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Sample records for prevalence rate ratio

  1. Revisiting the concept of ‘chronic disease’ from the perspective of the episode of care model. Does the ratio of incidence to prevalence rate help us to define a problem as chronic?

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    Jean K Soler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a study of the epidemiology of acute and chronic episodes of care (EoCs in the Transition Project in three countries. We studied the duration of EoCs for acute and chronic health problems and the relationship of incidence to prevalence rates for these EoCs.Method The Transition Project databases collect data on all elements of the doctor–patient encounter in family medicine. Family doctors code these elements using the International Classification of Primary Care.We used the data from three practice populations to study the duration of EoCs and the ratio of incidence to prevalence for common health problems.Results We found that chronic health problems tended to have proportionately longer duration EoCs, as expected, but also a lower incidence to prevalence rate ratio than acute health problems. Thus, the incidence to prevalence index could be used to define a chronic condition as one with a low ratio, below a defined threshold.Conclusions Chronic health problems tend to have longer duration EoCs, proportionately, across populations. This result is expected, but we found important similarities and differences which make defining a problem as chronic on the basis of time rather difficult. The ratio of incidence to prevalence rates has potential to categorise health problems into acute or chronic categories, at different ratio thresholds (such as 20, 30 or 50%. It seems to perform well in this study of three family practice populations, and is proposed to the scientific community for further evaluation.

  2. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

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    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  3. Standardized binomial models for risk or prevalence ratios and differences.

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    Richardson, David B; Kinlaw, Alan C; MacLehose, Richard F; Cole, Stephen R

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologists often analyse binary outcomes in cohort and cross-sectional studies using multivariable logistic regression models, yielding estimates of adjusted odds ratios. It is widely known that the odds ratio closely approximates the risk or prevalence ratio when the outcome is rare, and it does not do so when the outcome is common. Consequently, investigators may decide to directly estimate the risk or prevalence ratio using a log binomial regression model. We describe the use of a marginal structural binomial regression model to estimate standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences. We illustrate the proposed approach using data from a cohort study of coronary heart disease status in Evans County, Georgia, USA. The approach reduces problems with model convergence typical of log binomial regression by shifting all explanatory variables except the exposures of primary interest from the linear predictor of the outcome regression model to a model for the standardization weights. The approach also facilitates evaluation of departures from additivity in the joint effects of two exposures. Epidemiologists should consider reporting standardized risk or prevalence ratios and differences in cohort and cross-sectional studies. These are readily-obtained using the SAS, Stata and R statistical software packages. The proposed approach estimates the exposure effect in the total population. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

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    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  5. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

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    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  6. The geography of HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Botswana.

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    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Campbell, Eugene K; Rakgoasi, Serai Dan; Madi-Segwagwe, Banyana C; Fako, Thabo T

    2012-01-01

    Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups. We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey. Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4%) than males (14.3%). HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3%) than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively). We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25-35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36-49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more than half among those aged 50 years and over. In a multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant higher likelihood of HIV among females compared with males, and in clerical workers compared with professionals. The district-specific net spatial effects of HIV indicated a significantly higher HIV rate of 66% (posterior odds ratio of 1.66) in the northeast districts (Selebi-Phikwe, Sowa, and Francistown) and a reduced rate of 27% (posterior odds ratio of 0.73) in Kgalagadi North and Kweneng West districts

  7. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

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    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  8. Calculating stocking rates for game ranches: substitution ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calculating stocking rates for game ranches: substitution ratios for use in the Mopani ... Reports on a study conducted to quantify the overlap in ungulate resource-use on a game ranch, and to demonstrate how ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

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    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  10. Choice with frequently changing food rates and food ratios.

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    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-03-01

    In studies of operant choice, when one schedule of a concurrent pair is varied while the other is held constant, the constancy of the constant schedule may exert discriminative control over performance. In our earlier experiments, schedules varied reciprocally across components within sessions, so that while food ratio varied food rate remained constant. In the present experiment, we held one variable-interval (VI) schedule constant while varying the concurrent VI schedule within sessions. We studied five conditions, each with a different constant left VI schedule. On the right key, seven different VI schedules were presented in seven different unsignaled components. We analyzed performances at several different time scales. At the longest time scale, across conditions, behavior ratios varied with food ratios as would be expected from the generalized matching law. At shorter time scales, effects due to holding the left VI constant became more and more apparent, the shorter the time scale. In choice relations across components, preference for the left key leveled off as the right key became leaner. Interfood choice approximated strict matching for the varied right key, whereas interfood choice hardly varied at all for the constant left key. At the shortest time scale, visit patterns differed for the left and right keys. Much evidence indicated the development of a fix-and-sample pattern. In sum, the procedural difference made a large difference to performance, except for choice at the longest time scale and the fix-and-sample pattern at the shortest time scale. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

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    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  12. Association of UV radiation with multiple sclerosis prevalence and sex ratio in France.

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    Orton, S-M; Wald, L; Confavreux, C; Vukusic, S; Krohn, J P; Ramagopalan, S V; Herrera, B M; Sadovnick, A D; Ebers, G C

    2011-02-01

    French farmers and their families constitute an informative population to study multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence and related epidemiology. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the association of MS prevalence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a candidate climatologic risk factor. Mean annual and winter (December-March) UVB irradiation values were systematically compared to MS prevalence rates in corresponding regions of France. UVB data were obtained from the solar radiation database (SoDa) service and prevalence rates from previously published data on 2,667 MS cases registered with the national farmer health insurance system, Mutualité Sociale Agricole (MSA). Pearson correlation was used to examine the relationship of annual and winter UVB values with MS prevalence. Male and female prevalence were also analyzed separately. Linear regression was used to test for interaction of annual and winter UVB with sex in predicting MS prevalence. There was a strong association between MS prevalence and annual mean UVB irradiation (r = -0.80, p role for gender-specific effects of UVB exposure.

  13. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

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    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  14. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

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    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  15. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

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    Kyoung Ae Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods: To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II. The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results: For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF.

  16. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

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    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  17. Prevalence rate of chronic overuse pain in taekwondo athletes.

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    Koh, Jae-Ok

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo. This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport poomsae taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. The prevalence of COP is high among sport poomsae taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.

  18. EFFECT OF RATIO OF SURFACE AREA ON THE CORROSION RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Dody Prayitno; M. Irsyad

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and steel are used to be a construction for a building outdoor panel. Aluminum and steel are connected by bolt and nut. An atmosphere due to a corrosion of the aluminum. The corrosion possibly to cause the hole diameter of bolt and nut to become larger. Thus the bolt and nut can not enough strong to hold the panel. The panel may collapse. The aim of the research is first to answer a question where does the corrosion starts. The second is to know the effect of ratio surface area of st...

  19. Prevalence rates and epidemiological risk factors for astigmatism in Singapore school children.

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    Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.

  20. Prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 in nursing mothers from the state of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil.

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    Pimenta, Flávia C F; Kashima Haddad, Simone; de Medeiros Filho, João G; Costa, Maria José C; Diniz, Margareth F M; Fernandes, Melina P; de Araújo, Lenisio B; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2008-08-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus known as a direct causal agent of a malignant disease. The vertical route of HTLV transmission is the most frequent pathway of the virus contamination. This study was performed to determine the prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 infection among nursing women. From January 2004 to January 2005, blood samples from 1033 nursing mothers from Paraíba, Brazil were evaluated for HTLV antibodies by ELISA and HTLV-1 viral particles confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HTLV antibodies were detected in 7 women. The overall seroprevalence ratio was 0.68% and HTLV-1 viral sequences were confirmed by PCR in 2 women. These preliminary data suggest that HTLV screening should be introduced as a mandatory test before breastfeeding and breast milk donation in Paraíba, Brazil. Additionally, counseling programs would help reduce the prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 infected individuals in this Brazilian region.

  1. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis.

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    Wulsin, Lawson; Alterman, Toni; Timothy Bushnell, P; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2014-11-01

    To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002-2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace.

  2. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Methods Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002–2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Results Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Conclusions Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Clinical significance Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace. PMID:24907896

  3. Magnitude and Determinants of the Ratio between Prevalence of Low Vision and Blindness in Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Surveys.

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    Kaphle, Dinesh; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-10-01

    To determine the magnitude and determinants of the ratio between prevalence of low vision and prevalence of blindness in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) surveys globally. Standard RAAB reports were downloaded from the repository or requested from principal investigators. Potential predictor variables included prevalence of uncorrected refractive error (URE) as well as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, health expenditure per capita of the country across World Bank regions. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were used to investigate the correlation between potential predictor variables and the ratio. The results of 94 surveys from 43 countries showed that the ratio ranged from 1.35 in Mozambique to 11.03 in India with a median value of 3.90 (Interquartile range 3.06;5.38). Univariate regression analysis showed that prevalence of URE (p = 0.04), logarithm of GDP per capita (p = 0.01) and logarithm of health expenditure per capita (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with the higher ratio. However, only prevalence of URE was found to be significant in multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.03). There is a wide variation in the ratio of the prevalence of low vision to the prevalence of blindness. Eye care service utilization indicators such as the prevalence of URE may explain some of the variation across the regions.

  4. Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.

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    Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.

  5. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

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    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  6. Period Prevalence and Reporting Rate of Needlestick Injuries to Nurses in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Fathi, Afshin; Nouri, Bijan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a precise estimate of the period prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSI) among nurses working in hospitals in Iran and the reporting rate of NSI to nurse managers. We searched both international (PubMed, Scopus and the Institute for Scientific Information) and Iranian (Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex and Magiran) scientific databases to find studies published from 2000 to 2016 of NSI among Iranian nurses. The following keywords in Persian and English were used: "needle-stick" or "needle stick" or "needlestick," with and without "injury" or "injuries," "prevalence" or "frequency," "nurses" or "nursing staff," and "Iran." In a sample of 21 articles with 6,480 participants, we estimated that the overall 1-year period prevalence of NSI was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-53%) among Iranian nurses. The overall 1-year period prevalence of reporting NSI to nurse managers was 42% (95% CI, 33-52%). In meta-regression analysis, sample size, mean age, years of experience, and gender ratio were not associated with prevalence of NSI or reporting rate. The year of data collection was positively associated with period prevalence of NSI (p managers. Results indicated a high NSI period prevalence and low NSI reporting rate among nurses in Iran. Thus, effective interventions are required in hospitals in Iran to reduce the prevalence and increase the reporting rate of NSI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  8. [Evaluation of estimation of prevalence ratio using bayesian log-binomial regression model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W L; Lin, H; Liu, X N; Ren, X W; Li, J S; Shen, X P; Zhu, S L

    2017-03-10

    To evaluate the estimation of prevalence ratio ( PR ) by using bayesian log-binomial regression model and its application, we estimated the PR of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea in their infants by using bayesian log-binomial regression model in Openbugs software. The results showed that caregivers' recognition of infant' s risk signs of diarrhea was associated significantly with a 13% increase of medical care-seeking. Meanwhile, we compared the differences in PR 's point estimation and its interval estimation of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea and convergence of three models (model 1: not adjusting for the covariates; model 2: adjusting for duration of caregivers' education, model 3: adjusting for distance between village and township and child month-age based on model 2) between bayesian log-binomial regression model and conventional log-binomial regression model. The results showed that all three bayesian log-binomial regression models were convergence and the estimated PRs were 1.130(95 %CI : 1.005-1.265), 1.128(95 %CI : 1.001-1.264) and 1.132(95 %CI : 1.004-1.267), respectively. Conventional log-binomial regression model 1 and model 2 were convergence and their PRs were 1.130(95 % CI : 1.055-1.206) and 1.126(95 % CI : 1.051-1.203), respectively, but the model 3 was misconvergence, so COPY method was used to estimate PR , which was 1.125 (95 %CI : 1.051-1.200). In addition, the point estimation and interval estimation of PRs from three bayesian log-binomial regression models differed slightly from those of PRs from conventional log-binomial regression model, but they had a good consistency in estimating PR . Therefore, bayesian log-binomial regression model can effectively estimate PR with less misconvergence and have more advantages in application compared with conventional log-binomial regression model.

  9. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of increased lung/heart ratio of thallium-201 during dipyridamole stress imaging for suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, F.S.; Kaul, S.; Smith, W.H.; Watson, D.D.; Varma, S.K.; Beller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is little information concerning the prevalence and clinical correlates of increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake during dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics and quantitative thallium-201 findings were correlated with quantitative lung/heart thallium-201 ratio in 87 patients undergoing dipyridamole thallium-201 stress testing. Nineteen patients (22%) had an elevated ratio (greater than 0.51). These patients were more likely to have had an infarction, to be taking beta blockers, and have a lower rate-pressure product after dipyridamole administration than those with a normal ratio (p less than 0.03). An elevated ratio was associated with a greater likelihood of initial, redistribution and persistent defects, as well as left ventricular cavity dilatation on thallium-201 imaging (p less than 0.05). In addition, the number of myocardial segments demonstrating initial, redistribution and persistent defects was also greater in patients with increased ratios (p less than 0.03). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of redistribution and left ventricular cavity dilatation were the most significant correlates of lung/heart thallium-201 ratio. It is concluded that the prevalence of increased lung/heart thallium-201 ratio with dipyridamole thallium-201 stress imaging is similar to that seen with exercise stress imaging. As with exercise thallium-201 imaging, increased pulmonary thallium-201 uptake may be a marker of functionally more significant coronary artery disease

  11. Effect of stress ratio and frequency on fatigue crack growth rate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of stress ratio and frequency on the fatigue crack propagation of 2618 aluminium alloy–silicon carbide composite were investigated at ambient temperature. With the first set of specimens, the fatigue crack growth rates were studied at three frequencies of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz at a stress ratio of 0.1 whereas the effects ...

  12. Prevalence of Oral Manifestations and Their Association with CD4/CD8 Ratio and HIV Viral Load in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations in an HIV infected population from south India and evaluate their association with HIV viral load and CD4/CD8 ratio. Intraoral examination of 103 patients, whose CD4/CD8 ratio was available, were conducted. HIV viral loads were available for thirty patients only. The prevalence of oral manifestations was 80.6% (83/103. The most common oromucosal lesion was erythematous candidiasis (EC (38.8% followed by melanotic hyperpigmentation (35.9%. Patients having any oral manifestation had a mean CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.24. EC had positive predictive value of 85.0% for CD4/CD8 ratio 20,000 copies/mL (20,000 copies/mL.

  13. Smoking prevalence in Medicaid has been declining at a negligible rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available In recent decades the overall smoking prevalence in the US has fallen steadily. This study examines whether the same trend is seen in the Medicaid population.National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data from 17 consecutive annual surveys from 1997 to 2013 (combined N = 514,043 were used to compare smoking trends for 4 insurance groups: Medicaid, the Uninsured, Private Insurance, and Other Coverage. Rates of chronic disease and psychological distress were also compared.Adjusted smoking prevalence showed no detectable decline in the Medicaid population (from 33.8% in 1997 to 31.8% in 2013, trend test P = 0.13, while prevalence in the other insurance groups showed significant declines (38.6%-34.7% for the Uninsured, 21.3%-15.8% for Private Insurance, and 22.6%-16.8% for Other Coverage; all P's<0.005. Among individuals who have ever smoked, Medicaid recipients were less likely to have quit (38.8% than those in Private Insurance (62.3% or Other Coverage (69.8%; both P's<0.001. Smokers in Medicaid were more likely than those in Private Insurance and the Uninsured to have chronic disease (55.0% vs 37.3% and 32.4%, respectively; both P's<0.01. Smokers in Medicaid were also more likely to experience severe psychological distress (16.2% for Medicaid vs 3.2% for Private Insurance and 7.6% for the Uninsured; both P's<0.001.The high and relatively unchanging smoking prevalence in the Medicaid population, low quit ratio, and high rates of chronic disease and severe psychological distress highlight the need to focus on this population. A targeted and sustained campaign to help Medicaid recipients quit smoking is urgently needed.

  14. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, A; Morrison, E

    2013-04-23

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction.

  15. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, D. H.; Sy, D. N.; Linh, N. D.; Hoan, T. M.; Dien, H. T.; Thuy, T. B.; Hoa, N. P.; Tung, L. B.; Cobelens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of

  16. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  17. Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetich, John A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Smith, Douglas W; Peterson, Rolf O

    2011-11-01

    1. Predation rate (PR) and kill rate are both fundamental statistics for understanding predation. However, relatively little is known about how these statistics relate to one another and how they relate to prey population dynamics. We assess these relationships across three systems where wolf-prey dynamics have been observed for 41 years (Isle Royale), 19 years (Banff) and 12 years (Yellowstone). 2. To provide context for this empirical assessment, we developed theoretical predictions of the relationship between kill rate and PR under a broad range of predator-prey models including predator-dependent, ratio-dependent and Lotka-Volterra dynamics. 3. The theoretical predictions indicate that kill rate can be related to PR in a variety of diverse ways (e.g. positive, negative, unrelated) that depend on the nature of predator-prey dynamics (e.g. structure of the functional response). These simulations also suggested that the ratio of predator-to-prey is a good predictor of prey growth rate. That result motivated us to assess the empirical relationship between the ratio and prey growth rate for each of the three study sites. 4. The empirical relationships indicate that PR is not well predicted by kill rate, but is better predicted by the ratio of predator-to-prey. Kill rate is also a poor predictor of prey growth rate. However, PR and ratio of predator-to-prey each explained significant portions of variation in prey growth rate for two of the three study sites. 5. Our analyses offer two general insights. First, Isle Royale, Banff and Yellowstone are similar insomuch as they all include wolves preying on large ungulates. However, they also differ in species diversity of predator and prey communities, exploitation by humans and the role of dispersal. Even with the benefit of our analysis, it remains difficult to judge whether to be more impressed by the similarities or differences. This difficulty nicely illustrates a fundamental property of ecological

  18. Applied Prevalence Ratio estimation with different Regression models: An example from a cross-national study on substance use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelt, Albert; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Penelo, Eva; Bosque-Prous, Marina

    2016-06-14

    To examine the differences between Prevalence Ratio (PR) and Odds Ratio (OR) in a cross-sectional study and to provide tools to calculate PR using two statistical packages widely used in substance use research (STATA and R). We used cross-sectional data from 41,263 participants of 16 European countries participating in the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The dependent variable, hazardous drinking, was calculated using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C). The main independent variable was gender. Other variables used were: age, educational level and country of residence. PR of hazardous drinking in men with relation to women was estimated using Mantel-Haenszel method, log-binomial regression models and poisson regression models with robust variance. These estimations were compared to the OR calculated using logistic regression models. Prevalence of hazardous drinkers varied among countries. Generally, men have higher prevalence of hazardous drinking than women [PR=1.43 (1.38-1.47)]. Estimated PR was identical independently of the method and the statistical package used. However, OR overestimated PR, depending on the prevalence of hazardous drinking in the country. In cross-sectional studies, where comparisons between countries with differences in the prevalence of the disease or condition are made, it is advisable to use PR instead of OR.

  19. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D.; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 com...

  20. Deprivation index and dependency ratio are key determinants of emergency medical admission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Richard; Byrne, Declan; O'Riordan, Deirdre; Cournane, Seán; Coveney, Seamus; Silke, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Patients from deprived backgrounds have a higher in-patient mortality following an emergency medical admission; there has been debate as to the extent to which deprivation and population structure influences hospital admission rate. All emergency medical admissions to an Irish hospital over a 12-year period (2002-2013) categorized by quintile of Deprivation Index and Dependency Ratio (proportion of population Dependency Ratio was an independent predictor of the admission rate with adjusted predicted rates of Q1 20.8 (95%CI 20.5 to 21.1), Q2 19.2 (95%CI 19.0 to 19.4), Q3 27.6 (95%CI 27.3 to 27.9), Q4 43.9 (95%CI 43.5 to 44.4) and Q5 34.4 (95%CI 34.1 to 34.7). A high concurrent Deprivation Index and Dependency Ratio were associated with very high admission rates. Deprivation Index and population Dependency Ratio are key determinants of the rate of emergency medical admissions. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tumour alpha/beta ratios and dose-rate selection in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally brachytherapy employed low dose rate (LDR) techniques. Recent adoption of high dose rate (HDR) applications, addressing radiation protection concerns, has sparked debate over possible reductions in therapeutic ratio. The radiobiological characteristics of two contrasting examples, prostate cancer and cervical cancer, are examined. Both in-vitro and clinical observations of prostate cancer suggest a low α/β ratio. Labelling indices are below 2.5%, translating into long potential doubling times (Tpot ) of 16 to 61 days or more. Clinical PSA doubling times are in the order of years. Analysis of clinical endpoints in prostate cancer treated with either LDR or HDR techniques indicates that its α/β ratio may lie between 1 - 4 Gy, similar to slowly proliferating late reacting tissues. As such, therapeutic gain may arise from the use of hypofractionated HDR treatments, exploiting the sensitivity to large fraction sizes, effectively escalating dose. The slow proliferative rate also gives credence to the use of LDR, although several tumour doublings may occur during the effective treatment time, and analysis of the clinical data using a low α/β ratio suggests that LDR doses are only equivalent to 70 Gy with conventional fractionation. Cervical carcinoma is a rapidly proliferating tumour with Tpot values of 3-6 days. LDR implants were delivered over relatively short treatment times, negating repopulation effects, and the 'hyperfractionation' effect of LDR was suited to the high α/β ratio. HDR, although also preventing significant repopulation, has the potential to decrease the therapeutic ratio if low α/β , late-reacting tissues are not protected. Clinical data however show improved outcomes and reduced morbidity with HDR through reduced doses to normal tissues. Choosing the optimal dose rate in brachytherapy depends on tumour behaviour and achievable accuracy. HDR offers some advantages even for high α/β ratio tumours, and may be the technique of

  2. Assessment of chloroethene degradation rates based on ratios of daughter/parent compounds in groundwater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Chlorinated solvent spills at industrial and urban sites create groundwater plumes where tetrachloro- and trichloroethene may degrade to their daughter compounds, dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride and ethane. The assessment of degradation and natural attenuation at such sites may be based on the analysis and inverse modelling of concentration data, on the calculation of mass fluxes in transsects, and/or on the analysis of stable isotope ratios in the ethenes. Relatively few work has investigated the possibility of using ratio of concentrations for gaining information on degradation rates. The use of ratios bears the advantage that dilution of a single sample with contaminant-free water does not matter. It will be shown that molar ratios of daughter to parent compounds measured along a plume streamline are a rapid and robust mean of determining whether degradation rates increase or decrease along the degradation chain, and allow furthermore a quantitation of the relative magnitude of degradation rates compared to the rate of the parent compound. Furthermore, ratios of concentration will become constant in zones where degradation is absent, and this allows to sketching the extension of actively degrading zones. The assessment is possible for pure sources and also for mixed sources. A quantification method is proposed in order to estimate first-order degradation rates in zones of constant degradation activity. This quantification method includes corrections that are needed due to longitudinal and transversal dispersivity. The method was tested on a number of real field sites from literature. At the majority of these sites, the first-order degradation rates were decreasing along the degradation chain from tetrachloroethene to vinyl chloride, meaning that the latter was often reaching important concentrations. This is bad news for site owners due to the increased toxicity of vinyl chloride compared to its parent compounds.

  3. Evaluation of Goiter Prevalence and Iodine to Creatinine Ratio among School-aged Girls in Urmia County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J nourooz-zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical evaluation of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs is often accomplished by assessment of urinary iodine excretion (UIE in random samples; however, the utilization of 24 hour urine samples is a more reliable biomarker of nutritional iodine status. This study was designed to evaluate total goiter prevalence (TGP and iodine/creatinine ratio among school-aged children in Urmia County. Methods: Schoolchildren (n=500 were recruited by cluster sampling from different educational areas in Urmia County. Goiter prevalence was assessed by thyroid palpation, UIE was determined by Sandell-Koltoff reaction, and Urinary creatinine was measured by the Jaffe-method. Results: In general, TGP was 12.2%. Among these, there were 48 individuals (9.6% with grade I goiter and 13 subjects (2.6% with grade II goiter. Mean urinary creatinine, median UIE and median I/Cr ratio were respectively 1.36±0.76 mg/dL, 14.3µg/dL, and 11.5µg/mg. Prevalence of iodine deficiency according to UIE criteria was 22.8% and that of I/Cr ratio was 41.2%. There was a correlation between age and UIE (P=001; r=0.163. UIE and urinary creatinine were correlated as well (P<0.003; r= 0.133. A correlation was also detected between I/Cr ratios and UIE (P=0.003; r=0.133 whilst a negative association was seen between age and I/Cr ratios (P=0.001; and r=–0.263. Conclusion: This investigation reconfirms that there is slight-to-mild iodine deficiency in Urmia County. The utilization of I/Cr ratio in conjugation with UIE and palpation may provide a better assessment in investigating nutritional iodine status.

  4. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions.

  5. High dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated acids during pregnancy and prevalence of post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Camilla M M; Kac, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies suggest association between low concentrations of omega-3 family fatty acids and greater risk for post-partum depression (PPD). The objective was to investigate the effect of unbalanced dietary intake of omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 in the prevalence for PPD. The study comprises a prospective cohort with four waves of follow-up during pregnancy and one following delivery. PPD was evaluated according to the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (PPD ≥ 11) in 106 puerperae between 2005 and 2007, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Independent variables included socio-demographic, obstetric, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake data, which were obtained by means of a food frequency questionnaire in the first trimester of pregnancy. Statistical analysis involved calculation of PPD prevalence and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. PPD prevalence amounted to 26.4% [n = 28; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 18.0-34.8], and higher prevalences of PPD were observed in women who consumed an omega-6/omega-3 ratio >9:1 (60.0%) and in those with pre-pregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m(2) (66.7%). These variables held as factors associated to PPD in the multivariate model, elevating the chances of occurrence of the outcome in 2.50 (CI 95%: 1.21-5.14) and 4.01 times (CI 95%: 1.96-8.20), respectively. Analyses were adjusted for age, schooling, pre-pregnancy BMI, lipids consumption and time elapsed since delivery. It verified an association between omega-6/omega-3 ratio above 9:1, the levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine, and the prevalence of PPD. These results add to the evidence regarding the importance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the regulation of mental health mechanisms. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Temporal patterns in capture rate and sex ratio of forest bats in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; S. Andrew Carter; Ronald E. Thill

    2010-01-01

    We quantified changes in capture rates and sex ratios from May to Sept. for eight species of bats, derived from 8 y of extensive mist netting in forests of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas. Our primary goal was to determine patterns of relative abundance for each species of bat captured over forest streams and to determine if these patterns were similar to patterns of...

  7. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L

    2014-01-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Austral...

  8. Do exchange rates follow random walks? A variance ratio test of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The random-walk hypothesis in foreign-exchange rates market is one of the most researched areas, particularly in developed economies. However, emerging markets in sub-Saharan Africa have received little attention in this regard. This study applies Lo and MacKinlay's (1988) conventional variance ratio test and Wright's ...

  9. Effect of different ratios of cow manure and corn straw on the mixed anaerobic fermentation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongshan JIANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of the different ratios on the anaerobic fermentation rate is investigated, and the rate-limiting factors are preliminarily determined, at mesophilic (38±1℃ condition, with anaerobic granular sludge as inoculums, different ratios of cow manure and corn straw are used as substrate for mixed anaerobic fermentation. By measuring daily biogas production, the concentrations of CH4 and CO2 in the marsh gas, TC, the concentration of VFAs and pH value, The results show that under the mixture ratio of 2∶1, the hydrolysis rate constants, cumulative biogas yield and biodegradability CH4 reach their high limits, which are 0.043 7 d-1, 271.93 mL/g and 71.59%, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the concentration of acetic acid is proportional to the amount of cow manure at the beginning (the first day of mixed fermentation, and the concentration of propionicacid is proportional to the amount of corn straw in medium fermentation stage (the fifth day. In addition, rate-limiting step of biogas production is related to the ratio of cow manure and corn in fermentation material. With the increasing of corn straw proportion, on the 1st day, it tends to hydrolysis acidogenesis; from the 2th day to 15th day, it tends to hydrogen-production acetogenisis; and from the 16th day to 30th day, it is hydrolysis acidogenesis. The paper focuses on the relationship between the ratio of cow manure and corn straw and the rate-limiting step for biogas production, which could provide a theoretical and experimental support for improving the efficiency of biogas production in mixed fermentation.

  10. Influence of ceramic dental crown coating substrate thickness ratio on strain energy release rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnulhadi, K.; Daud, R.; Mat, F.; Noor, S. N. F. M.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Sulaiman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of coating substrate thickness ratio effect on the crown coating fracture behaviour. The bi-layer material is examined under four point bending with pre-crack at the bottom of the core material by using finite element. Three different coating thickness of core/substrate was tested which is 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. The fracture parameters are analysed based on bilayer and homogenous elastic interaction. The result shows that the ratio thickness of core/veneer provided a significant effect on energy release rate.

  11. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Shuttle bit rate synchronizer. [signal to noise ratios and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, D. C.; Fultz, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    A shuttle bit rate synchronizer brassboard unit was designed, fabricated, and tested, which meets or exceeds the contractual specifications. The bit rate synchronizer operates at signal-to-noise ratios (in a bit rate bandwidth) down to -5 dB while exhibiting less than 0.6 dB bit error rate degradation. The mean acquisition time was measured to be less than 2 seconds. The synchronizer is designed around a digital data transition tracking loop whose phase and data detectors are integrate-and-dump filters matched to the Manchester encoded bits specified. It meets the reliability (no adjustments or tweaking) and versatility (multiple bit rates) of the shuttle S-band communication system through an implementation which is all digital after the initial stage of analog AGC and A/D conversion.

  13. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dommelen, Paula; De Kroon, Marlou L A; Cameron, Noël; Schon̈beck, Yvonne; Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  14. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Kroon, M.L.A. de; Cameron, N.; Schonbeck, Y.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  15. Effect of lift-to-drag ratio in pilot rating of the HL-20 landing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E. B.; Rivers, Robert A.; Bailey, Melvin L.

    1993-01-01

    A man-in-the-loop simulation study of the handling qualities of the HL-20 lifting-body vehicle was made in a fixed-base simulation cockpit at NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of the study was to identify and substantiate opportunities for improving the original design of the vehicle from a handling qualities and landing performance perspective. Using preliminary wind-tunnel data, a subsonic aerodynamic model of the HL-20 was developed. This model was adequate to simulate the last 75-90 s of the approach and landing. A simple flight-control system was designed and implemented. Using this aerodynamic model as a baseline, visual approaches and landings were made at several vehicle lift-to-drag ratios. Pilots rated the handling characteristics of each configuration using a conventional numerical pilot-rating scale. Results from the study showed a high degree of correlation between the lift-to-drag ratio and pilot rating. Level 1 pilot ratings were obtained when the L/D ratio was approximately 3.8 or higher.

  16. Decay rate ratios of Υ(5S)→B anti B reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dae Sung; Son, Hyungsuk

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the decay rate ratios for OZI allowed decays of Υ(5S) to two B mesons by using the decay amplitudes which incorporate the wave function of the Υ(5S) state. We obtain the result that the branching ratio of the Υ(5S) decay to B s * anti B s * is much larger than the branching ratio to B s anti B s * or anti B s B s * , in good agreement with the recent experimental results of CLEO and BELLE. This agreement with the experimental results is made possible since the nodes of the Υ(5S) radial wave function induce the nodes of the decay amplitude. We find that the results for the Υ(5S) decays to B u (*) anti B u (*) or B d (*) anti B d (*) pairs are sensitive to the parameter values used for the potential between heavy quarks. (orig.)

  17. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  18. Nitrogen removal in permeable woodchips filters affected by hydraulic loading rate and woodchips ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jacob Druedahl; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2016-01-01

    response of mixed reactive media (woodchips-Seashells and woodchips-Filtralite mixtures) at two woodchips ratios (WR) to changes in the hydraulic loading rate (HLR). The tests implied continuous loading of aerated NO3-N spiked artificial drainage water and tritium (3H2O) breakthrough experiments. Flow...... normalized nitrate reduction rates were 0.35-3.97 g N m-3 L-1, corresponding to N- removal efficiencies of 5 to 74% depending on HLR and filter mixtures. At high HLR oxic conditions prevailed, thus N removal was restricted to the immobile domain, controlled by diffusion. At lower HLR, progressively lower...

  19. Extreme mass ratio inspiral rates: dependence on the massive black hole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We study the rate at which stars spiral into a massive black hole (MBH) due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs), as a function of the mass M . of the MBH. In the context of our model, it is shown analytically that the rate approximately depends on the MBH mass as M -1/4 . . Numerical simulations confirm this result, and show that for all MBH masses, the event rate is highest for stellar black holes, followed by white dwarfs, and lowest for neutron stars. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to see hundreds of these extreme mass ratio inspirals per year. Since the event rate derived here formally diverges as M . → 0, the model presented here cannot hold for MBHs of masses that are too low, and we discuss what the limitations of the model are.

  20. A study on the optimal hydraulic loading rate and plant ratios in recirculation aquaponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endut, Azizah; Jusoh, A; Ali, N; Wan Nik, W B; Hassan, A

    2010-03-01

    The growths of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were evaluated in recirculation aquaponic system (RAS). Fish production performance, plant growth and nutrient removal were measured and their dependence on hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was assessed. Fish production did not differ significantly between hydraulic loading rates. In contrast to the fish production, the water spinach yield was significantly higher in the lower hydraulic loading rate. Fish production, plant growth and percentage nutrient removal were highest at hydraulic loading rate of 1.28 m/day. The ratio of fish to plant production has been calculated to balance nutrient generation from fish with nutrient removal by plants and the optimum ratio was 15-42 gram of fish feed/m(2) of plant growing area. Each unit in RAS was evaluated in terms of oxygen demand. Using specified feeding regime, mass balance equations were applied to quantify the waste discharges from rearing tanks and treatment units. The waste discharged was found to be strongly dependent on hydraulic loading rate. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The varying distribution of intra- and inter-vertebral height ratios determines the prevalence of vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebaze, Roger Martin Djoumessi; Djoumessi, Roger Martin Zebaze; Maalouf, Ghassan; Wehbe, Joseph; Nehme, Alexandre; Maalouf, Naim; Seeman, Ego

    2004-08-01

    Credible inferences regarding the burden of vertebral fractures (VFs) cannot be made without a globally accepted quantitative definition of 'fracture'. Currently, differences in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral heights (VHs) within a vertebra, or between adjacent vertebrae, are used to define 'fracture'. However, VH differences are essential for the construction of thoracolumbar curves, evolutionary adaptations that provide stability in bipedal stance and gait. As there is no reference standard to distinguish anatomical variation from fracture, approaches to defining a VF use a reference range of VH ratios derived in premenopausal women or derived by trimming, a method that iteratively removes the tails of a distribution of VH ratios to produce a normal distribution. From this, reference ranges of VH ratio means and standard deviations (SDs) are obtained and a nominal deviation of 15% or more, or 3 SD or more is regarded as a 'fracture'. We measured VHs by quantitative vertebral morphometry (QVM) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 697 Lebanese women (age 20-89 years) to compare the prevalence of VF ascertained by published methods and a new method that uses the premenopausal range (without trimming) and requires two VH abnormalities. VF prevalence using published methods reached 60% to 70% in pre- and post-menopausal women, and in women with normal or high BMD because VH ratios were not normally distributed and cut-offs used to define VF fracture fell within the observed distribution of the data. The new method resulted in a VF prevalence of 3.3% in younger and 14% in older women, 7% (high), 10% (middle), and 20% (low) BMD tertiles consistent with the notion that the method detected VF due to bone fragility. We suggest that using a fixed trimming method to define reference range and cut-offs or applying fixed cut-offs to identify VFs in populations, where these ratios are not normally distributed, may result in the capture

  2. Association between Search Behaviors and Disease Prevalence Rates at 18 U.S. Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dennis; Wolbrink, Traci; Logvinenko, Tanya; Harper, Marvin; Burns, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Background Usage of online resources by clinicians in training and practice can provide insight into knowledge gaps and inform development of decision support tools. Although online information seeking is often driven by encountered patient problems, the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate has not been previously characterized. Objective This article aimed to (1) identify topics frequently searched by pediatric clinicians using UpToDate (http://www.uptodate.com) and (2) explore the association between disease prevalence rate and search rate using data from the Pediatric Health Information System. Methods We identified the most common search queries and resources most frequently accessed on UpToDate for a cohort of 18 children's hospitals during calendar year 2012. We selected 64 of the most frequently searched diseases and matched ICD-9 data from the PHIS database during the same time period. Using linear regression, we explored the relationship between clinician query rate and disease prevalence rate. Results The hospital cohort submitted 1,228,138 search queries across 592,454 sessions. The majority of search sessions focused on a single search topic. We identified no consistent overall association between disease prevalence and search rates. Diseases where search rate was substantially higher than prevalence rate were often infectious or immune/rheumatologic conditions, involved potentially complex diagnosis or management, and carried risk of significant morbidity or mortality. None of the examined diseases showed a decrease in search rate associated with increased disease prevalence rates. Conclusion This is one of the first medical learning needs assessments to use large-scale, multisite data to identify topics of interest to pediatric clinicians, and to examine the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate for a set of pediatric diseases. Overall, disease search rate did not appear to be associated with hospital

  3. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, D H; Sy, D N; Linh, N D; Hoan, T M; Dien, H T; Thuy, T B; Hoa, N P; Tung, L B; Cobelens, F

    2010-08-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of HIV infection among smear-positive TB patients in six provinces with relatively high HIV population prevalence in Vietnam. All patients who registered for treatment of smear-positive TB during the fourth quarter of 2005 were offered HIV testing. Of the 1217 TB patients included in the study, 100 (8.2%) tested HIV-positive. HIV prevalence varied between 2% and 17% in the provinces, and was strongly associated with age Vietnam, HIV infection is concentrated in drug users, as well as in specific geographic areas where it has considerable impact on TB notification rates among men aged 15-34 years.

  4. The independence of irradiation creep in austenitic alloys of displacement rate and helium to dpa ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Grossbeck, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The majority of high fluence data on the void swelling and irradiation creep of austenitic steels were generated at relatively high displacement rates and relatively low helium/dpa levels that are not characteristic of the conditions anticipated in ITER and other anticipated fusion environments. After reanalyzing the available data, this paper shows that irradiation creep is not directly sensitive to either the helium/dpa ratio or the displacement rate, other than through their possible influence on void swelling, since one component of the irradiation creep rate varies with no correlation to the instantaneous swelling rate. Until recently, however, the non-swelling-related creep component was also thought to exhibit its own strong dependence on displacement rate, increasing at lower fluxes. This perception originally arose from the work of Lewthwaite and Mosedale at temperatures in the 270-350{degrees}C range. More recently this perception was thought to extend to higher irradiation temperatures. It now appears, however, that this interpretation is incorrect, and in fact the steady-state value of the non-swelling component of irradiation creep is actually insensitive to displacement rate. The perceived flux dependence appears to arise from a failure to properly interpret the impact of the transient regime of irradiation creep.

  5. Male sexual strategies modify ratings of female models with specific waist-to-hip ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Gary L; Walker, Gary

    2004-06-01

    Female waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) has generally been an important general predictor of ratings of physical attractiveness and related characteristics. Individual differences in ratings do exist, however, and may be related to differences in the reproductive tactics of the male raters such as pursuit of short-term or long-term relationships and adjustments based on perceptions of one's own quality as a mate. Forty males, categorized according to sociosexual orientation and physical qualities (WHR, Body Mass Index, and self-rated desirability), rated female models on both attractiveness and likelihood they would approach them. Sociosexually restricted males were less likely to approach females rated as most attractive (with 0.68-0.72 WHR), as compared with unrestricted males. Males with lower scores in terms of physical qualities gave ratings indicating more favorable evaluations of female models with lower WHR. The results indicate that attractiveness and willingness to approach are overlapping but distinguishable constructs, both of which are influenced by variations in characteristics of the raters.

  6. Prevalence and likelihood ratio of symptoms in patients with good therapeutic response to Lycopodium clavatum. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizayaga, José Enrique; Pozzi, María Isabel; Canan, María Clara; Saravia, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of the likelihood ratio (LR) of symptoms has been proposed as a rational means for detecting indicators to homeopathic medicines. To investigate the prevalence and LR of symptoms commonly attributed to the homeopathic medicine Lycopodium clavatum (Lyc). Secondarily, to answer the question if experienced homeopaths could intuitively infer which the main symptoms of this medicine are. The presence of 35 selected symptoms, prescribed medicines and therapeutic response were assessed retrospectively. The symptoms' prevalence in the Lyc responding population and the LR of the symptoms compared to their prevalence in the remainder of the population were calculated. Two hundred and two Lyc and 550 non Lyc cases (total 752) were included for analysis. Twenty-two symptoms were confirmed as pertaining to Lyc's semiology (prevalence %; LR): contemptuous (3.3; 6.7), urinary stones history (2.7; 5.4), egotism (5.6; 3.6), dictatorial (33.3; 3.4), haughty (8.7; 3.3), sleeps on abdomen (3.3; 3.3), intolerance to clothing in abdomen (12.0; 3.1), reproaches (4.0; 3.0), helplessness (24.0; 2.7), fear of failure (10.7; 2.6), irritability on waking in the morning (16.7; 2.5), constipation alternating with diarrhea (8.7; 2.5), intolerant to contradiction (59.3; 2.3), want of self confidence (30.0; 2.4), abdominal distension after eating (23.3; 2.1); ailments from anticipation (32.0; 1.9), irritability before menses (23.3; 1.8), conscientious (26.0; 1.6), desire of sweets (52.0; 1.6), desire of chocolate (16.7; 1.6), lack of vital heat (41.3; 1.3), and flatterer (1.3; ∞). Surveyed homeopaths' intuitive inferences correlated well with symptoms' prevalence but not with their LR. Lycopodium's main symptoms are well known by homeopaths, but their knowledge correlates well with the symptoms' prevalence and not with their LR. Retrospective assessment of prevalence and LR of symptoms in good responders might be a means for better selection of symptoms for prospective studies

  7. Modeling whole-tree carbon assimilation rate using observed transpiration rates and needle sugar carbon isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Moore, David J P; Riveros-Iregui, Diego A; Burns, Sean P; Monson, Russell K

    2010-03-01

    *Understanding controls over plant-atmosphere CO(2) exchange is important for quantifying carbon budgets across a range of spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a simple approach to estimate whole-tree CO(2) assimilation rate (A(Tree)) in a subalpine forest ecosystem. *We analysed the carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of extracted needle sugars and combined it with the daytime leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit to estimate tree water-use efficiency (WUE). The estimated WUE was then combined with observations of tree transpiration rate (E) using sap flow techniques to estimate A(Tree). Estimates of A(Tree) for the three dominant tree species in the forest were combined with species distribution and tree size to estimate and gross primary productivity (GPP) using an ecosystem process model. *A sensitivity analysis showed that estimates of A(Tree) were more sensitive to dynamics in E than delta(13)C. At the ecosystem scale, the abundance of lodgepole pine trees influenced seasonal dynamics in GPP considerably more than Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir because of its greater sensitivity of E to seasonal climate variation. *The results provide the framework for a nondestructive method for estimating whole-tree carbon assimilation rate and ecosystem GPP over daily-to weekly time scales.

  8. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2018-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.

  9. Prevalence and incidence rate of injuries in runners at a local athletic club in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hendricks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.

