthly, the deletion operation against the copied file is detected by using file name and path matching. Finally, file name and path using for tracing are changed according to folder operation. In case of the deletion operation is not found, it is judged that copied files are remaining. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the storage unit.

  12. Mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis frequently remains unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljula, Jussi; Cygnel, Hanna; Mäkinen, Elina; Tuomivaara, Veli; Karttunen, Vesa; Karttunen, Ari; Hillbom, Matti

    2012-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in subjects with craniofacial fractures are usually diagnosed by emergency room physicians. We investigated how often TBI remains unrecorded in these subjects, and whether diagnostic accuracy has improved after the implementation of new TBI guidelines. All subjects with craniofacial fractures admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 and in 2007 were retrospectively identified. New guidelines for improving the diagnostic accuracy of TBI were implemented between 2000 and 2006. Clinical symptoms of TBI were gathered from notes on hospital charts and compared to the recorded diagnoses at discharge. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for TBI to remain unrecorded. Of 194 subjects with craniofacial fracture, 111(57%) had TBI, 40 in 1999 and 71 in 2007. Fifty-one TBIs (46%) remained unrecorded at discharge, 48 being mild and 3 moderate-to-severe. Subjects with unrecorded TBI were significantly less frequently referred to follow-up visits. Failures to record the TBI diagnosis were less frequent (29/71, 41%) in 2007 than in 1999 (22/40, 55%), but the difference was not statistically significant. The most significant independent predictor for this failure was the clinical specialty (other than neurology/neurosurgery) of the examining physician (palcohol intoxication did not hamper the diagnosis of TBI. TBIs remain frequently unrecorded in subjects with craniofacial fractures. Recording of mild TBI slightly but insignificantly improved after the implementation of new guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-11-01

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  15. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; van den Heuvel, S.; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; de Wind, A.; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  16. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); G.A. Geuskens (Goedele); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A. de Wind (Astrid); A. Burdorf (Alex); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in

  17. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience

  18. Editorial Forestry faces big issues to remain sustainable — a role for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plantation forestry remains an attractive land use, both from an economic perspective through the production of costeffective wood and from a sustainable development perspective through the generation of jobs in rural areas. The forest industry directly employs over 100 000 people and if one considers that all of plantation ...

  19. Plantar pressures in diabetic patients with foot ulcers which have remained healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owings, T. M.; Apelqvist, J.; Stenström, A.; Becker, M.; Bus, S. A.; Kalpen, A.; Ulbrecht, J. S.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    The recurrence of foot ulcers is a significant problem in people with diabetic neuropathy. The purpose of this study was to measure in-shoe plantar pressures and other characteristics in a group of neuropathic patients with diabetes who had prior foot ulcers which had remained healed. This was an

  20. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A remarkable collection of Late Pleistocene reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) remains from Woerden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kolfschoten, Thijs; van der Jagt, Inge; Beeren, Zoe; Argiti, Vasiliki; van der Leije, Judith; van Essen, Hans; Busschers, Freek S.; Stoel, Pieter; van der Plicht, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Woerden, in the central part of The Netherlands, is a locality where the amateur-archaeologist Pieter Stoel collected several thousands of fossil mammalian remains of Pleistocene age. The stratigraphically-mixed assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa including species that are indicative of

  2. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

    2010-11-09

    The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia.

  4. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  5. Regeneration of dermal patterns from the remaining pigments after surgery in Eublepharis macularius (a case report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Noriyuki

    2016-07-12

    Dermal injury of the Eublepharis macularius (leopard gecko) often results in a loss of the spotted patterns. The scar is usually well recovered, but the spots and the tubercles may be lost depending on the size and part of the lesion. This report presents a surgical attempting, in which the pigments in the edge of the remaining skin flap are partially preserved to maximally restore the natural pigmentation patterns during the course of dermal regeneration. A four-year-old female lizard E. macularius was evaluated due to a subcutaneous tumor in the occipito-pterional portion behind its right eye. A solid tumor beneath the skin was surgically enucleated under general anesthesia. Then, the ulcerated skin was dissected away together with the tumor. The necrotic edge of the remaining skin flap was carefully trimmed to leave as much of the pigmented portions as possible on the outskirt of the skin flap. The scar was covered with the remaining skin flap, and the uncovered lesion was protected with Vaseline containing gentamicin. The lesion was rapidly covered with regenerated dermis within a week, and the epidermis with round and well-oriented pigmented spots were almost completely restored in four months. The surgical suture of the skin flap after removal of the ulcerated margins resulted in the scar-free regeneration of the scales and the pigmented spots. And the pigmented spots of the remaining skin close to the lesion site might be a source of the regenerated spots.