  10. Heart rate asymmetry follows the inspiration/expiration ratio in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klintworth, Anne; Ajtay, Zénó; Paljunite, Alina; Szabados, Sándor; Hejjel, László

    2012-01-01

    Heart rate asymmetry (HRA) quantifies the uneven distribution of points above and below the identity-line in a Poincaré plot of RR-intervals. The authors investigated if HRA could be influenced by the inspiration/expiration ratio. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) were studied in the supine position at 4.5 s metronome breathing. ECG and breathing signals were recorded for 360 s at each breathing pattern: inspiration controlled, inspiration/expiration controlled (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 ratio), inspiration controlled again. Time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré plot heart rate variability (HRV) analysis with Porta's and Guzik's indices were performed on 300 s tachograms. There were no statistically significant differences in time domain, frequency domain and standard Poincaré plot parameters during the various breathing patterns, whereas Porta's and Guzik's indices significantly rose at 1:1 and 2:1 compared to physiological 1:2 breathing. There were no significant differences in the HRA parameters between the first and the last runs. In our population the inspiration/expiration ratio significantly influenced HRA, but not standard HRV parameters. Positive correlation of Guzik's and Porta's index reflects reciprocal changes of the number of points and their dispersion in the accelerating and decelerating sets of RR-intervals. HRA-analysis can be a promising method for investigating cardiovascular regulation/health particularly with further spreading of wearable monitors. (paper)

  11. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification in a packed bed reactor: effects of hydrogen-to-water flow rate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Maeng, S K

    2010-06-01

    Hydrogen dissolution and hydrogenotrophic denitrification performance were investigated in a lab-scale packed bed reactor (PBR) by varying the hydrogen flow rate and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The denitrification performance was enhanced by increasing the hydrogen flow rate and HRT as a result of high dissolved hydrogen concentration (0.39mg/L) and utilization efficiencies (79%). In this study, the hydrogen-to-water flow rate ratio (Q(g)/Q(w)) was found to be a new operating factor representing the two parameters of hydrogen flow rate and HRT. Hydrogen dissolution and denitrification efficiency were nonlinearly and linearly correlated with the Q(g)/Q(w), respectively. Based on its excellent linear correlation with denitrification efficiency, Q(g)/Q(w) should be greater than 2.3 to meet the WHO's guideline of nitrate nitrogen for drinking water. This study demonstrates that Q(g)/Q(w) is a simple and robust factor to optimize hydrogen-sparged bioreactors for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does multimorbidity influence the occurrence rates of chronic conditions? A claims data based comparison of expected and observed prevalence rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon with an almost endless number of possible disease combinations with unclear implications. One important aspect in analyzing the clustering of diseases is to distinguish between random coexistence and statistical dependency. We developed a model to account for random coexistence based on stochastic distribution. We analyzed if the number of diseases of the patients influences the occurrence rates of chronic conditions. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of 121,389 persons aged 65+ using a list of 46 chronic conditions. Expected prevalences were simulated by drawing without replacement from all observed diseases using observed overall prevalences as initial probability weights. To determine if a disease occurs more or less frequently than expected by chance we calculated observed-minus-expected deltas for each disease. We defined clinical relevance as |delta| ≥ 5.0%. 18 conditions were excluded because of a prevalence < 5.0%. RESULTS: We found that (1 two chronic conditions (e.g. hypertension were more frequent than expected in patients with a low number of comorbidities; (2 four conditions (e.g. renal insufficiency were more frequent in patients with many comorbidities; (3 six conditions (e.g. cancer were less frequent with many comorbidities; and (4 16 conditions had an average course of prevalences. CONCLUSION: A growing extent of multimorbidity goes along with a rapid growth of prevalences. This is for the largest part merely a stochastic effect. If we account for this effect we find that only few diseases deviate from the expected prevalence curves. Causes for these deviations are discussed. Our approach also has methodological implications: Naive analyses of multimorbidity might easily be affected by bias, because the prevalence of all chronic conditions necessarily increases with a growing extent of multimorbidity. We should therefore always examine and discuss the stochastic interrelations

  13. Gender differences in drunk driving prevalence rates and trends: a 20-year assessment using multiple sources of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    This research tracked women's and men's drunk driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1982-2004 using three diverse sources of evidence. Sex-specific prevalence estimates and the sex ratio are derived from official arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Drunk driving trends were analyzed using Augmented Dickey Fuller time series techniques. Female DUI arrest rates increased whereas male rates declined then stabilized, producing a significantly narrower sex ratio. According to self-report and traffic data, women's and men's drunk driving rates declined and the gender gap was unchanged. Women's overrepresentation in arrests relative to their share of offending began in the 1990s and accelerated in 2000. Women's arrest gains, contrasted with no systematic change in DUI behavior, and the timing of this shift suggest an increased vulnerability to arrest. More stringent laws and enforcement directed at less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female offending patterns.

  14. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Response-rate differences in variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules: An old problem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    In Experiment 1, a variable-ratio 10 schedule became, successively, a variable-interval schedule with only the minimum interreinforcement intervals yoked to the variable ratio, or a variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement intervals and reinforced interresponse times yoked to the variable ratio. Response rates in the variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement interval and reinforced interresponse time yoking fell between the higher rates maintained by the variable-...

  16. Physician Bayesian updating from personal beliefs about the base rate and likelihood ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin

    2017-02-01

    Whether humans can accurately make decisions in line with Bayes' rule has been one of the most important yet contentious topics in cognitive psychology. Though a number of paradigms have been used for studying Bayesian updating, rarely have subjects been allowed to use their own preexisting beliefs about the prior and the likelihood. A study is reported in which physicians judged the posttest probability of a diagnosis for a patient vignette after receiving a test result, and the physicians' posttest judgments were compared to the normative posttest calculated from their own beliefs in the sensitivity and false positive rate of the test (likelihood ratio) and prior probability of the diagnosis. On the one hand, the posttest judgments were strongly related to the physicians' beliefs about both the prior probability as well as the likelihood ratio, and the priors were used considerably more strongly than in previous research. On the other hand, both the prior and the likelihoods were still not used quite as much as they should have been, and there was evidence of other nonnormative aspects to the updating, such as updating independent of the likelihood beliefs. By focusing on how physicians use their own prior beliefs for Bayesian updating, this study provides insight into how well experts perform probabilistic inference in settings in which they rely upon their own prior beliefs rather than experimenter-provided cues. It suggests that there is reason to be optimistic about experts' abilities, but that there is still considerable need for improvement.

  17. Reaction Rate Distributions and Ratios in FR0 Assemblies 1, 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, T L

    1966-06-15

    The spatial distribution of different reaction rates and reaction ratios in Assemblies 1, 2 and 3 of the fast reactor FR0 was measured by fission chamber scans and foil activation technique. Assemblies 1 and 2 had cores of undiluted fuel (uranium metal enriched to 20 % U{sup 235}) while the core of Assembly 3 was diluted with about 30 vol. % graphite. All the systems had a thick copper reflector, The experimental results were compared with calculated values obtained from DSN and TDC multigroup spectra and group cross-section sets for the reactions. Good agreement between experiment and calculations is generally obtained in the core region but in the reflector the neutron spectrum is calculated too hard.

  18. Burden of type 2 diabetes in Mexico: past, current and future prevalence and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of fluid properties, flow rate and aspect ratios on stratification in a cylindrical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhdjar, A.; Benyoucef, B.; Harhad, A.

    2005-01-01

    Fluid flow and temperature field in a cavity are numerically simulated using finite volume techniques. The fluid flow in the vertical cylindrical cavity is assumed to be two-dimensional. Inflow occurs at the top through a ring like entrance and outflow takes place at the bottom through an exit of the same shape. The study considers a transient mixed convection flow. The governing equations are the conservation equations for laminar natural convection flow based on the Boussinesq approximation. Forced convection flow is superimposed through the appropriate boundary conditions (inflow and outflow conditions). The influence of the mass flow rate and of the fluid is made through the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. Stratification analysis is made qualitatively through temperature distribution. In a previous study, consideration was given to low Reynolds numbers i.e. Re +4 ) in considering water (Pr=3.01) as the working fluid for the thermal energy storage. Correlations for the storage efficiency are deduced with respect to the Reynolds number and cavity aspect ratios of 1/0.5, 1/1 and 1/2. So the objective of the work is to get more information on the influence of flow rate on the storage efficiency as well as on the medium mean temperature. (author)

  20. Influence of fluid properties, flow rate and aspect ratios on stratification in a cylindrical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhdjar, A.; Harhad, A.; Guerri, O.

    2003-01-01

    The fluid flow and temperature field in a cavity are numerically simulated using finite volume techniques. The fluid flow in the vertical cylindrical cavity is assumed to be two-dimensional. Inflow occurs at the top through a ring like entrance and outflow takes place at the bottom through an exit of the same shape. The study considers a transient mixed convection flow. The governing equations are the conservation equations for laminar natural convection flow based on the Boussinesq approximation. Forced convection flow is superimposed through the appropriate boundary conditions (inflow and outflow conditions). The influence of the mass flow rate and of the fluid is made through the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. Stratification analysis is made qualitatively through temperature distribution. The study considers two fluids i.e. water (Pr=4.5) and ethylene glycol (Pr=51) and cavity aspect ratios of 1/0.5 and 1 /2. So the objective of the work is to get more information on the influence of flow rate on the performance of the thermal energy storage. Correlations for the storage efficiency are deduced with respect to the Reynolds number. (author)

  1. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  2. Back pain in the working population: Prevalence rates in Dutch trades and professions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, V.H.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of three health surveys in the Dutch working population is described, aimed at the identification of Dutch trades and professions with relative high and low prevalence rates of back pain. The sample was representative of the working population in the Netherlands and consisted of 5840 men

  3. Prevalence Rates of the Incubus Phenomenon: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Molendijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe incubus phenomenon is a paroxysmal sleep-related disorder characterized by compound hallucinations experienced during brief phases of (apparent wakefulness. The condition has an almost stereotypical presentation, characterized by a hallucinated being that exerts pressure on the thorax, meanwhile carrying out aggressive and/or sexual acts. It tends to be accompanied by sleep paralysis, anxiety, vegetative symptoms, and feelings of suffocation. Its prevalence rate is unknown since, in prior analyses, cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis with/without an incubus phenomenon have been pooled together. This is unfortunate, since the incubus phenomenon has a much greater clinical relevance than isolated sleep paralysis.MethodsPubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for prevalence studies of the incubus phenomenon, and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsOf the 1,437 unique records, 13 met the inclusion criteria, reporting on 14 (k independent prevalence estimates (total N = 6,079. The pooled lifetime prevalence rate of the incubus phenomenon was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI = 0.14–0.25, k = 14, N = 6,079] with heterogeneous estimates over different samples. In selected samples (e.g., patients with a psychiatric disorder, refugees, and students, prevalence rates were nearly four times higher (0.41, 95% CI = 0.25–0.56, k = 4, n = 1,275 than in the random samples (0.11, 95% CI = 0.08–0.14, k = 10, n = 4,804. This difference was significant (P < 0.001.ConclusionThis review and meta-analysis yielded a lifetime prevalence of the incubus phenomenon in the general population of 0.11 and, in selected samples, of 0.41. This is slightly higher than the prevalence rates in previous analyses that included cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis without an incubus phenomenon. Based on the condition’s robust clinical presentation and the relatively high prevalence rates, we advocate

  4. Short report: entomologic inoculation rates and Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, J C; Killeen, G F; Githure, J I

    1999-07-01

    Epidemiologic patterns of malaria infection are governed by environmental parameters that regulate vector populations of Anopheles mosquitoes. The intensity of malaria parasite transmission is normally expressed as the entomologic inoculation rate (EIR), the product of the vector biting rate times the proportion of mosquitoes infected with sporozoite-stage malaria parasites. Malaria transmission intensity in Africa is highly variable with annual EIRs ranging from 1,000 infective bites per person per year. Malaria control programs often seek to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malaria by reducing or eliminating malaria parasite transmission by mosquitoes. This report evaluates data from 31 sites throughout Africa to establish fundamental relationships between annual EIRs and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. The majority of sites fitted a linear relationship (r2 = 0.71) between malaria prevalence and the logarithm of the annual EIR. Some sites with EIRs 80%. The basic relationship between EIR and P. falciparum prevalence, which likely holds in east and west Africa, and across different ecologic zones, shows convincingly that substantial reductions in malaria prevalence are likely to be achieved only when EIRs are reduced to levels less than 1 infective bite per person per year. The analysis also highlights that the EIR is a more direct measure of transmission intensity than traditional measures of malaria prevalence or hospital-based measures of infection or disease incidence. As such, malaria field programs need to consider both entomologic and clinical assessments of the efficacy of transmission control measures.

  5. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates

    OpenAIRE

    Chipman, A.; Morrison, E.

    2013-01-01

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated w...

  6. Estimates of global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and their association with the Human Development Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Mansori; Erfan Ayubi; Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani; Shiva Mansouri Hanis; Somayeh Khazaei; Mohadeseh Sani; Yousef Moradi; Salman Khazaei; Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of greatest global public health concerns today due to the high incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. The aim of this research was investigate and estimate the global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and explore their associations with the Human Development Index. Methods: The global age-standardized rates of mortality, prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS were obtained from the UNAIDS for different countries in 2015. The human developm...

  7. Effects of age and sex ratios on offspring recruitment rates in translocated black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Law, Peter R; du Preez, Pierre; Linklater, Wayne L

    2018-06-01

    Success of animal translocations depends on improving postrelease demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like postrelease survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of data on black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations. We used the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females-a metric integrating survival, fecundity, and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity-to detect determinants of success. Our unambiguously best model (AICω = 0.986) predicted that ORR increases with female age at release as a function of lower postrelease adult rhinoceros sex ratio (males:females). Delay of first postrelease reproduction and failure of some females to recruit any calves to sexual maturity most influenced the pattern of ORRs, and the leading causes of recruitment failure were postrelease female death (23% of all females) and failure to calve (24% of surviving females). We recommend translocating older females (≥6 years old) because they do not exhibit the reproductive delay and low ORRs of juveniles (recruitment failure of juveniles and young adults (4-5.9 years old). Where translocation of juveniles is necessary, they should be released into female-biased populations, where they have higher ORRs. Our study offers the unique advantage of a long-term analysis across a large number of replicate populations-a science-by-management experiment as a proxy for a manipulative experiment, and a rare opportunity, particularly for a large, critically endangered taxon such as the black rhinoceros. Our findings differ from previous recommendations, reinforce the importance of long-term data sets and comprehensive metrics of translocation success, and suggest attention be shifted from ecological to social constraints on population growth and species recovery, particularly

  8. A replication of the relationship between elderly suicides rates and elderly dependency ratios: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    A positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates has been observed using one-year cross-sectional data on elderly suicide rates. A cross-national study designed to replicate this positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates was undertaken by: (i) using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates; and (ii) using more recent data on both elderly suicide rates and elderly dependency ratios. Data on elderly suicide rates, and the total number of elderly and young people was ascertained from the World Health Organization website. The main findings were of significant positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and suicide rates in both sexes in both the elderly age-bands (65-74 years and 75+ years). The replication of the positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates by using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates suggests that this relationship is robust and accurate. ‎

  9. A replication of the relationship between elderly suicides rates and elderly dependency ratios: cross-national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: A positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates has been observed using one-year cross-sectional data on elderly suicide rates. Methods: A cross-national study designed to replicate this positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates was undertaken by: (i) using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates; and (ii) using more recent data on both elderly suicide rates and elderly dependency ratios. Data on elderly suicide rates, and the total number of elderly and young people was ascertained from the World Health Organization website. Results: The main findings were of significant positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and suicide rates in both sexes in both the elderly age-bands (65-74 years and 75+ years). Conclusions: The replication of the positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates by using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates suggests that this relationship is robust and accurate. PMID:21483194

  10. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Variable Pitch Approach for Performance Improving of Straight-Bladed VAWT at Rated Tip Speed Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Zhao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new variable pitch (VP approach to increase the peak power coefficient of the straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT, by widening the azimuthal angle band of the blade with the highest aerodynamic torque, instead of increasing the highest torque. The new VP-approach provides a curve of pitch angle designed for the blade operating at the rated tip speed ratio (TSR corresponding to the peak power coefficient of the fixed pitch (FP-VAWT. The effects of the new approach are exploited by using the double multiple stream tubes (DMST model and Prandtl’s mathematics to evaluate the blade tip loss. The research describes the effects from six aspects, including the lift, drag, angle of attack (AoA, resultant velocity, torque, and power output, through a comparison between VP-VAWTs and FP-VAWTs working at four TSRs: 4, 4.5, 5, and 5.5. Compared with the FP-blade, the VP-blade has a wider azimuthal zone with the maximum AoA, lift, drag, and torque in the upwind half-cycle, and yields the two new larger maximum values in the downwind half-cycle. The power distribution in the swept area of the turbine changes from an arched shape of the FP-VAWT into the rectangular shape of the VP-VAWT. The new VP-approach markedly widens the highest-performance zone of the blade in a revolution, and ultimately achieves an 18.9% growth of the peak power coefficient of the VAWT at the optimum TSR. Besides achieving this growth, the new pitching method will enhance the performance at TSRs that are higher than current optimal values, and an increase of torque is also generated.

  12. National HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates are associated with the Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Li-Xia; Chen, Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming; Ye, Juan

    2014-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is a worldwide threat to human health with mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates varying widely. We evaluated the association between the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and national socioeconomic development. We obtained global age-standardized HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates from World Health Statistics Report of the World Health Organization. The human development indexes (HDIs) of 141 countries were obtained from a Human Development Report. Countries were divided into 4 groups according to the HDI distribution. We explored the association between HIV/AIDS epidemic and HDI information using Spearman correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates were inversely correlated with national HDI (r = -0.675, -0.519, and -0.398, respectively; P birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita). Low HDI countries had higher HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates than that of medium, high, and very high HDI countries. Quantile regression results indicated that HDI had a greater negative effect on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries with more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. Less-developed countries are likely to have more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. There is a need to pay more attention to HIV/AIDS control in less-developed countries, where lower socioeconomic status might have accelerated the HIV/AIDS epidemic more rapidly. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon-Ah; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds.

  14. Case-mix adjustment approach to benchmarking prevalence rates of nosocomial infection in hospitals in Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Dimitriadis, Ioannis; Roumbelaki, Maria; Vounou, Emelia; Kontou, Maria; Papakyriakou, Panikos; Koliou-Mazeri, Maria; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Vrouchos, George; Troulakis, George; Gikas, Achilleas

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of heterogeneous case mix for a benchmarking analysis and interhospital comparison of the prevalence rates of nosocomial infection. Cross-sectional survey. Eleven hospitals located in Cyprus and in the region of Crete in Greece. The survey included all inpatients in the medical, surgical, pediatric, and gynecology-obstetrics wards, as well as those in intensive care units. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used to define nosocomial infection. The information collected for all patients included demographic characteristics, primary admission diagnosis, Karnofsky functional status index, Charlson comorbidity index, McCabe-Jackson severity of illness classification, use of antibiotics, and prior exposures to medical and surgical risk factors. Outcome data were also recorded for all patients. Case mix-adjusted rates were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for nosocomial infection risk and an indirect standardization method.Results. The overall prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 7.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.9%-8.3%) among 1,832 screened patients. Significant variation in nosocomial infection rates was observed across hospitals (range, 2.2%-9.6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the mean predicted risk of nosocomial infection across hospitals ranged from 3.7% to 10.3%, suggesting considerable variation in patient risk. Case mix-adjusted rates ranged from 2.6% to 12.4%, and the relative ranking of hospitals was affected by case-mix adjustment in 8 cases (72.8%). Nosocomial infection was significantly and independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6 [95% confidence interval, 2.1-6.1]). The first attempt to rank the risk of nosocomial infection in these regions demonstrated the importance of accounting for heterogeneous case mix before attempting interhospital comparisons.

  15. Movie Ratings and the Content of Adult Videos: The Sex-Violence Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ni; Linz, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Quantifies sexual, violent, sexually violent, and prosocial behaviors in a sample of R-rated and X-rated videocassettes. Finds the predominant behavior in both X- and XXX-rated videos is sexual. Finds the predominant behavior in R-rated videos was violence followed by prosocial behavior. (RS)

  16. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  17. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.

  18. The effect of starch-garlic powder ratio on degradation rate of Gadung starch bioplastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairiza, L.; Mariana; Ramadhany, M.; Feviyussa, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioplastic is one of the solutions for environmental problems caused by plastics waste. Utilization of toxic gadung starch in the manufacturing of bioplastic would be as an alternative, due to gadung bulb has high starch content, and it is still not used optimally. This research aimed to learn about the using of gadung starch-mixed with garlic powder of making biodegradable plastic packaging. Also, to observe the duration of degradation, as a level of biodegradability of plastic film produced. The method used making this bioplastic was casting method. The variables used in this study were the ratios of starch and powdered garlic, were 10:0; 8:2; 6:4, and the concentration of garlic powder were 2%; 4%; 6%; and 8 %. The degradation test was done by soil burial test. The results of the soil burial test shown that the film was more rapidly degraded at ratio of 6: 4 compared to the ratio of 8: 2 and 10: 0. The results shown that bioplastic at the starch-garlic powder ratio of 10: 0 was decomposed in 21 days, at the the ratio of 8:2 was 15 days, while at the ratio of 6:4, the plastic film was degraded in the 11 days.

  19. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  20. Analysis of an employment of a gear ratio rate in CVT control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Szczepka, M.

    2016-09-01

    Continuously variable transmissions(CVTs) potentially ensure the selection of such a gear ratio that scooter fuel consumption can reach minimum value. Traditionally these CVT gearboxes are mechanically controlled, causing a gear ratio to be an engine revs function. This solution does not ensure optimum gear ratio. In this paper the solution for fuel optimal control problem is presented. The results obtained during brake stand research of scooter powertrains show the significant values of brake specific fuel consumption for the velocity that is maximum for a scooter according to highway code. With the introduction of CVT gearbox in which the selection of gear ratio can be controlled according to the worked out strategy the solution for fuel consumption problem is possible. Electromechanical actuators ensure the selection of a gear ratio independently of engine revs. Such type of construction solution makes working out the suitable control strategy that ensures decreasing of scooter fuel consumption possible. Presented strategies do not use precise optimization techniques. The CVT efficiency has a strong influence on transient operation. In the paper the control strategy owing to which fuel consumption decreases by over 40% is presented. The strategy was worked out on the basis of fuel consumption map for a defined scooter exploitation model. The possibilities of realization of the worked out strategy were tested on the brake test stand.

  1. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. J.; Powers, R. K.; Rymer, W. Z.; Suresh, N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing. PMID:24572092

  2. Reducing Bias in Citizens’ Perception of Crime Rates: Evidence From a Field Experiment on Burglary Prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2018-01-01

    Citizens are on average too pessimistic when assessing the trajectory of current crime trends. In this study, we examine whether we can correct this perceptual bias with respect to burglaries. Using a field experiment coupled with a large panel survey (n=4,895), we explore whether a public...... information campaign can reduce misperceptions about the prevalence of burglaries. Embedding the correct information about burglary rates in a direct mail campaign, we find that it is possible to substantially reduce citizens’ misperceptions. The effects are not short lived – they are detectable several weeks...... after the mailer was sent, but they are temporary. Eventually the perceptual bias re-emerges. Our results suggest that if citizens were continually supplied with correct information about crime rates they would be less pessimistic. Reducing bias in citizens’ perception of crime rates might therefore...

  3. Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors of Depression in Outpatients with Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiansheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of depression in outpatients who were diagnosed with PE. Therefore, between September 2009 and September 2011, 1801 outpatients at andrology clinics were enrolled and consented to participate in our survey by completed a verbal questionnaire. It included the following: (1 demographic data (e.g., age, body mass index, (2 PE duration, medical history, and sexual history, (3 self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times, (4 the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS, and (5 the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and (6 the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. The results showed that a total of 1,206 patients were diagnosed with PE. The prevalence rate of depression in these PE patients was 26.78%. Depression was associated with PE duration, NIH-CPSI score, and IIEF-5 score. Risk factors for depression specifically included PE durations for 13–24, 25–60, or ≥61 months, CPSI scores of 15–30 or ≥31, and IIEF-5 scores <22. These findings suggested that several associated factors (PE duration, CPSI scores, and IIEF-5 scores were the risk factors of depression in men with PE.

  4. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Cameron, Noël; Schönbeck, Yvonne; van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0) in kg/m(p) during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD)) girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4) and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4) than short girls (rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  5. Clinical investigation of proximate exposed group. 1. A study for prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1984-11-01

    In order to investigate effects of the A-bombing on prevalence of diabetes mellitus, follow-up studies were made on 5907 A-bomb survivors who received glucose tolerance test (GTT) during 20 years between 1963 and 1983. The A-bomb survivors were divided into the group A (1899 men and 1165 women exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter) and the group B (1725 men and 1118 women exposed 3.0 km or farther from it). Among non-obese survivors, 21.9% and 21.8% were being treated for diabetes mellitus or were evaluated as having diabetic type on GTT in the group A and the group B, respectively; while this was seen in 52.1% of obese survivors in the group A and 49.9% in the group B. There was no difference between the groups. In non-obese survivors, the annual development rate from the normal type to the diabetic type was 0.89% in the group A and 0.65% in the group B; the annual development rate from the borderline type to the diabetic type was 5.73% in the group A and 5.49% in the group B, showing no differences between the groups. The annual development rate from the normal or borderline type to the diabetic type was two times or higher in obese survivors than in non-obese survivors irrespective of exposure status. Regarding the number of diabetic survivors who became non-diabetic type in spite of having no treatment, and prevalence of diabetic complications, no difference was seen between the groups. These results suggest that the A-bombing has scarcely influenced the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and clinical course.

  6. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%. Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  7. Ratio of hadronic decay rates of J/ψ and ψ(2S) and the ρπ puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Y. F.; Li, X. H.

    2001-01-01

    The so-called ρπ puzzle of J/ψ and ψ(2S) decays is examined using the experimental data available to date. Two different approaches were taken to estimate the ratio of J/ψ and ψ(2S) hadronic decay rates. While one of the estimates could not yield the exact ratio of ψ(2S) to J/ψ inclusive hadronic decay rates, the other, based on a computation of the inclusive ggg decay rate for ψ(2S)(J/ψ) by subtracting other decay rates from the total decay rate, differs by two standard deviations from the naive prediction of perturbative QCD, even though its central value is nearly twice as large as what was naively expected. A comparison between this ratio, upon making corrections for specific exclusive two-body decay modes, and the corresponding experimental data confirms the puzzles in J/ψ and ψ(2S) decays. We find from our analysis that the exclusively reconstructed hadronic decays of the ψ(2S) account for only a small fraction of its total decays, and a ratio exceeding the above estimate should be expected to occur for a considerable number of the remaining decay channels. We also show that the recent new results from the BES experiment provide crucial tests of various theoretical models proposed to explain the puzzle

  8. Prevalence of xerostomia and the salivary flow rate in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka, Barbara; Kaczmarek, Urszula; Skośkiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, which results from relative or absolute insulin deficiency. One of the first oral symptoms of diabetes is xerostomia. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the xerostomia symptoms and salivary flow rate in diabetic patients according to the type of diabetes, the level of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. The study involved 156 adult patients of both sexes including 34 patients with diabetes type 1 (group C1), 59 with diabetes type 2 (group C2), and 63 generally healthy individuals as two control groups, sex- and age-matched to the diabetic group. The patients suffering from both types of diabetes were additionally subdivided according to the level of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. Xerostomia was diagnosed with the use of a specially prepared questionnaire and Fox's test. Moreover, the salivary flow rate of resting mixed saliva was measured. In type 1 diabetics, a significantly lower salivary flow rate in comparison to the age-matched control group (0.38 ± 0.19 mL/min vs. 0.53 ± 0.20 mL/min, p diabetics, a slight lower salivary flow rate was noticed (on average, 20% lower). Dry mouth was far more frequently diagnosed in type 1 diabetics than in the control group. In type 1 diabetics, in comparison to healthy subjects, a significantly lower resting flow rate of saliva and significantly higher prevalence of xerosomia were observed, but in type 2 diabetics, only a trend of such variability was observed.

  9. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-06-23

    Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao-Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45-64 years, 46%; 18-44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) for young adults aged 18-44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45-64 years and 65 years or older. The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey.

  10. Relationship of Employee Attitudes and Supervisor-Controller Ratio to En Route Operational Error Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broach, Dana

    2002-01-01

    ...; Rodgers, Mogford, Mogford, 1998). In this study, the relationship of organizational factors to en route OE rates was investigated, based on an adaptation of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS; Shappell & Wiegmann 2000...

  11. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Joyce Irene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc., soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat, and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  12. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio and resting metabolic rate as predictors of weight gain : the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Muller, D C; Sorkin, J D; Andres, R.

    The authors followed 775 men (aged 18-98 years) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study in Aging for an average of ten years. Resting metabolic rate and fasting respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured by indirect calorimetry on their first visit and related to subsequent weight

  13. Effect of mixture ratios and nitrogen carrier gas flow rates on the morphology of carbon nanotube structures grown by CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malgas, GF

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by thermal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and investigates the effects of nitrogen carrier gas flow rates and mixture ratios on the morphology of CNTs on a silicon substrate by vaporizing...

  14. Impact of Disease Prevalence Adjustment on Hospitalization Rates for Chronic Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmanns, Johannes; Romano, Patrick S; Weyermann, Maria; Geraedts, Max; Drösler, Saskia E

    2018-04-01

    To explore effects of disease prevalence adjustment on ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalization (ACSH) rates used for quality comparisons. County-level hospital administrative data on adults discharged from German hospitals in 2011 and prevalence estimates based on administrative ambulatory diagnosis data were used. A retrospective cross-sectional study using in- and outpatient secondary data was performed. Hospitalization data for hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma were obtained from the German Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) database. Prevalence estimates were obtained from the German Central Research Institute of Ambulatory Health Care. Crude hospitalization rates varied substantially across counties (coefficients of variation [CV] 28-37 percent across conditions); this variation was reduced by prevalence adjustment (CV 21-28 percent). Prevalence explained 40-50 percent of the observed variation (r = 0.65-0.70) in ACSH rates for all conditions except asthma (r = 0.07). Between 30 percent and 38 percent of areas moved into or outside condition-specific control limits with prevalence adjustment. Unadjusted ACSH rates should be used with caution for high-stakes public reporting as differences in prevalence may have a marked impact. Prevalence adjustment should be considered in models analyzing ACSH. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and a comparison with other populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Kiran Pemmasani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The adiponectin gene, ADIPOQ, encodes an adipocytokine, known as adiponectin hormone. This hormone is known to be associated with insulin sensitization, fat metabolism, immunity, and inflammatory response. Polymorphisms in ADIPOQ gene lower the adiponectin levels, increasing the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Aims: The study aimed to calculate the prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and to compare those prevalence rates with that of other populations. Subjects and Methods: Microarray-based genotypic data of 14 ADIPOQ polymorphisms from 703 individuals of Indian origin were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency estimation, identity-by-descent, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, Chi-square test of significance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms, Chi-square tests of significance for allelic and genotypic frequencies across various populations. Conclusions: East Asians are very different from Indians in terms of allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms. Europeans have similar genotypic and allelic patterns with Indians. Admixture Americans and Africans also showed significant differences with polymorphisms of the Indian population.

  16. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdulellah; Perry, Lin; Gholizadeh, Leila; Al-Ganmi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990-2015). A descriptive review. A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings. Studies originated from Saudi Arabia and applied a variety of research designs and tools to diagnosis diabetes. Of the 8 included studies; three reported type 1 diabetes and five on type 2 diabetes. Overall, findings indicated that the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes is rising particularly among females, older children/adolescent and in urban areas. Further development are required to assess the health intervention, polices, guidelines, self-management programs in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Correlative factors on prevalence rate of dislipidemia among 1 337 coal miners in Shanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z D; Wen, D D; Wang, B; Xue, S L; Liu, G S; Li, X H; Zhao, Z H; Wang, J; Wei, B G; Wang, S P

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence rate and correlative factors of dislipidemia among Shanxi coal miners and to provide evidence for the development of programs on dislipidemia prevention. Methods: We investigated 1 337 mine workers from a Coal Group in April 2016 and collected data related to their blood biochemistry. We then classified the types in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of " Guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults (2007)" , using χ (2) test and unconditional logistic regression model for analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of Dislipidemia was 59.1% (790/1 337), with males as 60.4% (708/1 173) and females as 50.0%(82/164) while males appeared higher ( χ (2)=6.386, P dislipidemia ( χ (2)=7.117, P dislipidemia ( P dislipidemia. Conclusion: Among the coal mine workers, those who were males, aged from 20 to 34, having high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure abnormalities) or with high BMI (≥24.0 kg/m(2)) need to be taken special attention on care and prevention of dislipidemia.

  18. Low to high frequency ratio of heart rate variability spectra fails to describe sympatho-vagal balance in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicević, Goran

    2005-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects an influence of autonomic nervous system on heart work. In healthy subjects, ratio between low and high frequency components (LF/HF ratio) of HRV spectra represents a measure of sympatho-vagal balance. The ratio was defined by the authorities as an useful clinical tool, but it seems that it fails to summarise sympatho-vagal balance in a clinical setting. Value of the method was re-evaluated in several categories of cardiac patients. HRV was analysed from 24-hour Holter ECGs in 132 healthy subjects, and 2159 cardiac patients dichotomised by gender, median of age, diagnosis of myocardial infarction or coronary artery surgery, left ventricular systolic function and divided by overall HRV into several categories. In healthy subjects, LF/HF ratio correlated with overall HRV negatively, as expected. The paradoxical finding was obtained in cardiac patients; the lower the overall HRV and the time-domain indices of vagal modulation activity were the lower the LF/HF ratio was. If used as a measure of sympatho-vagal balance, long-term recordings of LF/HF ratio contradict to clinical finding and time-domain HRV indices in cardiac patients. The ratio cannot therefore be used as a reliable marker of autonomic activity in a clinical setting.

  19. Do exchange rates follow random walks? A variance ratio test of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    However, emerging markets in sub-Saharan Africa have ... C.J. Auret and Mr L. Chiliba are at the School of Economic and Business Sciences, University ... follow the exchange rate, as this helps them to manage or guard their exposures.

  20. 75 FR 66271 - Assessment Dividends, Assessment Rates and Designated Reserve Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... sufficiently large fund and stable premiums is most apparent. Memories of the last two crises will fade and the... deposit and assessment base growth (using adjusted total domestic deposits). Implied forward interest... the analysis into the future, using estimates based on implied forward interest rates and assuming...

  1. Changes in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in Turkey from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Sule; Akpolat, Tekin; Erdem, Yunus; Derici, Ulver; Arici, Mustafa; Sindel, Sukru; Karatan, Oktay; Turgan, Cetin; Hasanoglu, Enver; Caglar, Sali; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess the current epidemiology of hypertension, including its prevalence, the awareness of the condition and its treatment and control, in Turkey to evaluate changes in these factors over the last 10 years by comparing the results with the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) study data (2003), as well as to assess parameters affecting awareness and the control of hypertension. Methods: The PatenT 2 study was conducted on a representative sample of the Turkish adult population (n = 5437) in 2012. Specifically trained staff performed the data collection. Hypertension was defined as mean SBP or DBP at least 140/90 mmHg, previously diagnosed disease or the use of antihypertensive medication. Awareness and treatment were assessed by self-reporting, and control was defined as SBP/DBP less than 140/90 mmHg. Results: Although the prevalence of hypertension in the PatenT and PatenT 2 surveys was stable at approximately 30%, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates have improved in Turkey. Overall, 54.7% of hypertensive patients were aware of their diagnosis in 2012 compared with 40.7% in 2003. The hypertension treatment rate increased from 31.1% in 2003 to 47.4% in 2012, and the control rate in hypertensives increased from 8.1% in 2003 to 28.7% in 2012. The rate of hypertension control in treated patients improved between 2003 (20.7%) and 2012 (53.9%). Awareness of hypertension was positively associated with older age, being a woman, residing in an urban area, a history of parental hypertension, being a nonsmoker, admittance by a physician, presence of diabetes mellitus, and being obese or overweight; it was inversely associated with a higher amount of daily bread consumption. Factors associated with better control of hypertension were younger age, female sex, residing in an urban area, and higher education level in Turkey. Conclusion: Although some progress has been made in

  2. Measurement of 237Np fission rate ratio relative to 235U fission rate in cores with various thermal neutron spectrum at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu; Shiroya, Seiji; Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Fujiwara, Daisuke; Kitada, Takanori; Kuroda, Mitsuo; Kohashi, Akio; Kato, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Integral measurements of 237 Np fission rate ratio relative to 235 U fission rate have been performed at Kyoto University Citrical Assembly. The fission rates have been measured using the back-to back type double fission chamber at five thermal cores with different H/ 235 U ratio so that the neutron spectra of the cores were systematically varied. The measured fission rate ratio per atom was 0.00439 to 0.0298, with a typical uncertainty of 2 to 3%. The measured data were compared with the calculated results using SRAC/TWOTRAN and MVP based on JENDL-3.2, which gave the averaged C/E values of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. Obtained results of C/E using 237 Np cross sections from JENDL-3/2, ENDF/B-VI.5 and JEF2.2 show that the latter two gave smaller results than JENDL-3.2 by about 4%, which clearly reflects the discrepancy in the evaluated cross section among the libraries. This difference arises from both fast fission and resonance region. Although further improvement is recommended, 237 Np fission cross section in JENDL-3.2 is considered to be superior to those in the other libraries and can be adopted for use in design calculations for minor actinide transmutation system using thermal reactors with prediction precision of 237 Np fission rate with in 10%. (author)

  3. HCV infection among Saudi population: high prevalence of genotype 4 and increased viral clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim

    Full Text Available HCV is a major etiological agent of liver disease with a high rate of chronic evolution. The virus possesses 6 genotypes with many subtypes. The rate of spontaneous clearance among HCV infected individuals denotes a genetic determinant factor. The current study was designed in order to estimate the rate of HCV infection and ratio of virus clearance among a group of infected patients in Saudi Arabia from 2008 to 2011. It was additionally designed to determine the genotypes of the HCV in persistently infected patients. HCV seroprevalence was conducted on a total of 15,323 individuals. Seropositive individuals were tested by Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay to determine the ratio of persistently infected patients to those who showed spontaneous viral clearance. HCV genotyping on random samples from persistently infected patients were conducted based on the differences in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 7.3% of the totally examined sera. A high percentage of the HCV infected individuals experienced virus clearance (48.4%. HCV genotyping revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 4, the latter represented 97.6% of the tested strains. Evidences of the widespread of the HCV genotype 4 and a high rate of HCV virus clearance were found in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Collaborative Event-Driven Coverage and Rate Allocation for Event Miss-Ratio Assurances in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Sanli H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are often required to provide event miss-ratio assurance for a given event type. To meet such assurances along with minimum energy consumption, this paper shows how a node's activation and rate assignment is dependent on its distance to event sources, and proposes a practical coverage and rate allocation (CORA protocol to exploit this dependency in realistic environments. Both uniform event distribution and nonuniform event distribution are considered and the notion of ideal correlation distance around a clusterhead is introduced for on-duty node selection. In correlation distance guided CORA, rate assignment assists coverage scheduling by determining which nodes should be activated for minimizing data redundancy in transmission. Coverage scheduling assists rate assignment by controlling the amount of overlap among sensing regions of neighboring nodes, thereby providing sufficient data correlation for rate assignment. Extensive simulation results show that CORA meets the required event miss-ratios in realistic environments. CORA's joint coverage scheduling and rate allocation reduce the total energy expenditure by 85%, average battery energy consumption by 25%, and the overhead of source coding up to 90% as compared to existing rate allocation techniques.

  5. Determine variation of poisson ratios and thermal creep stresses and strain rates in an isotropic disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seth's transition theory is applied to the problem of thermal creep transition stresses and strain rates in a thin rotating disc with shaft having variable density by finite deformation. Neither the yield criterion nor the associated flow rule is assumed here. The results obtained here are applicable to compressible materials. If the additional condition of incompressibility is imposed, then the expression for stresses corresponds to those arising from Tresca yield condition. Thermal effect decreased value of radial stress at the internal surface of the rotating isotropic disc made of compressible material as well as incompressible material and this value of radial stress further much increases with the increase in angular speed. With the introduction of thermal effects, the maximum value of strain rates further increases at the internal surface for compressible materials as compare to incompressible material.

  6. Prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD and other psychological disorders among Saudi firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alghamd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.

  7. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula van Dommelen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0 in kg/m(p during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4 and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4 than short girls (<-1 SD. Similar results were found in boys aged 5.0-14.9 y (RR = 4.4,95%CI:3.4-5.7 and RR = 5.3,95%CI:2.6-11.0. No large differences were found in the other age groups and in comparison with children with an average stature. Tall boys aged 2.0-4.9 y had a significantly higher positive trend in overweight between 1980 and 1997 compared to short boys (RR = 4.0,95%CI:1.38-11.9. For other age groups and in girls, no significant trends were found. The optimal Area Under the Curve (AUC to predict adult overweight was found for p = 2.0. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Tall girls aged 5.0-13.9y and tall boys aged 5.0-14.9y have much higher prevalence rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  8. The Chernobyl accident, the male to female ratio at birth and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  9. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT, THE MALE TO FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH AND BIRTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births – M/T has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Methods: Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by 137Cs were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Results: Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Discussion: Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  10. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalbrugge, Martin; Pot, Anne Margriet; Jongenelis, Lineke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Eefsting, Jan A

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home population of attributing somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety to either somatic or psychiatric disorder. Symptoms of major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) were measured using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Somatic symptoms of MD, GAD and PD were attributed to somatic causes when the interviewer was not sure about a psychiatric cause. To analyse the effect of this attribution on the prevalence rate of MD, GAD and PD, a sensitivity analysis was undertaken in which symptoms that were attributed to somatic causes were recoded as symptoms attributed to psychiatric disorder. Prevalence rates of MD, GAD and PD were calculated before and after recoding. The prevalence of MD after recoding rose from 7.5% to 8.1%. The prevalence of GAD did not change. The prevalence of PD rose from 1.5% to 1.8%. Attribution of somatic symptoms to either somatic or psychiatric disorder when the interviewer was not sure about a psychiatric cause of the somatic symptoms had only a very modest effect on the prevalence rate of major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in a nursing home population.

  11. HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers in Rome: prevalence, behavior patterns, and seroconversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, L; Zaccarelli, M; Rezza, G; Ippolito, G; Antinori, A; Gattari, P

    2001-07-01

    The Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma E (ASL-RME) outpatient clinic is the main reference center in Rome for HIV testing of foreign people. To define the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers attending the center. A cross-sectional, follow-up study was conducted. Between 1993 and 1999, 353 transsexuals attended the ASL-RME. They were from Colombia (n = 208), Brazil (n = 122), and other countries (n = 23). Most of these transsexuals reported having 5 to 10 partners per day. The overall HIV prevalence was 38.2%, which multivariate analysis found to be associated with origin from Brazil and a higher number of sex partners. The observed HIV seroconversion rate was 4.1 per 100 person-years, and non-regular condom use was the only factor related to seroconversion. The data from this study suggest that promotion of safer sex practices and regular condom use still is the main priority among marginalized population subgroups, such as foreign prostitutes, involved in sex activities that put them at risk for HIV infection.