  6. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests on the amount of residue remaining. 180.34 Section 180.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... analysts to apply it successfully. (c) If the pesticide chemical is absorbed into a living plant or animal...

  7. Remaining in an Abusive Relationship: An Investment Model Analysis of Nonvoluntary Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbult, Caryl E.; Martz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of interdependence in ongoing relationships, using an investment model to understand decisions to remain in abusive relationships. Found that feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality economic alternatives, were more heavily invested in their relationship, and who experienced less dissatisfaction…

  8. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA...

  9. Female College Presidents: Characteristics to Become and Remain Chief Executive Officer of a College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Arlette

    2012-01-01

    Through an ethnographic approach, the perceptions of female college presidents from the northeastern region of the United States regarding leadership styles and the characteristics to become and remain the chief executive officer of a college were investigated. Six presidents from various types of four-year colleges were interviewed. Themes,…

  10. POINT CLOUD METRICS FOR SEPARATING STANDING ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS AND LOW VEGETATION IN ALS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Opitz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Airborne Laser Scanning survey into archaeological research and cultural heritage management has substantially added to our knowledge of archaeological remains in forested areas, and is changing our understanding of how these landscapes functioned in the past. While many types of archaeological remains manifest as micro-topography, several important classes of features commonly appear as standing remains. The identification of these remains is important for archaeological prospection surveys based on ALS data, and typically represent structures from the Roman, Medieval and early Modern periods. Standing structures in mixed scenes with vegetation are not well addressed by standard classification approaches developed to identify bare earth (terrain, individual trees or plot characteristics, or buildings (roofed structures. In this paper we propose an approach to the identification of these structures in the point cloud based on multi-scale measures of local density, roughness, and normal orientation. We demonstrate this approach using discrete-return ALS data collected in the Franche-Comte region of France at a nominal point density of 8 pts/m2, a resolution which, in coming years, will become increasingly available to archaeologists through government supported mapping schemes.

  11. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  12. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  13. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  14. Coastal structural remains on the east coast of India: Evidence of maritime activities and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    period. The study of the remains of maritime structures provides the duration of their use, abandonment and causes of decline of port site. This paper details the coastal structures of the east coast of India and tentative dates are ascribed in relation...

  15. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  16. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  17. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  18. 77 FR 59659 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... physical remains of 55 individuals of Native American ancestry. Officials of the Department of Anthropology... Funerary Objects in the Possession of the Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, San... above-mentioned information, officials of the Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University...

  19. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  20. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie D; Churchill, Jennifer D; King, Jonathan L; Stoljarova, Monika; Gill-King, Harrell; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-10-17

    Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin), and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA). The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP) and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian). Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that substantially more genetic information can be obtained from

  1. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D. Ambers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Results Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin, and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA. The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian. Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. Conclusions This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that

  2. Age and birth cohort differences in the prevalence of common mental disorder in England: National Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Nicola; Bebbington, Paul; McManus, Sally; Brugha, Traolach S; Jenkins, Rachel; Meltzer, Howard

    2011-06-01

    There are concerns that the prevalence of mental disorder is increasing. To determine whether the prevalence of common adult mental disorders has increased over time, using age-period-cohort analysis. The study consisted of a pseudocohort analysis of a sequence of three cross-sectional surveys of the English household population. The main outcome was common mental disorder, indicated by a score of 12 or above on the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). Secondary outcomes were neurotic symptoms likely to require treatment, indicated by a CIS-R score of 18 or over, and individual subscale scores for fatigue, sleep problems, irritability and worry. There were 8670 participants in the 1993 survey, 6977 in the 2000 survey and 6815 in the 2007 survey. In men a significant increase in common mental disorder occurred between the cohort born in 1943-9 and that born in 1950-6 (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) but prevalence in subsequent cohorts remained largely stable. More extended increases in prevalence of sleep problems and mental disorders were observed in women, but not consistently across cohorts or measures. We found little evidence that the prevalence of common mental disorder is increasing.

  3. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  4. La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child reloaded: New remains and re-assessment of the original collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Balzeau, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The first evidence of the partial infant Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 8 (LF8) was discovered in 1970, although most of the remains were found in 1973 as part of the 1968-1973 work at the site by H. Delporte. This individual and the other Neandertal children from La Ferrassie were published in the early 1980s by J.-L. Heim, and since then LF8 has been regarded as coming from a poorly documented excavation. The recent rediscovery of the box that contained the hominin bones given by Delporte to Heim in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN) collection provided new fossils and helped to locate LF8 in the site: level M2 in square 1. Two visits to the Musée d'Archéologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (MAN) yielded additional fossil remains from both the 1970 and 1973 excavations and resulted in the discovery of all of the notes from the excavation of H. Delporte between 1968 and 1973. Here the new fossil remains (47 after performing all possible refits), representing significant portions of the cranium, mandible, and vertebral column together with fragmentary hand and costal remains, are described. Unsurprisingly, the morphology of the bony labyrinth and of a complete stapes from the nearly complete left temporal show clear Neandertal affinities. Additionally, a complete reassessment of the original LF8 collection has resulted in the identification of several errors in the anatomical determination. Despite the significant increase in the anatomical representation of LF8, the skeletal remains are still limited to the head, thorax, pelvis, and four hand phalanges, with some very fragile elements relatively well preserved. Different hypotheses are proposed to explain this anatomical representation, which can be tested during future fieldwork. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence, predictors, and survival in pulmonary hypertension related to end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Iversen, Martin; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, prognostic importance, and factors that predict the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed with right heart catheterization (RHC) in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear....

  6. Mucosal prevalence and interactions with the epithelium indicate commensalism of Sutterella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Hiippala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sutterella species have been frequently associated with human diseases, such as autism, Down syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, but the impact of these bacteria on health still remains unclear. Especially the interactions of Sutterella spp. with the host are largely unknown, despite of the species being highly prevalent. In this study, we addressed the interaction of three known species of Sutterella with the intestinal epithelium and examined their adhesion properties, the effect on intestinal barrier function and the pro-inflammatory capacity in vitro. We also studied the relative abundance and prevalence of the genus Sutterella and S. wadsworthensis in intestinal biopsies of healthy individuals and patients with celiac disease (CeD or IBD. Our results show that Sutterella spp. are abundant in the duodenum of healthy adults with a decreasing gradient towards the colon. No difference was detected in the prevalence of Sutterella between the pediatric IBD or CeD patients and the healthy controls. Sutterella parvirubra adhered better than the two other Sutterella spp. to differentiated Caco-2 cells and was capable of decreasing the adherence of S. wadsworthensis, which preferably bound to mucus and human extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Furthermore, only S. wadsworthensis induced an interleukin-8 (IL-8 production in enterocytes, which could be due to different lipopolysaccharide (LPS structures between the species. However, its pro-inflammatory activity was modest as compared to non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. Sutterella spp. had no effect on the enterocyte monolayer integrity in vitro. Our findings indicate that the members of genus Sutterella are widely prevalent commensals with mild pro-inflammatory capacity in the human gastrointestinal tract and do not contribute significantly to the disrupted epithelial homeostasis associated with microbiota dysbiosis and increase of Proteobacteria. The ability of Sutterella spp. to adhere to

  7. Communication, Psychosocial, and Educational Outcomes of Children with Cochlear Implants and Challenges Remaining for Professionals and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Punch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview and a synthesis of the findings of a large, multifaceted study investigating outcomes from paediatric cochlear implantation. The study included children implanted at several Australian implant clinics and attending a variety of early intervention and educational settings across a range of locations in eastern Australia. It investigated three major aspects of childhood cochlear implantation: (1 parental expectations of their children's implantation, (2 families' decision-making processes, and (3 the communication, social, and educational outcomes of cochlear implantation for deaf children. It employed a mixed-methods approach in which quantitative survey data were gathered from 247 parents and 151 teachers, and qualitative data from semistructured interviews with 27 parents, 15 teachers, and 11 children and adolescents with cochlear implants. The summarised findings highlight several areas where challenges remain for implant clinics, parents, and educators if children with cochlear implants are to reach their full potential personally, educationally, and socially.