  12. Prevalence rates and socioeconomic characteristics of post-partum depression in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Molnar, Peter; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2011-01-30

    The rapid socioeconomic transition in post-communist Hungary adversely affected the overall morbidity and mortality rates in the 1990s. Prevalence data on depressive disorders from the region are still scarce, however. This study reports the findings of the first epidemiological survey, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on the prevalence of post-partum depression and the associated risk factors in Hungary. A total of 1030 mothers who delivered their babies between May and July 1999 in 16 counties in Hungary were screened for depressive symptoms 3-26 weeks post-partum. The survey found that 10.81% of the sample was above the cut-off score of 13, and the EPDS detected post-partum depressive symptoms with 76% (95% confidence interval (CI)=60.5-87.1) sensitivity and 92% (95% CI=90.5-94.1) specificity. In addition, 24 socio-demographic, socio-psychiatric data and personal and obstetric variables were surveyed. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that depression of the mother during pregnancy was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms post-partum. Depression before pregnancy, housing conditions, marital relationship status and family history of alcohol problems were also identified as predictors for post-partum depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of elastic strain rate ratio method and virtual touch tissue quantification on the diagnosis of breast masses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, LiJie; He, Yan; Tian, Peng; Yan, Yan

    2016-07-01

    To determine the effect of elastic strain rate ratio method and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) on the diagnosis of breast masses.
 Sixty female patients with breast cancer, who received surgical treatment in Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, were enrolled. All patients signed the informed consent paperwork and they were treated by routine ultrasound examination, compression elastography (CE) examination, and VTQ examination in turn. Strain ratio (SR) was checked by CE and shear wave velocity (SWV) value was measured by VTQ. The diagnostic values of different methods were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in the diagnosis of benign and malignant breast tumors.
 The maximum diameter and SWV value of the benign tumors were lower than those of the malignant tumors, and the SR ratio of benign masses was higher than that of malignant tumors (Pbreast mass than that used alone.

  14. Prevalence of sinus floor elevation procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Ozçakır Tomruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sinus-lifting procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla. This retrospective chart review examined consecutive patients with tooth/teeth loss in the posterior maxilla between 2008 and 2012 treated with sinus lift, when needed, and implant insertion. Demographic variables, health status, residual alveolar bone height, augmentation types, the implant position, diameter and height, and implant failure, prosthesis types, and the marginal bone loss were recorded. The study included 302 patients at a mean age of 5.2 years, who received a total of 609 dental implants. A total of 380 (62.3% implants were inserted in native areas, 203 (33.3% ones in external sinus-lifted areas and 26 (4.4% ones in internal lifted areas. The survival rate in native or internal lifted areas were 100% and 95.6% in external sinus lifted ones (10 implant failures/203 implants. Almost half of the implants were examined radiologically with a mean duration of 30 months and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.64 ± 1.2 mm. The results showed that the survival rates of native bone and the internal sinus lifting were slightly higher than that of external sinus lifting. Implants placed with sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants in native bone.

  15. Strength and Absorption Rate of Compressed Stabilized Earth Bricks (CSEBs Due to Different Mixture Ratios and Degree of Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abd Halid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressed Stabilized Earth Brick (CSEB is produced by compressing a mixture of water with three main materials such as Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, soil, and sand. It becomes popularfor its good strength, better insulation properties, and a sustainable product due to its easy production with low carbon emission and less skilled labour required. Different types of local soils usedwill produce CSEB of different physical properties in terms of its strength, durability, and water absorption rate. This study focuses on laterite soil taken from the surrounding local area in Parit Raja, Johor, and CSEB samples are produced based on prototype brick size 100×50×30 mm. The investigations are based on four different degree of compactions (i.e. 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 Psi and three different mix proportion ratios of cement:sand:laterite soil (i.e. 1:1:9, 1:2:8, 1:3:7. A total of 144 CSEB samples have been tested at 7 and 28 days curing periods to determine the compressive strength (BS 3921:1985 and water absorption rate (MS 76:1972. It was found that maximum compressive strength of CSEB was 14.68 N/mm2 for mixture ratio of 1:3:7 at 2500 Psi compaction. Whereas, the minimum strengthis 6.87 N/mm2 for 1:1:9mixture ratio at 1500 Psi. Meanwhile, the lowest water absorption was 12.35% for mixture ratio of 1:2:8 at 3000 Psi; while the 1:1:9 mixture ratio at 1500 Psi gave the highest rate of 16.81%. This study affirms that the sand content in the mixture and the degree of compaction would affect the value of compressive strength and water absorption of CSEB.

  16. Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality

  17. The trend of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in German hospitals: results of seven cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Wilborn, Doris; Dassen, Theo; Lahmann, Nils

    2009-05-01

    Pressure ulcer prevalence rates provide useful information about the magnitude of this health problem. Only limited information on pressure ulcers in Germany was available before 2001. The purpose of this study was to compare results of seven pressure ulcer prevalence surveys which were conducted annually between 2001 and 2007 and to explore whether pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased. The second aim was to evaluate if the measured prevalence rates of our sample could be generalised for all German hospitals. Results of seven point pressure ulcer prevalence studies conducted in 225 German hospitals were analysed. Chi-square tests, chi-square trend tests and one-way ANOVA to assess differences and trends across the years were applied. The sample was stratified according to pressure ulcer risk and speciality. Finally, study samples were compared with the potential population. In total data of 40,247 hospital patients were analysed. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence rate in German hospitals was 10.2%. Patient samples of each year were comparable regarding gender, age and pressure ulcer risk. Pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased from 13.9% (year 2001) to 7.3% (year 2007) (pcare units remained stable. With some limitations our study results are representative for all hospitals within Germany. It is highly probable that the decrease of prevalence rates was due to an increased awareness of the pressure ulcer problem in Germany and subsequent efforts to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The quality of clinical practice regarding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment has improved. However, pressure ulcers are still relevant and require attention. In 2007, one out of 10 hospital patients who were at pressure ulcer risk had at least one pressure related skin damage.

  18. Ratio and rate effects of 32P-triple superphosphate and phosphate rock mixtures on corn growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzini, Vinicius Ide; Mendes, Fernanda Latanze

    2009-01-01

    The availability of phosphorus (P) from 'Patos de Minas' phosphate rock (PR) can be improved if it is applied mixed with a water-soluble P source. The objective of this study was to evaluate 32 P as a tracer to quantify the effect of the ratio of mixtures of triple superphosphate (TSP) with PR and the rates of application on P availability from PR. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse utilizing corn (Zea mays L.) plants as test crop. In the first experiment, the P sources were applied at the rate of 90 mg P kg -1 soil either separately or as compacted mixtures in several TSP:PR ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 calculated on the basis of the total P content). In the second experiment, the TSP was applied alone or as 50:50 compacted mixtures with PR applied at four P rates (15, 30, 60 and 90 mg P kg -1 ) while the sole PR treatment was applied at the 90 mg kg -1 P rate . The mixture of PR with TSP improved the P recovery from PR in the corn plant and this effect increased proportionally to the TSP amounts in the mixture. When compared with the plant P recovery from TSP (10.52%), PR-P recovery (2.57%) was much lower even when mixed together in the ratio of 80% TSP: 20% PR. There was no difference in PR-P utilization by the corn plants with increasing P rates in the mixture (1:1 proportion). Therefore, PR-P availability is affected by the proportions of the mixtures with water soluble P, but not by P rates. (author)

  19. Ratio and rate effects of {sup 32}P-triple superphosphate and phosphate rock mixtures on corn growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzini, Vinicius Ide; Mendes, Fernanda Latanze [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Solos e Nutricao de Plantas; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The availability of phosphorus (P) from 'Patos de Minas' phosphate rock (PR) can be improved if it is applied mixed with a water-soluble P source. The objective of this study was to evaluate {sup 32}P as a tracer to quantify the effect of the ratio of mixtures of triple superphosphate (TSP) with PR and the rates of application on P availability from PR. Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse utilizing corn (Zea mays L.) plants as test crop. In the first experiment, the P sources were applied at the rate of 90 mg P kg{sup -1} soil either separately or as compacted mixtures in several TSP:PR ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 calculated on the basis of the total P content). In the second experiment, the TSP was applied alone or as 50:50 compacted mixtures with PR applied at four P rates (15, 30, 60 and 90 mg P kg{sup -1}) while the sole PR treatment was applied at the 90 mg kg{sup -1}P rate . The mixture of PR with TSP improved the P recovery from PR in the corn plant and this effect increased proportionally to the TSP amounts in the mixture. When compared with the plant P recovery from TSP (10.52%), PR-P recovery (2.57%) was much lower even when mixed together in the ratio of 80% TSP: 20% PR. There was no difference in PR-P utilization by the corn plants with increasing P rates in the mixture (1:1 proportion). Therefore, PR-P availability is affected by the proportions of the mixtures with water soluble P, but not by P rates. (author)

  20. Measurement of Muscle Protein Fractional Synthetic Rate by Capillary Gas Chromatography/Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J.; Bier, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rate using an infusion of (1-13C)leucine and measuring the isotopic abundance of the tracer in skeletal muscle protein by preparative gas chromatography (GC)/ninhydrin isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is laborious and subject to errors owing to contamination by 12C. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle (13C)leucine enrichment measured with the conventional preparative GC/ninhydrin IRMS approach to a new, continuo...

  1. Prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai--a school based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajinkya, Shaunak; Kaur, Darpan; Gursale, Akshay; Jadhav, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    To study the prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai. One hundred twenty two children including both boys and girls aged between 6 y and 11 y were selected from a school at Navi Mumbai and their parents were given the National Innovative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to be filled and returned, which was subsequently analyzed using SPSS (version 16). The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was 12.3 % with boy to girl ratio of 3:2. It was more prevalent in nuclear type of family and in families where a single parent was working especially where the father was the sole breadwinner and doing semi-skilled or unskilled type of work. No significant relation was found between the numbers of work-related hours when parents were away from children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is prevalent in the primary school-going population of Navi Mumbai, especially in boys. The increased prevalence in nuclear families and families with single working parent should further be explored. Further studies with larger sample size and longer period of follow up may be recommended. The study also recommends screening of school children for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for early diagnosis and treatment.

  2. The influence of He/dpa ratio and displacement rate on microstructural evolution: a comparison of theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yutai; Stoller, Roger E.; Kohno, Yutaka; Kohyama, Akira

    1994-01-01

    A kinetic model was developed to investigate the influence of the displacement rate and helium generation rate on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels. The model integrates the rate equations describing the evolution of point defects, small point defect clusters, helium-vacancy clusters, and the larger cavity size distribution that is responsible for observable swelling. Cavity (bubble) nucleation is accounted for by the helium-vacancy cluster evolution, while void formation occurs when bubbles grow beyond a critical size in the larger cavity distribution. A series of ion irradiation experiments were used to both calibrate the model and to provide a comparison between model predictions and experimental observations. The experiments involved single and dual-beam irradiations of solution annealed AISI-316 stainless steel at 873 K. The displacement rates were in the range of 2x10 -3 to 1x10 -2 dpa/s and the helium-to-dpa ratios were in the range of 0 to 50 appm He/dpa. The maximum displacement dose was 25 dpa. The experiments revealed a significant effect of helium on both the dislocation structure and the cavity distribution. The model predictions of helium effects over a broad range of He/dpa ratios and displacement rates were consistent with experimental observations. ((orig.))

  3. Evaluation of the product ratio coherent model in forecasting mortality rates and life expectancy at births by States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shair, Syazreen Niza; Yusof, Aida Yuzi; Asmuni, Nurin Haniah

    2017-05-01

    Coherent mortality forecasting models have recently received increasing attention particularly in their application to sub-populations. The advantage of coherent models over independent models is the ability to forecast a non-divergent mortality for two or more sub-populations. One of the coherent models was recently developed by [1] known as the product-ratio model. This model is an extension version of the functional independent model from [2]. The product-ratio model has been applied in a developed country, Australia [1] and has been extended in a developing nation, Malaysia [3]. While [3] accounted for coherency of mortality rates between gender and ethnic group, the coherency between states in Malaysia has never been explored. This paper will forecast the mortality rates of Malaysian sub-populations according to states using the product ratio coherent model and its independent version— the functional independent model. The forecast accuracies of two different models are evaluated using the out-of-sample error measurements— the mean absolute forecast error (MAFE) for age-specific death rates and the mean forecast error (MFE) for the life expectancy at birth. We employ Malaysian mortality time series data from 1991 to 2014, segregated by age, gender and states.

  4. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Optimal Chest Compression Rate and Compression to Ventilation Ratio in Delivery Room Resuscitation: Evidence from Newborn Piglets and Neonatal Manikins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Schmölzer, Georg M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) influences survival and neurologic outcomes after delivery room (DR) CPR. High quality chest compressions (CC) improve cerebral and myocardial perfusion. Improved myocardial perfusion increases the likelihood of a faster ROSC. Thus, optimizing CC quality may improve outcomes both by preserving cerebral blood flow during CPR and by reducing the recovery time. CC quality is determined by rate, CC to ventilation (C:V) ratio, and applied force, which are influenced by the CC provider. Thus, provider performance should be taken into account. Neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend a 3:1 C:V ratio. CCs should be delivered at a rate of 90/min synchronized with ventilations at a rate of 30/min to achieve a total of 120 events/min. Despite a lack of scientific evidence supporting this, the investigation of alternative CC interventions in human neonates is ethically challenging. Also, the infrequent occurrence of extensive CPR measures in the DR make randomized controlled trials difficult to perform. Thus, many biomechanical aspects of CC have been investigated in animal and manikin models. Despite mathematical and physiological rationales that higher rates and uninterrupted CC improve CPR hemodynamics, studies indicate that provider fatigue is more pronounced when CC are performed continuously compared to when a pause is inserted after every third CC as currently recommended. A higher rate (e.g., 120/min) is also more fatiguing, which affects CC quality. In post-transitional piglets with asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest, there was no benefit of performing continuous CC at a rate of 90/min. Not only rate but duty cycle, i.e., the duration of CC/total cycle time, is a known determinant of CC effectiveness. However, duty cycle cannot be controlled with manual CC. Mechanical/automated CC in neonatal CPR has not been explored, and feedback systems are under-investigated in this

  6. Interrelation between the prevalence rate of suicides and the length of working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that overworking as well as deficiency of work (plenty of free time are major factors of a suicide on an individual level which allows when passing to the level of a real social group (employees to suppose of existence of a certain optimum of working time or a parabolic (U-shaped connection between the suicide rate and an average duration of working time. From the theoretical point of view the supposed parabolic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average duration of working time of employees is described from the point of view of suicidology: excessive increase of working time is an external tendency which prevents satisfaction of actual needs of an employee and limits physically the space (off-work time for their realization. Multidirectional tendencies form a life conflict which has crucial significance when transferring to a suicidal phase. The objective of this article consists in a qualitative assessment of an influence of “an average duration of working time” on the level of prevalence of suicides when other things are fixed (economic, social, religious and others in a relatively stable social situation. For the econometric analysis, reliable and comparable data of the European database of detailed mortality data of the World Health Organization and Eurostat are used for 22 European countries for the period from 1998 till 2012. Based on analysis of a dynamics of the studied variables different hypothesis have been made: 1 about existence of statistically significant linear or logarithmic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time inside a country 2 about existence of a parabolic (U-shaped dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time between countries. A set of panel unit root tests and stationarity testify that the examined variables are unsteady variables with integratedness order I(1. The

  7. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Yuanqiu

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous emission (N2O, CH4 and NH3) from composting can be an important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air pollution. A laboratory scale orthogonal experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of C/N ratio, aeration rate and initial moisture content on gaseous emission during the composting of pig faeces from Chinese Ganqinfen system. The results showed that about 23.9% to 45.6% of total organic carbon (TOC) was lost in the form of CO2 and 0.8% to 7.5% of TOC emitted as CH4. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which account for 9.6% to 32.4% of initial nitrogen. N2O was also an important way of nitrogen losses and 1.5% to 7.3% of initial total nitrogen was lost as it. Statistic analysis showed that the aeration rate is the most important factor which could affect the NH3 (p = 0.0189), CH4 (p = 0.0113) and N2O (p = 0.0493) emissions significantly. Higher aeration rates reduce the CH4 emission but increase the NH3 and N2O losses. C/N ratio could affect the NH3 (p = 0.0442) and CH4 (p = 0.0246) emissions significantly, but not the N2O. Lower C/N ratio caused higher NH3 and CH4 emissions. The initial moisture content can not influence the gaseous emission significantly. Most treatments were matured after 37 days, except a trial with high moisture content and a low C/N ratio.

  8. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555–560, 2004 that basal metabolic rate (BMR and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. Method The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Results Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence in male (12.1% than in the female (3.4% students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI, as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001. Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. Conclusion This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors

  9. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Mahmood, Shakil; Manirujjaman, M; Perveen, Rasheda; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim; Khanum, Farida Adib; Rahman, Mustafizur

    2017-07-25

    Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555-560, 2004) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in male (12.1%) than in the female (3.4%) students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI), as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adult students. The

  10. Call for early prevention: prevalence rates of overweight among Turkish and Moroccan children in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Schönbeck, Yvonne; HiraSing, Remy A; van Buuren, Stef

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring overweight in risk groups is necessary. Our aim is to assess the trend in overweight and obesity in Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands since 1997 and to monitor the levels of lifestyle-related behaviours in 2009. We selected cross-sectional data of Turkish and Moroccan children aged 2-18 years from two national Growth Studies performed in 1997 and 2009 in the Netherlands. Lifestyle-related behaviours were obtained in the 2009 study by questionnaire. In 2009, 31.9% of Turkish and 26.6% of Moroccan children had overweight, whereas this was, respectively, 26.7% and 19.6% in 1997. Already at 2 years, 21.1% in Turkish and 22.7% in Moroccan children had overweight in 2009. The prevalence of obesity was above 4% from 3 years onwards. High (i.e. ≥ 25%) prevalence rates of unhealthy lifestyle-related behaviours were found for not having breakfast (26-49%) among Turkish and Moroccan adolescent (i.e. 15-18 years) girls, consuming no fruit (29-45%) and watching TV/PC ≥ 2 h (35-72%) among all Turkish and Moroccan adolescents, no walking/cycling to school/day care among preschool children (2-4 years) (28-56%) and adolescents (34-94%), drinking ≥ 2 glasses of sweet beverages (44-74%) and being children. An upward trend of overweight and obesity occurred in Turkish and Moroccan children. Already at 2 years of age, one out of five Turkish and Moroccan children had overweight, which calls for early prevention with attention to specific lifestyle-related behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Reactivity and reaction rate ratio changes with moderator voidage in a light water high converter reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, R.; Gmuer, K.; Hager, H.; Seiler, R.

    1986-01-01

    Integral reaction rate ratios and other k ∞ related parameters have been measured in the first three cores of the experimental program on light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) test lattices in the PROTEUS reactor. The reference tight-pitch lattice consisted of two rod types, with an average fissile-plutonium enrichment of 6% and a fuel/moderator ratio of 2.0. The moderators were H 2 O, Dowtherm (simulating an H 2 O voidage of 42.5%), and air (100% void). Comparisons of the measured parameters have been made with calculational results based mainly on the use of two separate codes and their associated data libraries, namely, WIMS-D and EPRI-CPM. A reconstruction of individual components of the k-infinity void coefficient has been carried out on the basis of the measured changes with voidage of the various reaction rate ratios, as well as of k-infinity itself. The subsequent more detailed comparisons between experiment and calculation should provide a useful basis for resolving the conflicting calculational results that have been reported in the past for the void coefficient characteristics of LWHCRs. (author)

  12. ICD-11 Prevalence Rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a German Nationwide Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias; Augsburger, Mareike; Kliem, Sören

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors. One-month prevalence rates were as follows: PTSD, 1.5%; CPTSD, 0.5%; and CPTSD variant, 0.7%. For PTSD, the highest conditional prevalence was associated with kidnapping or rape, and the highest CPTSD rates were associated with sexual childhood abuse or rape. PTSD and CPTSD were best differentiated by sexual violence. Combined PTSD and CPTSD (ICD-11) rates were in the range of previously reported prevalences for unified PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; ICD-10). Evidence on differential predictors of PTSD and CPTSD is still preliminary.

  13. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-01-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE COOLING RATE AND THE BLEND RATIO ON THE PHYSICAL STABILTIY OF CO-AMORPHOUS NAPROXEN/INDOMETHACIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Andreas; Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    Co-amorphisation represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method and the b......Co-amorphisation represents a promising approach to increase the physical stability and dissolution rate of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as an alternative to polymer glass solutions. For amorphous and co-amorphous systems, it is reported that the preparation method...... and the blend ratio play major roles with regard to the resulting physical stability. Therefore, in the present study, co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin (NAP/IND) was prepared by melt-quenching at three different cooling rates and at ten different NAP/IND blend ratios. The samples were analyzed using XRPD...... and FTIR, both directly after preparation and during storage to investigate their physical stabilities. All cooling methods led to fully amorphous samples, but with significantly different physical stabilities. Samples prepared by fast cooling had a higher degree of crystallinity after 300 d of storage...

  15. Effects of mix ratio, moisture content and aeration rate on sulfur odor emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Bing; Li, Shuyan; Michel, Frederick; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Difang; Li, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur compounds in swine manure can cause odor emissions during composting if conditions are not conducive to their rapid oxidation and degradation. In this study, the effects of controllable composting process variables on sulfur odor emissions were investigated. These included pig manure to corn stalk mix ratio (0.7:1, 1.5:1 and 2.2:1dw basis), initial moisture content (60%, 65%, 70% and 75%) and aeration rate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0m(3)m(-3)h(-1)). The compounds measured were carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, ethyl mercaptan, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS). The results showed that total sulfur losses ranged from 3.9% to 18.3% after 26days of composting. Me2S and Me2SS were the primary (>59.61%) sulfur compounds released during this period. After turning, emission rates of both Me2S and Me2SS increased. Emissions of the other six sulfur compounds were low and inconsistent during composting. Within the compost, feedstock mix ratio significantly influenced the concentration of Me2SS, while aeration rate significantly affected Me2S concentration (pMoisture content did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of either of these two compounds. Concentrations of sulfur odor compounds were the lowest at the highest aeration rate. Therefore, high aeration rates during the thermophilic phase, especially after turning, are recommended to minimize sulfur odors produced during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends of increases in potential risk factors and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, V; Kriengsinyos, W; Photi, J; Tontisirin, K

    2017-07-01

    Over the past three decades, undernutrition in Thailand has drastically reduced by over seven times. However, since 1995 the number of patients afflicted with non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, has rapidly increased, even among the young. Unhealthy life styles due to urbanization are a major reason for this increase. Less physical activity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as high consumption of added free sugar, are common. Every year, the Thai people increase their consumption of energy from fat and protein, while lowering their intake of energy from complex carbohydrates. Per capita and on average, a Thai individual consumes up to 20% of total energy from added free sugar. Barker's hypothesis and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis (DOHaD) can partially explain the increase in diabetes mellitus at this rapid rate. To alleviate the problem, the main strategy has been consumer education to reduce diabetes mellitus prevalence. Sugar elimination from infant formula is mandatory and sugar taxation is being considered. Simplified nutrition labeling is voluntarily as part of consumer education, as well as encouraging food industries to produce healthier food products. Currently, a multi-sectoral approach is used for alleviating diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

  17. Extraspinal incidental findings on routine MRI of lumbar spine: Prevalence and reporting Rates in 1278 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  18. Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaba, Mary; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Wooditch, Alese; Kiss, Marissa; Murphy, Amy; Kumari, Suneeta; Taxman, Faye; Altice, Frederick; Lawson, William B; Springer, Sandra A

    2018-01-15

    Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of mood disorders among justice involved opioid-dependent populations. The current study enrolled 258 treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals under community-based criminal justice supervision (e.g., probation, parole) screened from the larger parent study, Project STRIDE, a seek/test/treat randomized control trial (RCT) examining HIV and opioid use treatment. During baseline, individuals were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and screened for bipolar disorder using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) tool. Overall, 78 (30%) participants screened positive for moderate to severe depression and 54 (21%) screened positive for bipolar disorder. Participants self-reported mood disorders at higher rates than they screened positive for these conditions. Participants screening positive for these conditions experienced significantly greater family, legal, and medical problems on the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite) than those who did not screen positive. Incidence of a lifetime suicide attempt was found to be associated with a positive screen for both mood disorders. Prescribed psychotropic treatment utilization was similar among those who screened positive for depression or bipolar disorder with approximately 38% reporting taking medication. Findings suggest universal mood disorder screening to improve comprehensive psychiatric care and treatment of opioid-dependent justice-involved individuals.

  19. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Breurec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. Methods Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized. In addition, the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance and the genetic background of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae were studied. Results A bacteriological infection was confirmed in 36.4 % (88/242 of neonates: 22.7 % (30/132 during the early-onset and 52.7 % (58/110 during the late-onset periods (p > 0.20. Group B streptococci accounted for 6.8 % of the 88 collected bacterial isolates, while most of them were Enterobacteriaceae (n = 69, 78.4 %. Of these, 55/69 (79.7 % were 3GC-R. The blaCTX-M-15 allele, the blaSHV and the blaTEM were highly prevalent (63.5, 65.4 and 53.8 %, respectively, usually associated with qnr genes (65.4 %. Clonally related strains of 3GC-R Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3GC-R Enterobacter cloacae, the two most commonly recovered 3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae (48/55, were detected at the three hospitals, underlining the role of cross-transmission in their spread. The overall case fatality rate was 18.6 %. Conclusions Measures should be taken to prevent nosocomial infections and the selection of resistant bacteria.

  20. Prevalence of Reduced Kidney Function by Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Using an Equation Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated and compared the prevalence of reduced kidney function in MetS and its components by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcr, cystatin C (eGFRcys, and combined creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys in Korean adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from 3,649 adults who participated in a comprehensive health examination.ResultsMean values of eGFRcys were higher compared with mean values of eGFRcr (96.1±18.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 91.2±13.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 in total subjects. The prevalence of reduced kidney function increased with age (9.6% for eGFRcys vs. 5.8% for eGFRcr-cys vs. 4.9% for eGFRcr, in subjects aged ≥60 years, and significantly increased with MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein (HDL, and high insulin resistance. The prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high insulin resistance, low HDL, and hepatic steatosis was significantly increased in subjects with reduced kidney function. This increased prevalence and the odds ratio of reduced kidney function for prevalence of MetS was highest for eGFRcys, followed by those of eGFRcr-cys, and eGFRcr.ConclusionThe prevalence of reduced kidney function by eGFR was significantly increased in subjects with MetS and its related components. eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys were superior to eGFRcr in detecting reduced kidney function.

  1. The Effect of Feed to Inoculums Ratio on Biogas Production Rate from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid as Inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rumen fluid of animal ruminant was used as inoculums to increase biogas production rate from cattle manure at mesophilic condition. A series of laboratory experiments using 400 ml biodigester were performed in batch operation mode. Given 100 grams of fresh cattle manure was fed to each biodigester and mixed with rumen fluid and tap water resulting five different feed to inoculum (F/I ratios (i.e. 17.64, 23.51, 35.27, and 70.54. The operating temperatures were varied at room temperature. The results showed that the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly effected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums. At four F/Is tested, after 80 days digestion, the biogas yield were 191, 162, 144 and 112 mL/g VS, respectively. About 80% of the biogas production was obtained during the first 40 days of digestion. The best performance of biogas production will be obtained if F/I ratio is in the range of 17.64 to 35.27 (correspond to 25 – 50 % of rumen fluid. The future work will be carried out to study the dynamics of biogas production if both the rumen fluid inoculums and manure are fed in the continuous system

  2. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR): A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, B Ian; Yuan, Xin; Anderson, James M; Santangelo, George M

    2016-09-01

    Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at https://icite.od.nih.gov.

  3. Relative Citation Ratio (RCR: A New Metric That Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ian Hutchins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers. To illustrate one application of our method, we analyzed 88,835 articles published between 2003 and 2010 and found that the National Institutes of Health awardees who authored those papers occupy relatively stable positions of influence across all disciplines. We demonstrate that the values generated by this method strongly correlate with the opinions of subject matter experts in biomedical research and suggest that the same approach should be generally applicable to articles published in all areas of science. A beta version of iCite, our web tool for calculating Relative Citation Ratios of articles listed in PubMed, is available at https://icite.od.nih.gov.

  4. [Sex ratio and environmental influence on population growth rate of Callinectes bellicosus (Decapoda: Portunidae) in the Gulf of California].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Félix, Demetrio; Cisneros-Mata, Miguel Angel; Aragón-Noriega, Eugenio Alberto; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    The brown swimming crab (Callinectes bellicosus) is an economically important species in the Gulf of California, and its fishing activity, held in Sonora from 1986, has been affected by a 20-year declining trend in its biomass. With the aim to understand the possible reasons of this species population changes along time, we estimated population growth rate (r) and sex ratio of C. bellicosus, and combined them with three parameters describing its habitat: sea temperature, wetland extension and habitat size in four areas along the coast of Sonora. For this, monthly mean sex ratio was estimated from crabs samples obtained from commercial catches during 1998-2002 and 2012; mean sea surface temperature for the spawning period (May-August) were derived from remote sensors for the same years; while wetland coverages were obtained from published reports, and habitat size was estimated as the fishing surface. For each area, r was estimated using a method developed for limited data situations using commercial landings (t) from 1986-2013. With data from the four areas, simple and multiple linear regression models were developed to ascertain theoretical sensitivities of r to variations in sex ratio and environmental parameters. A total of 24 556 crabs were sampled; males dominated (68.8 %) over females during the study period and in all areas; a cluster analysis identified two groups according to sex ratio: a Northern group with zones 1 and 2, and a Southern group with zones 3 and 4. r values were different in all zones (P0.995). Both the estimated data and sensitivity analyses suggest the existence of a direct and positive dependence of r on the proportion of female crabs and wetland size. We hypothesize that excess fishing of females caused the declining biomass trend of the brown swimming crab in Sonora, and concluded on the convenience of implementing harvest refugia inside coastal wetlands to protect females during the spawning season.

  5. The validated hypoallergenic cosmetics rating system: its 30-year evolution and effect on the prevalence of cosmetic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M

    2011-01-01

    The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.

  6. Prevalence and rupture rate of cerebral aneurysms discovered during intra-arterial chemotherapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourekas, E C; Newton, H B; Figg, G M; Slone, H W

    2006-02-01

    During the administration of intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy for the treatment of brain tumors (BTs), angiography may demonstrate asymptomatic, incidental cerebral aneurysms. The prevalence and complication rate of incidental aneurysms in patients undergoing IA chemotherapy remains unknown. It remains unclear whether the presence of an aneurysm represents an increased risk or a contraindication to this form of treatment. We performed a chart and angiography review of BT patients receiving IA chemotherapy over the previous 16 months. Seventy-eight patients were identified with primary (39) and metastatic (39) BTs. The cohort consisted of 40 men and 38 women, with a mean age of 47.8 years (range, 22-80 years). During initial angiography, 8 patients (10.3%) were identified with incidental cerebral aneurysms. The aneurysms were saccular and varied in size from 2-4 mm (mean, 3 mm). Seven of the 8 patients continued IA chemotherapy after detection of the aneurysm, for a total of 35 IA procedures. Of these 7 patients, 5 expired from nonaneurysmal complications (mean survival, 5.4 months; range, 2-10 months); 4 from the primary tumor, and one from an infected craniotomy site. Two patients continue to survive; one remains in treatment, and the other has completed 12 months of IA therapy. There were no aneurysmal complications during or after IA treatment in any of the BT patients. Incidental aneurysms may be more common in patients with BTs than the general population. In our patient population, there was no indication that an incidental aneurysm was reason to preclude or delay the use of IA chemotherapy.

  7. Computed tomography (CT) findings in 88 neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients: Prevalence rates and correlations of thoracic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Ken, E-mail: k-ueda@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Honda, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Satoh, Yukihisa [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan); Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and

  8. Computed tomography (CT) findings in 88 neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients: Prevalence rates and correlations of thoracic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken; Honda, Osamu; Satoh, Yukihisa; Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and

  9. Transfusion rate and prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F

    2011-01-01

    To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....

  10. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Jongenelis, L.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home

  11. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A.; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the

  12. ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE, HOSPITALIZATION RATE AND MORTALITY LEVELS RELATED TO GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN THE MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: According to prognosis made by World Health Organization experts, by mid-21st century gastrointestinal disorders will be among the leaders, partially due to lifestyle of a modern man (stress, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy habits, environmental pollution, genetically modified and low quality foods.Aim: To provide informational support of activities aimed at improvement of organization of medical care to patients with gastrointestinal disorders and at further development of specialized gastroenterological care to the population of the Moscow Region, its better availability and higher efficacy and quality.Materials and methods: We calculated and analyzed gastrointestinal morbidity in 2014 (according to referrals among the main age categories (children, adolescents, adults of the population of the Moscow Region, as well as hospitalization rates and in-hospital mortality. The information was taken from the Federal Statistical Surveillance report forms # 12 and # 14.Results: In 2014, the highest prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders was registered in adolescents, being by 42.7% higher than that in adults and by 11.7% higher than that in children. The leading causes of referrals in all age categories were gastritis and duodenitis, as well as gall bladder and bile tract disorders. The structure of morbidity was characterized by a high proportion of pancreatic disorders, stomach and duodenal ulcers in adults. The rate of hospitalizations due to gastrointestinal disorders was 17.8 cases per 1000 patients, being 17.4‰ in adults and 19.8‰ in children and adolescents. The main reasons for hospitalization in adults were diseases of pancreas (23.9% of all hospitalization due to gastrointestinal disorders, gall bladder and bile tract disorders (16.3%. In children and adolescents, the main reasons for hospitalizations were intestinal disorders (36.4%, gastritis and duodenitis (17.9%. In-hospital mortality from

  13. Statewide prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis and rate of adrenaline autoinjector activation in Victorian government schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation of intensity ratio change and line-of-sight rate change algorithms for imaging infrared trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, C. R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of the intensity change and line-of-sight (LOS) change concepts have previously been documented in the open-literature as techniques used by non-imaging infrared (IR) seekers to reject expendable IR countermeasures (IRCM). The purpose of this project was to implement IR counter-countermeasure (IRCCM) algorithms based on target intensity and kinematic behavior for a generic imaging IR (IIR) seeker model with the underlying goal of obtaining a better understanding of how expendable IRCM can be used to defeat the latest generation of seekers. The report describes the Intensity Ratio Change (IRC) and LOS Rate Change (LRC) discrimination techniques. The algorithms and the seeker model are implemented in a physics-based simulation product called Tactical Engagement Simulation Software (TESS™). TESS is developed in the MATLAB®/Simulink® environment and is a suite of RF/IR missile software simulators used to evaluate and analyze the effectiveness of countermeasures against various classes of guided threats. The investigation evaluates the algorithm and tests their robustness by presenting the results of batch simulation runs of surface-to-air (SAM) and air-to-air (AAM) IIR missiles engaging a non-maneuvering target platform equipped with expendable IRCM as self-protection. The report discusses how varying critical parameters such track memory time, ratio thresholds and hold time can influence the outcome of an engagement.

  15. Measurement of Muscle Protein Fractional Synthetic Rate by Capillary Gas Chromatography/Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J.; Bier, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of skeletal muscle protein fractional synthetic rate using an infusion of (1-13C)leucine and measuring the isotopic abundance of the tracer in skeletal muscle protein by preparative gas chromatography (GC)/ninhydrin isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is laborious and subject to errors owing to contamination by 12C. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle (13C)leucine enrichment measured with the conventional preparative GC/ninhydrin IRMS approach to a new, continuous-flow technique using capillary GC/combustion IRMS. Quadriceps muscles were removed from four Sprague–Dawley rats after each was infused at a different rate with (1-13C)leucine for 6–8 h. Muscle leucine enrichment (at.% excess) measured by both methods differed by less than 4%, except at low (13C)leucine enrichments (IRMS was used to assess muscle (13C)leucine enrichment and fractional muscle protein synthesis rate in ten normal young men and women infused with (1,2-13C2)leucine for 12–14 h. This approach reduced the variability of the isotope abundance measure and gave estimates of muscle protein synthesis rate (0.050 ± 0.011% h−1 (mean ± SEM); range = 0.023–0.147% h−1) that agree with published values determined using the standard analytical approach. The measurement of (13C)leucine enrichment from skeletal muscle protein by capillary GC/combustion IRMS provides a simple, acceptable and practical alternative to preparative GC/ninhydrin IRMS. PMID:1420371

  16. Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr. The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8% of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years, 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years, and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years. The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with 5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice.

  17. Influence of the urine flow rate on some caffeine metabolite ratios used to assess CYP1A2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinués, Blanca; Fanlo, Ana; Bernal, María Luisa; Mayayo, Esteban; Soriano, María Antonia; Martínez-Ballarin, Enrique

    2002-12-01

    Five established metabolite ratios (MRs) to measure P450 CYP1A2 activity--MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X--were calculated in urine 4-5 hours after caffeine intake. First, to assess the potential of omeprazole to induce CYP1A2 activity, a caffeine test was performed in 27 subjects on two occasions: before and after 14 days on omeprazole (20 mg/day). Samples of urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify caffeine and metabolites used to calculate the different caffeine MRs. MR1, MR3, and MR4 were enhanced after treatment; the percentage of change was inversely associated with that of the urine flow, with r values of -0.48, -0.49, and -0.47, respectively. However, MR2 or MR5 were not modified. To determine the reason for these contradictory results, the authors analyzed data of metabolites, ratios, and their components (numerators and denominators) from 152 subjects (who underwent one caffeine test) and their relationship with the urinary flow. Caffeine concentration in urine was the only compound nondependent on the urine flow. Consistently, ratios containing caffeine (MR1, MR3, and MR4) were highly influenced by the rate of urine excretion, since the flow dependence of their numerators is not canceled out by that of caffeine in their denominators. The dependency of the caffeine excretion on renal factors may explain the opposite results found with the different ratios in the aforementioned prospective study of drug interaction, the absence of closer correlations of the five MRs to each other, the discrepancies about the type of frequency distribution of the different MRs (either normal or multimodal), and the higher sensitivity of MR2 to detect gender differences in CYP1A2 activity found in this study. In summary, the data clearly emphasize the need for a strict control of the liquid intake to avoid high urine flows when MRs

  18. Transfusion transmitted virus prevalence rate in IDU patients: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make

  19. [Rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age in China in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z Q; Zhao, Y F; Yang, J; Wang, L M; Zhao, Z P; Zeng, X Y; Wang, L H

    2017-12-06

    Objective: To analyze the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013. Methods: The analysis used data obtained from the China Chronic and non-communicable disease surveillance in 2013.The surveillance included 176 534 adults aging ≥18 years old, who were selected from 302 surveillance points by multi-stage cluster random sampling method. A total of 46 674 women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) were investigated. Blood pressures were measured by electronic blood pressure monitor. After being weighted according to complex sampling scheme and post-stratification, the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were compared by different characteristics such as age, education, urban and rural areas, and geographic locations. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013 was 13.5%. The rate in the rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (χ(2)=46.23, P 0.05). The hypertension prevalence in all age groups (18-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49 years old) were 6.6%, 9.2%, 9.6%, 12.0%, 17.9% and 28.3%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension showed a rising trend with age increasing ( t= 12.32, Pareas; and 21.3%, 18.5% and 5.9%, respectively in rural areas. The rates in urban areas were all higher than those in rural areas (chi square were separately 18.98, 21.31, and 6.80, P values areas.

  20. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  1. SENSMG: First-Order Sensitivities of Neutron Reaction Rates, Reaction-Rate Ratios, Leakage, keff, and α Using PARTISN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-21

    SENSMG is a tool for computing first-order sensitivities of neutron reaction rates, reaction-rate ratios, leakage, keff, and α using the PARTISN multigroup discrete-ordinates code. SENSMG computes sensitivities to all of the transport cross sections and data (total, fission, nu, chi, and all scattering moments), two edit cross sections (absorption and capture), and the density for every isotope and energy group. It also computes sensitivities to the mass density for every material and derivatives with respect to all interface locations. The tool can be used for one-dimensional spherical (r) and two-dimensional cylindrical (r-z) geometries. The tool can be used for fixed-source and eigenvalue problems. The tool implements Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) as discussed by Williams and Stacey. Section II of this report describes the theory behind adjoint-based sensitivities, gives the equations that SENSMG solves, and defines the sensitivities that are output. Section III describes the user interface, including the input file and command line options. Section IV describes the output. Section V gives some notes about the coding that may be of interest. Section VI discusses verification, which is ongoing. Section VII lists needs and ideas for future work. Appendix A lists all of the input files whose results are presented in Sec. VI.

  2. Direct Dynamics Simulation of the Thermal 3CH2 + 3O2 Reaction. Rate Constant and Product Branching Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Sandhiya; Pratihar, Subha; Machado, Francisco Bolivar Correto; Hase, William Louis

    2018-04-26

    The reaction of 3CH2 with 3O2 is of fundamental importance in combustion and the reaction is complex as a result of multiple extremely exothermic product channels. In the present study, direct dynamics simulations were performed to study the reaction on both the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs). The simulations were performed at the UM06/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Trajectories were calculated at a temperature of 300 K and all reactive trajectories proceeded through the carbonyl oxide Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, on both the singlet and triplet PESs. The triplet surface leads to only one product channel, H2CO + O(3P), while the singlet surface leads to 8 product channels with their relative importance as: CO + H2O > CO + OH + H ~ H2CO + O(1D) > HCO + OH ~ CO2 + H2 ~ CO + H2 + O(1D) > CO2 + H + H > HCO + O(1D) + H. Reaction on the singlet PES is barrierless, consistent with experiment and the total rate constant on the singlet surface is 0.93 ± 0.22 x 10-12 cm3molecule-1s-1 in comparison to the recommended experimental rate constant of 3.3 x 10-12 cm3molecule-1s-1. The simulation product yields for the singlet PES are compared with experiment and the most significant differences are for H, CO2, and H2O. Reaction on the triplet surface is also barrierless, inconsistent with experiment. A discussion is given of the need for future calculations to address the: (1) barrier on the triplet PES for 3CH2 + 3O2 → 3CH2OO; (2) temperature dependence of the 3CH2 + 3O2 reaction rate constant and product branching ratios; and (3) possible non-RRKM dynamics of the 1CH2OO Criegee intermediate.

  3. Development of a model for case-mix adjustment of pressure ulcer prevalence rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, G.J.J.W.; Halfens, J.; Berger, M.P.; Abu-Saad, H.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute care hospitals participating in the Dutch national pressure ulcer prevalence survey use the results of this survey to compare their outcomes and assess their quality of care regarding pressure ulcer prevention. The development of a model for case-mix adjustment is essential for the

  4. Child maltreatment in numbers : a multimethod study of year prevalence rates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and

  5. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  6. Measurement of disintegration rate and decay branching ratio for nuclide 192Ir with β-, EC mixing decays by using 4πβ-γ coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chunguang; Pei Wulang; Li Wei; Qu Decheng; Xiong Jing; Chang Yongfu

    1995-01-01

    The absolute disintegration rates for nuclide 192 Ir were measured with a 4πβ-γ (HPGe) coincidence apparatus by using parameter method and extrapolation method. The final uncertainties obtained were 0.4% and 0.5% respectively for a confidence level of 99.7%. The method with which both the disintegration rate and the decay branching ratio can be measured for nuclides with β - and EC mixing decays was proposed and described. The β - branching ratio in 192 Ir decays was measured being 0.9572. The final uncertainties of disintegration rates and β - decay branching ratio with this method were 1.5% and 1.8% respectively

  7. Associations between presence of relevant information in referrals to radiology and prevalence rates in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedner, Charlotta; Sundgren, Pia C; Kelly, Aine Marie

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the presence of information including the pretest probability (Wells score), other known risk factors, and symptoms given on referrals for computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography correlated with prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism (PE). Also, to evaluate for differences between a university and a regional hospital setting regarding patient characteristics, amount of relevant information provided on referrals, and prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism. Retrospective review of all consecutive referrals (emergency room, inpatient, and outpatient) for CT performed on children and adults for suspected PE from two sites: a tertiary (university) hospital (site 1) and a secondary (regional) hospital (site 2) over a 5-year period. The overall prevalence rate was 510/3641 or 14% of all referrals. Significantly higher number of males had a positive CT compared to women (18% versus 12%, P relevant information on the referral and the probability for positive finding existed, a slight trend was noted (P = .09). In two categories, "hypoxia" and "signs of deep vein thrombosis," the presence of this information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism, P information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism. The amount of relevant clinical information on the request did not correlate with prevalence rates, which may reflect a lack of documentation on the part of emergency physicians who may use a "gestalt" approach. Request forms likely did not capture all relevant patient risks and many factors may interact with each other, both positively and negatively. Pretest probability estimations were rarely performed, despite their inclusion in major society guidelines. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Landscape-scale estimation of denitrification rates and nitrous oxide to dinitrogen ratio at Georgia and Pennsylvania LTAR sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, C. J.; Groffman, P. M.; Strickland, T.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Bosch, D. D.; Bryant, R.