  8. GO Trimming: Systematically reducing redundancy in large Gene Ontology datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased accessibility of gene expression tools has enabled a wide variety of experiments utilizing transcriptomic analyses. As these tools increase in prevalence, the need for improved standardization in processing and presentation of data increases, as does the need to guard against interpretation bias. Gene Ontology (GO analysis is a powerful method of interpreting and summarizing biological functions. However, while there are many tools available to investigate GO enrichment, there remains a need for methods that directly remove redundant terms from enriched GO lists that often provide little, if any, additional information. Findings Here we present a simple yet novel method called GO Trimming that utilizes an algorithm designed to reduce redundancy in lists of enriched GO categories. Depending on the needs of the user, this method can be performed with variable stringency. In the example presented here, an initial list of 90 terms was reduced to 54, eliminating 36 largely redundant terms. We also compare this method to existing methods and find that GO Trimming, while simple, performs well to eliminate redundant terms in a large dataset throughout the depth of the GO hierarchy. Conclusions The GO Trimming method provides an alternative to other procedures, some of which involve removing large numbers of terms prior to enrichment analysis. This method should free up the researcher from analyzing overly large, redundant lists, and instead enable the concise presentation of manageable, informative GO lists. The implementation of this tool is freely available at: http://lucy.ceh.uvic.ca/go_trimming/cbr_go_trimming.py

  9. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    in Europe. Live birth prevalence has remained stable overall. Differences in prenatal screening and termination between countries lead to wide variation in live birth prevalence.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.94....

  10. Prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in the Netherlands : Ethnic differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okur, P.; van der Knaap, L.M.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    In most epidemiological prevalence studies of child sexual abuse, the role of ethnicity remains unclear. This study examined the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in four non-Western ethnic minority groups and compared them with a native Dutch group. A sample of 3,426 young adults (aged

  11. Prevalence and Prescribed Treatments of Orthostatic Hypotension in Institutionalized Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommel, A.; Faber, M.J.; Weerkamp, N.J.; Dijk, J.G. van; Bloem, B.R.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common non-motor sign that can be hard to recognize and treat. OH prevalence and treatment in institutionalized PD-patients remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and prescribed

  12. Molecular characterization of fossil organic matter in Glyptostrobus europaeus remains from the Orawa basin (Poland). Comparison of pyrolytic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almendros, G.; Dorado, J.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.; Martin, F.; Sanz, J.; Alvarez-Ramis, C.; Stuchlik, L. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales

    1999-05-01

    Pyrolytic methods (standard Curie-point pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), were used to analyze the organic composition of Glyptostrobus (Taxodiaceae) remains from the Miocene deposits of Lipnica Mala (Poland), consisting of branches with their leaves. The pyrolytic analysis revealed a series of aromatic compounds with a large proportion of guaiacyl-type lignin markers (including intact C{sub 3}-methoxyphenols), and small quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The alkyl compounds included fatty acid series where the C{sub 14}-C{sub 18} homologues dominated as well as additional amounts of alkanes and alkenes (maximum ca. C{sub 21}). The results suggest that lignin as well as protective epicuticular lipid polymers (including cutin and other long chain-based polyalkyl structures) selectively show the greatest degree of molecular preservation in the Glyptostrobus remains. The comparison between pyrolytic methods shows that the lignin-derived aromatic assemblages predominate in the chromatograms after conventional pyrolysis whereas thermochemolysis with TMAH leads to an `aliphatic enhancement`. This latter technique was found to be the best for analysis of the lipid signature in fossil samples with condensed polymethylene networks. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome components in Mexican adults without type 2 diabetes or hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Barquera, Simón; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the number of Mexican adults with undiagnosed diabetes and arterial hypertension and their association with obesity. The study included a sub-sample of 6 613 subjects aged 20 years or more who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006). Subjects with a previous diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension (n=1 861) were excluded. Prevalences and standard errors were estimated, taking into account the complex sample design. 6.4 million adults have obesity and undiagnosed impaired fasting glucose. Almost two million more have fasting glucose levels diagnostic for diabetes. As for arterial blood pressure, 5.4 million adults had prehypertension. Another 5.4 million adults had blood pressure levels suggestive of probable hypertension. A total of 21.4 million Mexican adults with obesity had at least one further component of the metabolic syndrome. A large proportion of adults with obesity-related metabolic comorbidities remains undiagnosed in Mexico.

  14. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  15. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  16. Study of sexual dimorphism of Malaysian crania: an important step in identification of the skeletal remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser; Alias, Aspalilah; Swarhib, Mohamed; Abu Bakar, Siti Noorain; Das, Srijit

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination is one of the main steps in the identification of human skeletal remains. It constitutes an initial step in personal identification from the skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to provide the population-specific sex discriminating osteometric standards to aid human identification. The present study was conducted on 87 (174 sides) slices of crania using postmortem computed tomography in 45 males and 42 females, aged between 18 and 75 years. About 22 parameters of crania were measured using Osirix software 3-D Volume Rendering. Results showed that all parameters were significantly higher in males than in females except for orbital height of the left eye by independent t test (Pforensic tool for identification of unknown crania. PMID:28713610

  17. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.S.; Maile, K.; Auerkari, P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.) [de

  18. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Jarillo

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. Material and methods: A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Results: Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. Conclusions: The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  19. Disulfide bridges remain intact while native insulin converts into amyloid fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kurouski

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils are β-sheet-rich protein aggregates commonly found in the organs and tissues of patients with various amyloid-associated diseases. Understanding the structural organization of amyloid fibrils can be beneficial for the search of drugs to successfully treat diseases associated with protein misfolding. The structure of insulin fibrils was characterized by deep ultraviolet resonance Raman (DUVRR and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy combined with hydrogen-deuterium exchange. The compositions of the fibril core and unordered parts were determined at single amino acid residue resolution. All three disulfide bonds of native insulin remained intact during the aggregation process, withstanding scrambling. Three out of four tyrosine residues were packed into the fibril core, and another aromatic amino acid, phenylalanine, was located in the unordered parts of insulin fibrils. In addition, using all-atom MD simulations, the disulfide bonds were confirmed to remain intact in the insulin dimer, which mimics the fibrillar form of insulin.

  20. The Insta-Dead: The rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Huffer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a thriving trade, and collector community, around human remains that is facilitated by posts on new social media such as Instagram, Facebook, Etsy, and, until recently, eBay. In this article, we examine several thousand Instagram posts and perform some initial text analysis on the language and rhetoric of these posts to understand something about the function of this community, what they value and how they trade, buy, and sell, human remains. Our results indicate a well-connected network of collectors and dealers both specialist and generalist, with a surprisingly wide-reaching impact on the 'enthusiasts' who, through their rhetoric, support the activities of this collecting community, in the face of legal and ethical issues generated by its existence.

  1. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human remains from a seventh century cist burial on Anglesey, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Wilson, Andrew S; Nik Hassan, Nik F; Davidson, Andrew; Burnett, Andrew

    2007-02-01

    Specimens from human remains exhibiting unusual preservation excavated from a seventh century stone cist burial at Towyn y Capel in Anglesey, UK, have been analysed using Raman spectroscopy with near-infrared laser excitation at 1,064 and 785 nm. Specimens of hair and bone provided evidence for severe degradation and microbial colonisation. The deposits within the stone cist showed that some microbially mediated compounds had been formed. Analysis of crystals found at the interface between the hair and the skeletal neck vertebrae revealed a mixture of newberyite and haematite, associated with decomposition products of the hair and bone. An interesting differential degradation was noted in the specimens analysed which could be related to the air-void and the presence of plant root inclusions into the stone cist. This is the first time that Raman spectroscopy has been used in the forensic archaeological evaluation of burial remains in complex and dynamic environments.

  2. An analysis of human skeletal remains with cerebral palsy: associated skeletal age delay and dental pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyesi, Mary S; Tubbs, Ryan M; Sauer, Norman J

    2009-03-01

    In 2002 the authors were asked to examine the skeletal remains of an individual with a known history of severe cerebral palsy (CP) who was 21-23 years old at death. Skeletal age estimates of 11-15 years and dental age estimates of c. 16 years are younger than the known age of the decedent. Skeletal analysis also identified dental pathologies such as chronic tooth grinding and substantial calculus deposits. Scarce literature exists on forensic human remains cases with CP, and this study contrasts the age discrepancy and other features of this case with typical clinical characteristics of CP. A review of the CP literature suggests that delayed skeletal maturation and dental pathologies such as those observed in this case are indicative of complications related to CP. This article may alert future investigators to some of the osteological signs of CP and the probability that age indicators may be misleading.