    2015-12-01

    Denitrification results in a significant loss of plant-available nitrogen from agricultural systems and contributes to climate change, due to the emissions of both the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and environmentally benign dinitrogen (N2). However total quantities of the gases emitted and the ratio of N2:N2O are often not clearly understood, because N2 emissions cannot be directly measured in the field because of the high background level of N2 in the atmosphere. While variability in soil conditions across landscapes, especially water content and aeration, is believed to greatly impact both total denitrification rates and N2:N2O, the measurement limitations have prevented a clear understanding of landscape-scale emissions of denitrification products. The Cary Institute has developed an approach where soil core are maintained in a sealed system with an N2-free airstream, allowing emitted N2 and N2O emissions to be measured without interference from atmospheric N2. Emissions of the gases are measured under a range of oxygen concentrations and soil water contents. Laboratory responses can then be correlated with measured field conditions at the sampling points and resulting emission estimates extrapolated to the field-scale. Measurements are currently being conducted on peanut/cotton rotations, dairy forage rotations (silage corn/alfalfa), and bioenergy crops (switchgrass and miscanthus) at Long Term Agricultural Research (LTAR) sites at Tifton, GA and University Park, PA.

  9. Anterior disc displacement with reduction and symptomatic hypermobility in the human temporomandibular joint : Prevalence rates and risk factors in children and teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; Lobbezoo, Frank; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Naeije, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) and symptomatic hypermobility in a large sample of children and teenagers. Prevalence rates were also established in samples of young adults and adults. Methods: Children from 7 Dutch primary

  10. [Diabetes mellitus in Spain: death rates, prevalence, impact, costs and inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; Mayoral-Sánchez, Eduardo; Corral-San Laureano, Florentino; Fernández-Fernández, Isabel

    2006-03-01

    Describing the situation of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Spain from a public health perspective. manual review of books and other documents on diabetes mellitus in Spain was conducted. In addition, a specific research of articles published using MeSH terms diabetes mortality, prevalence, incidence, cost, inequalities and Spain was conducted in Medline through Internet (PubMed). Minimun Basic Data Set was utilized as source for complication description by Communities Autonomus. DM is one of the leading cause of mortality and the third one in women. With regard to Autonomous Communities, Canary Islands, Ceuta y Melilla and Andalusia show the greatest mortality with a downward trend. Diabetics present greater mortality than non diabetic patients, being complications the main cause of the over-mortality, especially ischemic heart disease. Estimations of prevalence for DM2 range from 4.8% to 18.7% and for DM1, from .08% to .2%. In pregnancy, it has been noted a prevalence ranging from 4.5% to 16.1%. With respect to incidence per year, it is estimated a range from 146 to 820 per 100,000 inhabitants for DM2 and a range from 10 to 17 new cases annually per 100,000 inhabitants for DM1. Costs for DM1 show very different results, averaging between 1,262 and 3,311 euro per people and year. There are differences for DM2 costs as well, averaging between 381 and 2,560 euro per patient and year. Total costs estimated range from 758 to 4,348 euro per person and year. Relationship between a low socioeconomic level (LSL) and DM2 risk has been proved. Moreover, it has been noted that the less LSL the worse is the disease control, coupled with a greater frequency and more frequent factors of DM2 risk. The knowledge about the situation of the DM as a Public Health problem in Spain is limited. Mortality data available does not gather its real magnitude, and prevalence, incidence, costs and inequalities research are very poor and hardly comparable. In spite of this degree of incertitude, we

  11. Does sitting height ratio affect estimates of obesity prevalence among Canadian Inuit? Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Egeland, Grace M; Young, T Kue

    2011-01-01

    High sitting height ratio (SHR) is a characteristic commonly associated with Inuit morphology. Inuit are described as having short leg lengths and high trunk-to-stature proportions such that cutoffs for obesity derived from European populations may not adequately describe thresholds of disease risk. Further, high SHR may help explain the reduced impact of BMI on metabolic risk factors among Inuit relative to comparison populations. This study investigates the relationship between SHR and body mass index (BMI) in Inuit. Subjects are 2,168 individuals (837 males and 1,331 females) from 36 Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. Mean age is 42.63 ± 14.86 years in males and 41.71 ± 14.83 years in females. We use linear regression to examine the association between age, sex, height, sitting height, SHR, waist circumference (WC), and BMI. We then evaluate the efficacy of the relative sitting height adjustment as a method of correcting observed BMI to a population-standardized SHR. Mean BMI is significantly higher than among non-Inuit Canadians. Obesity prevalence is high, particularly among Inuit women. In the regression, only age and WC are significant predictors of BMI. While SHR is significantly greater than that of the US population, there is substantial agreement between overweight and obesity prevalence using observed and corrected BMI. We find no consistent relationship between SHR and BMI and suggest the unique anthropometric and metabolic profile observed in Inuit arise from factors not yet delineated. More complex anthropometric and imaging studies in Inuit are needed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A. M.; Warner, Wayne A.; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y.; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Methods Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Results Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Conclusions Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation. PMID:28917021

  13. Analysis of C/E results of fission rate ratio measurements in several fast lead VENUS-F cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Anatoly; Krása, Antonín; Baeten, Peter; Vittiglio, Guido; Wagemans, Jan; Bécares, Vicente; Bianchini, Giancarlo; Fabrizio, Valentina; Carta, Mario; Firpo, Gabriele; Fridman, Emil; Sarotto, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    During the GUINEVERE FP6 European project (2006-2011), the zero-power VENUS water-moderated reactor was modified into VENUS-F, a mock-up of a lead cooled fast spectrum system with solid components that can be operated in both critical and subcritical mode. The Fast Reactor Experiments for hybrid Applications (FREYA) FP7 project was launched in 2011 to support the designs of the MYRRHA Accelerator Driven System (ADS) and the ALFRED Lead Fast Reactor (LFR). Three VENUS-F critical core configurations, simulating the complex MYRRHA core design and one configuration devoted to the LFR ALFRED core conditions were investigated in 2015. The MYRRHA related cores simulated step by step design peculiarities like the BeO reflector and in pile sections. For all of these cores the fuel assemblies were of a simple design consisting of 30% enriched metallic uranium, lead rodlets to simulate the coolant and Al2O3 rodlets to simulate the oxide fuel. Fission rate ratios of minor actinides such as Np-237, Am-241 as well as Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242 and U-238 to U-235 were measured in these VENUS-F critical assemblies with small fission chambers in specially designed locations, to determine the spectral indices in the different neutron spectrum conditions. The measurements have been analyzed using advanced computational tools including deterministic and stochastic codes and different nuclear data sets like JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, ENDF/B7.1 and JENDL-4.0. The analysis of the C/E discrepancies will help to improve the nuclear data in the specific energy region of fast neutron reactor spectra.

  14. High rates of incident and prevalent anal human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Feng, Qinghua; Popov, Viorica; Koutsky, Laura A; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-02-01

    There are few published estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We estimated incidence and prevalence of type-specific anal HPV infection using clinician-collected anal swabs for HPV DNA testing obtained during a 1-year prospective study of 94 YMSM (mean age, 21 years) in Seattle. Seventy percent of YMSM had any HPV infection detected during the study, and HPV-16 and/or -18 were detected in 37%. The incidence rate for any new HPV infection was 38.5 per 1000 person-months and 15.3 per 1000 person-months for HPV-16/18; 19% had persistent HPV-16/18 infection. No participant tested positive for all 4 HPV types in the quadrivalent vaccine. The number of lifetime male receptive anal sex partners was significantly associated with HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 was 6% among YMSM with a history of 1 receptive anal sex partner and 31% among YMSM with ≥ 2 partners. Although the high prevalence of HPV among YMSM highlights the desirability of vaccinating all boys as a strategy to avert the morbidity of HPV infection, most YMSM appear to remain naive to either HPV-16 or -18 well into their sexual lives and would benefit from HPV immunization.

  15. Prevalence, rates and correlates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first 9 months postpartum. Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization's IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at 4 months postpartum and 9 months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. More than 20 % of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first 9 months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first 4 months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences.

  16. Prevalence and rates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L.; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first nine months postpartum. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization’s IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at four months postpartum and nine months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. Results More than 20% of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first nine months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first four months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. Conclusions The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  17. The Dynamics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence and Management Rates among Rural Population in Henan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness (P=0.089 and treatment (P=0.257 in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing trends while the awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM were still disproportionally low in central China. More works are needed urgently to popularize public health education and improve the quality of medical care in T2DM.

  18. Depressive symptomatology in severe dementia in a European sample: prevalence, associated factors and prescription rate of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Arve, Seija; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm; Soto, Maria; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Hamers, Jan; Saks, Kai; Challis, David

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a common comorbid disorder of dementia. This study explores the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptomatology, and antidepressant prescription rates in severe dementia across eight European countries. In total, 414 people with severe dementia completed measures of cognition and quality of life (QoL), whilst carers completed proxy measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms, QoL and comorbidity. Findings indicated that 30% of the sample had depression, whilst the highest and lowest prevalence of depression was reported in Germany and Finland, respectively. Lower QoL, the presence of pain and more frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with depressive symptomatology, whilst no significant relationship between impairment of ADLs, comorbidity, and depression emerged. Spain and Estonia had the highest and lowest rates of antidepressant prescribing, respectively, whilst Germany had the highest discrepancy between depressive symptomatology and prescription. The study highlights variations across countries in the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in severe dementia and prescription of antidepressants. Information about factors associated with depressive symptomatology may help to better identify and manage depression.

  19. Prevalence Rate of Using ٍEcstasy among Medical Sciences Students in Urmia University in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Miri Ghaffarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The present study aims to achieve a comprehensive depiction of ecstasy consumption among the students of Urmia University of medical sciences in 2007.Materials & Methods: Totally 950 students were surveyed in this cross-sectional descriptive study. A census was used as a sampling method. A self-report questionnaire regarding demographic details and ecstasy consumption was completed by students. Data was stored in a database and then was analyzed through descriptive tests by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to determine the correlation coefficient.Results: There were 798 subjects of all target population who had never used this drug. However, 132 subjects (18 regularly, 56 occasionally for fun and 58 at least once consumed ecstasy pills. Thus the point prevalence of ecstasy consumption among the students was 14.19 percent. There were 232 subjects who had never heard of the term “ecstasy". Instead, the knowledge source of the rest about ecstasy was books (116 subject, internet (56 subjects, mass media (489 subjects, friends (28 subjects, and family (2 subjects. A significant relation was observed between ecstasy consumption and other variables (parents' education, residence in student campus, attending parties, smoking, canabis and opium consumption. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the point prevalence of ecstasy pills consumption among university students was 14.19% that raises the need for purposive intervention and the necessity of planning to prevent and decrease this phenomenon.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:67-72

  20. How does relaxing the algorithm for autism affect DSM-V prevalence rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Hattier, Megan A; Williams, Lindsey W

    2012-08-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); thus, any change in these diagnostic criteria can have a great effect upon children with ASD and their families. It is predicted that the prevalence of ASD diagnoses will dramatically decrease with the adoption of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in 2013. The aim of this current study was to inspect the changes in prevalence first using a diagnostic criteria set which was modified slightly from the DSM-5 criteria (Modified-1 criteria) and again using a set of criteria which was relaxed even a bit more (Modified-2 criteria). Modified-1 resulted in 33.77 % fewer toddlers being diagnosed with ASD compared to the DSM-IV, while Modified-2 resulted in only a 17.98 % decrease in ASD diagnoses. Children diagnosed with the DSM-5 criteria exhibited the greatest levels of autism symptomatology, but the Mod-1, Mod-2, and DSM-IV groups still demonstrated significant impairments. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Prevalent Rate of Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Event in Korean Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsLaboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification. Major CVD events were included with coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events.ResultsNonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, when compared with albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, had shorter diabetic duration, lower concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lower prevalent rates of retinopathy and previous CVD, and higher rate of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group showed a greater association with prior CVD events than no CKD group; however, albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group made addition to increase prevalence of prior CVD events significantly when CKD categories were applied as covariates. Association of prior CVD events, when compared with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, became significant for declined eGFR, which was higher for eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria.ConclusionThe results show that subjects with nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD is significantly interrelated with occurrence of prior CVD events than those with normal eGFR with or without albuminuria. Comparing with normal eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, the combination of increased degree of albuminuria and declined eGFR is becoming significant for the association of prior CVD events.

  2. Low disease prevalence and inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock rate in Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Eschen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    AimsBrugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited channelopathy that predisposes to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and thereby syncope and sudden cardiac death. Prior studies characterizing BrS patients have used highly selected referral populations from tertiary centres and prevalence estimates have...... been carried out using electrocardiogram (ECG) surveys only. We aimed to identify and characterize all diagnosed BrS patients in Denmark (population 5.4 million).Methods and resultsBrugada syndrome patients were identified using several modalities including identification in all Danish tertiary......%) experienced inappropriate shocks during a median follow-up of 47 months. No patient died or experienced aborted sudden cardiac death during follow-up.ConclusionsWe report the first nationwide study of BrS patients. We found a low incidence of diagnosed definite BrS compared with estimates from ECG surveys...

  3. Nonlinear Conte-Zbilut-Federici (CZF Method of Computing LF/HF Ratio: A More Reliable Index of Changes in Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond Jr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acupuncture treatments are safe and effective for a wide variety of diseases involving autonomic dysregulation. Heart rate variability (HRV is a noninvasive method for assessing sympathovagal balance. The low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF spectral power ratio is an index of sympathovagal influence on heart rate and of cardi

  4. The Influence of Survey Methodology in Estimating Prevalence Rates of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Navy Recruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Cheryl B; Stander, Valerie A; Merril, Lex L

    2000-01-01

    ...% of the participants self-defined themselves as abused. Despite these differences in abuse rates, data from the SHIP survey, from SRB operational definitions, and from SRB self-definitions all independently accounted for variability in participants...

  5. High prevalence and resistance rates to antibiotics in anaerobic bacteria in specimens from patients with chronic balanitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Mitev, Angel; Gergova, Galina; Mateev, Grisha; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Aim of the study was to assess both prevalence and antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria from glans penis skin of 70 adults. Strain susceptibility was determined by breakpoint susceptibility test or E test. In 9 asymptomatic, 48 untreated and 13 treated symptomatic patients, anaerobes were found in 22.2%, 70.8% and 53.3%, respectively. Gram-positive strains (GPAs) were 2.2-fold more common than Gram-negative ones. Prevalent Gram-negative (GNAs) and GPAs were Prevotella spp. and anaerobic cocci, respectively. Clostridium difficile strain was found in an untreated patient. In GNAs, resistance rates to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 42.1, 0, 52.6, 53.3, 86.7 and 5.2%, respectively. In GPAs, the resistance rates to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 18.2, 34.1, 52.6, 36.8 and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, anaerobes were 1.6-fold more frequent in untreated symptomatic patients compared with other patients, suggesting their participation in development of chronic balanitis. GPAs were more common than GNAs. The resistance rates to amoxicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were high. Most active agents were metronidazole and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Resistance in anaerobes varies according to sites of specimens and years of study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dengue virus serological prevalence and seroconversion rates in children and adults in Medellin, Colombia: implications for vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Mabel; Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Velez, Diana Carolina; Trujillo, Andrea; Egurrola, Jorge; Lee, Kang Sung; Kaufman, Jay S; DaSilva, Luiz Jacinto; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E

    2017-05-01

    Dengue is an important public health problem worldwide. A vaccine has recently been licensed in some countries of Latin America and Asia. Recommendations for dengue vaccine introduction include endemicity and a high serological prevalence of dengue in the territories considering its introduction. A community-based survey was conducted to estimate dengue seroprevalence and age-specific seroconversion rates in a community in Medellin, Colombia, using a dengue serological test (IgG indirect ELISA). Residents were selected at random and were first screened for dengue infection; they were then followed over 2.5 years. A total of 3684 individuals aged between 1 and 65 years participated in at least one survey. The overall dengue seroprevalence was 61%, and only 3.3% of seropositive subjects self-reported a past history of dengue. Among dengue virus (DENV)-naïve subjects with more than two visits (n=1002), the overall seroconversion rate was 8.7% (95% confidence interval 7.3-10.4) per 1000 person-months, over the study period. Overall, the mean age of DENV prevalent subjects was significantly higher than the mean age of seroconverted subjects. Specifically, DENV seropositivity over 70% was observed in participants over 21 years old. Serotype-specific plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) revealed that all four dengue serotypes were circulating, with DENV4 being most prevalent. These laboratory-based findings could inform dengue vaccine decisions, as they provide age-specific seroprevalence and seroconversion data, evidencing permanent and ongoing dengue transmission in the study area. This study provides evidence for the existing rates of secondary and heterotypic responses, presenting a challenge that must be addressed adequately by the new vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Caries prevalence in chronic alcoholics and the relationship to salivary flow rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Walter; Dobrijević, Tanja Trivanović; Katunarić, Marina; Lesić, Stjepanka

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dental status of alcoholics; to evaluate the relationship of unstimulated and stimulated saliva pH on their decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT); and to evaluate the relationship of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate on their DMFT. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients treated for alcohol dependency (n = 70; mean age 41.7 years) and a control group of non-alcoholics (n = 70; mean age 39.1 years). Examinations for dental caries were conducted using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and questionnaires. The correlation between nominal variables was determined using chi2 test (alpha = 0.05). The correlation between interval variables was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The mean DMFT was similar in alcoholics (14.40) and the control group (13.44) (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between alcoholism and unstimulated salivary flow rate (p salivary flow rate (p > 0.05) or stimulated salivary flow on DMFT (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between alcoholism and the pH value of stimulated saliva (p 0.05). No major differences were found with respect to overall DMFT in alcoholics compared to the control group. Alcoholism and stimulated salivary flow rate showed no correlation. Unstimulated salivary flow rate as well as the pH values of both unstimulated and stimulated saliva, were lower in the alcoholic group.

  8. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (qCEST) MRI - omega plot analysis of RF-spillover-corrected inverse CEST ratio asymmetry for simultaneous determination of labile proton ratio and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renhua; Xiao, Gang; Zhou, Iris Yuwen; Ran, Chongzhao; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2015-03-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is sensitive to labile proton concentration and exchange rate, thus allowing measurement of dilute CEST agent and microenvironmental properties. However, CEST measurement depends not only on the CEST agent properties but also on the experimental conditions. Quantitative CEST (qCEST) analysis has been proposed to address the limitation of the commonly used simplistic CEST-weighted calculation. Recent research has shown that the concomitant direct RF saturation (spillover) effect can be corrected using an inverse CEST ratio calculation. We postulated that a simplified qCEST analysis is feasible with omega plot analysis of the inverse CEST asymmetry calculation. Specifically, simulations showed that the numerically derived labile proton ratio and exchange rate were in good agreement with input values. In addition, the qCEST analysis was confirmed experimentally in a phantom with concurrent variation in CEST agent concentration and pH. Also, we demonstrated that the derived labile proton ratio increased linearly with creatine concentration (P analysis can simultaneously determine labile proton ratio and exchange rate in a relatively complex in vitro CEST system. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the...... currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 January 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.246....

  10. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A; Illman, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Prevalent Rate of Problem-Solving Approach in Teaching Mathematics in Ghanaian Basic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyala, Joseph; Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham; Tse, Newel

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholders of mathematics education decry the rate at which students' performance are falling below expectation; they call for a shift to practical methods of teaching the subject in Ghanaian basic schools. The study explores the extent to which Ghanaian basic school mathematics teachers use problem-solving approach in their lessons. The…

  12. Prevalence Rate of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Identification of Candida Species in Women in Referred to Hamedan Hospitals 2013 - 2014, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Habibipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common gynecological finding among the women worldwide. Objectives In this study determine of prevalence rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis and identification of Candida species was investigated. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study study, 350 females selected and examined by wet mount and culture procedure. Results The prevalence rate, by means of culture procedure was 26%. Candida albicans was responsible for 81.3% episodes of volvovaginal candidiasis. Conclusions In order to decrease the prevalence rate of vulvovaginitis, more epidemiological surveillance and accurate informative programs about public health care, symptoms and signs and transmission ways should be performed in the future.

  13. The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Caroline W; Gilbert, Marius; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine

    2017-01-26

    Although malaria has been traditionally regarded as less of a problem in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas, the risk of malaria infection continues to exist in densely populated, urban areas of Africa. Despite the recognition that urbanization influences the epidemiology of malaria, there is little consensus on urbanization relevant for malaria parasite mapping. Previous studies examining the relationship between urbanization and malaria transmission have used products defining urbanization at global/continental scales developed in the early 2000s, that overestimate actual urban extents while the population estimates are over 15 years old and estimated at administrative unit level. This study sought to discriminate an urbanization definition that is most relevant for malaria parasite mapping using individual level malaria infection data obtained from nationally representative household-based surveys. Boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to determine the effect of urbanization on malaria transmission and if this effect varied with urbanization definition. In addition, the most recent high resolution population distribution data was used to determine whether population density had significant effect on malaria parasite prevalence and if so, could population density replace urban classifications in modelling malaria transmission patterns. The risk of malaria infection was shown to decline from rural areas through peri-urban settlements to urban central areas. Population density was found to be an important predictor of malaria risk. The final boosted regression trees (BRT) model with urbanization and population density gave the best model fit (Tukey test p value <0.05) compared to the models with urbanization only. Given the challenges in uniformly classifying urban areas across different countries, population density provides a reliable metric to adjust for the patterns of malaria risk in densely populated urban areas. Future malaria risk

  14. Measuring functional developmental delay in infants and young children: prevalence rates from the NHIS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Gloria A; Colpe, Lisa; Greenspan, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In order to measure the prevalence of developmental delay among US infants and children, two types of questions were asked of parents in the 1994-95 National Health Interview Survey on Disability (NHIS-D). To measure functional delay (FD), questions from the Functional Developmental Growth Chart (FDQ), which measures specific age-appropriate tasks, were used. General delay (GD) was defined using the general type of questions about developmental delay that had been used in previous surveys. Using a nationally representative sample of 15 291 infants and children aged 4-59 months from the NHIS-D, analyses revealed that, according to these questions, approximately 3.3% had FD and 3.4% of the children had GD. However, only one-third of the children were identified by both sets of questions. Thus, two-thirds of the children identified as having FD were not recognised by their parents as having a delay. Conversely, many parents responded to the GD questions indicating that their child had a delay, but failed to indicate that their child had a functional problem. In addition, only 17% of the children with FD and 31% of those with GD were receiving special services. Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that children with both FD and GD were more likely to be male and to be living in families with incomes below 200% of the poverty level. The findings suggest that the general types of developmental delay questions used in national surveys may not identify children with functional delays. As parents failed to identify these children, it is possible that many of these children may be slipping through paediatric surveillance. Further research to evaluate the use of these measures in population surveys is recommended.

  15. The effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility of investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Golmohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to measure the effects of return on investment, sales growth rate, volatility investment, cash flow and structure of institutional shareholders on the ratio of debt to equities. The study selects 102 firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange and, using regression technique with Panel data, examines five different hypotheses over the period 2008-2012. The results indicate that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between return of investment and the ratio of debt to equities and a positive and meaningful relationship between sales growth and the ratio of debt to equities. Moreover, there were positive and meaningful relationships between volatility of investment as well as cash flow and the ratio of debt to equities. Finally, the survey has indicated that there was a negative and meaningful relationship between the structure of institutional shareholders and the ratio of debt to equities.

  16. Using non-performing loan ratios as default rates in the estimation of credit losses and macroeconomic credit risk stress testing: A case from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guray Kucukkocaoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, inspired by the Credit Portfolio View approach, we intend to develop an econometric credit risk model to estimate credit loss distributions of Turkish Banking System under baseline and stress macro scenarios, by substituting default rates with non-performing loan (NPL ratios. Since customer number based historical default rates are not available for the whole Turkish banking system’s credit portfolio, we used NPL ratios as dependent variable instead of default rates, a common practice for many countries where historical default rates are not available. Although, there are many problems in using NPL ratios as default rates such as underestimating portfolio losses as a result of totally non-homogeneous total credit portfolios and transferring non-performing loans to asset management companies from banks’ balance sheets, our aim is to underline and limit some ignored problems using accounting based NPL ratios as default rates in macroeconomic credit risk modeling. Developed models confirm the strong statistical relationship between systematic component of credit risk and macroeconomic variables in Turkey. Stress test results also are compatible with the past experiences

  17. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    and Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and

  18. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Breurec, Sebastien; Bouchiat, Coralie; Sire, Jean-Marie; Moquet, Olivier; Bercion, Raymond; Cisse, Moussa Fafa; Glaser, Philippe; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Ka, Sidy; Salord, Helene; Seck, Abdoulaye; Sy, Haby Signate; Michel, Remy; Garin, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Background: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with amortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births.Methods: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at threeneonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections wereconfirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiologi...

  19. Effects of strain rate, mixing ratio, and stress-strain definition on the mechanical behavior of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material as related to its biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafer, Khalil; Duprey, Ambroise; Schlicht, Marty; Berguer, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    Tensile tests on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were conducted to illustrate the effects of mixing ratio, definition of the stress-strain curve, and the strain rate on the elastic modulus and stress-strain curve. PDMS specimens were prepared according to the ASTM standards for elastic materials. Our results indicate that the physiological elastic modulus depends strongly on the definition of the stress-strain curve, mixing ratio, and the strain rate. For various mixing ratios and strain rates, true stress-strain definition results in higher stress and elastic modulus compared with engineering stress-strain and true stress-engineering strain definitions. The elastic modulus increases as the mixing ratio increases up-to 9:1 ratio after which the elastic modulus begins to decrease even as the mixing ratio continues to increase. The results presented in this study will be helpful to assist the design of in vitro experiments to mimic blood flow in arteries and to understand the complex interaction between blood flow and the walls of arteries using PDMS elastomer.

  20. Ratio of thyroid radioiodine uptake calculated via the physic decay rate of the standard radioactive source: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yu; Zhou Luyi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the difference of the ratio of thyroid radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake calculated by actually measuring counts of the standard radioactive source(method 1) and by computing counts of the standard radioactive source via physic half life of 131 I (method 2). Methods: Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with Graves' Disease were prospectively recruited. The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake was calculated by two methods at 4 h and 24 h after administration of 1.48 MBq 131 I, respectively. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference between the two methods. Results: The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake at 4h was (32±16)% and ( 35±10)% (t=1.98, P=0.20), at 24h (72±19)% and (69±24)% ( t=1.49, P=0.23), respectively, by the two methods. Conclusion: To calculate the ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake via the physic half life of the standard radioactive resource is feasible, and can both reduce the risk of ionizing radiation to technical staff and act as verifying method for quality control of thyroid function equipment. (authors)

  1. The Effect of Growth Temperature and V/III Flux Ratio of MOCVD Antimony Based Semiconductors on Growth Rate and Surface Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramelan Ari Handono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial Alx Ga1-x Sb layers on GaSb and GaAs substrates have been grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using TMAl, TMGa and TMSb. Nomarski microscope and a profiler were employed to examine the surface morphology and growth rate of the samples. We report the effect of growth temperature and V/III flux ratio on growth rate and surface morphology. Growth temperatures in the range of 520°C and 680°C and V/III ratios from 1 to 5 have been investigated. A growth rate activation energy of 0.73 eV was found. At low growth temperatures between 520 and 540°C, the surface morphology is poor due to antimonide precipitates associated with incomplete decomposition of the TMSb. For layers grown on GaAs at 580°C and 600°C with a V/III ratio of 3 a high quality surface morphology is typical, with a mirror-like surface and good composition control. It was found that a suitable growth temperature and V/III flux ratio was beneficial for producing good AlGaSb layers. Undoped AlGaSb grown at 580°C with a V/III flux ratio of 3 at the rate of 3.5 μm/hour shows p-type conductivity with smooth surface morphology

  2. Evaluation of the Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay in a low-prevalence setting: The role of samples with a low S/CO ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Pérez-García, Felipe; Gijón, Paloma; Collazos, Ana; Bouza, Emilio

    2018-06-01

    The Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay, a fourth-generation ELISA, has proven to be highly reliable for the diagnosis of HIV infection. However, its high sensitivity may lead to false-positive results. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of Architect in a low-prevalence population and to assess the role of the sample-to-cutoff ratio (S/CO) in reducing the frequency of false-positive results. We conducted a retrospective study of samples analyzed by Architect between January 2015 and June 2017. Positive samples were confirmed by immunoblot (RIBA) or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). Different S/CO thresholds (1, 2.5, 10, 25, and 100) were analyzed to determine sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (NPV, PPV). ROC analysis was used to determine the optimal S/CO. A total of 69,471 samples were analyzed. 709 (1.02%) were positive by Architect. Of these, 63 (8.89%) were false-positive results. Most of them (93.65%) were in samples with S/CO < 100. However, most confirmations by NAATs (12 out of 19 cases) were also recorded for these samples. The optimal S/CO was 2.5, which provided the highest area under the ROC curve (0.9998) and no false-negative results. With this S/CO, sensitivity and specificity were 100.0%, and PPV and NPV were 95.8% and 100.0%, respectively. In addition, the frequency of false-positive results decreased significantly to 4.15%. Although Architect generates a relatively high number of false-positive results, raising the S/CO limit too much to increase specificity can lead to false-negative results, especially in newly infected individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  4. Has prenatal screening influenced the prevalence of comorbidities associated with Down syndrome and subsequent survival rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jane; Collins, Veronica; Riley, Merilyn; Youssef, Danielle; Muggli, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    With this study we aimed to compare survival rates for children with Down syndrome in 2 time periods, 1 before prenatal screening (1988-1990) and 1 contemporaneous with screening (1998-2000), and to examine the frequency of comorbidities and their influence on survival rates. Record-linkage was performed between the population-based Victorian Birth Defects Register and records of deaths in children up to 15 years of age collected under the auspice of the Consultative Council on Obstetric and Pediatric Mortality and Morbidity. Cases of Down syndrome were coded according to the presence or absence of comorbidities by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision classification of birth defects. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and log rank tests for equality of survival distributions were performed. Of infants liveborn with Down syndrome in 1998-2000, 90% survived to 5 years of age, compared with 86% in the earlier cohort. With fetal deaths excluded, the proportion of isolated Down syndrome cases in the earlier cohort was 48.7% compared with 46.1% in the most recent cohort. In 1988-1990 there was at least 1 cardiac defect in 41.1% of cases and in 45.4% in 1998-2000. There was significant variation in survival rates for the different comorbidity groupings in the 1988-1990 cohort, but this was not so evident in the 1998-2000 cohort. Survival of children with Down syndrome continues to improve, and there is an overall survival figure of 90% to at least 5 years of age. It is clear from this study that prenatal screening technologies are not differentially ascertaining fetuses with Down syndrome and additional defects, because there has been no proportional increase in births of isolated cases with Down syndrome.

  5. Examination of anonymous canine faecal samples provides data on endoparasite prevalence rates in dogs for comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Gottwald, Michaela; Moser, Jasmine; Reicher, Bianca; Schäfer, Bhavapriya Jasmin; Schaper, Roland; Joachim, Anja; Künzel, Frank

    2017-10-15

    Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence. We collected 1001 anonymous faecal samples from 55 dog zones from all 23 districts of the federal state of Vienna, as well as 480 faecal samples from the Mödling district and Wolkersdorf with a peri-urban and rural character, respectively. Faeces were examined by flotation and by Baermann technique. Additionally we evaluated 292 Viennese, 102 peri-urban and 50 rural samples for Giardia and Cryptosporidium by GiardiaFASTest ® and CryptoFASTest ® . Samples from "clean" dog zones were compared to samples from "dirty" zones. The infection rate of Toxocara was surprisingly low, ranging from 0.6% to 1.9%. Trichuris was the most frequent helminth (1.8-7.5%) and Giardia the most frequent protozoan (4.0-10.8%). Ancylostomatidae, Crenosoma, Capillaria, Taeniidae, Cystoisospora and Sarcocystis were found in 1.8-2.2%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.6%, 0.3-3.1% and 0-0.6% of the samples, respectively. Samples from "dirty" dog zones in Vienna showed a significantly higher rate of parasites overall (p=0.003) and of Trichuris (p=0.048) compared to samples from "clean" dog zones. There were no statistically significant differences in densely vs. less densely populated areas of Vienna. Samples from the rural region of Wolkersdorf had significantly higher overall parasite, Trichuris and Cystoisospora prevalences than the peri-urban Mödling district and Vienna (p

  6. Effects of aspect ratio and specimen size on uniaxial failure stress of iron green bodies at high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroyanagi Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy is used for the production of a number of mechanical parts and is an essential production method. These are great advantages such as product cost effectiveness and product uniqueness. In general, however parts created by powder metallurgy have low strength because of low density. In order to increase strength as well as density, new techniques such as high-velocity-compaction (HVC was developed and further investigation has been conducted on improvement of techniques and optimum condition using computer simulation. In this study, the effects of aspect ratio and specimen size of iron green bodies on failure strength of uniaxial compression and failure behavior were examined using a split Hopkinson pressure Bar. The diameters of specimens were 12.5 mm and 25 mm the aspect ratios (thickness/diameter were 0.8 and 1.2.

  7. Sex-specific differences in hemodialysis prevalence and practices and the male-to-female mortality rate: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hecking

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively and mortality (via Cox regression by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall, with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y, were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11 than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001. This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex

  8. Impact of the New Jersey all-payer rate-setting system: an analysis of financial ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, M D

    1989-01-01

    Although prospective payment may contain costs, many analysts are concerned about the unintended consequences of rate regulation. This article presents the results of a case-study analysis of the New Jersey rate-setting programs during the period 1977-1985. Using measures of profitability, liquidity, and leverage, data for New Jersey, the Northeast, and the United States as a whole are used to contrast the impact of two forms of prospective payment. After attempting alternative cost-containment methods, the New Jersey Department of Health implemented an all-payer system in which prospective rates of compensation were established for DRGs. The new rate-setting system was designed to control costs, improve access to care, maintain quality of services, ensure financial viability of efficient providers, and limit the payment differentials associated with cost shifting. The results of this study have a number of implications for the evaluation of all-payer rate regulation. First, although the New Jersey all-payer system was more successful than the partial-payer program in restraining the rate of increase in cost per case, savings were achieved without adversely affecting the viability of regulated hospitals. Second, the large differentials among payers that were associated with the partial-payer program were reduced dramatically by the all-payer program. Third, using the financial position of inner-city hospitals relative to suburban hospitals as a measure of equity, the all-payer system appeared to be a fairer method of regulating rates.

  9. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-11-18

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.197, p BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265-0.972) and 0.389 (0.193-0.783), respectively (all p BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145-0.845) and 0.376 (0.161-0.876), respectively (all p BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults.

  10. Parameter effect of a phase change thermal energy storage unit with one shell and one finned tube on its energy efficiency ratio and heat storage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Liang-Bi; He, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using fins is reported. • The configurations of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are suggested. • Two parameters to indicate the effects of PCM and tube material properties are found. • The working conditions of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are analyzed. - Abstract: The performance of a phase change thermal energy storage (PCTES) unit using circular finned tube is affected by many parameters. Thorough studies of the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit are strongly required in its optimum design process. Based on a reported energy efficiency ratio and a newly defined parameter named the heat storage rate, the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is numerically investigated. When the fin pitch is greater than 4 times of the inner radius of the tube, the fin height and the fin thickness have little effect on the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate. When the fin pitch is small, the performance of PCTES unit becomes better using large fin height and width. The energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are more sensitive to the outer tube diameter. The performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is best when water is used as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). When the fluid flow of HTF is in a laminar state, the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are larger than that in a turbulent state.

  11. Environmental impacts of genetic improvement of growth rate and feed conversion ratio in fish farming under rearing density and nitrogen output limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Aubin, J.; Komen, H.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, Van J.A.M.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, fish farming faces an increasing demand in fish products, but also various environmental challenges. Genetic improvement in growth rate and feed conversion ratio is known to be an efficient way to increase production and increase efficiency in fish farming. The environmental consequences

  12. Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of fission rate ratios between fresh and burnt fuel following irradiation in a zero-power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kröhnert, H., E-mail: hanna.kroehnert@ensi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Perret, G.; Murphy, M.F. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-01-11

    The gamma-ray activity from short-lived fission products has been measured in fresh and burnt UO{sub 2} fuel samples after irradiation in a zero-power reactor. For the first time, short-lived gamma-ray activity from fresh and burnt fuel has been compared and fresh-to-burnt fuel fission rate ratios have been derived. For the measurements, well characterized fresh and burnt fuel samples, with burn-ups up to 46 GWd/t, were irradiated in the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. Fission rate ratios were derived based on the counting of high-energy gamma-rays above 2200 keV, in order to discriminate against the high intrinsic activity of the burnt fuel. This paper presents the measured fresh-to-burnt fuel fission rate ratios based on the {sup 142}La (2542 keV), {sup 89}Rb (2570 keV), {sup 138}Cs (2640 keV) and {sup 95}Y (3576 keV) high-energy gamma-ray lines. Comparisons are made with the results of Monte Carlo modeling of the experimental configuration, carried out using the MCNPX code. The measured fission rate ratios have 1σ uncertainties of 1.7–3.4%. The comparisons with calculated predictions show an agreement within 1–3σ, although there appears to be a slight bias (∼3%).

  13. Métodos para estimar razão de prevalência em estudos de corte transversal Métodos para estimar razón de prevalencia en estudios de cohorte transversal Methods for estimating prevalence ratios in cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia M S Coutinho

    2008-12-01

    y alta en 13%, casi 100% y cuatro veces mas, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: En análisis de datos de estudios de cohorte transversal, los modelos Cox y Poisson con varianza robusta son mejores alternativas que la regresión logística. El modelo de regresión log-binomial produjo estimaciones sin sesgo de la RP, pero puede presentar dificultad de convergencia cuando el resultado es muy frecuente y la variable de confusión es continua.OBJECTIVE: To empirically compare the Cox, log-binomial, Poisson and logistic regressions to obtain estimates of prevalence ratios (PR in cross-sectional studies. METHODS: Data from a population-based cross-sectional epidemiological study (n = 2072 on elderly people in Sao Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, conducted between May 2003 and April 2005, were used. Diagnoses of dementia, possible cases of common mental disorders and self-rated poor health were chosen as outcomes with low, intermediate and high prevalence, respectively. Confounding variables with two or more categories or continuous values were used. Reference values for point and interval estimates of prevalence ratio (PR were obtained by means of the Mantel-Haenszel stratification method. Adjusted PR estimates were calculated using Cox and Poisson regressions with robust variance, and using log-binomial regression. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs were obtained using logistic regression. RESULTS: The point and interval estimates obtained using Cox and Poisson regressions were very similar to those obtained using Mantel-Haenszel stratification, independent of the outcome prevalence and the covariates in the model. The log-binomial model presented convergence difficulties when the outcome had high prevalence and there was a continuous covariate in the model. Logistic regression produced point and interval estimates that were higher than those obtained using the other methods, particularly when for outcomes with high initial prevalence. If interpreted as PR estimates, the ORs

  14. The National and Regional Prevalence Rates of Disability, Type, of Disability and Severity in Saudi Arabia-Analysis of 2016 Demographic Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Vennu, Vishal

    2018-02-28

    The prevalence of disability varies between countries ranging from less than 1% to up to 30% in some countries, thus, the estimated global disability prevalence is about 15%. However, it is unknown what the current estimate of disability and its types and severity are in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the objective of this study is to estimate national and regional prevalence rates of any disability, types of disability, and their severity among Saudi populations. Data on disability status were extracted from the national demographic survey conducted in 2016 as reported by the General Authority for Statistics, Saudi Arabia (N = 20,064,970). Prevalence rates per a population of 100,000 of any disability, type of disability, and its severity were calculated at the national level and in all 13 regions. Out of 20,064,970 Saudi citizens surveyed, 667,280 citizens reported disabilities, accounting for a prevalence rate of 3326 per a population of 100,000 (3.3%). Individuals aged 60 years and above (11,014) and males (3818) had a higher prevalence rate of disability compared with females (2813). The Tabuk region has the highest rate of reported disability, at 4.3%. The prevalence rates of extreme disabilities in mobility and sight were higher in Madinah (57,343) and Northern border (41,236) regions, respectively. In Saudi Arabia, more than half a million Saudi citizens (1 out of every 30 individuals) reported the presence of disability during the year 2016. A higher prevalence rate of disability was seen among those aged 60 years and above, and males. Targeted efforts are required at the national and regional levels to expand and improve rehabilitation and social services for all people with disabilities.