  3. Combined radiographic and anthropological approaches to victim identification of partially decomposed or skeletal remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, C.; O'Connor, J.E.; McNulty, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Victim identification is the priority in any scenario involving the discovery of single or multiple human remains for both humanitarian and legal reasons. Such remains may be incomplete and in various stages of decomposition. In such scenarios radiography contributes to both primary and secondary methods of identification; the comparison of ante-mortem dental radiographs to post-mortem findings is a primary identification method whereas the analysis of post-mortem skeletal radiographs to help create a biological profile and identify other individuating features is a secondary method of identification. This review will introduce and explore aspects of victim identification with a focus on the anthropological and radiography-based virtual anthropology approaches to establishing a biological profile, identifying other individuating factors and ultimately restoring an individual's identity. It will highlight the potential contribution that radiography, and radiographers, can make to the identification process and contribute to increasing awareness amongst radiographers of the value of their professional role in such investigations

  4. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  5. Proposal for the Unblocking of the Remaining Withheld Part of the 2002 Materials Budget

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    In the light of the presentation at this meeting of the document "The Scientific Activities of CERN and Budget Estimates for the Years 2003-2006 with a projection to 2010" CERN/SPC/811-CERN/FC/4567 and taking account of the considerations set out in section 2 below, the Finance Committee is invited to recommend the Council to unblock the remaining withheld part, amounting to 33 MCHF, of the resources allocated to the LHC project in the 2002 Materials Budget.

  6. Effect of interaction of embedded crack and free surface on remaining fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshichiro Katsumata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embedded crack located near free surface of a component interacts with the free surface. When the distance between the free surface and the embedded crack is short, stress at the crack tip ligament is higher than that at the other area of the cracked section. It can be easily expected that fatigue crack growth is fast, when the embedded crack locates near the free surface. To avoid catastrophic failures caused by fast fatigue crack growth at the crack tip ligament, fitness-for-service (FFS codes provide crack-to-surface proximity rules. The proximity rules are used to determine whether the cracks should be treated as embedded cracks as-is, or transformed to surface cracks. Although the concepts of the proximity rules are the same, the specific criteria and the rules to transform embedded cracks into surface cracks differ amongst FFS codes. This paper focuses on the interaction between an embedded crack and a free surface of a component as well as on its effects on the remaining fatigue lives of embedded cracks using the proximity rules provided by the FFS codes. It is shown that the remaining fatigue lives for the embedded cracks strongly depend on the crack aspect ratio and location from the component free surface. In addition, it can be said that the proximity criteria defined by the API and RSE-M codes give overly conservative remaining lives. On the contrary, the WES and AME codes always give long remaining lives and non-conservative estimations. When the crack aspect ratio is small, ASME code gives non-conservative estimation.

  7. New findings of dinosaur remains and considerations on the age of the guichon formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, M; Perea, D; Veroslasky, G; Rinderknecht, A; Ubilla, M.; Leucuona, G.

    2008-01-01

    The first known dinosaur remains from the Guichon Formation are reviewed herein, demonstrating that they have a limited bio stratigraphic value. New materials (comprising abundant bones and several eggshell fragments) are described, representing the first record of sauropod dinosaurs from the Guichon Formation. The bone belong to a derived titanosaurian (Eutitanosauria) while the eggshells are refered to the oogenus Sphaerovum Mones 1980. Bio stratigraphic implications of these materials are discussed, allowing to propose a Late Cretaceous age for this unit

  8. THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE HUMAN REMAINS FROM BUIA, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO MACCHIARELLI; LUCA BONDIOLI; MARIO CHECH; ALFREDO COPPA; IVANA FIORE; REZENE RUSSOM; FRANCESCO VECCHI; YOSIEF LIBSEKAL; LORENZO ROOK

    2004-01-01

    The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia) Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea) has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 on a site at Uadi Aalad (Abbate et al. 1998) led to the discovery of one-million-year-old human remains. They consist of a cranium in excellent preservation condition (UA-31), two permanent teeth (UA-222 and UA-369), and three pelvic portions (UA-173, UA-405 and U...

  9. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    outline for possible World Development Report on institutions, including corruption . Completed • Prepare Europe and Central Asia Region...Management Controls Stronger, but Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain If , 20000417 062 G A O Accountability * Integrity * Reliability GAO... corruption —broadly defined as the abuse of public office for private gain— ’The "World Bank" and "Bank" refer to the World Bank Group of institutions

  10. Beneath the surface of water. Hydraulic structures and human skeletal remains in Ancient Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Zanoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings from the area of Modena, in Northern Italy, have revitalized the debate on the association between human skeletal remains and artificial hydraulic structures. In this paper, our intention is to assemble the relevant archaeological and anthropological data on the matter in order to establish whether these findings are exceptional and isolated or indicate instead a structured and specific cultural behaviour which persists through time.

  11. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental Study On Remaining Tensile Strength Of Wide Steel Specimens With Different Corrosion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kaita, Tatsumasa; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Appuhamy, J.M.R.S.; Ohga, Mitao; Fujii, Katashi

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the maintenance techniques in steel bridge management system have been becoming more and more serious problem in Japan. This paper presents more accurate remaining strength estimation method for tensile corroded members. For this purpose, the tensile test and steel surface measurement of severe corroded specimens were carried out in this study. Most important features of this tensile test are that all 26 specimens have wide width (70-180 mm: actual member size) and totally di...

  13. Metals Additive Manufacturing. Great Promise in Mitigating Shortages but Some Risks Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    initiatives such as establishing “Amer- ica Makes”—the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute—and funding some AM-related Manufacturing Tech ...Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 38 Metals Additive Manufacturing Great Promise in Mitigating Shortages but Some Risks Remain Drew Miller n... risks for obsolescence man- agement. As we leverage the growth of this new technol- 39 Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 ogy, it will be

  14. Measuring human remains in the field: grid technique, total station, or MicroScirbe?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Vladimír; Galeta, P.; Sosna, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 138, S48 (2009), s. 242 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /78./. 31.03.2009-03.04,2009, Chicago] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : human remains * 3D data Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122195166/PDFSTART

  15. Prevalence of stenoses and occlusions of brain-supplying arteries in young stroke patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    von Sarnowski, Bettina

    2013-03-06

    OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is believed to be a minor cause of TIA and stroke in younger and middle-aged patients. However, data from large cohorts are limited. This study investigates the prevalence of extracranial and intracranial atherosclerosis in stroke and TIA patients aged 18-55 years in the multinational sifap1 study. METHODS: From the sifap1 cohort (n = 5,023), we analyzed a subset of patients with complete data from carotid ultrasound studies. Patients with arterial dissections, vasculitis, and mobile thrombi were excluded. Among the remaining 2,187 patients (men: n = 1,319; 18-44 years: n = 744), intracranial arteries were additionally examined with ultrasonography in 1,612 patients (73.7%). Patients were stratified by sex and age groups (younger: 18-44 years; middle-aged: 45-55 years). RESULTS: In patients with ischemic stroke, the overall prevalence of carotid artery stenoses and occlusions was 8.9% (younger: 4.9%; middle-aged: 11.0%), of which 81% were symptomatic. Nonstenotic carotid plaques were more common in men than in women (15.8% vs 7.7%; p < 0.001), and in middle-aged than in younger patients (17.0% vs 4.9%; p < 0.001). Supratentorial intracranial artery stenoses and occlusions amounted to 11.8%. Supratentorial stenoses occurred more frequently in middle-aged patients (13.0% vs 7.8%; p < 0.001), whereas occlusions were equally common (both 3.2%; not significant). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a substantial proportion of atherosclerotic carotid artery stenoses and occlusions in younger stroke patients. Intracranial stenoses and occlusions were even more prevalent than extracranial carotid artery disease. Together with nonstenotic plaques, one-fifth of patients (21.2%) had symptomatic or asymptomatic large-artery atherosclerosis, which should encourage future stroke prevention campaigns to target risk factor modification in young people.