  15. An investigation of the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease among people undergoing physical examination in Tangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Yulin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease among people undergoing physical examination in Tangshan, China, and to provide a reasonable basis for the prevention and treatment of fatty liver disease. MethodsThe clinical data of 12 808 individuals who underwent physical examination in Tangshan from March 2014 to February 2016 were collected, and among these individuals, 3540 had fatty liver disease. The data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and liver ultrasound findings were analyzed. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Of all 7151 male individuals who underwent physical examination, 2750 (38.46% had fatty liver disease, and of all 5657 female individuals, 790 (13.96% had fatty liver disease; there was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals (χ2=947.25, P<0.01. There was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals in each age group of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥50 years (χ2=337.58, 474.06, 449.38, and 12.86, all P<0.01. There was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male or female individuals with different BMIs [obese (BMI ≥28, overweight (24≤BMI<28, and normal (BMI<24] (χ2=1104.01 and 500.23, both P<0.01. In the three groups of obese (BMI ≥28, overweight (24≤BMI<28, and normal (BMI<24 individuals who underwent physical examination, there was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals in each group (χ2=71.24, 87.97, and 323.84, all P<0.01. Male and female individuals with obesity (BMI ≥28 and overweight (24

  16. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  17. GAMMA-RAY BURST AND STAR FORMATION RATES: THE PHYSICAL ORIGIN FOR THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THEIR RATIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenti, Michele; Perna, Rosalba; Tacchella, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and galaxies at high redshift represent complementary probes of the star formation history of the universe. In fact, both the GRB rate and the galaxy luminosity density are connected to the underlying star formation. Here, we combine a star formation model for the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function from z = 0 to z = 10 with a metallicity-dependent efficiency for GRB formation to simultaneously predict the comoving GRB rate. Our model sheds light on the physical origin of the empirical relation often assumed between GRB rate and luminosity density-derived star formation rate: n-dot GRB (z)=ε(z)× ρ-dot * obs (z), with ε(z)∝(1 + z) 1.2 . At z ∼ ☉ ) ☉ ) > 0. Models with total suppression of GRB formation at log (Z/Z ☉ ) ∼> 0 are disfavored. At z ∼> 4, most of the star formation happens in low-metallicity hosts with nearly saturated efficiency of GRB production per unit stellar mass. However, at the same epoch, galaxy surveys miss an increasing fraction of the predicted luminosity density because of flux limits, driving an accelerated evolution of ε(z) compared to the empirical power-law fit from lower z. Our findings are consistent with the non-detections of GRB hosts in ultradeep imaging at z > 5, and point toward current galaxy surveys at z > 8 only observing the top 15%-20% of the total luminosity density

  18. High rate of pneumococcal bacteremia in a prospective cohort of older children and adults in an area of high HIV prevalence in rural western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oundo Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although causing substantial morbidity, the burden of pneumococcal disease among older children and adults in Africa, particularly in rural settings, is not well-characterized. We evaluated pneumococcal bacteremia among 21,000 persons ≥5 years old in a prospective cohort as part of population-based infectious disease surveillance in rural western Kenya from October 2006-September 2008. Methods Blood cultures were done on patients meeting pre-defined criteria - severe acute respiratory illness (SARI, fever, and admission for any reason at a referral health facility within 5 kilometers of all 33 villages where surveillance took place. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done by latex agglutination and quellung reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using broth microdilution. We extrapolated incidence rates based on persons with compatible illnesses in the surveillance population who were not cultured. We estimated rates among HIV-infected persons based on community HIV prevalence. We projected the national burden of pneumococcal bacteremia cases based on these rates. Results Among 1,301 blood cultures among persons ≥5 years, 52 (4% yielded pneumococcus, which was the most common bacteria isolated. The yield was higher among those ≥18 years than 5-17 years (6.9% versus 1.6%, p 95%. The crude rate of pneumococcal bacteremia was 129/100,000 person-years, and the adjusted rate was 419/100,000 person-years. Nineteen (61% of 31 patients with HIV results were HIV-positive. The adjusted rate among HIV-infected persons was 2,399/100,000 person-years (Rate ratio versus HIV-negative adults, 19.7, 95% CI 12.4-31.1. We project 58,483 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia will occur in Kenyan adults in 2010. Conclusions Pneumococcal bacteremia rates were high among persons ≥5 years old, particularly among HIV-infected persons. Ongoing surveillance will document if expanded use of highly-active antiretroviral

  19. Effect of pH and Fe/U ratio on the U(VI) removal rate by the synergistic effect of Fe(II) and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yukui; Luo, Yingfeng; Fang, Qi; Xie, Yanpei; Wang, Zhihong; Zhu, Xiangyu

    2018-02-01

    As for the decommissioned uranium deposits of acid in-situ leaching, both of the concentrations of U(VI) and Fe(II) are relatively high in groundwater. In the presence of O2, the oxidation of Fe(II) into Fe(III) that forms Fe-hydroxides could effectively remove U(VI) in the forms of sorption or co-precipitation. In this process, pH condition and Fe content will have a significant effect on the U(VI) removal rate by the synergistic effect of Fe(II) and O2. In the present work, a series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of pH values and Fe/U mass ratio on the U(VI) removal rate by the synergistic effect of Fe(II) and O2. Experiment results show that the removal rate of U(VI) is mainly controlled by pH and secondly by Fe/U mass ratio. In the neutral conditions with pH at 7 and 8, the removal rate of U(VI) reaches up to 90% for all solutions with different initial Fe(II) concentrations. The optimal pH for the removal rate of U(VI) is above 7. In the acidic conditions with pH below 6, the effect of Fe/U mass ratio on the removal rate of U(VI) becomes more obvious and the optimal Fe/U mass ratio for U(VI) removal is 1:2.

  20. Optimal Chest Compression Rate and Compression to Ventilation Ratio in Delivery Room Resuscitation: Evidence from Newborn Piglets and Neonatal Manikins

    OpenAIRE

    Solev?g, Anne Lee; Schm?lzer, Georg M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) influences survival and neurologic outcomes after delivery room (DR) CPR. High quality chest compressions (CC) improve cerebral and myocardial perfusion. Improved myocardial perfusion increases the likelihood of a faster ROSC. Thus, optimizing CC quality may improve outcomes both by preserving cerebral blood flow during CPR and by reducing the recovery time. CC quality is determined by rate, CC to vent...

  1. Measuring the prevalence of regional mutation rates: an analysis of silent substitutions in mammals, fungi, and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuch Brian B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of mutation vary both within and across genomes. It has been shown for a few mammals that mutation rates vary within the genome, while for unknown reasons, the sensu stricto yeasts have uniform rates instead. The generality of these observations has been unknown. Here we examine silent site substitutions in a more expansive set (20 mammals, 27 fungi, 4 insects to determine why some genomes demonstrate this mosaic distribution and why others are uniform. Results We applied several intragene and intergene correlation tests to measure regional substitution patterns. Assuming that silent sites are a reasonable approximation to neutrally mutating sequence, our results show that all multicellular eukaryotes exhibit mutational heterogeneity. In striking contrast, all fungi are mutationally uniform – with the exception of three Candida species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis. We speculate that aspects of replication timing may be responsible for distinguishing these species. Our analysis also reveals classes of genes whose silent sites behave anomalously with respect to the mutational background in many species, indicating prevalent selective pressures. Genes associated with nucleotide binding or gene regulation have consistently low silent substitution rates in every mammalian species, as well as multiple fungi. On the other hand, receptor genes repeatedly exhibit high silent substitution rates, suggesting they have been influenced by diversifying selection. Conclusion Our findings provide a framework for understanding the regional mutational properties of eukaryotes, revealing a sharp difference between fungi and multicellular species. They also elucidate common selective pressures acting on eukaryotic silent sites, with frequent evidence for both purifying and diversifying selection.

  2. Prevalence and incidence rates of autism in the UK: time trend from 2004–2010 in children aged 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brent; Jick, Hershel; MacLaughlin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To update UK studies begun in the early 1990s on the annual prevalence and incidence rates of autism in children; undertaken in response to a March 2012 press release, widely covered by the media, from the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) reporting that the autism prevalence rate in 2008 in 8-year-old US children was 1 in 88, a 78% increase from a CDC estimate in 2004. This finding suggested a continuation of the dramatic increase in children diagnosed as autistic, which occurred in the 1990s. Design Population study using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods Annual autism prevalence rates were estimated for children aged 8 years in 2004–2010 by dividing the number diagnosed as autistic in each or any previous year by the number of children active in the study population that year. We also calculated annual incidence rates for children aged 2–8 years, by dividing the number newly diagnosed in 2004–2010 by the same denominators. Results Annual prevalence rates for each year were steady at approximately 3.8/1000 boys and 0.8/1000 girls. Annual incidence rates each year were also steady at about 1.2/1000 boys and 0.2/1000 girls. Conclusions Following a fivefold increase in the annual incidence rates of autism during the 1990s in the UK, the incidence and prevalence rates in 8-year-old children reached a plateau in the early 2000s and remained steady through 2010. Whether prevalence rates have increased from the early 2000s in the USA remains uncertain. PMID:24131525

  3. ON THE INFERENCE OF THE COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE ζ FROM THE HCO{sup +}-to-DCO{sup +} ABUNDANCE RATIO: THE EFFECT OF NUCLEAR SPIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Le Gal, Romane; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bergner, Jennifer B. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Öberg, Karin I., E-mail: shingledecker@virginia.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The chemistry of dense interstellar regions was analyzed using a time-dependent gas–grain astrochemical simulation and a new chemical network that incorporates deuterated chemistry, taking into account nuclear spin states for the hydrogen chemistry and its deuterated isotopologues. With this new network, the utility of the [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] abundance ratio as a probe of the cosmic-ray ionization rate has been re-examined, with special attention paid to the effect of the initial value of the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of molecular hydrogen. After discussing the use of the probe for cold cores, we compare our results with previous theoretical and observational results for a molecular cloud close to the supernova remnant W51C, which is thought to have an enhanced cosmic-ray ionization rate ζ caused by the nearby γ -ray source. In addition, we attempt to use our approach to estimate the cosmic-ray ionization rate for L1174, a dense core with an embedded star. Beyond the previously known sensitivity of [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] to ζ , we demonstrate its additional dependence on the initial OPR and, secondarily, on the age of the source, its temperature, and its density. We conclude that the usefulness of the [HCO{sup +}]/[DCO{sup +}] abundance ratio in constraining the cosmic-ray ionization rate in dense regions increases with the age of the source and the ionization rate as the ratio becomes far less sensitive to the initial value of the OPR.

  4. Investigation on the effect of blending ratio and airflow rate on syngas profile produced from co-gasification of blended feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayat Muddasser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortages of feedstock supply due to seasonal availability, high transportation costs, and lack of biomass market are creating serious problems in continues operation of bioenergy industry. Aiming at this problem, utilization of blended feedstock is proposed. In this work blends of two different biomasses (wood and coconut shells were co-gasified using externally heated downdraft gasifier. The effects of varying biomass blending ratio and airflow rate on gaseous components of syngas and its heating value were investigated. The results obtained from the experiments revealed that W20:CS80 blend yielded higher values for H2 (20 Vol.% and HHV (18 MJ/Nm3 as compared to the other blends. The higher airflow rate has a negative effect on syngas profile and heating value. The CO and CH4 were observed higher at the start of the process, however, CO was observed decreasing afterward, and the CH4 dropped to 5.0 Vol.%. The maximum H2 and CH4 were obtained at 2.5 LPM airflow rate. The process was noticed more stable at low air flow rates. The HHV was observed higher at the start of process at low airflow rate. It is concluded that low airflow rate and a higher ratio of coconut shells can improve the syngas quality during co-gasification.

  5. A Servey on the prevalence rate of Linguatula serrata in stary dogs of the city of Urmia

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    S Rasoli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguatla serrata is a zoonotic parasite which causes different forms of liguatulosis in humans, carnivores and ruminants. The most important way of human infection is injection of vegetables, fruits and water contaminated by parasite eggs and through nasal and oral secretions and feces of carnivorous especially stray dogs. Also, consumption of raw and under cook meat of sheep, goats, cattle and other herbivores is another risk factor in human infection by Linguatla serrata.  This study was conducted in order to determine the infection rate of dogs by Linguatla serrata in the city of Urmia. In the present study, 37 dogs including 22 male and 15 female animals from different parts of the city were studied. The frontal sinuses, nasal turbinates, brain cavity, nasopharynx and eustachian tubes were examined for adult Linguatla serrata. The recovered parasites were fixed in 10% formalin solution, cleared by lactophenol and stained with azocarmin. Thirty of the studied dogs (81.01% were infected by Linguatla serrata. The results indicated that body weight, age, sex and geographical locations had no significant effect in the prevalence rate of the parasite. The number of parasites recovered from each dog ranged from 1 to 7 with an average of 2.93 in each dog. The length of the mature linguatula varied from 35-50 mm in females and 2-18 mm in males. The greatest number of parasites was found in the cranial part of the frontal sinus with 7 parasites.

  6. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Determination of the thermal rate coefficient, products, and branching ratios for the reaction of O/+/ /D-2/ with N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, D. G.; Torr, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Atmosphere Explorer-C satellite measurements are used to determine rate coefficients (RCs) for the following reactions: O(+)(D-2) + N2 yields N2(+) + O (reaction 1), O(+)(D-2) + N2 yields O(+)(S-4) + N2 (reaction 2), and O(+)(D-2) + N2 yields NO(+) + N (reaction 3). Results show the RC for reaction 1 to be 1 (plus 1 or minus 0.5) x 10 to the -10th cu cm per sec, for reaction 2 to be 3 (plus 1 or minus 2) x 10 to the -11th cu cm per sec, and 3 to be less than 5.5 x 10 to the -11th cu cm per sec. It is also found that the reaction of O(+)(D-2) with N2 does not constitute a detectable source of NO(+) ions in the thermosphere.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance status and prevalence rates of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL producers isolated from a mixed human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Afunwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the increasing epidemiological and therapeutic challenges associated with infections due to ESBL producers, ESBL prevalence rate among some bacteria isolates from healthy and non-healthy human population in a metropolitan Nigerian setting was evaluated.A total of one hundred and forty-five (145 bacteria strains were isolated from a total of four hundred and sixty (460 samples collected from urine, wound, throat and anal swabs of 220 healthy volunteers in the community and from 240 patients in 2 secondary and 2 tertiary hospitals (altogether, 4 in Enugu metropolis. The presumptive confirmatory test used for ESBL detection was the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST method. Conjugation and plasmid curing studies were also done for resistance factor determination.Of the 145 isolates, 20 were ESBL producers with 35% of these ESBL producers being of community origin and 65% from hospitals. This translates to 4.8% and 9% incidences (comparably higher than established prevalence of 4.4% and 7.5 respectively for community and hospital infections respectively. The ESBL isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Augmentin® (Amoxicilin and clavulanic acid combination. Conjugation studies for Resistance plasmid transfer showed non-transference of resistance determinants between the ESBL transconjugants and recipient strains. Correspondingly, the plasmid curing studies revealed that the acridine orange could not effect a cure on the isolates as they still retained high resistance to the antibiotics after the treatment.This study confirms the growing incidences/pool of ESBL strains in Nigeria and call for widespread and continuous monitoring towards an effective management of the potential therapeutic hurdle posed by this trend.

  9. Reconciling disparate prevalence rates of PTSD in large samples of US male Vietnam veterans and their controls

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    Gottesman Irving I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two large independent studies funded by the US government have assessed the impact of the Vietnam War on the prevalence of PTSD in US veterans. The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS estimated the current PTSD prevalence to be 15.2% while the Vietnam Experience Study (VES estimated the prevalence to be 2.2%. We compared alternative criteria for estimating the prevalence of PTSD using the NVVRS and VES public use data sets collected more than 10 years after the United States withdrew troops from Vietnam. Methods We applied uniform diagnostic procedures to the male veterans from the NVVRS and VES to estimate PTSD prevalences based on varying criteria including one-month and lifetime prevalence estimates, combat and non-combat prevalence estimates, and prevalence estimates using both single and multiple indicator models. Results Using a narrow and specific set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 2.5% and 2.9% for the VES and the NVVRS, respectively. Using a more broad and sensitive set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 12.2% and 15.8% for the VES and NVVRS, respectively. Conclusion When comparable methods were applied to available data we reconciled disparate results and estimated similar current prevalences for both narrow and broad definitions of combat-related diagnoses of PTSD.

  10. Prevalence Rate and Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse Among New Psychiatric Outpatients in a City in Northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Juhás, Michal; Ritchie, Amanda; Ogunsina, Olurotimi; Ambrosano, Lorella; Corbett, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence rate for child sexual abuse among new psychiatric outpatients in Fort McMurray was 20.7%. With an odds ratio for sex of 3.30, female patients are about 3 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared with male patients when controlling for other factors. Similarly, patients with at most high school education and those with previous contact with psychiatric services were about 2 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared to the patients with college or university education or no previous contact with psychiatric services, respectively. Similarly, patients with histories of substance abuse and patients with family histories of mental illness had higher likelihoods of reporting histories of child sexual abuse compared to patients without histories of substance abuse or family histories of mental illness, respectively. Our findings suggest that victims of child sexual abuse are an at-risk population in need of ongoing mental health and educational support.

  11. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  12. Feeding and eating disorders in the DSM-5 era: a systematic review of prevalence rates in non-clinical male and female samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall Dahlgren, Camilla; Wisting, Line; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) during the DSM-5 era, and to report rates of point- and lifetime prevalence. A PubMed search was conducted targeting articles on the epidemiology of EDs, in particular, reported rates of prevalence. The review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and was limited to DSM-5 based eating disorder diagnoses published between 2012 and 2017. A total of 19 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Following the transition to DSM-5, it is evident that the prevalence of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS)/other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED) has decreased as intended, and there is preliminary evidence suggesting that rates of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have increased. Further, we observed higher rates of BED prevalence among females compared to males, with rates increasing with age. A limitation to the study was the search date, and that none of the included studies investigated the "new" DSM-5 feeding disorders avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), pica or rumination disorder warranting attention in future studies investigating the epidemiology of feeding and eating disorders.

  13. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (qCEST) MRI--RF spillover effect-corrected omega plot for simultaneous determination of labile proton fraction ratio and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Yu; Dai, ZhuoZhi; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is sensitive to dilute proteins and peptides as well as microenvironmental properties. However, the complexity of the CEST MRI effect, which varies with the labile proton content, exchange rate and experimental conditions, underscores the need for developing quantitative CEST (qCEST) analysis. Towards this goal, it has been shown that omega plot is capable of quantifying paramagnetic CEST MRI. However, the use of the omega plot is somewhat limited for diamagnetic CEST (DIACEST) MRI because it is more susceptible to direct radio frequency (RF) saturation (spillover) owing to the relatively small chemical shift. Recently, it has been found that, for dilute DIACEST agents that undergo slow to intermediate chemical exchange, the spillover effect varies little with the labile proton ratio and exchange rate. Therefore, we postulated that the omega plot analysis can be improved if RF spillover effect could be estimated and taken into account. Specifically, simulation showed that both labile proton ratio and exchange rate derived using the spillover effect-corrected omega plot were in good agreement with simulated values. In addition, the modified omega plot was confirmed experimentally, and we showed that the derived labile proton ratio increased linearly with creatine concentration (p plot for quantitative analysis of DIACEST MRI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Summit CO2 emission rates by the CO2/SO2 ratio method at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during a period of sustained inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, S.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; Wallace, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    The emission rate of carbon dioxide escaping from the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, proved highly variable, averaging 4900 ± 2000 metric tons per day (t/d) in June–July 2003 during a period of summit inflation. These results were obtained by combining over 90 measurements of COSPEC-derived SO2emission rates with synchronous CO2/SO2 ratios of the volcanic gas plume along the summit COSPEC traverse. The results are lower than the CO2 emission rate of 8500 ± 300 t/d measured by the same method in 1995–1999 during a period of long-term summit deflation [Gerlach, T.M., McGee, K.A., Elias, T., Sutton, A.J. and Doukas, M.P., 2002. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 107(B9): art. no.-2189.]. Analysis of the data indicates that the emission rates of the present study likely reflect changes in the magma supply rate and residence time in the summit reservoir. It is also likely that emission rates during the inflation period were heavily influenced by SO2 pulses emitted adjacent to the COSPEC traverse, which biased CO2/SO2 ratios towards low values that may be unrepresentative of the global summit gas plume. We conclude that the SO2 pulses are consequences of summit re-inflation under way since 2003 and that CO2 emission rates remain comparable to, but more variable than, those measured prior to re-inflation.

  15. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chuan Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC. Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI (r = −0.197, p < 0.001 or waist circumference (r = −0.187, p < 0.001. Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265–0.972 and 0.389 (0.193–0.783, respectively (all p < 0.05. After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145–0.845 and 0.376 (0.161–0.876, respectively (all p < 0.05. This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults.

  16. Increased circulating endothelial apoptotic microparticle to endothelial progenitor cell ratio is associated with subsequent decline in glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yi Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates hypertensive patients with microalbuminuria have decreased endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and increased levels of endothelial apoptotic microparticles (EMP. However, whether these changes are related to a subsequent decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled totally 100 hypertensive out-patients with eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2. The mean annual rate of GFR decline (△GFR/y was -1.49 ± 3.26 mL/min/1.73 m(2 per year during the follow-up period (34 ± 6 months. Flow cytometry was used to assess circulating EPC (CD34(+/KDR(+ and EMP levels (CD31(+/annexin V(+ in peripheral blood. The △GFR/y was correlated with the EMP to EPC ratio (r= -0.465, p<0.001, microalbuminuria (r= -0.329, p=0.001, and the Framingham risk score (r= -0.245, p=0.013. When we divided the patients into 4 groups according to the EMP to EPC ratio, there was an association between the EMP to EPC ratio and the ΔGFR/y (mean ΔGFR/y: 0.08 ± 3.04 vs. -0.50 ± 2.84 vs. -1.25 ± 2.49 vs. -4.42 ± 2.82, p<0.001. Multivariate analysis indicated that increased EMP to EPC ratio is an independent predictor of ΔeGFR/y. CONCLUSIONS: An increased circulating EMP to EPC ratio is associated with subsequent decline in GFR in hypertensive patients, which suggests endothelial damage with reduced vascular repair capacity may contribute to further deterioration of renal function in patients with hypertension.

  17. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  18. Etiology and prevalence rate of bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment in children born in Kobe city over a 10 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Mieko; Naito, Yashushi

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out on children born over a 10 year period from 1997 to 2006 in Kobe city and referred to our center for specialist audiological assessment. A total of 107 cases had a bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment averaging 25 dB or over in the better hearing ear during the study period. To ascertain causes of sensorineural hearing impairment, full medical histories were obtained with detailed family history relevant to hearing impairment and perinatal course for adverse etiological factors. The children were investigated for possible congenital infection and chromosomal anomalies. Children with positive family history of deafness in parents or siblings constituted 11.2% of cases (genetic group). Other etiological groups showed the following distribution: syndromal group 5.6%; inner ear anomalies 5.6%; perinatal group 13.1%; congenital infection 11.2%; chromosomal anomalies 16.8%; multiple congenital anomalies 5.6%; causes unknown 30.9%. The high incidence of causes unknown indicates that steps should be taken to yield a diagnosis. The total number of children born in Kobe city was 117,896 during the period from 1997 to 2005, which gave a prevalence rate of hearing impairment of 0.87/1,000 births. Newborn hearing screening identified many children earlier and also provide the opportunity to finetune the evaluation. (author)

  19. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young's questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student's mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty' students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH.

  20. THE IMPACT OF MASS SEGREGATION AND STAR FORMATION ON THE RATES OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES FROM EXTREME MASS RATIO INSPIRALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharon, Danor; Perets, Hagai B. [Physics Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003 (Israel)

    2016-10-10

    Compact stellar objects inspiraling into massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei are some of the most promising gravitational-wave (GWs) sources for next-generation GW detectors. The rates of such extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) depend on the dynamics and distribution of compact objects (COs) around the MBH. Here, we study the impact of mass-segregation processes on EMRI rates. In particular, we provide the expected mass function (MF) of EMRIs, given an initial MF of stellar black holes (SBHs), and relate it to the mass-dependent detection rate of EMRIs. We then consider the role of star formation (SF) on the distribution of COs and its implication on EMRI rates. We find that the existence of a wide spectrum of SBH masses leads to the overall increase of EMRI rates and to high rates of the EMRIs from the most massive SBHs. However, it also leads to a relative quenching of EMRI rates from lower-mass SBHs, and together produces a steep dependence of the EMRI MF on the highest-mass SBHs. SF history plays a relatively small role in determining the EMRI rates of SBHs, since most of them migrate close to the MBH through mass segregation rather than forming in situ. However, the EMRI rate of neutron stars (NSs) can be significantly increased when they form in situ close to the MBH, as they can inspiral before relaxation processes significantly segregate them outward. A reverse but weaker effect of decreasing the EMRI rates from NSs and white dwarfs occurs when SF proceeds far from the MBH.

  1. Physiologically-based, predictive analytics using the heart-rate-to-Systolic-Ratio significantly improves the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction compared to SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Hendren, Sandra; Santiago, Ethel; Nye, Brittany; Abraham, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Enhancing the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of severe sepsis by using physiologically-based, predictive analytical strategies has not been fully explored. We hypothesize assessment of heart-rate-to-systolic-ratio significantly increases the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction after emergency department (ED) presentation. We evaluated the records of 53,313 ED patients from a large, urban teaching hospital between January and June 2015. The HR-to-systolic ratio was compared to SIRS criteria for sepsis prediction. There were 884 patients with discharge diagnoses of sepsis, severe sepsis, and/or septic shock. Variations in three presenting variables, heart rate, systolic BP and temperature were determined to be primary early predictors of sepsis with a 74% (654/884) accuracy compared to 34% (304/884) using SIRS criteria (p < 0.0001)in confirmed septic patients. Physiologically-based predictive analytics improved the accuracy and expediency of sepsis identification via detection of variations in HR-to-systolic ratio. This approach may lead to earlier sepsis workup and life-saving interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association Between Contrast Media Volume-Glomerular Filtration Rate Ratio and Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Akin, Fatih; Ayca, Burak; Yalcın, Ahmet Arif; Erturk, Mehmet; Bıyık, Ismail; Ayaz, Ahmet; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Enhos, Asım; Aslan, Serkan

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that contrast media volume-estimated glomerular filtration rate (CV-e-GFR) ratio may be a predictor of contrast media-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We investigated the associations between CV-e-GFR ratio and CI-AKI in 597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An absolute ≥0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine compared with baseline levels within 48 hours after the procedure was considered as CI-AKI; 78 (13.1%) of the 597 patients experienced CI-AKI. The amount of contrast during procedure was higher in the CI-AKI group than in those without CI-AKI (153 vs 135 mL, P = .003). The CV-e-GFR ratio was significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI than without (2.3 vs 1.5, P 2 (P < .001, OR = 5.917). In conclusion, CV-e-GFR ratio is significantly associated with CI-AKI after pPCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Youth with Disabilities in the Corrections System: Prevalence Rates and Identification Issues. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Cindy Wheeler; Griller-Clark, Heather M.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, reviews current data on disabilities requiring special education and related supports. Statistics on the prevalence of juvenile crime are followed by statistics on the prevalence of special education disabilities in the system, specifically specific…

  4. Prehospital shock index and pulse pressure/heart rate ratio to predict massive transfusion after severe trauma: Retrospective analysis of a large regional trauma database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottecher, Julien; Ageron, François-Xavier; Fauché, Clémence; Chemla, Denis; Noll, Eric; Duranteau, Jacques; Chapiteau, Laurent; Payen, Jean-François; Bouzat, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Early and accurate detection of severe hemorrhage is critical for a timely trigger of massive transfusion (MT). Hemodynamic indices combining heart rate (HR) and either systolic (shock index [SI]) or pulse pressure (PP) (PP/HR ratio) have been shown to track blood loss during hemorrhage. The present study assessed the accuracy of prehospital SI and PP/HR ratio to predict subsequent MT, using the gray-zone approach. This was a retrospective analysis (January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011) of a prospectively developed trauma registry (TRENAU), in which the triage scheme combines patient severity and hospital facilities. Thresholds for MT were defined as either classic (≥10 red blood cell units within the first 24 hours [MT1]) or critical (≥3 red blood cells within the first hour [MT2]). The receiver operating characteristic curves and gray zones were defined for SI and PP/HR ratio to predict MT1 and MT2 and faced with initial triage scheme. The TRENAU registry included 3,689 trauma patients, of which 2,557 had complete chart recovery and 176 (6.9%) required MT. In the whole population, PP/HR ratio and SI moderately and similarly predicted MT1 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.77 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.70-0.84] and 0.80 [95% CI, 0.74-0.87], respectively, p = 0.064) and MT2 (0.71 [95% CI, 0.67-0.76] and 0.72 [95% CI, 0.68-0.77], respectively, p = 0.48). The proportions of patients in the gray zone for PP/HR ratio and SI were 61% versus 40%, respectively, to predict MT1 (p ratio outperformed SI to predict MT2 (0.72 [95% CI, 0.59-0.84] vs. 0.54 [95% CI, 0.33-0.74]; p ratio were moderately accurate in predicting MT. In the seemingly least severe patients, an improvement of prehospital undertriage for MT may be gained by using the PP/HR ratio. Epidemiolgic study, level III.

  5. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Roshani, Daem; Shakib, Pegah; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR) in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012) that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10). Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20%) with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%), respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%).0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family. PMID:25767526

  6. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ramazanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012 that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10. Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20% with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%, respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%.0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family.

  7. Effects of understory vegetation and litter on plant nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, N:P ratio and their relationships with growth rate of indigenous seedlings in subtropical plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N], phosphorus ([P], and N:P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation. We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N:P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N:P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N:P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth.

  8. Testing for HPV as an objective measure for quality assurance in gynecologic cytology: positive rates in equivocal and abnormal specimens and comparison with the ASCUS to SIL ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Vincent; Nanji, Shabin; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Wilbur, David C

    2007-04-25

    Inappropriate use of the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) can result in overtreatment or undertreatment of patients, which may decrease the cost effectiveness of screening. Quality assurance tools, such as the ASCUS to squamous intraepithelial lesion ratio (ASCUS:SIL) and case review, are imperfect. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing is an objective test for a known viral carcinogen, and hrHPV may be more useful in monitoring the quality of ASCUS interpretations. hrHPV rates for cytologic diagnoses and patient age groups were calculated for a 2-year period. All hrHPV results for ASCUS and SIL over a 17-month period were analyzed by patient age group, over time, and by individual cytopathologist to compare hrHPV rates with the corresponding ASCUS:SIL. The hrHPV positive rate for SIL was >90%, and it was 32.6% for ASCUS. Stratification by patient age showed that approximately 50% of patients younger than 30 years and older than 70 years of age were hrHPV positive, whereas other patients had a lower rate ranging from 14% to 34%. The overall ASCUS:SIL was 1.42, and the overall hrHPV positive rate was 39.9%. Over time and by individual cytopathologist, the hrHPV rate performed similarly to the ASCUS:SIL. The analysis by patient age showed a high statistical correlation (R(2) = 0.9772) between the 2 methods. Despite differences between these techniques, the hrHPV rate closely recapitulates the ASCUS:SIL. When used together, the 2 methods can complement each other. The desirable hrHPV-positive range appears to be 40% to 50%; however, this may vary based on the patient population. The hrHPV rate is as quick and cost effective as determining the ASCUS:SIL. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  9. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  10. Do physicians attend to base rates? Prevalence data and statistical discrimination in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Lutfey, Karen E; McKinlay, John B

    2009-12-01

    To examine whether physicians attend to gender prevalence data in diagnostic decision making for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to test the hypothesis that previously reported gender differences in CHD diagnostic certainty are due to discrimination arising from reliance on prevalence data ("statistical discrimination"). A vignette-based experiment of 256 randomly sampled primary care physicians conducted from 2006 to 2007. Factorial experiment. Physicians observed patient presentations of cardinal CHD symptoms, standardized across design factors (gender, race, age, socioeconomic status). Structured interview. Most physicians perceived the U.S. population CHD prevalence as higher in men (48.4 percent) or similar by gender (44.9 percent). For the observed patient, 52 percent did not change their CHD diagnostic certainty based on patient gender. Forty-eight percent of physicians were inconsistent in their population-level and individual-level CHD assessments. Physicians' assessments of CHD prevalence did not attenuate the observed gender effect in diagnostic certainty for the individual patient. Given an adequate presentation of CHD symptoms, physicians may deviate from their prevalence data during diagnostic decision making. Physicians' priors on CHD prevalence did not explain the gender effect in CHD certainty. Future research should examine personal stereotypes as an explanation for gender differences.

  11. Thermophilic co-digestion feasibility of distillers grains and swine manure: effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate during high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensai, P; Thangamani, A; Visvanathan, C

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of high solids containing distillers grains and swine manure (total solids, 27 +/- 2% and 18 +/- 2%, respectively) was evaluated in this study to assess the effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate (OLR). Feed mixture was balanced to achieve a C/N ratio of 30/1 by mixing distillers grains and swine manure. Pilot-scale co-digestion of distillers grains and swine manure was carried out under thermophilic conditions in the continuous mode for seven different OLRs from R1 to R7 (3.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 kg VS/m3 day) under high solid anaerobic digestion. The methane yield and volatile solid (VS) removal were consistent; ranging from 0.33 to 0.34 m3CH4/kg VS day and 50-53%, respectively, until OLR 8 kg VS/m3 day. After which methane yield and VS removal significantly decreased to 0.26 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 42%, respectively, when OLR was increased to 14 kg VS/m3 day. However, during operation, at OLR of 10 kg VS/m3 day, the methane yield and VS removal increased after the 19th day to 0.33 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 46%, respectively, indicating that a longer acclimatization period is required by methanogens at a higher loading rate.

  12. An improved evaluation of the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio for the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust collisional belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, Mimmo; Imprescia, Paola; Agnon, Amotz; Gresta, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We present an improved picture of the ongoing crustal deformation field for the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt continental collision zone by using an extensive combination of both novel and published GPS observations. The main results define the significant amount of oblique Arabia-Eurasia convergence currently being absorbed within the Zagros: right-lateral shear along the NW trending Main Recent fault in NW Zagros and accommodated between fold-and-thrust structures and NS right-lateral strike-slip faults on Southern Zagros. In addition, taking into account the 1909-2016 instrumental seismic catalogue, we provide a statistical evaluation of the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio for the area. On Northern Zagros and on the Turkish-Iranian Plateau, a moderate to large fraction (˜49 and >60 per cent, respectively) of the crustal deformation occurs seismically. On the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, the seismic/geodetic deformation-rate ratio suggests that a small to moderate fraction (<40 per cent) of crustal deformation occurs seismically; locally, the occurrence of large historic earthquakes (M ≥ 6) coupled with the high geodetic deformation, could indicate overdue M ≥ 6 earthquakes. On Southern Zagros, aseismic strain dominates crustal deformation (the ratio ranges in the 15-33 per cent interval). Such aseismic deformation is probably related to the presence of the weak evaporitic Hormuz Formation which allows the occurrence of large aseismic motion on both subhorizontal faults and surfaces of décollement. These results, framed into the seismotectonic framework of the investigated region, confirm that the fold-and-thrust-dominated deformation is driven by buoyancy forces; by contrast, the shear-dominated deformation is primary driven by plate stresses.

  13. Oxygen consumption rates in hovering hummingbirds reflect substrate-dependent differences in P/O ratios: carbohydrate as a 'premium fuel'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kenneth C; Altshuler, Douglas L; Suarez, Raul K

    2007-06-01

    The stoichiometric relationship of ATP production to oxygen consumption, i.e. the P/O ratio, varies depending on the nature of the metabolic substrate used. The latest estimates reveal a P/O ratio approximately 15% higher when glucose is oxidized compared with fatty acid oxidation. Because the energy required to produce aerodynamic lift for hovering is independent of the metabolic fuel oxidized, we hypothesized that the rate of oxygen consumption, VO2, should decline as the respiratory quotient, RQ (VCO2/VO2), increases from 0.71 to 1.0 as hummingbirds transition from a fasted to a fed state. Here, we show that hovering VO2 values in rufous (Selasphorus rufus) and Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) are significantly greater when fats are metabolized (RQ=0.71) than when carbohydrates are used (RQ=1.0). Because hummingbirds gained mass during our experiments, making mass a confounding variable, we estimated VO2 per unit mechanical power output. Expressed in this way, the difference in VO2 when hummingbirds display an RQ=0.71 (fasted) and an RQ=1.0 (fed) is between 16 and 18%, depending on whether zero or perfect elastic energy storage is assumed. These values closely match theoretical expectations, indicating that a combination of mechanical power estimates and ;indirect calorimetry', i.e. the measurement of rates of gas exchange, enables precise estimates of ATP turnover and metabolic flux rates in vivo. The requirement for less oxygen when oxidizing carbohydrate suggests that carbohydrate oxidation may facilitate hovering flight in hummingbirds at high altitude.

  14. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  15. Catchment-wide weathering and erosion rates of mafic, ultramafic, and granitic rock from cosmogenic meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhaus, N.; Wittmann, H.; Krám, P.; Christl, M.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying rates of weathering and erosion of mafic rocks is essential for estimating changes to the oceans alkalinity budget that plays a significant role in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels. In this study, we present catchment-wide rates of weathering, erosion, and denudation measured with cosmogenic nuclides in mafic and ultramafic rock. We use the ratio of the meteoric cosmogenic nuclide 10Be, deposited from the atmosphere onto the weathering zone, to stable 9Be, a trace metal released by silicate weathering. We tested this approach in stream sediment and water from three upland forested catchments in the north-west Czech Republic. The catchments are underlain by felsic (granite), mafic (amphibolite) and ultramafic (serpentinite) lithologies. Due to acid rain deposition in the 20th century, the waters in the granite catchment exhibit acidic pH, whereas waters in the mafic catchments exhibit neutral to alkaline pH values due to their acid buffering capability. The atmospheric depositional 10Be flux is estimated to be balanced with the streams' dissolved and particulate meteoric 10Be export flux to within a factor of two. We suggest a correlation method to derive bedrock Be concentrations, required as an input parameter, which are highly heterogeneous in these small catchments. Derived Earth surface metrics comprise (1) Denudation rates calculated from the 10Be/9Be ratio of the "reactive" Be (meaning sorbed to mineral surfaces) range between 110 and 185 t km-2 y-1 (40 and 70 mm ky-1). These rates are similar to denudation rates we obtained from in situ-cosmogenic 10Be in quartz minerals present in the bedrock or in quartz veins in the felsic and the mafic catchment. (2) The degree of weathering, calculated from the fraction of 9Be released from primary minerals as a new proxy, is about 40-50% in the mafic catchments, and 10% in the granitic catchment. Lastly, (3) erosion rates were calculated from 10Be concentrations in river sediment and corrected for sorting

  16. Storm/Quiet Ratio Comparisons Between TIMED/SABER NO (sup +)(v) Volume Emission Rates and Incoherent Scatter Radar Electron Densities at E-Region Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. R.; Mertens, C. J.; Bilitza, D.; Xu, X.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband infrared limb emission at 4.3 microns is measured by the TIMED/SABER instrument. At night, these emission observations at E-region altitudes are used to derive the so called NO+(v) Volume Emission Rate (VER). NO+(v) VER can be derived by removing the background CO2(v3) 4.3 microns radiance contribution using SABER-based non-LTE radiation transfer models, and by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. SABER observations show that NO+(v) VER is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms in accordance with increased ionization of the neutral atmosphere by auroral electron precipitation, followed by vibrational excitation of NO+ (i.e., NO+(v)) from fast exothermic ion-neutral reactions, and prompt infrared emission at 4.3 m. Due to charge neutrality, the NO+(v) VER enhancements are highly correlated with electron density enhancements, as observed for example by Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). In order to characterize the response of the storm-time E-region from both SABER and ISR measurements, a Storm/Quiet ratio (SQR) quantity is defined as a function of altitude. For SABER, the SQR is the ratio of the storm-to-quiet NO+(v) VER. SQR is the storm-to-quiet ratio of electron densities for ISR. In this work, we compare SABER and ISR SQR values between 100 to 120 km. Results indicate good agreement between these measurements. SQR values are intended to be used as a correction factor to be included in an empirical storm-time correction to the International Reference Ionosphere model at E-region altitudes.

  17. Prevalence, Employment Rate, and Cost of Schizophrenia in a High-Income Welfare Society: A Population-Based Study Using Comprehensive Health and Welfare Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Ueland, Torill; Falkum, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with recurrent hospitalizations, need for long-term community support, poor social functioning, and low employment rates. Despite the wide- ranging financial and social burdens associated with the illness, there is great uncertainty regarding prevalence, employment rates, and the societal costs of schizophrenia. The current study investigates 12-month prevalence of patients treated for schizophrenia, employment rates, and cost of schizophrenia using a population-based top-down approach. Data were obtained from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers in Norway. We identified a 12-month prevalence of 0.17% for the entire population. The employment rate among working-age individuals was 10.24%. The societal costs for the 12-month period were USD 890 million. The average cost per individual with schizophrenia was USD 106 thousand. Inpatient care and lost productivity due to high unemployment represented 33% and 29%, respectively, of the total costs. The use of mandatory health and welfare registers enabled a unique and informative analysis on true population-based datasets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Branching ratio and direct CP-violating rate asymmetry of the rare decays B →K*γand B→ργ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greub, C.; Simma, H.; Wyler, D.

    1994-06-01

    We calculate CP-violating rate asymmetries in the rare radiative decays B ± →K* ± γ and B ± →ρ ± γ. They arise because of the interference between leading-order penguin amplitudes and one-gluon corrections with absorptive phases, and provide unambiguous evidence for direct CP violation. Complementing earlier studies, we also investigate gluon exchange with the 'spectator' quark. The bound state effects in the exclusive matrix elements are taken into account by a covariant model, which yields a branching ratio BR(B→K*γ)=(4-5)x10 -5 in good agreement with the observed value. The bound state effects increase the CP asymmetry, which is of order 1% in the channel B→K*γ and 15% for B→ργ. (orig.)

  19. Determination of the Production Rate of $D^{*0}$ Mesons and of the Ratio V/(V+P) in $Z^{0} \\to c\\overline{c}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; List, B; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rembser, C; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1998-01-01

    In e^+e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies around 91 GeV, D^*0 mesons have been reconstructed using data collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. The hadronisation fraction has been measured to be f(c -> D^*0) = 0.218 +/- 0.054 +/- 0.045 +/- 0.007, where the errors correspond to the statistical and systematic errors specific to this analysis, and to systematic uncertainties from externally measured branching fractions, respectively. Together with previous OPAL measurements of the hadron isation fractions of other charmed mesons, this value is used to investigate the relative production of observed vector and pseudoscalar charmed mesons in Z^0 -> cc(bar) decays. The production ratio production rate in hadronic Z^0 decays is presented.

  20. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  1. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  2. Relative Citation Ratio of Top Twenty Macedonian Biomedical Scientists in PubMed: A New Metric that Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze relative citation ratio (RCR) of top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists with a new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level. Top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists were identified by GoPubMed on the base of the number of deposited abstracts in PubMed, corrected with the data from previously published paper, and completed with the Macedonian biomedical scientists working in countries outside the Republic of Macedonia, but born or previously worked in the country. iCite was used as a tool to access a dashboard of bibliometrics for papers associated with a portfolio. The biggest number of top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists has RCR lower than one. Only four Macedonian biomedical scientists have bigger RCR in comparison with those in PubMed. The most prominent RCR of 2.29 has Rosoklija G. RCR of the most influenced individual papers deposited in PubMed has shown the biggest value for the paper of Efremov D (35.19). This paper has the biggest number of authors (860). It is necessary to accept top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists as an example of new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level, rather than qualification of the best Macedonian biomedical scientists.

  3. Effect of the boundary layer thickness on the hydrodynamic instabilities of coaxial atomization under harmonic flow rate and swirl ratio fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorajuria, Corentin; Machicoane, Nathanael; Osuna, Rodrigo; Aliseda, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    Break-up of a liquid jet by a high speed coaxial gas jet is a frequently-used configuration to generate a high quality spray. Despite its extended use in engineering and natural processes, the instabilities that control the liquid droplet size and their spatio-temporal distribution in the spray are not completely understood. We present an experimental measurements of the near field in a canonical coaxial gas-liquid atomizer. The liquid Reynolds number is constant at 103, while the gas jet Reynolds number is varied from 104-106. The liquid injection rate and the swirl ratio are harmonically modulated to understand the effect of unsteadiness on the interfacial instability that triggers primary break-up. The gas velocity is measured using a combination of hot-wire anemometry and 3D PIV, resolving the gas boundary layer and the three-dimensionality of the flow, particularly in the cases with swirl. The development of the hydrodynamic instabilities on the liquid-gas interface is quantified using high speed visualizations at the exit of the nozzle and related to the frequency and growth rates predicted by stability analysis of this boundary layer flow. The resulting droplet size distribution is measured at the end of the break-up process via Particle Phase Doppler Anemometry and compared to stability analysis predictions statistics.