  16. Female reproductive decline is determined by remaining ovarian reserve and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wilkosz

    Full Text Available The early decline and loss of female fertility in humans and other species represents an evolutionary paradox. Despite being born with a vast stock of oocytes, females encounter an exhaustion of ovarian reserve and sterility half way through their natural lives. Female reproductive ageing has been proposed to proceed as an ongoing decline in ovarian reserve, determined by remaining ovarian follicle number. However, despite extensive modelling, the respective contributions of intra-, inter-, and extra-ovarian signalling have not been fully characterised. It remains unclear whether reproductive ageing progresses simply as a pre-determined function of remaining ovarian follicles, or as an age-dependent process in humans. Here, we have analysed ovarian response to hormonal stimulation in women who have undergone surgical removal of a single ovary, in order to investigate the relative contributions of intra-, inter, and extra-ovarian signalling on reproductive ageing. Our data show that in unilaterally oophorectomised women, ovarian response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH declines beyond levels predicted by a total ovarian follicle pool model of reproductive ageing. Maintenance of ovarian function later in reproductive life, despite the removal of half of the total ovarian reserve, suggests a role for an extra-ovarian age-dependent regulation of reproductive decline. This highlights the need for further work to identify signalling factors that communicate age-related signals between the soma and the germline.

  17. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  18. Using of microvertebrate remains in reconstruction of late quaternary (Holocene paleoclimate, Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Study of quaternary microvertebrate remains in eastern Iran, according to a few of the sediments is very important. Reconstruction of quaternary climate in many parts of West and North West of Iran as the biggest karst state is possible, such as cave Kani Mikaiel (Hashemi et al. 2005, 2006, 2007a;b, 2008; 2010, Jangjoo et al . 2010, Yafteh cave (Otte et al. 2007, Hashemi et al. 2015. However, such studies were very poor in eastern and north-eastern Iran (Hashemi and darvish 2006; Hashemi et al. 2008, 2015. Investigation of taxonomic identification; quantification and distribution of micromammals revealed that these remains are useful in paleontology and archaeological research, because their abundance is useful for paleobiostratigraphy and dating of continental sediments. The recent research is about reconstruction of paleoclimate in two archeological sites of Konar sandal (KS (Jiroft and Tapeh Naderi (TN (Mashhad based on the microvertebrate and especially Tatera indica species. In these sites we attempted to solve the palaeoenvironment condition by analysis of rodent remains which hold the greatest potential to monitoring of ecological parameters (Hoover et al. 1977; Getz 1961; Reig 1970; Merritt 1974. Combining of a rich network of data with using of morphological and morphometric methods; reconstruction of paleoenvironment; documentation and investigation of their relationship with the environment is the main result of this research .       Material & Methods   In both zooarchaeological samples which are composed of juveniles and young individual rodent, (KS, NISP=800 and TN, NISP=3 cranial and postcranial remains were sorted anatomically and washed with water. Dental pattern of mandible and maxillary tooth rows were drowns using a drawing tube connecting to a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZH-10. All recovered teeth fragments were measured based on the greatest dental length and width of the upper and lower jaw molars when

  19. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of the late postmortem interval using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics in human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Yinming; Lin, Hancheng; Zha, Shuai; Fang, Ruoxi; Wei, Xin; Fan, Shuanliang; Wang, Zhenyuan

    2017-12-01

    Due to a lack of reliable and accurate methods, determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains is one of the most important and challenging tasks in forensic medicine. In this paper, we studied the changes to bone chemistry with increasing PMI in two different experimental conditions using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics methods Paired bone samples collected from 56 human corpses were buried (placed in soil) and unburied (exposed to the air) for intervals between 76 and 552 days. The results of principle component analysis (PCA) showed the chemical differences of these two cases had a significant influence on the rate of decomposition of the remains. Meanwhile, satisfactory predictions were performed by the genetic algorithm combined with partial least-squares (GA-PLS) with the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 50.93days for buried bones and 71.03days for unburied bones. Moreover, the amide I region of proteins and the area around 1390cm -1 , which is associated with fatty acids, were identified with regular changes by GA-PLS and played an important role in estimating PMI. This study illustrates the feasibility of utilizing FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics as an attractive alternative for estimating PMI of human remains and the great potential of these techniques in real forensic cases with natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.