  4. Prevalence rates of six selected infectious diseases among African migrants and refugees: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernet, A; Utzinger, J; Sydow, V; Probst-Hensch, N; Paris, D H; Labhardt, N D; Neumayr, A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among migrants/refugees of African origin and to provide policy makers and health care professionals with evidence-based information. We pursued a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of six selected infectious diseases (i.e., syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infections, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) among migrants/refugees of African origin. Three electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science) were searched without language restrictions. Relevant data were extracted and random-effects meta-analyses conducted. Only adjusted estimates were analyzed to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. The results were stratified by geographical region. Ninety-six studies were included. The evidence was of low quality due to the small numbers of countries, infectious diseases, and participants included. African migrants/refugees had median (with 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) prevalence for syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infection, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C of 6.0% [95% CI: 2.0-7.0%], 13.0% [95% CI: 9.5-14.5%], 14.0% [95% CI: 13.0-17.0%], 15.0% [95% CI: 10.5-21.0%], 10.0% [95% CI: 6.0-14.0%], and 3.0% [95% CI: 1.0-4.0%], respectively. We found high heterogeneity regardless of the disease (I 2 ; minimum 97.5%, maximum 99.7%). The relatively high prevalence of some infectious diseases among African migrants/refugees warrants for systematic screening. The large heterogeneity of the available published data does not allow for stratifying such screening programs according to the geographical origin of African migrants/refugees.

  5. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammel, Nadine; Abbing, Eva M; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample) compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample). Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety) compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data.

  6. The impact of realistic models of mass segregation on the event rate of extreme-mass ratio inspirals and cusp re-growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Preto, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    One of the most interesting sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for LISA is the inspiral of compact objects on to a massive black hole (MBH), commonly referred to as an 'extreme-mass ratio inspiral' (EMRI). The small object, typically a stellar black hole, emits significant amounts of GW along each orbit in the detector bandwidth. The slowly, adiabatic inspiral of these sources will allow us to map spacetime around MBHs in detail, as well as to test our current conception of gravitation in the strong regime. The event rate of this kind of source has been addressed many times in the literature and the numbers reported fluctuate by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, recent observations of the Galactic centre revealed a dearth of giant stars inside the inner parsec relative to the numbers theoretically expected for a fully relaxed stellar cusp. The possibility of unrelaxed nuclei (or, equivalently, with no or only a very shallow cusp, or core) adds substantial uncertainty to the estimates. Having this timely question in mind, we run a significant number of direct-summation N-body simulations with up to half a million particles to calibrate a much faster orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck code. We show that, under quite generic initial conditions, the time required for the growth of a relaxed, mass segregated stellar cusp is shorter than a Hubble time for MBHs with M• boosting the EMRI rates by a factor of ~10 in comparison to what would result from a 7/4-Bahcall and Wolf cusp resulting in ~250 events per Gyr per Milky Way type galaxy. Such an intrinsic rate should translate roughly into ~102-7 × 102 sbh's (EMRIs detected by LISA over a mission lifetime of 2 or 5 years, respectively), depending on the detailed assumptions regarding LISA detection capabilities.

  7. Prevalence of hypertension and hypertension control rates among elderly adults during the cold season in rural Northeast China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nobuo; Zhang, Xiumin; Chiang, Chifa; Liu, Hongjian; Li, Jinghua; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2018-05-01

    Objective: The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in China, together with economic development and social changes. The prevalence of risk factors for NCDs, such as overweight/obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, is reported to be high even among poor residents of rural areas. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among elderly adults in rural Northeast China and the proportion with controlled hypertension among those on antihypertensive medication (hypertension control rate). We also aimed to examine the association of hypertension control with health facilities that provide treatment. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in six rural villages of Northeast China from February to early March, 2012. We interviewed 1593 adults aged 50-69 years and measured their blood pressure. We examined the differences in mean blood pressure between participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics and those who obtained medication from other sources, using analysis of covariance adjusted for several covariates. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among participants was as high as 63.3%, but the hypertension control rate was only 8.4%. Most villagers (98.1%) were not registered in the chronic disease treatment scheme of the public rural health insurance. The mean systolic blood pressure, adjusted for the covariates, of participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics was significantly lower than that of participants who obtained medication from township hospitals (by 16.5 mmHg) or from private pharmacies (by 7.3 mmHg). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was high and the hypertension control rate low among elderly villagers during the cold season. As treatment at village clinics, which villagers can access during the cold season seems to be more effective than self-medication or treatment at distant hospitals, improving the quality of treatment

  8. Regional Inversion of the Maximum Carboxylation Rate (Vcmax) through the Sunlit Light Use Efficiency Estimated Using the Corrected Photochemical Reflectance Ratio Derived from MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T.; Chen, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax), despite its importance in terrestrial carbon cycle modelling, remains challenging to obtain for large scales. In this study, an attempt has been made to invert the Vcmax using the gross primary productivity from sunlit leaves (GPPsun) with the physiological basis that the photosynthesis rate for leaves exposed to high solar radiation is mainly determined by the Vcmax. Since the GPPsun can be calculated through the sunlit light use efficiency (ɛsun), the main focus becomes the acquisition of ɛsun. Previous studies using site level reflectance observations have shown the ability of the photochemical reflectance ratio (PRR, defined as the ratio between the reflectance from an effective band centered around 531nm and a reference band) in tracking the variation of ɛsun for an evergreen coniferous stand and a deciduous broadleaf stand separately and the potential of a NDVI corrected PRR (NPRR, defined as the product of NDVI and PRR) in producing a general expression to describe the NPRR-ɛsun relationship across different plant function types. In this study, a significant correlation (R2 = 0.67, p<0.001) between the MODIS derived NPRR and the site level ɛsun calculated using flux data for four Canadian flux sites has been found for the year 2010. For validation purpose, the ɛsun in 2009 for the same sites are calculated using the MODIS NPRR and the expression from 2010. The MODIS derived ɛsun matches well with the flux calculated ɛsun (R2 = 0.57, p<0.001). Same expression has then been applied over a 217 × 193 km area in Saskatchewan, Canada to obtain the ɛsun and thus GPPsun for the region during the growing season in 2008 (day 150 to day 260). The Vcmax for the region is inverted using the GPPsun and the result is validated at three flux sites inside the area. The results show that the approach is able to obtain good estimations of Vcmax values with R2 = 0.68 and RMSE = 8.8 μmol m-2 s-1.

  9. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in HIV-infected patients: the HIV-HY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Ricci, Elena; Maggi, Paolo; Parruti, Giustino; Pucci, Giacomo; Di Biagio, Antonio; Calza, Leonardo; Orofino, Giancarlo; Carenzi, Laura; Cecchini, Enisia; Madeddu, Giordano; Quirino, Tiziana; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypertension in an unselected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population and to identify factors associated with hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. We used a multicenter, cross-sectional, nationwide study that sampled 1,182 unselected, consecutive, HIV-infected patients. Office blood pressure was accurately measured with standard procedures. Patients were 71% men and 92% white, with a median age of 47 years (range = 18-78); 6% were antiretroviral treatment naive. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 29.3%; high-normal pressure accounted for an additional 12.3%. Among hypertensive subjects, 64.9% were aware of their hypertensive condition, 52.9% were treated, and 33.0% were controlled (blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg). Blood pressure-lowering medications were used in monotherapy in 54.3% of the subjects. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were the most frequently used drugs (76.1%: monotherapy = 39.1%, combination treatment = 37.0%). In multivariable regression models, hypertension was independently predicted by traditional risk factors, including age ≥50 years, male sex, family history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, previous cardiovascular events, diabetes, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome, as well as by duration of HIV infection, duration of antiretroviral therapy, and nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200/μl. The choice of protease inhibitors vs. nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a third antiretroviral drug was irrelevant. Hypertension affects nearly 30% of HIV adult outpatients in Italy. More than one-third of the hypertensive subjects are unaware of their condition, and more than two-thirds are uncontrolled. A higher level of attention to the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is mandatory in this setting.

  10. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  11. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  12. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  13. INFLUENCE OF THE ISOBUTENE METHANOL RATIO AND OF THE METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTENT ON THE REACTION-RATE OF THE SYNTHESIS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1995-01-01

    The forward reaction rate constant of the MtBE synthesis was determined for different reaction mixture compositions. The forward rate constant decreases continuously with increasing isobutene/methanol ratio, while an increase in reaction rate constant is observed with an increasing amount of MtBE in

  14. Estimating Plasmodium falciparum transmission rates in low-endemic settings using a combination of community prevalence and health facility data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Yukich

    Full Text Available As some malaria control programs shift focus from disease control to transmission reduction, there is a need for transmission data to monitor progress. At lower levels of transmission, it becomes increasingly more difficult to measure precisely, for example through entomological studies. Many programs conduct regular cross sectional parasite prevalence surveys, and have access to malaria treatment data routinely collected by ministries of health, often in health management information systems. However, by themselves, these data are poor measures of transmission. In this paper, we propose an approach for combining annual parasite incidence and treatment data with cross-sectional parasite prevalence and treatment seeking survey data to estimate the incidence of new infections in the human population, also known as the force of infection. The approach is based on extension of a reversible catalytic model. The accuracy of the estimates from this model appears to be highly dependent on levels of detectability and treatment in the community, indicating the importance of information on private sector treatment seeking and access to effective and appropriate treatment.

  15. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs - which are often characterised as 'female') among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls.

  16. Rate of transformation and normal range about cardiac size and cardiothoracic ratio according to patient position and age at chest radiography of Korean adult man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Purpose of this study is present the normal range of cardiac size and cardiothoracic ratio according to patient position(chest PA and AP) and age of Korean adult male on digital chest X - ray, And to propose a mutually compatible conversion rate. 1,024 males were eligible for this study, among 1,300 normal chest patients who underwent chest PA and low-dose CT examinations on the same day at the 'S' Hospital Health Examination Center in Seoul From January to December 2014. CS and CTR were measured by Danzer (1919). The mean difference between CS and CTR was statistically significant (p<0.01) in Chest PA (CS 135.48 mm, CTR 43.99%) and Chest AP image (CS 155.96 mm, CTR 51.75%). There was no statistically significant difference between left and right heart in chest PA and AP images(p>0.05). CS showed statistically significant difference between Chest PA (p>0. 05) and Chest AP (p<0.05). The thorax size and CTR were statistically significant (p<0.01) in both age and chest PA and AP. Result of this study, On Chest AP image CS was magnified 15%, CTR was magnified 17% compare with Chest PA image. CS and CTR were about 10% difference by changing posture at all ages.

  17. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maribel; Cos, Francesc Xavier; Álvarez-Guisasola, Fernando; Fuster, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age population in developed countries. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been considered biomarkers for DR. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DR and its relationship with eGFR and other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Spain. A cross-sectional and descriptive study has been performed in 14,266 patients. Clinical records were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, clinical variables, and results from laboratory tests were recorded. Prevalence rates of DR were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess predictors of the DR presence/absence. DR prevalence was 14.9%, being more prevalent in women (p = 0.0087) and in older patients (p < 0.0001). Duration of disease (OR = 5.3, IC95% = 3.8-7.4; p < 0.0001), eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (OR = 2.0, IC95% 1.6-2.4; p < 0.0001), levels of HbA1c ≥ 7% (OR = 1.9, IC95% = 1.5-2.3; p < 0.0001) and high blood pressure (OR = 1.6, IC95% = 1.2-2.1; p = 0.0032) were associated with higher risk of DR. DR was also more frequent in patients taking insulin (32,6% vs. 10,2%; p < 0.0001). Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  18. The impact of realistic models of mass segregation on the event rate of extreme-mass ratio inspirals and cusp re-growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Preto, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most interesting sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for LISA is the inspiral of compact objects on to a massive black hole (MBH), commonly referred to as an 'extreme-mass ratio inspiral' (EMRI). The small object, typically a stellar black hole, emits significant amounts of GW along each orbit in the detector bandwidth. The slowly, adiabatic inspiral of these sources will allow us to map spacetime around MBHs in detail, as well as to test our current conception of gravitation in the strong regime. The event rate of this kind of source has been addressed many times in the literature and the numbers reported fluctuate by orders of magnitude. On the other hand, recent observations of the Galactic centre revealed a dearth of giant stars inside the inner parsec relative to the numbers theoretically expected for a fully relaxed stellar cusp. The possibility of unrelaxed nuclei (or, equivalently, with no or only a very shallow cusp, or core) adds substantial uncertainty to the estimates. Having this timely question in mind, we run a significant number of direct-summation N-body simulations with up to half a million particles to calibrate a much faster orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck code. We show that, under quite generic initial conditions, the time required for the growth of a relaxed, mass segregated stellar cusp is shorter than a Hubble time for MBHs with M . ∼ 6 M o-dot (i.e. nuclei in the range of LISA). We then investigate the regime of strong mass segregation (SMS) for models with two different stellar mass components. Given the most recent stellar mass normalization for the inner parsec of the Galactic centre, SMS has the significant impact of boosting the EMRI rates by a factor of ∼10 in comparison to what would result from a 7/4-Bahcall and Wolf cusp resulting in ∼250 events per Gyr per Milky Way type galaxy. Such an intrinsic rate should translate roughly into ∼10 2 -7 x 10 2 sbh's (EMRIs detected by LISA over a mission lifetime of 2 or 5

  19. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling metho...

  20. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  1. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  2. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Stammel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. Objective: The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Method: Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Results: Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample. Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. Conclusions: The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model and its application in analysis of price, supply–demand ratio and selling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dingju

    2016-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model proposed in this paper fill the gap in nonlinear dynamics model in terms of qualitative and quantitative combined methods, allowing the qualitative model and quantitative model to perfectly combine and overcome their weaknesses by learning from each other. These two types of models use their strengths to make up for the other’s deficiencies. The qualitative and quantitative combined models can surmount the weakness that the qualitative model cannot be applied and verified in a quantitative manner, and the high costs and long time of multiple construction as well as verification of the quantitative model. The combined model is more practical and efficient, which is of great significance for nonlinear dynamics. The qualitative and quantitative combined modeling and model analytical method raised in this paper is not only applied to nonlinear dynamics, but can be adopted and drawn on in the modeling and model analysis of other fields. Additionally, the analytical method of qualitative and quantitative combined nonlinear dynamics model proposed in this paper can satisfactorily resolve the problems with the price system’s existing nonlinear dynamics model analytical method. The three-dimensional dynamics model of price, supply–demand ratio and selling rate established in this paper make estimates about the best commodity prices using the model results, thereby providing a theoretical basis for the government’s macro-control of price. Meanwhile, this model also offer theoretical guidance to how to enhance people’s purchasing power and consumption levels through price regulation and hence to improve people’s living standards.

  4. Perceptions of Community HIV/ STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community’s HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/ STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women’s HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were condu...

  5. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    OpenAIRE

    Covic Tanya; Cumming Steven R; Pallant Julie F; Manolios Nick; Emery Paul; Conaghan Philip G; Tennant Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific ca...

  6. Dengue virus serological prevalence and seroconversion rates in children and adults in Medellin, Colombia: implications for vaccine introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Carabali

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: These laboratory-based findings could inform dengue vaccine decisions, as they provide age-specific seroprevalence and seroconversion data, evidencing permanent and ongoing dengue transmission in the study area. This study provides evidence for the existing rates of secondary and heterotypic responses, presenting a challenge that must be addressed adequately by the new vaccine candidates.

  7. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan: Analysis of the 2000–2009 Nationwide Health Insurance database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Der Jiang

    2012-11-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of diabetes, including type 1, remained stable over this 10-year period in Taiwan. However, the incidence rate in men aged 20–59 years was higher than that in age-matched women. With our nationwide database, subgroup analysis of DM incidence can be performed to refine our health policies for the prevention, screening, and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Martin; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ganter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades. There is only limited knowledge about the prevalence of both pathogens in sheep, although sheep are involved in almost all Q fever outbreaks in Germany. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of both pathogens in flocks located in Lower Saxony, Germany, in correlation to the management form and abortion rate. Serum samples of 1714 sheep from 95 flocks located in Lower Saxony were investigated by ELISA. 2.7% of these samples were positive, 1.3% showed inconclusive results in the C. burnetii-ELISA. Elevated intra-flock seroprevalences were only detected in three migrating flocks. Chlamydia-specific antibodies could be detected in 15.1% serum samples of mainly shepherded and migrating flocks. In one of these flocks with a high intra-flock seroprevalence for C burnetii (27%) and Chlamydia (44.9%), C burnetii was detected in 21.6% of the placenta samples of normal births and in 12.5% of the colostrum samples by PCR. Aborted fetuses and the corresponding placentas were negative in C burnetii-PCR, but in most of them and also in many other placenta samples Chl. abortus could be detected by PCR and DNA microarray. This survey shows a low overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sheep in Lower Saxony in the year 2004. However, three migrating flocks with a high intra-flock prevalence are localized in the southern parts of Lower Saxony. Spreading of C burnetii could occur, because of the large radius of grazing of all three flocks.

  9. Good clean fun? A content analysis of profanity in video games and its prevalence across game systems and ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, James D; Williams, Dmitri; Martins, Nicole; Consalvo, Mia

    2009-08-01

    Although violent video game content and its effects have been examined extensively by empirical research, verbal aggression in the form of profanity has received less attention. Building on preliminary findings from previous studies, an extensive content analysis of profanity in video games was conducted using a sample of the 150 top-selling video games across all popular game platforms (including home consoles, portable consoles, and personal computers). The frequency of profanity, both in general and across three profanity categories, was measured and compared to games' ratings, sales, and platforms. Generally, profanity was found in about one in five games and appeared primarily in games rated for teenagers or above. Games containing profanity, however, tended to contain it frequently. Profanity was not found to be related to games' sales or platforms.

  10. Prevalence Rates of Work Organization Characteristics Among Workers in the U.S.: Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance is needed to capture work organization characteristics and to identify their trends. Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to calculate prevalence rates for four work organization characteristics (long work hours, non-standard work arrangements, temporary positions, and alternative shifts) overall, and by demographic characteristics, and industry and occupation of current/recent employment. Results Data were available for 27,157 adults, of which 65% were current/recent workers. Among adults who worked in the past 12 months, 18.7% worked 48 hr or more per week, 7.2% worked 60 hr or more per week, 18.7% had non-standard work arrangements, 7.2% were in temporary positions, and 28.7% worked an alternative shift. Conclusions Prevalence rates of work organization characteristics are provided. These national estimates can be used to help occupational health professionals and employers to identify emerging occupational safety and health risks, allow researchers to examine associations with health, and use the data for benchmarking. PMID:22911666

  11. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006). The rates for overweight, including obesity, in Germany have levelled off. However, they still remain at a high level, indicating a need for further public health action. What is Known: • In the last decades, prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen. Now a days, the prevalence seems to be stagnating. • In Germany, prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are only available from regional or non-representative studies. What is New: • This article gives an update for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity amongst children aged 4-10 years in Germany based on a nationwide and representative sample. • Results show that stagnation in prevalence rates for overweight in children in Germany is reached.

  12. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; Zou, Haidong; He, Xiangui; Li, Qiangqiang; Wang, Weijie; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2014-12-22

    To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations. A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was

  13. Prevalence Rates of Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in a Rural Hypertension Population: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors among hypertensive patients in primary care. A cross-sectional survey, with 318 hypertensive patients, was conducted in a rural area in Beijing, China, in 2012. Participants were mainly recruited from a community health clinic and completed questionnaires assessing their self-care behaviors, including data on adherence to a prescribed medication regimen, low-salt diet intake, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, blood pressure monitoring, and physical exercise. The logistic regression model was used for the analysis of any association between self-care behaviors and age, gender, duration of hypertension, self-rated health, marital status, education level, diabetes status, or body mass index. Subjects that adhered to their medication schedule were more likely to have hypertension for a long duration (OR, 3.44; 95% CI 1.99–5.97. Older participants (OR, 1.80; 95% CI 1.08–2.99 were more likely to monitor their blood pressure. Subjects who did not partake in physical exercise were more likely to be men, although the difference between genders was not significant (OR, 0.60; 95% CI 0.36–1.01. Patients with shorter history of hypertension, younger and being males have lower self-care behaviors. Primary care providers and public health practitioner should pay more attention to patients recently diagnosed with hypertension as well as younger male patients.

  14. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-01-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  16. Time trends of period prevalence rates of patients with inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists-containing prescriptions: a European comparative database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Rottenkolber

    Full Text Available Inhaled, long-acting beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA have well-established roles in asthma and/or COPD treatment. Drug utilisation patterns for LABA have been described, but few studies have directly compared LABA use in different countries. We aimed to compare the prevalence of LABA-containing prescriptions in five European countries using a standardised methodology.A common study protocol was applied to seven European healthcare record databases (Denmark, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands (2, and the UK (2 to calculate crude and age- and sex-standardised annual period prevalence rates (PPRs of LABA-containing prescriptions from 2002-2009. Annual PPRs were stratified by sex, age, and indication (asthma, COPD, asthma and COPD.From 2002-2009, age- and sex-standardised PPRs of patients with LABA-containing medications increased in all databases (58.2%-185.1%. Highest PPRs were found in men ≥ 80 years old and women 70-79 years old. Regarding the three indications, the highest age- and sex-standardised PPRs in all databases were found in patients with "asthma and COPD" but with large inter-country variation. In those with asthma or COPD, lower PPRs and smaller inter-country variations were found. For all three indications, PPRs for LABA-containing prescriptions increased with age.Using a standardised protocol that allowed direct inter-country comparisons, we found highest rates of LABA-containing prescriptions in elderly patients and distinct differences in the increased utilisation of LABA-containing prescriptions within the study period throughout the five European countries.

  17. Reaction kinetics aspect of U3O8 kernel with gas H2 on the characteristics of activation energy, reaction rate constant and O/U ratio of UO2 kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damunir

    2007-01-01

    The reaction kinetics aspect of U 3 O 8 kernel with gas H 2 on the characteristics of activation energy, reaction rate constant and O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel had been studied. U 3 O 8 kernel was reacted with gas H 2 in a reduction furnace at varied reaction time and temperature. The reaction temperature was varied at 600, 700, 750 and 850 °C with a pressure of 50 mmHg for 3 hours in gas N 2 atmosphere. The reation time was varied at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours at a temperature of 750 °C using similar conditions. The reaction product was UO 2 kernel. The reaction kinetic aspect between U 3 O 8 and gas H 2 comprised the minimum activation energy (ΔE), the reaction rate constant and the O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel. The minimum activation energy was determined from a straight line slope of equation ln [{D b . R o {(1 - (1 - X b ) ⅓ } / (b.t.Cg)] = -3.9406 x 10 3 / T + 4.044. By multiplying with the straight line slope -3.9406 x 10 3 , the ideal gas constant (R) 1.985 cal/mol and the molarity difference of reaction coefficient 2, a minimum activation energy of 15.644 kcal/mol was obtained. The reaction rate constant was determined from first-order chemical reaction control and Arrhenius equation. The O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel was obtained using gravimetric method. The analysis result of reaction rate constant with chemical reaction control equation yielded reaction rate constants of 0.745 - 1.671 s -1 and the Arrhenius equation at temperatures of 650 - 850 °C yielded reaction rate constants of 0.637 - 2.914 s -1 . The O/U ratios of UO 2 kernel at the respective reaction rate constants were 2.013 - 2.014 and the O/U ratios at reaction time 1 - 4 hours were 2.04 - 2.011. The experiment results indicated that the minimum activation energy influenced the rate constant of first-order reaction and the O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel. The optimum condition was obtained at reaction rate constant of 1.43 s -1 , O/U ratio of UO 2 kernel of 2.01 at temperature of 750 °C and reaction time of 3

  18. [Prevalence of hypertension and assessment of its impact on self-rated health in rural populations: a cross-sectional study in northern Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, S M; Diop-Dia, A; Dia, D Gueye; Gueye, L

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a growing public health problem, and its impact on the overall health of patients in Africa is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine its prevalence and its influence on self-rated health among people living in rural areas of Senegal. This cross-sectional study was conducted over a two-week period in the rural communities of Labgar and Lougré Thiolly, located in the central northern region of Senegal, in an agricultural area. Randomly recruited volunteers were questioned during direct individual interviews about socio-demographic (age, sex, marital status, education, occupation) and lifestyle data (smoking or alcohol, physical activity). Clinical data (medical history, weight, height, blood pressure, course of treatment) were also collected. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed by asking if they felt their health was bad or good. We included 627 patients with a mean age of 40.93 ± 17.2 years (range: 15-100 years), 59.9% of them women. Illiteracy and overweight were more common among women than among men, and smoking and alcohol consumption more frequent in men. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 23.4% and did not differ significantly between men (24.9%) and women (22.4%)(P = 0.50). Self-rated health was similar in men and women (with respectively 66.9% and 72.9% reporting good health, P = 0.10). On univariate analysis, the factors associated with perceived health status were age (OR = 1.34, P = 0.04), smoking (OR = 2.16, P = 0.03), educational level (OR = 1.21, P = 0.04), and the presence of hypertension (OR = 0.63, P = 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that among women, advanced age (≥50 years) and hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were associated with poorer perceived health, whereas for men, only smoking was significantly correlated with poor health status (OR = 0.41, P = 0.01). This study shows that hypertension is common in this rural area of Senegal and is significantly

  19. Relative Citation Ratio of Top Twenty Macedonian Biomedical Scientists in PubMed: A New Metric that Uses Citation Rates to Measure Influence at the Article Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Spiroski

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: It is necessary to accept top twenty Macedonian biomedical scientists as an example of new metric that uses citation rates to measure influence at the article level, rather than qualification of the best Macedonian biomedical scientists.

  20. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics. Relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    Systematic approaches to evaluate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. First, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with two coupled models: 1.static electrochemical analysis and 2.dynamic oxide layer growth analysis. The anodic current density and the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram. The ferrous ion release rate, determined by the anodic current density, was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic oxide layer growth model and then its value was used as input in the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results (corrosion rate and ECP) based on the coupled models were in good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP.

  1. Evaluation of the Prevalence Rate and the Prognostic Effect of Human Papilloma Virus Infection in a Group of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Zamanzadeh, Maryam; Meshkat, Zahra; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar; Salek, Roham

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity. A relationship between the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the prognosis of oral cavity SCC (OCSCC) has been discussed before. We investigated the prevalence rate of HPV status in patients with OCSCC, and its effects on clinicopathological characteristics of tumors and patients' prognosis. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 114 histopathologically confirmed OCSCC cases were investigated in this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to evaluate the HPV status in the samples. Fifteen (13.16%) cases were identified as HPV positive. The detected viral subtypes in this study were the subtypes 6 and 11. The stage and especially lymph node stage was significantly higher in the HPV positive group compared to the HPV negative group (P = 0.04). Disease free survival (DFS) was remarkably lower in the HPV positive group compared to the HPV negative group (13.9 vs. 49.9 months, P = 0.02). Overall survival (OS) was also significantly inferior in the HPV positive group (15.7 vs. 49.6 months, P = 0.01). In the current study, no significant differences were observed between two groups in relation to the variables of age, gender, tumors site, tumor size, tumor grading and also the recurrence rate. The observed higher mortality rate among the HPV positive group indicates the poorer prognosis of this group in comparison with the HPV negative patients. The incidence rate of HPV infection was low in the studied samples; however, interaction of subtypes 6 and 11 of HPV in poorer prognosis of the patients and a carcinogenic role of HPV in OCSCC cannot be ruled out.

  2. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among 5-year-old children in Saint Lucia by three methods of classification and a comparison with historical rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K; Bird, J; Canning, P M; Frizzell, L M; Smith, L M

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if child obesity rates have risen in the Caribbean nation of Saint Lucia, as found globally, and whether under-nutrition coexists, as in other developing nations. The average adult in Saint Lucia is overweight, thus considerable child obesity might be expected, but there are no current data. Heights and weights were obtained from a sample (n= 425) of the 2001 birth cohort of Saint Lucian children measured during the nation-wide 2006/2007 Prior to School Entry Five-Year Assessment. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight were estimated by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Cole et al. and new World Health Organization (WHO) methods. Previously reported 1976 estimates, including children ≤60 months of age only, based on National Centre for Health Statistics curves, were adjusted to new WHO equivalents using an algorithm developed by Yang and de Onis, and compared with rates in our subsample of children ≤60 months of age (n= 99). Regardless of classification method, overweight and obesity rates were high: 14.4% and 9.2% (WHO); 11.3% and 12.0% (CDC); and 9.9% and 7.1% (Cole et al.), respectively. Underweight estimates also varied: 4.7% (WHO); 11.3% (CDC) and 6.6% (Cole et al.). Obesity in our young subsample (15.2%; WHO) was more than 3 times the adjusted 1976 rate (4.3%). Obesity among Saint Lucian pre-schoolers has tripled in 30 years. Our findings also suggest that this country, like many undergoing a 'nutrition transition', faces the dual challenge of over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Routine monitoring of overweight and underweight is needed in Saint Lucia, as is the implementation and evaluation of programmes to address these problems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of the dose uniformity for double-plane high dose rate interstitial breast implants with the use of dose reference points and dose non-uniformity ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAjor, T.; Polgar, C.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of dwell time optimizations on dose uniformity characterized by dose values in dose points and dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR) and analyzed which implant parameters have influence on the DNR. Double-plane breast implants with catheters arranged in triangular pattern were used for the calculations. At a typical breast implant, dose values in dose reference points inside the target volume and volumes enclosed by given isodose surfaces were calculated and compared for non-optimized and optimized implants. The same 6-cm treatment length was used for the comparisons. Using different optimizations plots of dose non-uniformity ratio as a function of catheter separation, source step size, number of catheters, length of active sections were drawn and the minimum DNR values were determined. Optimization resulted in less variation in dose values over dose points through the whole volume and in the central plane only compared to the non-optimized case. At implant configurations consisting of seven catheters with 15-mm separation, 5-mm source step size and various active lengths adapted according to the type of optimization, the no optimization, geometrical (volume mode) and dose point (on dose points and geometry) optimization resulted in similar treatment volumes, but an increased high dose volume was observed due to the optimization. The dose non-uniformity ratio always had the minimum at average dose over dose normalization points, defined in the midpoints between the catheters through the implant volume. The minimum value of DNR depended on catheter separation, source step size, active length and number of catheters. The optimization had only a small influence on DNR. In addition to the reference points in the central plane only, dose points positioned in the whole implant volume can be used for evaluating the dose uniformity of interstitial implants. The dose optimization increases not only the dose uniformity within the implant but

  4. Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind, and DT-fusion electrical power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Scott W.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    The amount of electrical energy produced over the lifetime of coal, LWR fission, UP fusion, and wind power plants is compared to the total amount of energy required to procure the fuel, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The energy payback ratio varies from a low of 11 for coal plants to a high of 27 for DT-fusion plants. The magnitude of the energy investment and the source of the various energy inputs determine the CO 2 emission factor. This number varies from a low of 9 to a high of 974 tonnes of CO 2 per GW e h for DT-fusion and coal plants, respectively

  5. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (3), relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Systematic approaches for evaluating flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. Firstly, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with the coupled models of static electrochemical analysis and dynamic double oxide layer analysis. Anodic current density and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram and ferrous ion release rate determined by the anodic current density was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic double oxide layer model and then was applied as input for the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results based on the coupled models resulted good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP. (author)

  6. Various rates of k and Na influence growth, seed cotton yield and ionic ratio of two cotton varieties in soil culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Maqsood, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton is generally grown on alkaline calcareous soils in arid and semi-arid areas of the country. Sodium can interact with other earth cations like K, Ca and Mg. Therefore, a pot study was conducted to investigate the growth, yield and ionic response of two cotton varieties. Four levels of K and Na were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in mg/kg were adjusted as, 105+37.5, 135+30 135+37.5 and 105+30 (control). Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Application of K and Na increased seed cotton yield and boll weight significantly (p<0.01). Both varieties varied non-significantly with respect to K:Na ratio in leaf. The beneficial effects of Na with K application over control on seed cotton yield and boll weight were greater in NIBGE-2 than in MNH-786. Increase in seed cotton yield was attributed to maximum boll weight of both varieties. Significant negative correlation (r= -0.89, - 0.76, n= 4) was found between K:Na ratio and K use efficiency in shoot of NIBGE-2 and MNH-786, respectively. (author)

  7. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background : Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods : Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results : Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions : Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  8. New reaction rate for 16O( p, γ )17F and its influence on the oxygen isotopic ratios in massive AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iliadis, C.; Angulo, C.; Descouvement, P.; Lugaro, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833975; Mohr, P.

    2008-01-01

    The 16O(p, γ )17F reaction rate is revisited with special emphasis on the stellar temperature range of T=60-100 MK, important for hot bottom burning in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We evaluate existing cross-section data that were obtained since 1958 and, if appropriate, correct published

  9. Fractional esterification rate of cholesterol and ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol are powerful predictors of positive findings on coronary angiography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frohlich, J.; Dobiášová, Milada

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2003), s. 1873-1880 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA6590 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fractional esterification rate of cholesterol (FERHDL) * coronary angiography * markers of atherosclerotic lesions Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.538, year: 2003

  10. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities .

  11. The Influences of Water Vapor/Hydrogen Ratio, Gas-Flow Rate and Antimony on the Surface Oxidation of Trip Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, You Jong; Zhu, Jing Xi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Sohn, Il Ryong

    2011-01-01

    In the current paper, we are reporting the results from an investigation of the surface and sub-surface oxidation of a TRIP steel containing 2 wt.% Mn and 0.5 wt.% Al with and without 0.03 wt.% Sb. The oxidizing conditions in the gas were successively varied in terms of the linear gas flow-rate and dew-point, from conditions were gas-phase mass transport limited conditions prevailed, to those were solid state processes became the rate determining conditions. It was found, that at sufficient low oxidizing conditions (defined as flow-rate/dew-point), the metal surfaces were clear of any external oxides, and as the oxidizing conditions were increased, Mn- and Si- oxide nodules formed along with magnetite. As the oxidizing conditions were increased further, a dense magnetite layer was present. The limits of the various regions were experimentally quantified and a proposed hypothesis for their occurrences is presented. No obvious effect of Sb was noted in this micro-structural research of the oxides that results from the various conditions investigated in this study

  12. Regular and negative self-rated health in students from a public university fromNortheastern,Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira de Sousa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is a major health indicator and has been widely used in epidemiologic surveys. Current study analyzes the factors associated to regular and negative self-rated health in Brazilian college students. Current investigation is a segment of the 2010 MONISA study carried out in a Brazilian public university with 5,461 students. Estimated sample comprised 1,232 university students and results showed self-rated regular and negative health. Multinomial logistic regression estimated Odds Ratio (OR. The factors associated to regular health self-evaluation negative assessment of relationship with professors (OR: 1.85; CI95%: 1.20-2.87; inactivity in leisure (OR: 2.34; CI95%: 1.73-3.16; insufficient consumption of vegetables; almost daily consumption of soft drinks; assessment of intermediate and negative stress (OR: 3.34; CI95%: 2.11-5.28. Students inactive in leisure (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.09-5.13, students with self-evaluated negative stress (OR: 10.1; 95%CI: 3.23-31.8 and obese students (OR: 4.52; 95%CI: 1.36-15.0 were associated to the negative health self-assessment. It has been verified that health behavior is rather associated to the regular self-assessment of health, whereas perceptive and biological indicators were more associated to negative health self-assessment.

  13. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  14. Direct measurements of the total rate constant of the reaction NCN + H and implications for the product branching ratio and the enthalpy of formation of NCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassheber, Nancy; Dammeier, Johannes; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2014-06-21

    The overall rate constant of the reaction (2), NCN + H, which plays a key role in prompt-NO formation in flames, has been directly measured at temperatures 962 K rate constants are best represented by the combination of two Arrhenius expressions, k2/(cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) = 3.49 × 10(14) exp(-33.3 kJ mol(-1)/RT) + 1.07 × 10(13) exp(+10.0 kJ mol(-1)/RT), with a small uncertainty of ±20% at T = 1600 K and ±30% at the upper and lower experimental temperature limits.The two Arrhenius terms basically can be attributed to the contributions of reaction channel (2a) yielding CH + N2 and channel (2b) yielding HCN + N as the products. A more refined analysis taking into account experimental and theoretical literature data provided a consistent rate constant set for k2a, its reverse reaction k1a (CH + N2 → NCN + H), k2b as well as a value for the controversial enthalpy of formation of NCN, ΔfH = 450 kJ mol(-1). The analysis verifies the expected strong temperature dependence of the branching fraction ϕ = k2b/k2 with reaction channel (2b) dominating at the experimental high-temperature limit. In contrast, reaction (2a) dominates at the low-temperature limit with a possible minor contribution of the HNCN forming recombination channel (2d) at T < 1150 K.

  15. Spatial variations in time-integrated plankton metabolic rates in Sagami Bay using triple oxygen isotopes and O2:Ar ratios

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Abe, O.; Saino, T.

    processes are substantially out of balance in the open-ocean regions, i.e., respiration is higher than produc- tion (del Giorgio and Duarte 2002; Williams et al. 2004), while coastal oceans are net autotrophic (Ducklow and McAllister 2005). Williams (1997... advection (del Giorgio and Duarte 2002). In order to assess the way in which short-term variability in plankton metabolic rates could influence our measure- ments, 18 O-enriched and DO incubation experiments were conducted in central Sagami Bay (sta. S3...

  16. Evaluation of surface tension and Tolman length as a function of droplet radius from experimental nucleation rate and supersaturation ratio: metal vapor homogeneous nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischuk, A A; Purtov, P A; Baklanov, A M; Karasev, V V; Vosel, S V

    2006-01-07

    Zinc and silver vapor homogeneous nucleations are studied experimentally at the temperature from 600 to 725 and 870 K, respectively, in a laminar flow diffusion chamber with Ar as a carrier gas at atmospheric pressure. The size, shape, and concentration of aerosol particles outcoming the diffusion chamber are analyzed by a transmission electron microscope and an automatic diffusion battery. The wall deposit is studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Using SEM data the nucleation rate for both Zn and Ag is estimated as 10(10) cm(-3) s(-1). The dependence of critical supersaturation on temperature for Zn and Ag measured in this paper as well as Li, Na, Cs, Ag, Mg, and Hg measured elsewhere is analyzed. To this aim the classical nucleation theory is extended by the dependence of surface tension on the nucleus radius. The preexponent in the formula for the vapor nucleation rate is derived using the formula for the work of formation of noncritical embryo [obtained by Nishioka and Kusaka [J. Chem. Phys. 96, 5370 (1992)] and later by Debenedetti and Reiss [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 5498 (1998)

  17. Post-Wisconsinan Chemical Weathering Rates and Trajectories From a 13,400-Year Sediment Core Record of Lead Isotopic Ratios in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, R. H.; Norton, S. A.; Koons, P. O.; Handley, M.

    2008-12-01

    Lead isotopic ratios recorded in a 5.3-m 13.4-ka 14C-dated lake sediment core from Sargent Mountain Pond, Maine (USA) are interpreted as an archive of post-glacial chemical weathering. Early weathering yielded highly radiogenic sediment from the preferential release of U and Th decay products (206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) from accessory mineral phases in the catchment's predominantly-granitic till and bedrock relative to non-radiogenic 204Pb from the more abundant primary minerals. Values for 207Pb/206Pb in the sediment increased rapidly from 0.799 to 0.814 in the catchment's first 4,000 years of post-Wisconsinan weathering, and thereafter increased only slightly to just prior to the 19th century. Values for 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb decline over the same time-scale, as a result of decreasing radiogenic Pb being released from catchment weathering. Our results are consistent with: (1) the published interpretation of Pb isotopic variation in ferromanganese ocean crusts as a reflection of continental-scale glacial-interglacial chemical weathering cycles, (2) bench-scale whole-rock weathering experiments, and (3) soil chronosequence Pb isotope dissolution experiments and bridge the gap between short-term, mineral-scale experiments and long-term, ocean sediment records. We establish a time-scale for depletion of accessory minerals, and loss of their Pb isotopic signature at one catchment, and document the concurrent shift to slower primary mineral-controlled chemical weathering after deglaciation.

  18. Matrix tablets: the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate ratio on the release rate of a water-soluble drug through the gastrointestinal tract I. In vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani, Pseidy L; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Veiga, María D

    2012-12-01

    Different hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)/anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate (ADCP) matrix tablets have been developed aiming to evaluate the influence of both components ratio in the control release of a water-soluble drug (theophylline). In order to characterise the matrix tablets, swelling, buoyancy and dissolution studies have been carried out in different aqueous media (demineralised water, progressive pH medium, simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid and simulated colonic fluid). The HPMC/ADCP ratio has turned out to be the determinant in the matrix behaviour: the HPMC characteristic swelling behaviour was modulated, in some cases, by the ADCP characteristic acidic dissolution. When the HPMC/ADCP ratio was ≥0.69, buoyancy, continuous swelling and low theophylline dissolution rate from the matrices (H1, H2 and H3) were observed in all dissolution media. Consequently, these formulations could be adequate as gastro-retentive drug delivery systems. Additionally, HPMC/ADCP ratio ≤0.11 (H5 and H6) induces a pH-dependent drug release which could be applied to design control drug release enteric formulations (with a suitable enteric coating). Finally, a HPMC/ADCP ratio between 0.11 and 0.69 (H4) yield a gastrointestinal controlled drug release, due to its time-dependent buoyancy (7 h) and a total drug delivery in 17 h in simulated colonic fluid.

  19. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Brettschneidera, Anna-Kristin; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Kuhnert, Ronny; Schmidt, Steffen; Wiegand, Susanna; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2015-11-06

    The nationwide "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regularly monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing self-reported height and weight. Since self-reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. The aim of the present study is to obtain updated prevalence rates for overweight and obesity for 11- to 17-year olds living in Germany after correction for bias in self-reports. In KiGGS Wave 1, self-reported height and weight were collected from 4948 adolescents during a telephone interview. Participants were also asked about their body perception. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from self-reports, weight status categories based on self-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure under consideration of body perception. The correction procedure was applied and corrected rates were estimated. The corrected prevalence of overweight, including obesity, derived from KiGGS Wave 1, showed that the rate has not further increased compared to the KiGGS baseline survey (18.9 % vs. 18.8 % based on the German reference). The rates of overweight still remain at a high level. The results of KiGGS Wave 1 emphasise the significance of this health issue and the need for prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

  20. Convergence of prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle and low income groups in urban India: 10-year follow-up of the Chennai Urban Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Manjula, Datta; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to look for temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in two residential colonies in Chennai. Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) was carried out between 1996-1998 in Chennai in two residential colonies representing the middle income group (MIG) and lower income group (LIG), respectively. The MIG had twice the prevalence rate of diabetes as the LIG and higher prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. They were motivated to increase their physical activity, which led to the building of a park. The LIG was given standard lifestyle advice. Follow-up surveys of both colonies were performed after a period of 10 years. In the MIG, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 12.4 to 15.4% (24% increase), while in the LIG, it increased from 6.5 to 15.3% (135% increase, p India with a convergence of prevalence rates among people in the MIG and LIG. This could have a serious economic impact on poor people in developing countries such as India. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Studying the Prevalence Rate of Hearing Loss in Children of Primary Schools in Bebehan During the Year Between 1996 and1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Niaparast

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to establish the prevalence rate of hearing disorders in school age children. Method: This study has been performed in a randomized manner among 1000 school-age children (500 girls and 500 boys in the years between1976-1997 in Behbehan. All subjects underwent Audiometric evaluations, Otoscopy, and impedance audiometry. Additionally, parents, children and teachers were interviewed or asked by questionnaires regarding the familial status of parents, familial history of any hearing loss and the awareness of suffering hearing loss. The findings have been prepared in the charts and tables and the relationship between age and gender of the subjects with the incidence of hearing loss has been evaluated via the statistical test X² and hearing loss in left and right ear was compared by T-test. Results: the findings demonstrated that 6.6% of the subjects suffered hearing loss in one ear (2.2% or both ears (4.3%. 4.8% of the patients suffered conductive hearing loss while 1.6% suffered sensory-neural hearing loss. In .2% patients complained different types of hearing loss in the ears. Hearing loss was mostly slight and the relationship between age and gender with the incidence of hearing loss was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the findings we have concluded that in18.4% of the subjects, medical treatment was required and 0.7% of them were in need of rehabilitation. The percentage of the awareness of the hearing disorders among children, parents and teachers was 21.2%, 22.7% and 15.2% respectively.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate in community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Helen; Werner, Karin; Christensson, Anders; Pihlsgård, Mats; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2017-12-04

    Differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can lead to clinical uncertainty. Existing eGFR equations perform poorly in a subset of individuals. This study aims to describe the prevalence of differences between cystatin C-based (eGFR cys ) and creatinine-based (eGFR creat ) eGFR in older adults and to explore which subsets of individuals may be most affected by differing estimations. In this cross-sectional study, participants from a cohort of community-dwelling older adults were examined at a baseline visit in 2001-2004 as part of the larger "Good Aging in Skåne" study. Exposure variables were obtained from questionnaires, interviews, examinations, and medical records. Blood samples were taken during the baseline visit, cryopreserved, and analyzed at a later time for biomarkers. The CKD-EPI equations were used to estimate GFR. Initial descriptive analyses were performed on 2931 individuals. A total of 2532 participants were included in the final multiple linear regression. Nearly two-thirds of participants had eGFR differences exceeding 10%, with nearly 20 % of participants having eGFR differences exceeding 30%. Smoking, age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), glucocorticoid use, and mean eGFR were correlated with differences between eGFR creat and eGFR cys . Differences between eGFR creat and eGFR cys are common and often of large magnitude in this community-dwelling population of older adults. The finding of multiple non-GFR determinants correlated to differences in GFR estimations can help direct future research to improve eGFR equations for subgroups prone to conflicting GFR estimations or to guide choice of biomarker for GFR estimation in these subgroups.

  3. Net Community and Gross Photosynthetic Production Rates in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific, as Determined from O2/AR Ratios and Triple Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Dissolved O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopenko, M. G.; Yeung, L. Y.; Berelson, W.; Fleming, J.; Rollins, N.; Young, E. D.; Haskell, W. Z.; Hammond, D. E.; Capone, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    This study assesses the rates of ocean carbon production and its fate with respect to recycling or export in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP). ETSP has been previously identified as a region where N2 fixation and denitrification may be spatially coupled; this is also a region of localized CO2 outgassing. Using an Equilibrated Inlet Mass Spectrometer (EIMS) system, we obtained continuous measurements of the biological O2 supersaturation in the mixed layer along the ship track encompassing a region bounded by 10-20° S and 80-100° W in January - March, 2010. Vertical profiles were also taken at selected stations and analyzed for dissolved O2/Ar ratios on EIMS and triple oxygen isotope composition (17O excess) on a multi-collector IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer) at UCLA. Gas exchange rates were estimated using two approaches: the Rn-222 deficit method and the wind parameterization method, which utilized wind speeds extracted from ASCAT satellite database. Oxygen Net Community Production (O-NCP) rates calculated based on biological O2 supersaturation ranged from slightly negative to ~ 0.3 - 15 mmol/m2d, with higher rates along the northern part of the transect. Oxygen Gross Community Production (O-GPP) rates calculated from 17O excess were between 50 ± 20 and 200 ± 40 mmol/m2d, with higher rates observed along the northern cruise transect as well. Notably, the NCP/GPP ratios along the northern transect were higher by the factor of 2 to 3 than their southern counterparts. The O2/Ar-based NCP rates were comparable to POC flux measured with floating traps deployed at the southern stations, but exceeded by a factor of 5-10 the trap POC fluxes obtained at the northern stations. A one-dimensional box model has been constructed to quantify the magnitude of oxygen primary production below the mixed layer. The results of this work will be integrated with measurements of 15-N2 uptake that are in progress, to constrain the potential contribution of N2 fixation

  4. Prevalence of enuresis among primary school children in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 922 school children, consisting of 463 (50.2%) males and 459 (49.8%) females were studied. The response rate was 82.2%. The overall prevalence of enuresis was 23.2%. Enuresis was notably more common in boys (male: female ratio ...

  5. The carrying out of a radiometric analysis method applicable to Moroccan phosphates. Study of the uranium amounts, of the U/Ra equilibrium ratio and of 222-radon emanation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric analysis method for the determination of the uranium and the radium amounts in Moroccan phosphate has been carried out, using NaI(Tl) scintillator to detect gamma radiation of 238-U and 235-U radioactive daughters. The analysis results permit to calculate the U/Ra equilibrium ratio and the emanation rates of 222-Rn versus temperature. The U/Ra disequilibria permit to detect the secondary contribution of a recent uranium. The 222-Rn emanation rates are useful in the evaluation of the radiological hazards related to the phosphate radioactivity. This method was applied to study the phosphate Ganntour deposit and showed that the uranium content ranges from 25ppm to 350ppm, that the U/Ra ratio ranges from 0.6 to 2.2 with an exceptional value of 4.5. The emanation rate of natural radon is between 0% and 27%. The radon forced emanation by heating or by adding different acids has also been studied. The phosphate attack with H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 , using the analysis method, showed that a maximum degassing appears at 0.9cc/g for H 2 SO 4 and 1.1cc/g for HNO 3 . By adding H 2 SO 4 , 30% of uranium (without radium) passed in the solution and by adding HNO 3 uranium and radium are divided among the solid and the liquid phases. 22 refs., 49 figs., 25 tabs. (author)

  6. The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J J; Wharrad, H

    2001-05-01

    The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy. This is the third and final paper drawing on data taken from United Nations (UN) data sets. The first paper examined the global distribution of health professionals (as measured by ratios of physicians and nurses to population), and its relationship to gross national product per capita (GNP) (Wharrad & Robinson 1999). The second paper explored the relationships between the global distribution of physicians and nurses, GNP, female literacy and the health outcome indicators of infant and under five mortality rates (IMR and u5MR) (Robinson & Wharrad 2000). In the present paper, the global distribution of health professionals is explored in relation to maternal mortality rates (MMRs). The proportion of births attended by medical and nonmedical staff defined as "attendance at birth by trained personnel" (physicians, nurses, midwives or primary health care workers trained in midwifery skills), is included as an additional independent variable in the regression analyses, together with the ratio of physicians and nurses to population, female literacy and GNP. To extend our earlier analyses by considering the relationships between the global distribution of health professionals (ratios of physicians and nurses to population, and the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel), GNP, female literacy and MMR. countries, regression analyses were performed using numbers of physicians, and numbers of nurses, per 1000 population, the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel, GNP per capita and female literacy as independent variables and MMRs as the dependent variable. Linear regression analyses show positive associations for MMRs and the ratios of physicians to population (73%, n=136), ratios of nurses to population (56%, n=137), and

  7. Estimating trematode prevalence in snail hosts using a single-step duplex PCR: how badly does cercarial shedding underestimate infection rates?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Born-Torrijos, A.; Poulin, R.; Raga, J. A.; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 243 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : prevalence * detection * snail host * double infection * single-steo duplex PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  8. Prevalence, distribution and risk of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps at a center with a high adenoma detection rate and experienced pathologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJspeert, Joep E. G.; de Wit, Koos; van der Vlugt, Manon; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are the precursors of 15 % - 30 % of colorectal cancers (CRC). We aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of SSA/Ps and to evaluate the association between SSA/Ps and the risk of synchronous advanced neoplasia at a high quality colonoscopy center.

  9. An estimate of hydrothermal fluid residence times and vent chimney growth rates based on 210Pb/Pb ratios and mineralogic studies of sulfides dredged from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadko, D.; Tatsumoto, Mitsunobu

    1985-01-01

    The 210 Pb/Pb ratios across two sulfide samples dredged from the Juan de Fuca Ridge are used to estimate the growth rate of the sulfide material and the residence time of the hydrothermal fluid within the oceanic crust from the onset of basalt alteration. 210 Pb is added to the hydrothermal fluid by two processes: 1) high-temperature alteration of basalt and 2) if the residence time of the fluid is on the order of the 22.3-year half-life of 210 Pb, by in-situ growth from 222 Rn (Krishnaswami and Turekian, 1982). Stable lead is derived only from the alteration of basalt. The 210 Pb/Pb ratio across one sample was proportional 0.5 dpm/10 -6 g Pb, and across the other is was proportional 0.4 dpm/10 -6 g Pb. These values are quite close to the 238 U/Pb ratios of basalts from the area, suggesting that the residence time of the hydrothermal fluid from the onset of basalt alteration is appreciably less than the mean life of 210 Pb, i.e., the time required for ingrowth from the radon. An apparent growth rate of 1.2 cm/yr is derived from the slope of the 210 Pb/Pb curve for one of the samples. This is consistent with its mineralogy and texture which suggest an accretionary pattern of development. There is no obvious sequential growth pattern, and virtually no gradient in 210 Pb/Pb across the second sample. This is consistent with alteration of the original 210 Pb/Pb distribution by extensive remobilization reactions which are inferred from the mineralogic and textural relationships of the sample. (orig.)

  10. The effect of varying air injection rates on tall oil soap skimming efficiency for low fatty acid/resin acid ratio soaps produced by pulping mountain pine beetle-infected wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.

    2009-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of higher air injection rates on the skimmer performance of an evaporator soap skimmer at a mill in British Columbia (BC). Tests previously indicated that only 13 to 38 percent of the total soap in the feed liquor was skimmed for low acid number and low fatty acid and resin acid ratio soaps. A 2-day trial demonstrated that there were extended periods when soap skimming stopped completely and soap levels in the liquor equalled or exceeded levels observed in the feed liquor. Higher air injection rates had little impact on soap-skimming efficiency. The higher air injection rates decreased soap density by approximately 8 percent, and increased black liquor entrainment in the skimmed soap by approximately 35 percent. The use of higher air injection rates was not recommended, as high percentages of black liquor are known to cause high H{sub 2}S emissions during soap acidulation. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  11. Gender differences in brain activity and the relationship between brain activity and differences in prevalence rates between male and female major depressive disorder patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijian; Yan, Rui; Wei, Maobin; Tang, Hao; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    We examined the gender-difference effect on abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of male and female major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and the further clarified the relationship between the abnormal ALFF and differences in MDD prevalence rates between male and female patients. Fourteen male MDD patients, 13 female MDD patients and 15 male and 15 female well matched healthy controls (HCs) completed this study. The ALFF approach was used, and Pearson correlation was conducted to observe a possible clinical relevance. There were widespread differences in ALFF values between female and male MDD patients, including some important parts of the frontoparietal network, auditory network, attention network and cerebellum network. In female MDD patients, there was a positive correlation between average ALFF values of the left postcentral gyrus and the severity of weight loss symptom. The gender-difference effect leading to abnormal brain activity is an important underlying pathomechanism for different somatic symptoms in MDD patients of different genders and is likely suggestive of higher MDD prevalence rates in females. The abnormal ALFF resulting from the gender-difference effect might improve our understanding of the differences in prevalence rates between male and female MDD patients from another perspective. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing the prevalence rates of social phobia in a community according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R Comparando estimativas de prevalência da fobia social na comunidade empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based study aimed to compare the prevalence rates of social phobia using DSM-III-R and CID-10, based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, in a Brazilian community. METHODS: This survey was carried out in a representative sample of 1,041 residents from Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil (attrition rate = 14.7%. The Brazilian version of the CIDI was used. One-month, one-year and lifetime social phobia prevalence rates were estimated, employing the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 classifications, using the CIDI computer program. RESULTS: One-month, one-year, and life prevalence rates of social phobia, based on the DSM-III-R (7.9, 9.0 and 11.7% respectively were higher than those based on the ICD-10 (4.7, 5.2 and 6.7% respectively; p OBJETIVO: Este estudo populacional visa comparar estimativas de prevalência de fobia social empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R em uma comunidade brasileira. MÉTODOS: O levantamento foi realizado em uma amostra representativa de 1.041 residentes de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil (perda = 14,7%. Foi utilizada a versão brasileira da Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida foram estimadas empregando-se as classificações CID-10 e DSM-III-R, utilizando-se o programa de computador da CIDI. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida da fobia social, baseadas na DSM-III-R (7,9, 9,0 e 11,7% respectivamente foram mais elevadas que aquelas baseadas na CID-10 (4,7, 5,2 e 6,7%, respectivamente; p < 0,01 para todos. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados reforçam a hipótese de que as taxas de prevalência de fobia social são mais elevadas quando baseadas na DSM-III-R em comparação com a CID-10.

  13. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use. PMID:22269280

  14. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Pallant, Julie F; Manolios, Nick; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2012-01-24

    While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  15. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covic Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  16. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.

  17. Sex ratio and Wolbachia infection in the ant Formica exsecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L; Liautard, C; Reuter, M; Brown, W D; Sundström, L; Chapuisat, M

    2001-08-01

    Sex allocation data in social Hymenoptera provide some of the best tests of kin selection, parent-offspring conflict and sex ratio theories. However, these studies critically depend on controlling for confounding ecological factors and on identifying all parties that potentially manipulate colony sex ratio. It has been suggested that maternally inherited parasites may influence sex allocation in social Hymenoptera. If the parasites can influence sex allocation, infected colonies are predicted to invest more resources in females than non-infected colonies, because the parasites are transmitted through females but not males. Prime candidates for such sex ratio manipulation are Wolbachia, because these cytoplasmically transmitted bacteria have been shown to affect the sex ratio of host arthropods by cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, male-killing and feminization. In this study, we tested whether Wolbachia infection is associated with colony sex ratio in two populations of the ant Formica exsecta that have been the subject of extensive sex ratio studies. In these populations colonies specialize in the production of one sex or the other. We found that almost all F. exsecta colonies in both populations are infected with Wolbachia. However, in neither population did we find a significant association in the predicted direction between the prevalence of Wolbachia and colony sex ratio. In particular, colonies with a higher proportion of infected workers did not produce more females. Hence, we conclude that Wolbachia does not seem to alter the sex ratio of its hosts as a means to increase transmission rate in these two populations of ants.

  18. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of goose manure with alkali solubilized wheat straw: A case of carbon to nitrogen ratio and organic loading rate regression optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Umar, Muhammad; Rasool, Ghulam

    2017-04-01

    The present study focused on carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) and organic loading rate (OLR) optimization of goose manure (GM) and wheat straw (WS). Dealing the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure on industrial scale; the question of optimum C/N (mixing ratio) and OLR (daily feeding concentration) have significant importance still lack in literature. Therefore, Batch and CSTR co-digestion experiments of the GM and WS were carried out at mesophilic condition. The alkali (NaOH) solubilization pretreatment for the WS had greatly enhanced its anaerobic digestibility. The highest methane production was evaluated between the C/N of 20-30 during Batch experimentation while for CSTRs; the second applied OLR of (3g.VS/L.d) was proved as the optimum with maximum methane production capability of 254.65ml/g.VS for reactor B at C/N of 25. The C/N and OLR regression optimization models were developed for their commercial scale usefulness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MBO3: Eu3+ at the rate SiO2 (M = Y, Gd and Al) nano down conversion phosphors with superior asymmetric ratio and colour purity as spectral converters for c-Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambabu, U.; Munirathnam, N.R.; Prakash, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Y 1-x BO 3 :Eu x 3+ (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 mol) and Y 0.72x (Gd x , Al x )BO 3 : Eu 3+ 0.3 (0.05 ± x ± 0.3 mol) powder phosphors have been synthesized by a novel co-precipitation technique followed by heat treatment. Luminescence optimization was done: by optimizing the dopant Eu 3+ -concentration, substitution of Y 3+ with Gd 3+ /Al 3+ and finally with SiO 2 shell coating. Due to nanosize particle distribution, the optimum activator (Eu 3+ ) concentration (30 mol %) was found to be extremely at higher level, compared to the bulk phosphors. The asymmetric ratio (Red/Orange) and color purity of the optimized phosphors, Y 0.7 BO 3 :Eu 0.3 3+ (with crystallite size, D = 32 nm) and Y 0.3 Gd 0.2 Al 0.2 BO 3 :Eu 3+ (D = 17 nm) were further enhanced with SiO 2 shell coating. Based on the systematic study, the nanophosphor Y 0.7 BO 3 :Eu 0.3 3+ at the rate SiO 2 with R/O ratio as 6.710 and color coordinates (x = 0.6612, y = 0.3357) was optimized as a remarkable phosphor having superior features for its application in thin transparent form as DC layer to improve the energy conversion efficiency of c-Si solar cells

  20. Investigation of material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) for alloy Ti6Al4 V exposed to heat treatment processing in WEDM and optimization of parameters using Grey relational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altug, Mehmet [Inonu Univ., Malatya (Turkey). Dept. of Machine and Metal Technologies

    2016-11-01

    The study examines the changes of the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4 V as a result of heat treatment using wire electrical discharge machining, and their effect on machinability. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analyses have been performed to determine various characteristics and additionally, microhardness and conductivity measurements have been conducted. Material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) values have been determined by using L18 Taguchi test design. The microstructures of the samples have been changed by thermal procedures. Results have been obtained by using the Grey relational analysis (GRA) optimization technique to solve the maximum MRR and minimum WWR values. The best (highest) MRR value is obtained from sample E which was water quenched in dual phase processing. The microstructure of this sample is composed of primary α and α' phases. The best (lowest) WWR value is obtained from sample A.

  1. Investigation of material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) for alloy Ti6Al4 V exposed to heat treatment processing in WEDM and optimization of parameters using Grey relational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altug, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The study examines the changes of the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4 V as a result of heat treatment using wire electrical discharge machining, and their effect on machinability. By means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analyses have been performed to determine various characteristics and additionally, microhardness and conductivity measurements have been conducted. Material removal rate (MRR) and wire wear ratio (WWR) values have been determined by using L18 Taguchi test design. The microstructures of the samples have been changed by thermal procedures. Results have been obtained by using the Grey relational analysis (GRA) optimization technique to solve the maximum MRR and minimum WWR values. The best (highest) MRR value is obtained from sample E which was water quenched in dual phase processing. The microstructure of this sample is composed of primary α and α' phases. The best (lowest) WWR value is obtained from sample A.

  2. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  3. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, risk factors, and targeted interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Results Fourteen studies (n = 1,595) with 52.1% males aged 14.4 years reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1,508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1,348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean: 42 months follow-up were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female gender, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. Conclusions SI and SA are highly common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. PMID:23829436

  4. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  5. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.

  6. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christian; Krüger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters: An examination of associated features and comparison of pre-career and career prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-10-15

    Women protective service workers die by suicide at a higher rate than women workers in other occupational groups. However, no study has examined rates and correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters, despite the potential for these data to inform suicide screening, prevention, and intervention initiatives. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare pre-career and career rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors and identify their sociodemographic and occupational correlates among women firefighters. Data were obtained from 313 current U.S. women firefighters who completed a web-based survey (mean age = 37.30y, SD = 9.70y, 92.7% White). Pre-career rates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) were found to be 28.4%, 10.2%, 5.8%, and 11.2%, respectively. Career rates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and NSSI were found to be 37.7%, 10.9%, 3.5%, and 9.3%, respectively. Pre-career rates of suicide ideation (OR = 4.760, 95% CI = 2.820-8.034, p harassment) are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in the association of individual social class and neighbourhood unemployment rate with prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study from the DIAB-CORE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Grit; Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Moebus, Susanne; Pundt, Noreen; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Maier, Werner; Meisinger, Christa; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus

    2013-06-21

    To analyse gender differences in the relationship of individual social class, employment status and neighbourhood unemployment rate with present type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Five cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in five regions of Germany from 1997 to 2006. The sample consisted of 8871 individuals residing in 226 neighbourhoods from five urban regions. Prevalent T2DM. We found significant multiplicative interactions between gender and the individual variables--social class and employment status. Social class was statistically significantly associated with T2DM in men and women, whereby this association was stronger in women (lower vs higher social class: OR 2.68 (95% CIs 1.66 to 4.34)) than men (lower vs higher social class: OR 1.78 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.58)). Significant associations of employment status and T2DM were only found in women (unemployed vs employed: OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.92); retired vs employed: OR 1.77 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.84); others vs employed: OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.67)). Neighbourhood unemployment rate was associated with T2DM in men (high vs low tertile: OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.96)). Between-study and between-neighbourhood variations in T2DM prevalence were more pronounced in women. The considered covariates helped to explain statistically the variation in T2DM prevalence among men, but not among women. Social class was inversely associated with T2DM in both men and women, whereby the association was more pronounced in women. Employment status only affected T2DM in women. Neighbourhood unemployment rate is an important predictor of T2DM in men, but not in women.

  9. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Diabetes Mellitus in Patients of an Ambulatory Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Mariela; Escobar, Eddy; Rodríguez González, Carmen E

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder in the adult population. Studies have found a higher prevalence of overt hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetic population than in the general population, but the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus 2 is still controversial. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence rate of hypothyroidism in the adult population receiving services in an ambulatory clinic and to determine if there is an association between hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. From the database of all adult patients who attended the outpatient clinic at Family Medicine Center Policlínica Bella Vista in Mayagüez, P.R. during 2014, a random sample of 200 subjects was obtained and the medical records were reviewed. The prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus in this group was 22% and the prevalence rate of hypothyroidism was 17%. The prevalence rate of hypothyroidism in diabetic patients was 10/44 (22.7%). The prevalence rate of hypothyroidism in non-diabetic patients was 24/156 (15.4%). The prevalence ratio was 1.48 (95% CI: 0.77, 2.85; X2 = 1.31, p = 0.25). The results of this cross-sectional study showed a non-statistically significant tendency for a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism in diabetic patients, which suggest that screening for hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes should be considered. More studies with more patients are necessary to investigate the association between thyroid dysfunction and diabetic patients.

  10. Transition state theory thermal rate constants and RRKM-based branching ratios for the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction based on multi-state and multi-reference ab initio calculations of interest for the Titan's chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Zvereva-Loëte, Natalia; Scribano, Yohann; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice

    2012-10-30

    Multireference single and double configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations including Davidson (+Q) or Pople (+P) corrections have been conducted in this work for the reactants, products, and extrema of the doublet ground state potential energy surface involved in the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction. Such highly correlated ab initio calculations are then compared with previous PMP4, CCSD(T), W1, and DFT/B3LYP studies. Large relative differences are observed in particular for the transition state in the entrance channel resolving the disagreement between previous ab initio calculations. We confirm the existence of a small but positive potential barrier (3.86 ± 0.84 kJ mol(-1) (MR-AQCC) and 3.89 kJ mol(-1) (MRCI+P)) in the entrance channel of the title reaction. The correlation is seen to change significantly the energetic position of the two minima and five saddle points of this system together with the dissociation channels but not their relative order. The influence of the electronic correlation into the energetic of the system is clearly demonstrated by the thermal rate constant evaluation and it temperature dependance by means of the transition state theory. Indeed, only MRCI values are able to reproduce the experimental rate constant of the title reaction and its behavior with temperature. Similarly, product branching ratios, evaluated by means of unimolecular RRKM theory, confirm the NH production of Umemoto et al., whereas previous works based on less accurate ab initio calculations failed. We confirm the previous findings that the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction proceeds via an insertion-dissociation mechanism and that the dominant product channels are CH(2)NH + H and CH(3) + NH. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 513例精神分裂症住院患者院前饮酒调查%THE PREVALENCE OF DRINKING AND THE COMORBID RATE OF ALCOHOL USE DISORDER IN 513 INPATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA BEFORE THEIR ADMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康兆鹏; 高滢; 武孟丽; 董雪冰; 苏中华; 郝伟

    2017-01-01

    目的:了解精神分裂症患者住院前的饮酒状况及其酒精使用障碍的共病率.方法:使用自编饮酒调查表、酒精使用障碍筛查量表(AUDIT)对542名住院精神分裂症患者院前的饮酒状况进行调查,根据美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第5版(DSM-5)酒精使用障碍标准对筛查阳性者(AUDIT≥7)进行诊断.结果:精神分裂症患者男、女及总样本终生饮酒率分别是65.1%、42.2%、55.9%,年饮酒率分别是40.4%、27.2%、35.1%;年饮酒者中男、女及总样本AUDIT阳性率分别是40.3%、12.5%、31.7%.男、女及总样本酒精使用障碍时点共病率分别是9.1%、2.0%、6.2%,男性高于女性(x2=10.86,P=0.001).结论:本地区精神分裂症患者的饮酒率低于普通人群,且合并酒精使用障碍的诊断率低于西方发达国家.%Objective:To describe the prevalence of drinking and the comorbid of alcohol use disorder among the inpatients with schizophrenia before their admission.Methods:A total of 542 inpatients with schizophrenia were surveyed by a self-developed questionnaire to collect the general information and alcohol use.180 drinkers were screened for alcohol dependence by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT).57 participants who were screened positive (AUDIT ≥ 7) for alcohol dependence were diagnosed by trained psychiatrists with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria.Results:The data of 513 participants whose information were complete were analysis.The total lifetime prevalence in the sample was 55.9%.The lifetime prevalence in male was 65.1% where female was 42.2%.The total one-year drinking-rate was 35.1%.The one -year drinking-rate in male was 40.4% where female was 27.2%.The point prevalence rates of patients screened positive (AUDIT≥7) were 40.3%,12.5% and 31.7% for male,female and the whole sample respectively in the one-year drinking patients

  12. The evaluaton of prevalence rate of p53 antigen expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma and it′s relation to tumor thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghihi Gita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available P53 tumor suppressor gene mutation is one of the most common genetic alteration in human malignancies. This study was done to determine the prevalence of the P53 antigen expression by sex, age, type of melanoma, thickness of the lesion and site of the antigen expression either cytoplasmic or nuclear. Paraffin embeded block of 50 patients (45 primary and metastaticwith documented diagnosis of melanoma deparaffinized and immuno stained with DO-7 monoclonal antibody. The lesions were divided depending on the degree of the staining as follow: 1. no staining, 2. mild (less than 10%, 3. moderate (10%-50% staining, 4. severe (more than 50%. Fifty four percent of evaluated patients were female and 46% were male. Forty percent of lesions were graded as no staining, 36% of lesions showed mild staining, 14% moderate and 10% severe staining site of expression was excusively in the cytoplasm. There was no meaningful statistical deference between severity of staining and the age group, sex, type and thickness of melanoma. (p value was 0.532, 0.488, 0.626, 0.954 respectively.

  13. WHO-defined 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)' in 88 consecutive patients: survival data, leukemic transformation rates and prevalence of JAK2, MPL and IDH mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, M M; Lasho, T L; Finke, C M; Gangat, N; Caramazza, D; Holtan, S G; Pardanani, A; Knudson, R A; Ketterling, R P; Chen, D; Hoyer, J D; Hanson, C A; Tefferi, A

    2010-07-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to identify 88 consecutive Mayo Clinic patients with 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)' (median age 74 years; 60 females). In all, 60 (68%) patients were followed up to the time of their death. Overall median survival was 66 months; leukemic transformation was documented in five (5.7%) cases. Multivariable analysis identified age >or=70 years (P=0.01), transfusion need at diagnosis (P=0.04) and dysgranulopoiesis (P=0.02) as independent predictors of shortened survival; the presence of zero (low risk), one (intermediate risk) or >or=2 (high risk) risk factors corresponded to median survivals of 102, 52 and 27 months, respectively. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutational analysis was performed on archived bone marrows in 78 patients; JAK2V617F and MPLW515L mutations were shown in five (6.4%) and three (3.8%) patients, respectively, and did not seem to affect phenotype or prognosis. IDH mutations were not detected. Survival was not affected by serum ferritin and there were no instances of death directly related to iron overload. The current study is unique in its strict adherence to WHO criteria for selecting study patients and providing information on long-term survival, practical prognostic factors, baseline risk of leukemic transformation and the prevalence of JAK2, MPL and IDH mutations.

  14. Calculations of B1 Distribution, Specific Energy Absorption Rate, and Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio for a Body-Size Birdcage Coil Loaded with Different Human Subjects at 64 and 128 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Collins, C M; Smith, M B

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model of a female body is developed to study the effects of different body types with different coil drive methods on radio-frequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field distribution, specific energy absorption rate (SAR), and intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (ISNR) for a body-size birdcage coil at 64 and 128 MHz. The coil is loaded with either a larger, more muscular male body model (subject 1) or a newly developed female body model (subject 2), and driven with two-port (quadrature), four-port, or many (ideal) sources. Loading the coil with subject 1 results in significantly less homogeneous B 1 field, higher SAR, and lower ISNR than those for subject 2 at both frequencies. This dependence of MR performance and safety measures on body type indicates a need for a variety of numerical models representative of a diverse population for future calculations. The different drive methods result in similar B 1 field patterns, SAR, and ISNR in all cases.

  15. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H S

    2017-11-03

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg -1 at current density 1 Ag -1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg -1 ), power density (250 W Kg -1 ) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  16. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg-1 at current density 1 Ag-1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg-1), power density (250 W Kg-1) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  17. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Gender and tuberculosis: a comparison of prevalence surveys with notification data to explore sex differences in case detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgdorff, M W; Nagelkerke, N J; Dye, C; Nunn, P

    2000-02-01

    To explore whether lower tuberculosis notification rates among women are due to a reduced access to health care, particularly diagnostic services, for women. Age- and sex-specific tuberculosis prevalence rates of smear-positive tuberculosis were obtained from tuberculosis prevalence surveys reported to the WHO or published in the literature. Age- and sex-specific notification rates from the same countries in 1996 were used. Prevalence data and notifications from 29 surveys in 14 countries were used. Notification rates varied strongly among countries, but the female/male ratio was below 1 and decreased with increasing age in almost all. The female/male (F/M) prevalence ratios were less than 0.5 in surveys in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific Region, and approximately 1 in the African Region. In most countries the F/M sex ratio in prevalent cases was similar or lower than that in notified cases, suggesting that F/M differences in notification rates may be largely due to epidemiological differences and not to differential access to health care. However, available data are limited as the prevalence surveys in Africa were carried out many years ago, and in Asia notification rates may be distorted by a large private sector with deficiencies in notification.

  19. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare?Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare?documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare?identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between th...

  20. Prevalence, incidence rates and persistence of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study: a 15-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C. G.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort of 1501 unselected 8th grade schoolchildren was established 15 years ago with the aim to follow the course of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from school age into adult life. To date no studies have evaluated incidence rates and persistence of contact al...... the most common contact allergen, and new sensitizations occurred despite the European Union nickel regulation. Fragrance mix I was a poor marker for history of eczematous skin reaction to perfumed products....

  1. Impact of using DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing binge eating disorder in bariatric surgery candidates: change in prevalence rate, demographic characteristics, and scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was recently included in the DSM-5. The prevalence rate for BED using the DSM-IV-TR research criteria tends to be higher in bariatric surgery candidates than the normative population; however, no studies have examined how many more bariatric surgery candidates will meet the new, less conservative criteria of DSM-5. We explore the current BED prevalence rate change in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. Data were obtained for 1,283 bariatric surgery candidates. 84 men and 213 women were diagnosed with current BED using DSM-IV-TR research criteria. A semi-structured interview, the binge eating scale (BES), and a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) were given to every patient as part of standard procedures mandated by the facility. An additional 3.43% (p MMPI-2-RF and BES scores when compared with patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Thus, the current investigation indicates that individuals meeting BED criteria based on DSM-5 are similar to those meeting the more conservative diagnostic threshold outlined in DSM-IV-TR in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An ab initio/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus prediction of rate constant and product branching ratios for unimolecular decomposition of propen-2-ol and related H+CH2COHCH2 reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Li, Ze-Rong; Liu, Cun-Xi; Li, Xiang-Yuan

    2008-12-01

    Enols have been found to be important intermediates in the combustion flames of hydrocarbon [C. A. Taatjes et al., Science 308, 1887 (2005)]. The removal mechanism of enols in combustion flame has not been established yet. In this work, the potential energy surface for the unimolecular decomposition of syn-propen-2-ol and H+CH2COHCH2 recombination reactions have been first investigated by CCSD(T) method. The barrier heights, reaction energies, and geometrical parameters of the reactants, products, intermediates, and transition states have been investigated theoretically. The results show that the formation of CH3CO+CH3 via the CH3COCH3 intermediate is dominant for the unimolecular decomposition of syn-propen-2-ol and its branching ratio is over 99% in the whole temperature range from 700 to 3000 K, and its rate constant can be expressed as an analytical form in the range of T =700-3000 K at atmospheric pressure. This can be attributed to the lower energy barrier of this channel compared to the other channels. The association reaction of H with CH2COHCH2 is shown to be a little more complicated than the unimolecular decomposition of syn-propen-2-ol. The channel leading to CH3CO+CH3 takes a key role in the whole temperature range at atmospheric pressure. However at the higher pressure of 100 atm, the recombination by direct formation of syn-propen-2-ol through H addition is important at T 1400 K, the recombination channel leading to CH3CO+CH3 turns out to be significant.

  3. Prevalence of myasthenia gravis in the Catalan county of Osona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, J M; Altimiras, J; Roura, P; Alonso, F; Bufill, E; Munmany, A; Alfonso, S; Illa, I

    The reported prevalence of myasthenia gravis ranges between 5 and 24 cases per 100,000, and people over 65years account for less than 50% of all cases. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of myasthenia gravis in the county of Osona were studied in patients younger and older than 65. The study draws from the county-based prospective myasthenia gravis register implemented by the Neurology Department at Hospital General de Vic in 1991. The prevalence of myasthenia gravis was 32.89×10 5 inhabitants (95%CI, 23.86-41.91). The standardized prevalence (European population) was 35.47×10 5 inhabitants (95%CI, 26.10-44.84). The ratio of women to men was 1.3. Overall, the group of patients older than 65 accounted for 62.75% of all cases. The prevalence of myasthenia gravis increased considerably in older age groups. No cases were registered among patients under 25years old, prevalence was 21.87×10 5 in the 25 to 64 age group, and prevalence in patients over 65 years increased to 122.35×10 5 . The clinical characteristics prior to treatment and at the cut-off date are similar (P>.05) in patients younger than 65 and those aged 65 and older. These figures show the highest prevalence rate reported to date. This high prevalence is due to the rate observed among patients older than 65. These results provide a new warning that myasthenia gravis may be underdiagnosed in the elderly population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Relative Statistics and Approximate Disease Prevalence to Compare Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Frank; Abbey, Craig

    2016-11-01

    Schatzkin et al. and other authors demonstrated that the ratios of some conditional statistics such as the true positive fraction are equal to the ratios of unconditional statistics, such as disease detection rates, and therefore we can calculate these ratios between two screening tests on the same population even if negative test patients are not followed with a reference procedure and the true and false negative rates are unknown. We demonstrate that this same property applies to an expected utility metric. We also demonstrate that while simple estimates of relative specificities and relative areas under ROC curves (AUC) do depend on the unknown negative rates, we can write these ratios in terms of disease prevalence, and the dependence of these ratios on a posited prevalence is often weak particularly if that prevalence is small or the performance of the two screening tests is similar. Therefore we can estimate relative specificity or AUC with little loss of accuracy, if we use an approximate value of disease prevalence.

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan: prevalence rate, molecular characterization and de-colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu-Chuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin resistant (MRSA, is a common pathogen among patients receiving hemodialysis. To evaluate nasal carriage, molecular characterization and effectiveness of decolonization of MRSA among patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan, we conducted this study. Methods From January to June 2011, two nasal samplings with a 3-month interval were obtained from patients undergoing hemodialysis in a medical center (CGMH, and in a local hospital (YMH and sent for detection of MRSA. For MRSA carriers, decolonization procedures were administered. All patients in CGMH were observed if MRSA infections occurred during the study period. Results A total of 529 nasal specimens (265 from CGMH and 264 from YMH were collected from 296 patients (161 from CGMH and 135 from YMH. 233 patients participated in both surveys. Average one-time point MRSA carriage rate was 3.8%, and the rate was up to 6.9% for those with two-time point surveys. No additional significant factor for MRSA carriage was identified. Seventy percent of the 20 colonizing MRSA isolates, though categorized as healthcare-associated strains epidemiologically, shared common molecular characteristics of the local community-associated strains. Only one of the 20 MRSA-colonized patients failed decolonization and had persistent colonization, while without any intervention, 17 (61% of 28 patients with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonization in the first survey had persistent colonization of a genetically indistinguishable strain. Within the study period, two patients (1.24% in CGMH, one with MRSA colonization (9.1%, developed MRSA infection. Conclusion A substantial proportion of patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan had MRSA colonization, mostly genetically community strains. Decolonization procedures may effectively eliminate MRSA colonization and might reduce subsequent MRSA infection in these patients.

  6. Prevalence of mind and body exercises (MBE in relation to demographics, self-rated health, and purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs and analgesics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rådmark

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES, self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE extensively compared to people who do not.The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20-72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. The respondents were divided into three groups depending on frequency of MBE practice (never/seldom/often. Measures regarding MBE practice, health behaviors, self-rated health, and illnesses were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, while more objective measures of socioeconomic status and education were derived from registry data. In addition, data on purchases of prescription drugs for all respondents were included in the study. These data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which contains information about prescription drugs dispensed at Swedish pharmacies. Separate analyses were performed for mental MBE (mindfulness, meditation, relaxation techniques and physical MBE (yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, respectively.A high intensity MBE practice is cross-sectionally related to poor self-assessed health (sleeping problems, pain, depressive symptoms, mental disorders, high levels of stress, and high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics. These cross-sectional relationships are generally stronger for mental MBE than for bodily-directed MBE. More women than men are practicing MBE on a regular basis, and physically active people participate to a greater extent in MBE compared with the physically inactive.Overall, the study shows that frequent participation in mind and body exercises is associated with high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics as well as with poor self-assessed health and high levels of stress. However, since this is a cross-sectional study, it is impossible to establish cause and effect

  7. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  8. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare–Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare–documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare–identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed. PMID:27777329

  9. Lanthanide(III) complexes of a mono(methylphosphonate) analogue of H4dota: the influence of protonation of the phosphonate moiety on the TSAP/SAP isomer ratio and the water exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudovský, Jakub; Cígler, Petr; Kotek, Jan; Hermann, Petr; Vojtísek, Pavel; Lukes, Ivan; Peters, Joop A; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

    2005-04-08

    A monophosphonate analogue of H4dota, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-4,7,10-tris(carboxymethyl)-1-methylphosphonic acid (H5do3aP), and its complexes with lanthanides were synthesized. Multinuclear NMR studies reveal that, in aqueous solution, lanthanide(III) complexes of the ligand exhibit structures analogous to those of H4dota complexes. Thus, the central ion is nine-coordinate, surrounded by four nitrogen atoms, three acetate and one phosphonate oxygen atoms, and one water molecule in an apical position. For complexes of H5do3aP with Ln(III) ions in the middle of the series, the abundance of the desired twisted square-antiprismatic (TSAP) isomer is higher than for the corresponding H4dota complexes. The TSAP/square-antiprismatic (SAP) isomer ratio is highly sensitive to protonation of the phosphonate group: a higher abundance of the TSAP isomer was found in acidic solutions. The microscopic protonation constants of the TSAP isomers are higher than those of the SAP isomers. The presence of one water molecule in the first coordination sphere of the complexes in the pH region studied (pH 2.5-7.0) is confirmed by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The results of a simultaneous fit of variable-temperature 17O NMR relaxation data and 1H NMRD profiles show that the residence time of water (tauM) in the Gd(III) complex is much smaller than for [Gd(dota)(H2O)]-. The exchange rate appears to be dependent on the pH of the solution. The values of tauM are 37, 40, and 14 ns at pH 2.5, 4.7, and 7.0, respectively. These observations can be explained by an extensive second-sphere hydrogen-bonding network that varies with the state of protonation of the phosphonate moiety. Upon protonation of the complex, the second-sphere hydration probably becomes more ordered, which may result in a decrease in penetrability and an increase in tauM. The relaxivity of the Gd(III) complex is almost independent of the pH and is equal to 4.7 s(-1) mM(-1) (20 MHz, pH 7 and 37 degrees C). The solid

  10. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cancer of the oropharynx by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Jean-Damien; Chen, Alyce A; Franceschi, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is more frequent in men than women mainly due to the heavier and longer duration of smoking in men. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the rising incidence of OPC in the United States and other high-income countries. To determine whether there is a difference in the proportion of HPV-attributable OPC between men and women, we systematically retrieved HPV prevalence data from 63 studies reporting separately on OPC by gender. The male/female (M/F) ratios of HPV prevalence in OPC across different countries and the corresponding M/F ratios of cumulative lung cancer risk (a proxy for smoking) were compared. The United States had the highest M/F ratios of HPV prevalence in OPC (1.5). The lowest M/F ratios (≤0.7) were found in Asia and some European countries (e.g., France). The countries in which the M/F ratio of HPV prevalence in OPC was ≥1.0 had the most similar lung cancer risks for men and women. When HPV prevalence data were applied to age-standardized OPC incidence rates in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and France, the M/F ratio for the HPV-positive OPC incidence rates was rather stable (around 4) in all countries. In contrast, the M/F ratio for the HPV-negative OPC incidence rates reached 10.2 in France versus gender and country mainly as a consequence of the vast international variation in male smoking habits. Nevertheless, HPV-positive OPC may affect men more heavily than women in different populations for reasons that are unclear. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. High content of MYHC II in vastus lateralis is accompanied by higher VO2/power output ratio during moderate intensity cycling performed both at low and at high pedalling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Szkutnik, Z; Karasinski, J; Duda, K; Kolodziejski, L; Zoladz, J A

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the content of various types of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate power output incremental exercise, performed at low and at high pedalling rates. Twenty one male subjects (mean +/- SD) aged 24.1 +/- 2.8 years; body mass 72.9 +/- 7.2 kg; height 179.1 +/- 4.8 cm; BMI 22.69 +/- 1.89 kg.m(-2); VO2max 50.6 +/- 5.3 ml.kg.min(-1), participated in this study. On separate days, they performed two incremental exercise tests at 60 rev.min(-1) and at 120 rev.min(-1), until exhaustion. Gas exchange variables were measured continuously breath by breath. Blood samples were taken for measurements of plasma lactate concentration prior to the exercise test and at the end of each step of the incremental exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, using Bergström needle, and they were analysed for the content of MyHC I and MyHC II using SDS--PAGE and two groups (n=7, each) were selected: group H with the highest content of MyHC II (60.7 % +/- 10.5 %) and group L with the lowest content of MyHC II (27.6 % +/- 6.1 %). We have found that during incremental exercise at the power output between 30-120 W, performed at 60 rev.min(-1), oxygen uptake in the group H was significantly greater than in the group L (ANCOVA, p=0.003, upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship). During cycling at the same power output but at 120 rev.min(-1), the oxygen uptake was also higher in the group H, when compared to the group L (i.e. upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship, ANCOVA, p=0.002). Moreover, the increase in pedalling rate from 60 to 120 rev.min(-1) was accompanied by a significantly higher increase of oxygen cost of cycling and by a significantly higher plasma lactate concentration in subjects from group H. We concluded that the muscle mechanical efficiency, expressed by the VO2/PO ratio

  13. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Herbish, Abdullah S.; Al-Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al-Salloum, Abdullah A.; Al-Qurachi, Mansour M.; Al-Omar, Ahmed M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among 0-19 years old Saudi children and adolescents. A nationwide Saudi Arabian project was conducted in the years 2001-2007 with the objective of establishing national growth charts and defining the prevalence of some chronic childhood diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The 14000 households were randomly selected based on a recent population statistic. The questionnaire used included demographic data and evidence of diabetes mellitus. The prevalence was estimated and expressed per 100,000. Breakdown of this figure per age and region was carried out. In the 11,874 out of the 14000 (84.9%) selected households, 45,682 children and adolescents were surveyed. Fifty children and adolescents were identified to have type 1 diabetes mellitus with a prevalence rate of 109.5 per 100,000. The male to female ratio was almost equal (26 males and 24 females). The distribution of prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus by region shows that the highest was 162 in the central region. Children and adolescents were also grouped by age into 5-6 (prevalence 100), 7-12 (prevalence 109), 13-16 (prevalence 243) and 17-18 (prevalence 150). We conclude that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents is 109.5 per 100,000. (author)

  14. The prevalence rate of internet addiction among Japanese college students: two cross-sectional studies and reconsideration of cut-off points of Young's internet addiction test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Teo, Alan R; Shiraishi, Masaki; Tayama, Masaya; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-05-30

    Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over two years and investigated the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan, and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of self-rating scale to screen possible IA. This study is composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of two years. The study questionnaire included questions about demographics and internet use, and the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Additionally, the subjects in survey II were asked about self-reported IA. There were 1,005 respondents in total with a mean age of 18.9±1.3. The mean IAT scores remained stable between 2014 and 2016: 45.2±12.6 in survey I and 45.5±13.1 in survey II (overall mean IAT score of 45.4±13.0). With respect to self-reported IA in survey II, a total of 21.6% agreed (score of 5 or 6 on a 6-point Likert scale). We categorized these subjects as IA, and the remainder as non-IA. The mean IAT score showed significant difference between these two groups (57.8±14.3 vs 42.1±10.7, p<0.001). The severity of symptoms of IA among Japanese college students appears stable in recent years, with a mean IAT scores of over 40. Our results suggest that a screening score cut-off of 40 on the IAT could be reconsidered and that of 50 might be proposed for the cut-off. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  16. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  17. Prevalence and contributing factors to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a study of five- to fifteen-year-old children in Zhabei District, Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenlan; Du, Yasong; Zhong, Xiangyang; David, Coghill

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to understand the features among 5- to 15-year-old children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Zhabei District in Shanghai. Children with ADHD were studied using general background questionnaire, ADHD symptom rating questionnaire, and cluster-stratified sampling. A total of 9,900 valid questionnaires were utilized in this study. We conducted diagnostic interviews with suspected ADHD children and their parents using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition) for ADHD. The prevalence rate of ADHD among the children was 4.6%, of which 2.4%, 0.4%, and 1.8% had ADHD-I ADHD-HI, and ADHD-C types, respectively. The prevalence rates in boys and girls were 6.6% and 2.7% (ratio, 2.41 : 1), respectively. Significant differences in prevalence rate were found among children with different age groups and ADHD types. Children aged 7-10 years had the highest prevalence rate (6.3%). Externally, residence children had higher prevalence than local residents. Significant differences in prevalence rate were also found among children with parents having different educational and socioeconomic level. The prevalence of ADHD-HI was higher than the other two types. The highest prevalence was observed in 7- to 10-year-old children. The influential factors of ADHD prevalence were age, gender, and educational level. © 2013 The Authors. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Soil Contamination Rate, Prevalence, Intensity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any ... flotation method while stool specimens were analyzed using two techniques. ... of sanitary facilities, unsafe waste disposal system, ... toilet and human factors including age, sex, socio- economic ... work was done at the Research Unit of the.

  19. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  20. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  1. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  2. The Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Metropolitan Area of Rome: A Capture-Recapture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcomeni, Alessio; Cortese, Antonio; Sgarlata, Eleonora; Alunni Fegatelli, Danilo; Marfia, Gerolama Alessandra; Buttari, Fabio; Mirabella, Massimiliano; De Fino, Chiara; Prosperini, Luca; Pozzilli, Carlo; Grasso, Maria Grazia; Iasevoli, Luigi; Di Battista, Giancarlo; Millefiorini, Enrico

    2018-03-02

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in central Italy. The objective of this study is to estimate MS prevalence in the metropolitan area of Rome. We used the capture-recapture method to calculate prevalence estimates in the study area. The selected prevalence day was December 31, 2015. A total of 1,007 patients, with a definite diagnosis of MS according to the revised McDonald's criteria, were considered for crude, age- and sex-specific prevalence estimation. The overall crude prevalence rate was 146.2 cases per 100,000 (95% CI 119.9-172.5). A higher prevalence rate was recorded in females (194.1, 95% CI 149.6-238.6) than in males (93.0, 95% CI 67.2-118.8) with a female to male ratio of 1.8. Age-specific prevalence peaked in the 25-34 , 35-44 and 45-54 years class; moreover, it was found to increase up to the 45-54 years age group in females and the 35-44 years age group in males, decreasing thereafter. The results confirm that the metropolitan area of Rome is a high-risk area for MS. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Moll

    Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  4. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  6. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  7. Aircraft profile measurements of 18O/16O and D/H isotope ratios of cloud condensate and water vapor constrain precipitation efficiency and entrainment rates in tropical clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, D. C.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Toohey, D. W.; Twohy, C. H.; Heymsfield, A.; Rella, C.; Van Pelt, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Convective clouds play a significant role in the moisture and heat balance of the tropics. The dynamics of organized and isolated convection are a function of the background thermodynamic profile and wind shear, buoyancy sources near the surface and the latent heating inside convective updrafts. The stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios in water vapor and condensate can be used to identify dominant moisture exchanges and aspects of the cloud microphysics that are otherwise difficult to observe. Both the precipitation efficiency and the dilution of cloud updrafts by entrainment can be estimated since the isotopic composition outside the plume is distinct from inside. Measurements of the 18O/16O and D/H isotope ratios were made in July 2011 on 13 research flights of the NCAR C130 aircraft during the ICE-T (Ice in Clouds Experiment - Tropical) field campaign near St Croix. Measurements were made using an instrument based on the Picarro Wave-Length Scanning Cavity Ring Down platform that includes a number of optical, hardware and software modifications to allow measurements to be made at 5 Hz for deployment on aircraft. The measurement system was optimized to make precise measurements of the isotope ratio of liquid and ice cloud condensate by coupling the gas analyzer to the NCAR Counter flow Virtual Impactor inlet. The inlet system provides a particle enhancement while rejecting vapor. Sample air is vigorously heated before flowing into the gas phase analyzer. We present statistics that demonstrate the performance and calibration of the instrument. Measured profiles show that environmental air exhibits significant layering showing controls from boundary layer processes, large scale horizontal advection and regional subsidence. Condensate in clouds is consistent with generally low precipitation efficiency, although there is significant variability in the isotope ratios suggesting heterogeneity within plumes and the stochastic nature of detrainment processes

  8. High aspect ratio spheromak experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.; Schmid, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Reversatron RFP (R/a = 50cm/8cm) has been operated as an ohmically heated spheromak of high aspect ratio. We find that the dynamo can drive the toroidal field upward at rates as high as 10 6 G/sec. Discharges can be initiated and ramped upward from seed fields as low as 50 G. Small toroidal bias fields of either polarity (-0.2 < F < 0.2) do not significantly affect operation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  9. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period 1987 - 1989. Prevalence rates were low to moderate with an overaJl prevalence of 42%. These ranged from approximately 10% in the low-prevalence ... PH. DC. C. C. Appieton. PI-lD. Department of Zoology, University of Tr

  10. Prevalence and etiology of dementia in a Japanese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K; Kawano, H; Hasuo, Y; Fujishima, M

    1992-06-01

    We sought to determine the type-specific prevalence of dementia and its risk factors in elderly persons from the Japanese community of Hisayama. We studied the prevalence of dementia in 887 Hisayama residents (353 men and 534 women) aged 65 years or older (screening rate, 94.6%) using various items of clinical information, neurological examination, and dementia scales. We also studied brain morphology in 50 of 59 determined to have dementia by computed tomography or autopsy during the subsequent 54-month period. Factors relevant to dementia were compared between 27 patients with vascular dementia and 789 control subjects without dementia in a retrospective fashion. The prevalence rate of dementia among Hisayama residents aged 65 or older was estimated at 6.7%, with a females to males ratio of 1:2. Among 50 cases of dementia in which brain morphology was examined, the frequency of vascular dementia was 56%; this rate was 2.2 times higher than that for senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Aging, hypertension, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and high hematocrit were significantly (p less than 0.05) and independently associated with the occurrence of vascular dementia. Prevalence of dementia among the Hisayama residents was relatively identical to that previously reported, but vascular dementia was more predominant. Risk factors for vascular dementia were similar to those for lacunar infarcts. Control of hypertension may be a key to reducing dementia among the Japanese population.

  11. Rural-urban disparities in the prevalence of diabetes and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A; Wellenius, G

    2012-10-01

    To examine the rural-urban differences in the prevalence of diabetes and coronary heart disease, and the extent to which they are explained by the presence of established risk factors including poverty. Cross-sectional study of more than 214,000 respondents using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Logistic regression models were utilized; prevalence odds ratios with corresponding confidence intervals and P-values are provided. The crude prevalence rates of diabetes and coronary heart disease were 8.6% (P = 0.001) and 38.8% (P rural areas compared with urban areas, respectively. The higher prevalence in rural areas of many of the common risk factors for these conditions, including poverty (P rural areas [prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 0.94, P = 0.032], but the prevalence of coronary heart disease was higher (POR = 1.09, P = 0.011). The higher prevalence of diabetes and coronary heart disease in rural populations in the USA presents a formidable public health challenge. It exacerbates many of the pre-existing rural health disparities, including a lack of access to financial resources and primary care providers. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variations in the prevalence of spondylolysis in early British populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, H A

    1991-01-01

    Crude prevalence rates of spondylolysis were estimated in skeletal populations from various periods. There was a steady increase in prevalence from 3.74% in Romano-British to 5.08% in medieval populations, but the rate fell considerably to 1.42% in a population from an 18th/19th century context. This trend was not statistically significant, however. The male/female ratio was approximately unity until the 18th/19th century when the expected male excess appeared. The lesions predominantly affected L5 and all were isthmic in type. Of the total of 52 cases, only four were unilateral. One occurred in the fourth cervical vertebra. There were few complications; spondylolisthesis was noted in four cases and in three there were osteoarthritic changes on the superior margin of the displaced lamina. PMID:1941859

  13. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  14. Variable effects of prevalence correction of population denominators on differentials in myocardial infarction incidence: a record linkage study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the impact of prevalence correction of population denominators on myocardial infarction (MI) incidence rates, rate ratios, and rate differences in Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years during the study period 2000-2004. Person-based linked hospital and mortality data sets were used to estimate the number of prevalent and first-ever MI cases each year from 2000 to 2004 using a 15-year look-back period. Age-specific and -standardized MI incidence rates were calculated using both prevalence-corrected and -uncorrected population denominators, by sex and Aboriginality. The impact of prevalence correction on rates increased with age, was higher for men than women, and substantially greater for Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people. Despite the systematic underestimation of incidence, prevalence correction had little impact on the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal age-standardized rate ratios (6% and 4% underestimate in men and women, respectively), although the impact on rate differences was more marked (12% and 6%, respectively). The percentage underestimate of differentials was greater at older ages. Prevalence correction of denominators, while more accurate, is difficult to apply and may add modestly to the quantification of relative disparities in MI incidence between populations. Absolute incidence disparities using uncorrected denominators may have an error >10%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalance rate of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Results of a questionnaire survey of member facilities of Japan society of ningen dock with special concerns regarding the actual status and disincentives for implementing such screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a survey of member facilities of the Japan Society of Ningen Dock to elucidate the actual status of chest computed tomography (CT) screening and the reasons for not being able to change to low-dose CT. We sent a questionnaire consisting of 9 items to 531 member facilities in July 2010, response by facsimile to obtain an analysis. The prevalence rate of low-dose CT lung cancer screening slightly increased to 35% in comparison with the former survey done in November 2008. Some facilities indicated some shift in tube current to a lower range even though this was insufficient to meet the definition of low-dose CT. This reflects their thinking of ''Even with knowledge, there is strong hesitation to change to low-dose CT''. Among the reasons why they did not change to low-dose CT, a priority for high quality images was the top reason among problems of devices and performance. Informed consent was not yet adequate. It is necessary for manufactures to develop better technology to improve the image quality of low-dose CT and to report enough information to clinicians. On the medical side, perception of the necessity for appropriate reduction of radiation dose and the decision to move to low-dose CT would be of crucial significance for facility heads as well as radiologists and technicians. (author)

  16. Abnormal splenic artery diameter/hepatic artery diameter ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dao-Bing; Dai, Chuan-Zhou; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Ning; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine an optimal cutoff value for abnormal splenic artery diameter/proper hepatic artery diameter (S/P) ratio in cirrhosis-induced portal hypertension. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (n = 770) and healthy volunteers (n = 31) underwent volumetric computed tomography three-dimensional vascular reconstruction to measure the internal diameters of the splenic artery and proper hepatic artery to calculate the S/P ratio. The cutoff value for abnormal S/P ratio was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the prevalence of abnormal S/P ratio and associations between abnormal S/P ratio and major complications of portal hypertension were studied using logistic regression. RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cutoff points for abnormal splenic artery internal diameter and S/P ratio were > 5.19 mm and > 1.40, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 74.2%, 45.2%, 97.1%, and 6.6%, respectively. The prevalence of an abnormal S/P ratio in the patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension was 83.4%. Patients with a higher S/P ratio had a lower risk of developing ascites [odds ratio (OR) = 0.708, 95%CI: 0.508-0.986, P = 0.041] and a higher risk of developing esophageal and gastric varices (OR = 1.483, 95%CI: 1.010-2.175, P = 0.044) and forming collateral circulation (OR = 1.518, 95%CI: 1.033-2.230, P = 0.034). After splenectomy, the portal venous pressure and maximum and mean portal venous flow velocities were reduced, while the flow rate and maximum and minimum flow velocities of the hepatic artery were increased (P portal hypertension, and it can be used as an important marker of splanchnic hemodynamic disturbances. PMID:23483462

  17. A note on Youden's J and its cost ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Niels

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Youden index, the sum of sensitivity and specificity minus one, is an index used for setting optimal thresholds on medical tests. Discussion When using this index, one implicitly uses decision theory with a ratio of misclassification costs which is equal to one minus the prevalence proportion of the disease. It is doubtful whether this cost ratio truly represents the decision maker's preferences. Moreover, in populations with a different prevalence, a selected threshold is optimal with reference to a different cost ratio. Summary The Youden index is not a truly optimal decision rule for setting thresholds because its cost ratio varies with prevalence. Researchers should look into their cost ratio and employ it in a decision theoretic framework to obtain genuinely optimal thresholds.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of ttbb production rate in final state with lepton+jets and the cross section ratio ttbb/ttjj at 8 TeV with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Verlage, Tobias Anton

    2015-01-01

    The cross sections of the associated production of a top-quark pair with at least two additional jets or two additional b jets are measured in the final state with one lepton and jets. The study is performed for an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$\\,=\\,8 TeV. To identify the jets originating from the top-quark pair decay a kinematic fit with mass constraints, multivariate classifiers in categories split by the jet multiplicity and b-tag discriminants of the jets are used. The contributions of $\\rm{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ and $\\rm{t\\bar{t}jj}$ with at least two additional b jets or jets of any flavor are measured with a simultaneous template fit using shapes of b-tag discriminants. The measured cross sections $\\sigma(\\rm{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}) =271.0 \\pm 103.0(stat)\\pm 32.2(syst)\\pm 7.0(lumi)$ fb, $\\sigma(\\rm{t\\bar{t}jj}) = 23.1 \\pm 2.3(stat)\\pm 2.9(syst)\\pm 0.6(lumi)$ pb and the cross section ratio $\\sigma(\\rm{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}})$/$\\sigma(\\rm{t\\bar{t}jj}) = 0....

  20. Reaction rate and isomer-specific product branching ratios of C2H + C4H8: 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene at 79 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Jordy; Fournier, Martin; Sims, Ian R; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2013-06-20

    The reactions of C2H radicals with C4H8 isomers 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene are studied by laser photolysis-vacuum ultraviolet mass spectrometry in a Laval nozzle expansion at 79 K. Bimolecular-reaction rate constants are obtained by measuring the formation rate of the reaction product species as a function of the reactant density under pseudo-first-order conditions. The rate constants are (1.9 ± 0.5) × 10(-10), (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-10), (2.1 ± 0.7) × 10(-10), and (1.8 ± 0.9) × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) for the reaction of C2H with 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutene, respectively. Bimolecular rate constants for 1-butene and isobutene compare well to values measured previously at 103 K using C2H chemiluminescence. Photoionization spectra of the reaction products are measured and fitted to ionization spectra of the contributing isomers. In conjunction with absolute-ionization cross sections, these fits provide isomer-resolved product branching fractions. The reaction between C2H and 1-butene yields (65 ± 10)% C4H4 in the form of vinylacetylene and (35 ± 10)% C5H6 in the form of 4-penten-1-yne. The cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene reactions yield solely 3-penten-1-yne, and no discrimination is made between cis- and trans-3-penten-1-yne. Last, the isobutene reaction yields (26 ± 15)% 3-penten-1-yne, (35 ± 15)% 2-methyl-1-buten-3-yne, and (39 ± 15)% 4-methyl-3-penten-1-yne. The branching fractions reported for the C2H and butene reactions indicate that these reactions preferentially proceed via CH3 or C2H3 elimination rather than H-atom elimination. Within the experimental uncertainties, no evidence is found for the formation of cyclic species.

  1. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  2. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  3. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  4. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  5. Linking the distribution of carbon isotope ratios in soil carbonates and speleothems to climate conditions in the past: A model for the dependence of respiration rate on soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Ibarra, D. E.; Winnick, M.; Caves Rugenstein, J. K.; Oster, J. L.; Druhan, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The carbon isotope compositions (δ13C) of atmospheric CO2, C3-origin organic carbon, and limestone epikarst differ substantially, resulting in variable δ13C signatures recorded in secondary soil carbonates and speleothems which represent a mixture of these sources. Even though this signal has been widely used in paleoclimate studies, the extent to which carbonate δ13C is influenced by the dynamic response of organic carbon respiration rates to soil moisture variations has yet to be fully evaluated [1]. Soils that are rewetted after a prolonged drought commonly display a peak in respiration rate followed by relaxation to a lower steady state in both lab incubation experiments and field observations. This transient behavior, known as the Birch effect, has been extensively observed across a broad range of locations and soil types, and may generate more than 50% of the total respired CO2 in some ecosystems [2]. Here, we seek to identify the influence of the Birch effect on carbonate δ13C records based on a moisture-dependent modeling approach. We report compiled respiration rates of soils from the literature and fit these data as a function of soil moisture, before imposing exponential dampening with depth and applying the resulting function in a production-diffusion equation [3]. We then implement a mass balance calculation for the δ13C value of carbonate precipitated from a mixture of atmospheric and respired CO2, including mass-dependent fractionation associated with diffusive transport. Our results offer a novel prediction for depth-resolved carbonate δ13C as a function of soil moisture, and suggest that Birch effect signals may be recorded in soil carbonates and influence the magnitude of carbonate δ13C variations in speleothems. Thus, we illustrate a prediction for the range of carbonate δ13C recorded in terrestrial carbonates and suggest that differences in the range of carbonate δ13C may indicate changes in soil moisture variability, providing a new

  6. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  7. Gender Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Prevalence, Course of Illness, Comorbidity and Burden of Illness

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Carmen P.; Asnaani, Anu; Litz, Brett T.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Women have consistently higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, but less is known about how gender affects age of onset, chronicity, comorbidity, and burden of illness. Gender differences in DSM-IV anxiety disorders were examined in a large sample of adults (N = 20,013) in the United States using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES). The lifetime and 12-month male:female prevalence ratios of any anxiety disorder were 1:1.7 and 1:1.79, respectively. Women h...

  8. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  9. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  10. Indicadores básicos de saúde infantil em área urbana no extremo sul do Brasil: estimando prevalências e avaliando diferenciais Basic indicators of child health in an urban area in southern Brazil: estimating prevalence rates and evaluating differentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2006-12-01

    -sectional population studies were carried out in the city. Interviewers were previously trained and applied standardized questionnaires during visits to families with children under 5 years old. The following variables were investigated: family income, maternal education, type of construction of home (wooden/masonry etc., availability of toilet, running water, sewage system and domestic appliances. Data collected on the children themselves included number of antenatal consultations and age at first antenatal, type of delivery and medical care received during delivery, breastfeeding and dietary patterns, morbidity and health services utilization. Children were weighed and measured for height/length. Comparisons of frequencies between the two datasets were made using the chi-square test. RESULTS: In 1995, 395 children were studied and in 2004 there were 384. During the intervening period improvements had taken place in type of construction, number of homes with flush toilet, the availability of running water and in breastfeeding pattern and duration. The frequency of diarrhea reduced, while rates of basic vaccination coverage, growth monitoring, patients in possession of their own medical cards and reporting of birth weights all increased. There was a deterioration in families' purchasing power and in the mean number of antenatal consultations. The prevalence of childhood obesity increased by 92%, while the incidence of malnutrition remained practically unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing health indicators from the two periods revealed that, in addition to improvements in the majority of the indicators assessed, there had been a substantial increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity.

  11. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  12. The prevalence and determinants of hypothyroidism in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Bao, Cuiping; Deng, Meiyu; Xu, Hui; Fan, Meijuan; Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Xu, Weili; Qi, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypothyroidism among hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related factors, and to assess the prevalence of macrovascular and microvascular diseases among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism and euthyroidism. A total of 1662 type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients hospitalized at the Metabolic Diseases Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from 1 January 2008 to 1 March 2013 were included in this study. Information on demographic and anthropometric factors and additional variables related to hypothyroidism were collected from medical records. Prevalence rates were calculated and standardized using direct method based on the age-specific and sex-specific structure of all participants. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and 77.0 % of the patients with hypothyroidism had subclinical hypothyroidism. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age, and was higher in women (10.8 %) than in men (3.4 %). Older age (odds ratio, 1.74; 95 % confidence interval, 1. 05 to 2.89), female gender (odds ratio, 2.02; 95 % confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.87), and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (odds ratio, 4.99; 95 % confidence interval, 2.83 to 8.79) were associated with higher odds of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients. The type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients with hypothyroidism had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases than those with euthyroidism after adjustment for age and gender. The prevalence of hypothyroidism among type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients was 6.8 %, and most patients had subclinical hypothyroidism. Older age, female gender, and positive thyroid peroxidase antibody could be indicators for detecting hypothyroidism in type 2 diabetes mellitus inpatients.

  13. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  14. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  15. Prevalence of angina in women versus men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of international variations across 31 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Harry; Langenberg, Claudia; Damant, Jacqueline; Frost, Chris; Pyörälä, Kalevi; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2008-03-25

    In the absence of previous international comparisons, we sought to systematically evaluate, across time and participant age, the sex ratio in angina prevalence in countries that differ widely in the rate of mortality due to myocardial infarction. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE until February 2006 for healthy population studies published in any language that reported the prevalence of angina (Rose questionnaire) in women and men. We obtained myocardial infarction mortality rates from the World Health Organization. A total of 74 reports of 13,331 angina cases in women and 11,511 cases in men from 31 countries were included. Angina prevalence varied widely across populations, from 0.73% to 14.4% (population weighted mean 6.7%) in women and from 0.76% to 15.1% (population weighted mean 5.7%) in men, and was strongly correlated within populations between the sexes (r=0.80, Pethnic groups than among whites. This sex ratio did not differ significantly by participant's age, the year the survey began, or the sex ratio for mortality due to myocardial infarction. Over time and at different ages, independent of diagnostic and treatment practices, women have a similar or slightly higher prevalence of angina than men across countries with widely differing myocardial infarction mortality rates.

  16. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  17. Golden ratio beauty as scientific function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Olsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally when one is considering the golden ratio in the history of ideas, one is often looking at it as an aesthetic principle – usually associated with Greek art, sculpture and mathematics. However, in recent years the prevalence of the golden ratio within a broad range of scientific disciplines has brought its role in the perfection of science to the forefront. I would like to collapse these two areas by proposing a somewhat novel way of looking at the aesthetics of the golden ratio: its pervasive expression in scientific form and function is the basis of the aesthetics in the world. Therefore, science contains the same mathematical beauty as found in artistic expression. The golden ratio guides the Chaos Border of Kolmogorov, Arnold, and Moser (KAM theorem and it can be found hidden in all elementary particles, and even in the proportions of dark matter and energy relative to visible matter and energy. It is evident in the structure and growth functions of plants and animals and it can be found in the physiological functions of humans. It now appears that without the golden ratio, we would not have the form or function of the proton, cell, athlete, horse, species, planet, solar system or galaxy.

  18. Studies on the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Practices Toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Teenagers (10-19yrs) had the highest malaria prevalence rate and were followed by ... Keywords: Cluster sampling, Malaria, Prevalence, Knowledge, Practices, ... annual rainfall and humidity were relatively .... Alcohol/ Don't.

  19. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  20. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  1. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  2. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Rates of Oral Antidiabetic Prescribing in Accordance with Guidelines and Manufacturer Recommendations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients within a Long-Term Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD among nursing home (NH residents with type 2 diabetes. The pattern of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD use and their concordance with the National Kidney Foundation (NKF guideline and prescribing information (PI was also assessed. About half (47% of diabetic residents had moderate to severe CKD. A little over a quarter of the 186 residents using OADs received at least one NKF-discordant OAD prescription. Metformin was the most commonly misused OAD. PI nonconcordance was observed in 58.6% of residents and was highest in glipizide and metformin users. With the high prevalence of moderate to severe CKD in NH residents with diabetes, physicians should consider residents’ renal function when choosing treatment plans and review treatments regularly to check compliance with the NKF guidelines or PIs.

  4. Prevalence of anemia and correlated factors in the reproductive age women in rural areas of tabas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sadeghian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide.A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis.The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35 and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31 were associated with higher prevalence of anemia.Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women groups.

  5. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in a hospital for pulmonary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diel Roland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI in health care workers (HCW in low-incidence countries especially in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. With Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA, a new method for diagnosis of LTBI is available which is more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST. Objectives The study was designed to estimate prevalence of LTBI among 270 HCW in a Hospital of Pulmonary Diseases routinely screened for TB. Methods LTBI was assessed by the QuantiFERON-Gold In Tube (QFT-IT. Information on gender, age, workplace, job title, BCG vaccination and history of both TB and TST were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios for potential risk factors for LTBI were calculated. Results The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence rate than other professions (10.8% to 4.5%. The putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>50 year OR 9.3, 95%CI 2.5–33.7, working as physicians/nurses (OR 3. 95%CI 1.2–10.4 and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4, 95%CI 1.01–18.9 when compared to those with a negative TST. Conclusion Prevalence of LTBI assessed by QFT-IT is low, this indicates a low infection risk even in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. No statement can be made regarding the occupational risk as compared to the general population because there are no LTBI prevalence data from Germany available. The higher LTBI prevalence rate in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk.

  6. Prevalence of plagiarism among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Frković, Vedran; Turk, Tamara; Azman, Josip; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2005-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of plagiarism among medical students in writing essays. During two academic years, 198 second year medical students attending Medical Informatics course wrote an essay on one of four offered articles. Two of the source articles were available in an electronic form and two in printed form. Two (one electronic and one paper article) were considered less complex and the other two more complex. The essays were examined using plagiarism detection software "WCopyfind," which counted the number of matching phrases with six or more words. Plagiarism rate, expressed as the percentage of the plagiarized text, was calculated as a ratio of the absolute number of matching words and the total number of words in the essay. Only 17 (9%) of students did not plagiarize at all and 68 (34%) plagiarized less than 10% of the text. The average plagiarism rate (% of plagiarized text) was 19% (5-95% percentile=0-88). Students who were strictly warned not to plagiarize had a higher total word count in their essays than students who were not warned (P=0.002) but there was no difference between them in the rate of plagiarism. Students with higher grades in Medical Informatics exam plagiarized less than those with lower grades (P=0.015). Gender, subject source, and complexity had no influence on the plagiarism rate. Plagiarism in writing essays is common among medical students. An explicit warning is not enough to deter students from plagiarism. Detection software can be used to trace and evaluate the rate of plagiarism in written student assays.

  7. The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Halai, Kapil; Jeffreys, Danielle; Hunter, Paul R

    2015-01-30

    Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence and prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in a cohort of patients admitted to medical departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Haubro; Holm, Morten Olskjær; Pedersen, Svend Stenvang

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Only point prevalence analyses of HAI have been recorded in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and prevalence of HAI in patients admitted to departments of internal.......7-10.6). Exposure to bladder catheter was associated with an increased risk of urinary tract infection, incidence rate ratio 4.9; (95% CI 1.8-11.5). For the initial 14 days of hospitalization, the incidence of HAI was independent, while the prevalence increased linearly with duration of admittance. CONCLUSION......: The incidence of HAI was relatively constant during the initial 14-day-period of hospitalization, suggesting that shortening the period will have no major impact on the incidence of HAI. The prevalence was 9.7%, which is in line with results from prior studies....

  9. Chlamydia prevalence among women and men entering the National Job Training Program: United States, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Tian, Lin H; Braxton, Jimmy; Weinstock, Hillard

    2010-02-01

    To analyze 5-year prevalence trends in Chlamydia trachomatis infections among high-risk young men and women aged 16 to 24 years entering the National Job Training Program, where universal screening is required. Entrance exams conducted in over 100 National Job Training Program centers from 2003 to 2007 were considered. Women provided cervical specimens tested using either a DNA hybridization probe (PACE 2, Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA) or a strand displacement amplification test (SDA, BD ProbeTec ET, Becton-Dickinson, Sparks, MD). In the absence of a pelvic exam, urine specimens were tested using SDA. PACE 2 testing was performed predominately from 2002 to 2005; from 2005 to 2007, SDA was used. All male testing was conducted using SDA on urine specimens. Chlamydia prevalence trends were assessed for women and men, using logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and P-values were calculated. Approximately 15,000 women and 30,000 men were screened annually for chlamydia. Among both sexes, adjusted prevalence declined significantly from 2003 to 2007. In 2003, crude prevalence among women was 9.9%; in 2007, prevalence was 13.7%. However, after controlling for covariates, including increasingly sensitive tests, the model indicated a significant declining prevalence trend (AOR: 0.95, CI: 0.93-0.97, 4.6% decrease in odds per year). Among men, crude prevalence in 2003 was 8.4%; in 2007, prevalence was 8.3%; after controlling for possible confounding, a significant decline in prevalence was also detected (AOR: 0.98, CI: 0.96-0.99, 1.9% decrease in odds per year). In a relatively stable, high-risk population of young women and men, adjusted chlamydia prevalence declined from 2003 to 2007. Test technology plays a critical role in interpreting rates and should be considered whenever chlamydia rates are examined.

  10. Secular trends of obesity prevalence in Chinese children from 1985 to 2010: Urban-rural disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing; Agard, Anette

    2015-02-01

    To examine the trend of urban-rural disparity in obesity prevalence among Chinese children from 1985 to 2010. The data were from five cross-sectional surveys (1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) of urban-rural areas for obesity prevalence in different surveys. The standardized prevalence of obesity in Chinese children increased rapidly from 0.1% in 1985 to 5.0% in 2010, and significant differences were found between two adjacent surveys in most of the age subgroups (Pobesity prevalence was significantly higher in urban than in rural children of all age subgroups at different survey points, the changing pace was faster in rural than in urban areas from 1995 to 2010. The PORs had increased in 1995 in most age subgroups and then began to decline in all age subgroups after 1995. The gradually decreasing urban-rural disparity suggests that the obesity prevalence in rural areas would contribute to a growing proportion of obese children. Therefore, rural children should be included in obesity prevention efforts even though obesity rates are still lower in rural than in urban areas. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Sex differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and associated features of migraine, probable migraine and other severe headache: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    The strikingly higher prevalence of migraine in females compared with males is one of the hallmarks of migraine. A large global body of evidence exists on the sex differences in the prevalence of migraine with female to male ratios ranging from 2:1 to 3:1 and peaking in midlife. Some data are available on sex differences in associated symptoms, headache-related disability and impairment, and healthcare resource utilization in migraine. Few data are available on corresponding sex differences in probable migraine (PM) and other severe headache (ie, nonmigraine-spectrum severe headache). Gaining a clear understanding of sex differences in a range of severe headache disorders may help differentiate the range of headache types. Herein, we compare sexes on prevalence and a range of clinical variables for migraine, PM, and other severe headache in a large sample from the US population. This study analyzed data from the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study. Total and demographic-stratified sex-specific, prevalence estimates of headache subtypes (migraine, PM, and other severe headache) are reported. Log-binomial models are used to calculate sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each across demographic strata. A smoothed sex prevalence ratio (female to male) figure is presented for migraine and PM. One hundred sixty-two thousand seven hundred fifty-six individuals aged 12 and older responded to the 2004 American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study survey (64.9% response rate). Twenty-eight thousand two hundred sixty-one (17.4%) reported "severe headache" in the preceding year (23.5% of females and 10.6% of males), 11.8% met International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria for migraine (17.3% of females and 5.7% of males), 4.6% met criteria for PM (5.3% of females and 3.9% of males), and 1.0% were categorized with other severe headache (0.9% of females and 1.0% of males). Sex differences were observed in

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in United Arab Emirates Expatriates: the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sulaiman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe current prevalence of obesity and related non-communicable diseases (NCDs in expatriates living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Methods We used data from the cross-sectional UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study (UAEDIAB, which surveyed adult expatriates living in the UAE for at least 4 years. We report crude prevalence of overweight and obesity, indicated by gender and ethnicity-specific body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR cut-offs, by lifestyle and biomedical characteristics, as well as age and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Results Out of a total of 3064 recruited expatriates (response rate 68%, 2724 had completed all stages of the UAEDIAB study. Expatriates were; 81% men, mean age 38 years (range 18–80, 71% South East Asians, and 36% university graduates. In this sample, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, by BMI, were 43.0 and 32.3%, respectively. 52.4 and 56.5% of participants were at a substantially increased risk according to WC and WHR, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were 15.5, 31.8, and 51.7%, respectively, with the prevalence of each being higher in those with obesity. Conclusion Prevalence of obesity and associated NCDs are extremely high in UAE expatriates. Without comprehensive prevention and management, levels of disease will continue to increase and productivity will fall.

  13. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... anticipating or experiencing significant growth and have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure, excellent asset quality, high liquidity, and good earnings. (b) For all savings... capital ratios may be required if warranted by the particular circumstances or risk profiles of an...

  14. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera López, Carlos; Juliá Serdá, Gabriel; Cabrera Lacalzada, Cristina; Martín Medina, Ana; Gullón Blanco, José Antonio; García Bello, Miguel Ángel; Cabrera Navarro, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies significantly among the different geographical areas reported. In Spain, two epidemiological studies have shown a prevalence of 9-10% in the population aged over 40. However, neither of these studies included the Canary Islands, which are of interest due to their climatic conditions and high incidence of smoking. A random group of 1,353 subjects aged between 40 and 70years was selected from a sample population of 596,478 individuals. Participants completed a questionnaire and then performed spirometry with bronchodilator testing if obstruction was observed. COPD was diagnosed when the post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio was less than 0.70. The prevalence of COPD was 7.3% (95%CI: 5.5-9.5) and was higher in males than in females (8.7% vs. 6.3%, P=.134). The incidence of smoking was 29.4% (95%CI: 25.4-33.1) and was also higher in males than in females (35.1% vs 25.4%, P<.001). The prevalence of COPD stratified by severity of obstruction, according to the GOLD criteria, was 16% in groupi, 69.9% in groupii, 10.4% in groupiii and 3.3% in groupiv. 71.6% of the subjects were underdiagnosed and 63.5% undertreated. Despite having one of the highest rates of smoking in Spain, the prevalence of COPD in the Canary Islands is lower than in most of the Spanish regions studied. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Peruvian primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Añazco, Percy; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Lazo-Porras, María; Alberto Quintanilla, E; Ortiz-Soriano, Victor Manuel; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2017-07-19

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. There are few studies in Latin America, especially in primary care settings. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, stages, and associated factors of CKD in primary care setting. We did a retrospective secondary analysis of a database from the Diabetes and Hypertension Primary Care Center of the Peruvian Social Security System (EsSalud) in Lima, Peru. We defined CKD as the presence of eGFR 30 mg/day in 24 h, according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Factors associated with CKD were evaluated with Poisson Regression models; these factors included age, gender, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), hypertension (HTN), body mass index (BMI), and uric acid. Associations were described as crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We evaluated 1211 patients (women [59%], mean age 65.8 years [SD: 12.7]). Prevalence of CKD was 18%. Using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the prevalence was 9.3% (95% CI 5.3 - 13.3) in patients without HTN or DM2; 20.2% (95% CI 17.6 - 22.8) in patients with HTN, and 23.9% (95% CI 19.4 - 28.4) in patients with DM2. The most common stages were 1 and 2 with 41.5% and 48%, respectively. Factors associated with CKD in the adjusted analysis were: age in years (PR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04), DM2 (PR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.09 - 10.39), HTN plus DM2 (PR = 3.90, 95% CI 1.54 - 9.88), and uric acid from 5 to DM2, older age and hyperuricemia have higher prevalence of CKD.

  16. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  17. Sex and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Childhood Motor Disability and Their Trends in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Motor disability (MD) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are scarce. As the Taiwan government certifies and registers disabled residents for providing services on a routine basis, the registry provides a unique opportunity for studying MD. Using data from the registry, we calculated the prevalence of MD by age, sex, and geographic area and assessed the changes from 2004 to 2010. We excluded cases under 3 years old because the government discourages the certification at this age. We found that cases between 3 and 17 years old decreased from 8187 to 6022 per year from 2004 to 2010 and the prevalence generally decreased every year in all age groups. There were more boy cases than girl cases every year, and the prevalence rate ratios ranged from 1.26 to 1.39 (p < 0.05 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p < 0.01). Rural areas had higher prevalence in all the years, and the prevalence rate ratio decreased from 1.31 to 1.23 (p < 0.05 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p < 0.05). Further studies identifying the risk factors contributing to the decreases might help in the prevention of MD in the future. PMID:29850547

  18. Sex and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Childhood Motor Disability and Their Trends in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor disability (MD is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are scarce. As the Taiwan government certifies and registers disabled residents for providing services on a routine basis, the registry provides a unique opportunity for studying MD. Using data from the registry, we calculated the prevalence of MD by age, sex, and geographic area and assessed the changes from 2004 to 2010. We excluded cases under 3 years old because the government discourages the certification at this age. We found that cases between 3 and 17 years old decreased from 8187 to 6022 per year from 2004 to 2010 and the prevalence generally decreased every year in all age groups. There were more boy cases than girl cases every year, and the prevalence rate ratios ranged from 1.26 to 1.39 (p<0.05 in all years, with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01. Rural areas had higher prevalence in all the years, and the prevalence rate ratio decreased from 1.31 to 1.23 (p<0.05 in all years, with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.05. Further studies identifying the risk factors contributing to the decreases might help in the prevention of MD in the future.

  19. Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Adriana; Høgh, Annie; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years......: These findings suggest that types of work and gender ratio are risk factors in the onset of workplace bullying. Future studies should take into account the type of work and the gender ratio of the organization....

  20. Medium-to-high prevalence of screening-detected parkinsonism in the urban area of Tehran, Iran: data from a community-based door-to-door study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Shafieesabet, Mahdiyeh; Rahmani, Arash; Delbari, Ahmad; Lökk, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinsonism occurs in all ethnic groups worldwide; however, there are wide variations in the prevalence rates reported from different countries, even for neighboring regions. The huge socioeconomic burden of parkinsonism necessitates the need for prevalence studies in each country. So far, there is neither data registry nor prevalence information on parkinsonism in the Iranian population. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence rate of probable parkinsonism in a huge urban area in Iran, Tehran using a community-based door-to-door survey. We used a random multistage sampling of the households within the network of health centers consisting of 374 subunits in all 22 districts throughout the entire urban area of Tehran. Overall, 20,621 individuals answered the baseline checklist and screening questionnaire and data from 19,500 persons aged ≥30 years were entered in the final analysis. Health care professionals used a new six-item screening questionnaire for parkinsonism, which has been previously shown to have a high validity and diagnostic value in the same population. A total of 157 cases were screened for parkinsonism using the validated six-item questionnaire. After age and sex adjustment based on the Tehran population, the prevalence of parkinsonism was calculated as 222.9 per 100,000. Using the World Health Organization's World Standard Population, the standardized prevalence rate of parkinsonism was 285 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 240-329). The male:female ratio of probable parkinsonism was calculated as 1.62, and there was a significant increase in the screening rate by advancing age. The calculated rates for the prevalence of parkinsonism in our study are closer to reports from some European and Middle Eastern countries, higher than reports from Eastern Asian and African populations, and lower than Australia. The prevalence rate of >200 in 100,000 for parkinsonism in Tehran, Iran could be considered a medium-to-high rate.

  1. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Folkestad, Lars; Gaustadnes, Mette; Vejlstrup, Niels; Stochholm, Kirstine; Østergaard, John R; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2015-12-02

    Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014. The annual median incidence was 0.19/100,000 (range: 0.0-0.7) which increased significantly with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.04, p Marfan syndrome during the study period is possibly due to build-up of a registry. Since early diagnosis is essential in preventing aortic events, diagnosing Marfan syndrome remains a task for both pediatricians and physicians caring for adults.

  2. The Prevalence of Obesity in a Nigerian Military Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo Obashina Ayodele Ogunbiyi Ishiaku Baba Abdulkareem Nurudeen Ayoola Hussain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Worldwide, obesity is increasing in prevalence, nearing epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Also, there are reports of rising prevalence in Africa. Obesity is an important aetiological factor for many non-communicable diseases. Recent anecdotal reports indicate that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma is increasing among Nigerian military personnel; however, the rate of possible aetiological factors such as obesity is not known. Obesity can be evaluated using the body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist to height ratio (WHR. However, for epidemiological convenience and study within populations, the BMI is satisfactory. Methodology: A cross sectional study. Data of Nigerian military personnel�s annual medical examination conducted between January and March 2010 were retrieved to compute body mass index using World Health Organisation (WHO criteria. Results: 39.6% of personnel were overweight or obese. Most of these were aged between 30 and 39 years. While there were differences in the BMI of males and females, this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: To manage weight problems, focused health education, increased physical activity and nutritional advice are necessary. Modalities such as waist circumference should be added to annual medical examination of military personnel to improve the predictive value of the examination. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 313-318

  3. [Analysis of prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and associated factors: primary versus proxy informant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, André Luis Alves de; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-07-03

    The objective was to evaluate differences between prevalence rates for self-reported hearing loss and associated factors, obtained from responses by primary and proxy informants in a Population-Based Study on Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP in Portuguese). This was a study on epidemiological methods using data from a cross-sectional household survey with a sample of 1,253 individuals from Southern Brazil. To verify differences between prevalence rates comparing primary informants and proxy informants, we used the chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The log-binomial model was adjusted for hearing loss as the dependent variable, considering three datasets: the entire sample, only primary informants, and only proxy informants, estimating association by prevalence ratios. In the final models, only the independent variables age and dizziness were assoc